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Cooking and Dining in Imperial Rome
by Apicius
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[324] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

THE SNAILS ARE FRIED WITH PURE SALT AND OIL AND [a sauce of] LASER, BROTH, PEPPER AND OIL IS UNDERLAID; OR THE FRIED SNAILS ARE FULLY COVERED WITH BROTH, PEPPER AND CUMIN.

Tor. divides this into three articles.

[325] ANOTHER WAY FOR SNAILS ALITER COCHLEAS

THE LIVE SNAILS ARE SPRINKLED WITH MILK MIXED WITH THE FINEST WHEAT FLOUR, WHEN FAT AND NICE AND PLUMP THEY ARE COOKED.



XIX

EGGS OVA

[326] FRIED EGGS OVA FRIXA

FRIED EGGS ARE FINISHED IN WINE SAUCE.

[327] BOILED EGGS OVA ELIXA

ARE SEASONED WITH BROTH, OIL, PURE WINE, OR ARE SERVED WITH BROTH, PEPPER AND LASER.

[328] WITH POACHED EGGS IN OVIS HAPALIS

SERVE PEPPER, LOVAGE, SOAKED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.

END OF BOOK VII

EXPLICIT APICII POLYTELES: LIBER SEPTIMUS [Tac.]



APICIUS

Book VIII



{Illustration: CRATICULA

Combination broiler and stove; charcoal fuel. The sliding rods are adjustable to the size of food to be cooked thereon. Pans of various sizes would rest on these rods. In the rear two openings to hold the caccabus, or stewpot, of which we have four different illustrations. The craticula usually rested on top of a stationary brick oven or range. The apparatus, being moveable, is very ingenious. The roughness of the surface of this specimen is caused by corrosion and lava adhering to its metal frame. Found in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 121321; Field M., 26145.}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

A stewpot, marmite, kettle. The cover, rising from the circumference to the center in a succession of steps, fits inside the mouth of the kettle. Ntl. Mus., Naples 72766; Field M., 24178.}



BOOK VIII. QUADRUPEDS

Lib. VIII. Tetrapus

CHAP. I. WILD BOAR. CHAP. II. VENISON. CHAP. III. CHAMOIS, GAZELLE. CHAP. IV. WILD SHEEP. CHAP. V. BEEF AND VEAL. CHAP. VI. KID AND LAMB. CHAP. VII. PIG. CHAP. VIII. HARE. CHAP. IX. DORMOUSE.



I

[329] WILD BOAR IS PREPARED THUS APER ITA CONDITUR

IT IS CLEANED; SPRINKLED WITH SALT AND CRUSHED CUMIN AND THUS LEFT. THE NEXT DAY IT IS PUT INTO THE OVEN; WHEN DONE SEASON WITH CRUSHED PEPPER. A SAUCE FOR BOAR: HONEY [1] BROTH, REDUCED WINE, RAISIN WINE.

[1] Lan., Tor. vel instead of mel.

[330] ANOTHER WAY TO PREPARE BOAR ALITER IN APRO

YOU BOIL THE BOAR IN SEA WATER WITH SPRIGS OF LAUREL; WHEN DONE NICE AND SOFT, REMOVE THE SKIN, SERVE WITH SALT, MUSTARD, VINEGAR.

[331] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK [sauce for] BOAR ALITER IN APRO

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, SEEDLESS MYRTLE BERRIES, CORIANDER, ONIONS; ADD HONEY, WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL; HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX. THE BOAR ROASTED IN THE OVEN, IS MASKED WITH THIS SAUCE, WHICH YOU MAY USE FOR ANY KIND OF ROAST GAME [1].

[1] Tor. continues without interruption.

[332] MAKE A HOT SAUCE FOR ROAST BOAR THUS JURA FERVENTIA IN APRUM ASSUM FACIES SIC [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, MINT, THYME, SATURY, SAFFRON, TOASTED NUTS, OR TOASTED ALMONDS, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR AND A LITTLE OIL.

[1] Tor. In aprum uero assum, indicating, perhaps, that ordinary pork also was prepared "boar style." Cf. {Rx} No. 362.

[333] ANOTHER HOT SAUCE FOR BOAR ALITER IN APRUM ASSUM IURA FERVENTIA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, THYME, TOASTED NUTS, WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN THE SIMPLE BROTH [1] IS BOILING INCORPORATE THE CRUSHED THINGS AND STIR WITH AN AROMATIC BOUQUET OF ONIONS AND RUE. IF YOU DESIRE TO MAKE THIS A RICHER SAUCE, TIE IT WITH WHITES OF EGG, STIRRING THE LIQUID EGG IN GENTLY. SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Presumably the broth or stock in which the meat was roasted or braised.

[334] SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR IUS IN APRUM ELIXUM

REAL SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR IS COMPOSED IN THIS MANNER [1] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, SILPHIUM, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[335] COLD SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR [1] IUS FRIGIDUM IN APRUM ELIXUM

PEPPER, CUMIN, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CORIANDER SEED, DILL SEED, CELERY SEED, THYME, ORIGANY, LITTLE ONION, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD, BROTH AND OIL.

[1] {Rx} No. 336 precedes this formula in Tor.

[336] ANOTHER COLD SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR ALITER IUS FRIGIDUM IN APRUM ELIXUM

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DILL SEED, THYME, ORIGANY, LITTLE SILPHIUM, RATHER MORE MUSTARD SEED, ADD PURE WINE, SOME GREEN HERBS, A LITTLE ONION, CRUSHED NUTS FROM THE PONTUS, OR ALMONDS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, SOME MORE PURE WINE, COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST [and add] BROTH AND OIL [1].

[1] Strongly resembling our vinaigrette.

[337] ANOTHER [sauce] FOR BOAR ALITER [ius] IN APRO

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, CUMIN, FENNEL SEED, RUE, BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE; HEAT, WHEN DONE TIE WITH ROUX; COVER THE MEAT WITH THIS SAUCE SO AS TO PENETRATE THE MEAT AND SERVE.

[338] SHOULDER OF BOAR IS STUFFED IN THIS MANNER PERNA APRUNA ITA IMPLETUR [1]

LOOSEN THE MEAT FROM THE BONES BY MEANS OF A WOODEN STICK IN ORDER TO FILL THE CAVITY LEFT BY THE BONES WITH DRESSING WHICH IS INTRODUCED THROUGH A FUNNEL. [The dressing season with] CRUSHED PEPPER, LAUREL BERRIES AND RUE; IF YOU LIKE, ADD LASER, THE BEST KIND OF BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND SPRINKLE WITH FRESH OIL. WHEN THE FILLING IS DONE, TIE THE PARTS THUS STUFFED IN LINEN, PLACE THEM IN THE STOCK POT IN WHICH THEY ARE TO BE COOKED AND BOIL THEM IN SEA WATER, WITH A SPRIG OF LAUREL AND DILL [2].

[1] G.-V. Terentina, referring to a place in the Campus Martius, where the ludi seculares were celebrated. Tor. recentia, fresh.

[2] The dressing consisted principally of pork or veal pounded fine, seasoned as directed above, and tied with eggs, as is often prescribed by Apicius.

To verify how little high class cookery methods have changed consult one of the foremost of modern authorities, Auguste Escoffier, of the Carlton and Ritz hotels, London and Paris, who in his "Guide Culinaire" presents this dish under its ancient Italian name of Zampino.



II

VENISON [Stag] IN CERVO

[339] SAUCE FOR STAG IUS IN CERVUM

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY [1] ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, FENNEL SEED, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE [2] RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX; THE COOKED MEAT IMMERSE IN THIS SAUCE [braise] TO PENETRATE AND TO SOFTEN, AND SERVE. FOR BROAD HORN DEER AS WELL AS FOR OTHER VENISON FOLLOW SIMILAR METHODS AND USE THE SAME CONDIMENTS.

[1] Tor. carenum; Hum. legendum: careum.

[2] Wanting in Tor.

[340] ANOTHER WAY [1] ALITER

PARBOIL AND BRAISE THE VENISON. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX AND POUR OVER THE ROAST.

[1] Tor. Another little sauce for venison.

[341] VENISON SAUCE IUS IN CERVO

MIX PEPPER, LOVAGE, ONION, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, BROTH, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, OIL [1].

[1] Resembling a vinaigrette, except for the nuts and dates.

[342] PREPARATION OF VENISON CERVINAE CONDITURA

PEPPER, CUMIN, CONDIMENTS, PARSLEY, ONION, RUE, HONEY, BROTH, MINT, RAISIN WINE, REDUCED WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH ROUX WHEN BOILING.

[343] HOT SAUCE FOR VENISON IURA FERVENTIA IN CERVO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, CUMIN, TOASTED NUTS OR ALMONDS, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, A LITTLE OIL; ADD BROTH AND STIR WELL.

[344] MARINADE FOR ROAST VENISON EMBAMMA [1] IN CERVINAM ASSAM

PEPPER, NARD LEAVES, CELERY SEED, DRY ONIONS, GREEN RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, ADD DATES, RAISINS AND OIL.

[1] Tor. Intinctus, same; a marinade, a pickle or sauce in which to preserve or to flavor raw meat or fish.

[345] ANOTHER HOT SAUCE FOR VENISON ALITER IN CERVUM ASSUM IURA FERVENTIA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, STEWED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL; STIR WITH A FAGOT OF LEEKS AND SATURY [1].

[1] A fagot of herbs; regarding this method of flavoring. Cf. notes to {Rx} No. 277 seq.

A sauce resembling our Cumberland, very popular with venison which is sweetened with currant jelly instead of the above prunes.



III

CHAMOIS, GAZELLE IN CAPREA

[346] SAUCE FOR WILD GOAT IUS IN CAPREA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, PARSLEY, RUE SEED, HONEY, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.

[347] SAUCE FOR ROAST WILD GOAT IUS IN CAPREA ASSA

PEPPER, HERBS, RUE, ONION, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE OIL, BIND WITH ROUX.

[347a] STILL ANOTHER ALITER

AS ABOVE IS MADE WITH PARSLEY AND MARJORAM [1].

[1] Wanting in G.-V.

[347b] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR WILD GOAT ALITER IUS IN CAPREA

PEPPER, SPICES, PARSLEY, A LITTLE ORIGANY, RUE, BROTH, HONEY, RAISIN WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH ROUX [1].

[1] Wanting in Tor.



IV

WILD SHEEP IN OVIFERO (HOC EST OVIS SILVATICA) [1]

[348] SAUCE FOR MOUNTAIN SHEEP IUS IN OVIFERO FERVENS

[THAT IS, (ROAST) THE MEAT, PREPARE A SAUCE OF] [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DRY MINT [3], THYME, SILPHIUM, MOISTEN WITH WINE, ADD STEWED DAMASCUS PRUNES, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE,—ENOUGH TO COLOR—AND STIR WITH A WHIP OF ORIGANY AND DRY MINT [3].

[1] G.-V., List. in ovi fero; Dann. "wild eggs," i.e., the eggs of game birds, and he comes to the conclusion that game birds themselves are meant to be used in this formula, as no reference to "eggs" is made.

There can be no doubt but what this formula deals with the preparation of sheep; Torinus says expressly: oviferum, hoc est, carnem ovis sylvestris—the meat of sheep from the woods, mountain sheep. Ferum is "wild," "game," but it also means "pregnant." For this double sense the formula may be interpreted as dealing with either wild sheep, or with pregnant sheep, or, more probably, with unborn baby lamb, which in antiquity as today is often killed principally for its skin.

[2] Tor.

[3] Mint is still associated with lamb; the above sauce appears to be merely an elaborate Roman ancestor of our modern mint sauce, served with lamb, the chief ingredients of which are mint, vinegar and sugar, served both hot and cold.

[349] SAUCE FOR ALL KINDS OF GAME, BOILED OR ROAST IUS IN VENATIONIBUS OMNIBUS ELIXIS ET ASSIS [1]

8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, RUE, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, JUNIPER, THYME, DRY MINT, 6 SCRUPLES IN WEIGHT [each] 3 SCRUPLES OF FLEA-BANE; REDUCE ALL THIS TO THE FINEST POWDER, PUT IT TOGETHER IN A VESSEL WITH SUFFICIENT HONEY AND USE IT WITH VINEGAR AND GARUM.

[1] Tor. Jusculum omni venationi competens.

[350] COLD SAUCE FOR WILD SHEEP IUS FRIGIDUM IN OVIFERO [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, CUMIN, CRUSHED TOASTED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER.

[1] List. omni fero; which Dann. interprets, "All kind of game." Cf. note 1 to {Rx} No. 348.



V

BEEF OR VEAL BUBULA SIVE VITELLINA

[351] VEAL STEAK VITELLINA FRICTA [1]

[FOR A SAUCE WITH FRIED BEEF OR VEAL TAKE] [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, CUMIN, ORIGANY, DRY ONION, RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, OIL, AND REDUCED MUST.

[1] Evidently a beef or veal steak saute. Beef did not figure very heavily on the dietary of the ancients in contrasts to present modes which make beef the most important meat, culinarily speaking. The above sauce, save for the raisins and the honey, resembles the modern Bordelaise, often served with beef steaks saute, in contrast to the grilled steaks which are served with maitre d'hotel butter.

[352] VEAL OR BEEF WITH LEEKS VITULINAM [1] SIVE BULULAM CUM PORRIS

[or] WITH QUINCES [2] OR WITH ONIONS, OR WITH DASHEENS [3] [use] BROTH, PEPPER, LASER AND A LITTLE OIL.

[1] G.-V. same as vitellinam.

[2] Tor. cydoniis; List. succidaneis.

[3] Cf. {Rx} No. 332 et al.

[353] FRICASSEE OF VEAL IN VITULINAM ELIXAM

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX AND COVER THE MEAT.

[354] ANOTHER VEAL FRICASSEE ALITER IN VITULINA EXLIXA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, FENNEL SEED, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD AND OIL.



VI

KID OR LAMB IN HAEDO VEL AGNO

[355] DAINTY DISHES OF KID OR OF LAMB COPADIA HAEDINA SIVE AGNINA

COOK WITH PEPPER AND BROTH, ALSO WITH VARIOUS ORDINARY BEANS [1] BROTH, PEPPER AND LASER, CUMIN, DUMPLINGS [2] AND A LITTLE OIL [3].

[1] cum faseolis, green string beans.

[2] Tor. imbrato; G.-V. inbracto, broken bread, regular dumplings.

[3] Lamb and beans is a favorite combination, as in the French haricot, made with white beans, or boiled lamb with fresh string beans, quite a modern dish. Torinus omits the cumin, which is quite characteristic.

[356] ANOTHER LAMB STEW ALITER HAEDINAM SIVE AGNINAM EXCALDATAM

PUT [pieces of] KID OR LAMB IN THE STEW POT WITH CHOPPED ONION AND CORIANDER. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, AND COOK WITH BROTH OIL AND WINE. PUT IN A DISH AND TIE WITH ROUX [1].

[1] It appears that the binding should be done before the stew is dished out; but this sentence illustrates the consummate art of Apicius. The good cook carefully separates the meat (as it is cooked) from the sauce, eliminates impurities, binds and strains it and puts the meat back into the finished sauce. This is the ideal way of making a stew which evidently was known to Apicius.

[357] ANOTHER LAMB STEW ALITER HAEDINAM SIVE AGNINAM EXCALDATAM

ADD TO THE PARBOILED MEAT THE RAW HERBS THAT HAVE BEEN CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR AND COOK IT. GOAT MEAT IS COOKED LIKEWISE.

[358] BROILED KID OR LAMB STEAK HAEDUM SIVE AGNUM ASSUM

KID AFTER BEING COOKED IN BROTH AND OIL IS SLICED AND MARINATED [1] WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, LASER, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL. IT IS THEN GRILLED ON THE BROILER AND SERVED WITH GRAVY. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE UP.

[1] The marinade is used to make the gravy.

[359] ROAST KID OR LAMB ALITER HAEDUM SIVE AGNUM ASSUM

[LET US ROAST THE KID OR LAMB, ADDING] [1] HALF AN OUNCE OF PEPPER, 6 SCRUPLES OF FOALBIT [2] A LITTLE GINGER, 6 SCRUPLES OF PARSLEY, A LITTLE LASER, A PINT OF BEST BROTH AND A SPOONFUL OIL [3].

[1] Tor.

[2] Asarum; Tor. aseros; List. asareos—the herb foalbit, foalfoot, wild spikenard.

[3] Tor. continues without interruption.

[360] STUFFED BONED KID OR LAMB HAEDUS SIVE AGNUS SYRINGIATUS [1]

MILK-FED [2] KID OR LAMB IS CAREFULLY BONED THROUGH THE THROAT SO AS TO CREATE A PAUNCH OR BAG; THE INTESTINES ARE PRESERVED WHOLE IN A MANNER THAT ONE CAN BLOW OR INFLATE THEM AT THE HEAD IN ORDER TO EXPEL THE EXCREMENTS AT THE OTHER END; THE BODY IS WASHED CAREFULLY AND IS FILLED WITH A LIQUID DRESSING. THEREUPON TIE IT CAREFULLY AT THE SHOULDERS, PUT IT INTO THE ROASTING PAN, BASTE WELL. WHEN DONE, BOIL THE GRAVY WITH MILK AND PEPPER, PREVIOUSLY CRUSHED, AND BROTH, REDUCED WINE, A LITTLE REDUCED MUST AND ALSO OIL; AND TO THE BOILING GRAVY ADD ROUX. TO PLAY SAFE PUT THE ROAST IN A NETTING, BAG OR LITTLE BASKET AND CAREFULLY TIE TOGETHER, ADD A LITTLE SALT TO THE BOILING GRAVY. AFTER THIS HAS BOILED WELL THREE TIMES, TAKE THE MEAT OUT, BOIL THE BROTH OVER AGAIN [to reduce it] INCORPORATE WITH THE ABOVE DESCRIBED LIQUOR, ADDING THE NECESSARY SEASONING.

[1] "Hollowed out like a pipe."

[2] G.-V. syringiatus (id est mammotestus). Tor. mammocestis. We are guessing.

[3] We would call this a galantine of lamb if such a dish were made of lamb today.

This article, like the following appears to be a contraction of two different formulae.

[361] STUFFED KID OR LAMB ANOTHER WAY ALITER HAEDUS SIVE AGNUS SYRINGIATUS

KID OR LAMB IS THUS PREPARED AND SEASONED: TAKE [1] 1 PINT MILK, 4 OUNCES HONEY, 1 OUNCE PEPPER, A LITTLE SALT, A LITTLE LASER, GRAVY [of the lamb] 8 OUNCES CRUSHED DATES, A SPOONFUL OIL, A LITTLE BROTH, A SPOONFUL HONEY [2] A PINT OF GOOD WINE AND A LITTLE ROUX.

[1] Tor.

[2] G.-V.

[362] THE RAW KID OR LAMB [1] HAEDUS SIVE AGNUS CRUDUS

IS RUBBED WITH OIL AND PEPPER AND SPRINKLED WITH PLENTY OF CLEAN SALT AND CORIANDER SEED, PLACED IN THE OVEN, SERVED ROAST.

[1] It is quite evident that this sentence belongs to the preceding formula; but all the texts make a distinct separation.

[363] KID OR LAMB A LA TARPEIUS [1] HAEDUM SIVE AGNUM TARPEIANUM

BEFORE COOKING THE LAMB TRUSS IT PROPERLY AND [marinate it in] PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONIONS, AND A LITTLE THYME AND BROTH. PLACE THE ROAST IN A PAN WITH OIL, BASTE WELL WHILE IN THE OVEN, WHEN COOKED THOROUGHLY, FILL THE PAN WITH CRUSHED SATURY, ONIONS, RUE, DATES, BROTH, WINE, REDUCED WINE, AND OIL; WHEN THIS GRAVY IS WELL COOKED [strain] PUT IT UP IN A DISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Tor. Tatarpeianum. Tarpeius, family name of Romans. Humelberg thinks this dish is named for the people who dwelled on Mount Tarpeius. This was the Tarpeian Rock from which malefactors were thrown.

[364] KID OR LAMB PARTHIAN STYLE HAEDUM SIVE AGNUM PARTHICUM

PUT [the roast] IN THE OVEN; CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, ONION, SATURY, STONED DAMASCUS PLUMS, A LITTLE LASER, WINE, BROTH AND OIL. HOT WINE IS SERVED ON THE SIDE AND TAKEN WITH VINEGAR.

[365] CREAMED KID FLAVORED WITH LAUREL [1] HAEDUM LAUREATUM EX LACTE

[The kid] DRESS AND PREPARE, BONE, REMOVE THE INTESTINES WITH THE RENNET AND WASH. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER ROOT, 2 LAUREL BERRIES, A LITTLE CHAMOMILE AND 2 OR 3 BRAINS, ALL OF WHICH CRUSH. MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND SEASON WITH SALT. OVER THIS MIXTURE STRAIN 2 PINTS [2] OF MILK, 2 LITTLE SPOONS OF HONEY. WITH THIS FORCEMEAT STUFF THE INTESTINES AND WRAP THEM AROUND THE KID. COVER THE ROAST WITH CAUL AND PARCHMENT PAPER TIGHTENED WITH SKEWERS, AND PLACE IT IN THE ROASTING PAN, ADDING BROTH, OIL AND WINE. WHEN HALF DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTEN WITH THE ROAST'S OWN GRAVY AND A LITTLE REDUCED MUST; PUT THIS BACK INTO THE PAN AND WHEN THE ROAST IS DONE COMPLETELY GARNISH IT AND BIND [the gravy] WITH ROUX AND SERVE.

[1] Dann. thinks laureatus stands for the best, the prize-winning meat, but the laurel may refer to the flavor used.

List. remarks that cow's milk was very scarce in Italy; likewise was goat's and sheep's milk; hence it is possible that the kid was cooked with its mother's own milk.

[2] pints—sextarii.



VII

PIG IN PORCELLO

[366] SUCKLING PIG STUFFED TWO WAYS PORCELLUM FARSILEM DUOBUS GENERIBUS

PREPARE, REMOVE THE ENTRAILS BY THE THROAT BEFORE THE CARCASS HARDENS [immediately after killing]. MAKE AN OPENING UNDER THE EAR, FILL AN OX BLADDER WITH TARENTINE [1] SAUSAGE MEAT AND ATTACH A TUBE SUCH AS THE BIRD KEEPER USES TO THE NECK OF THE BLADDER AND SQUEEZE THE DRESSING INTO THE EAR AS MUCH AS IT WILL TAKE TO FILL THE BODY. THEN SEAL THE OPENING WITH PARCHMENT, CLOSE SECURELY [with skewers] AND PREPARE [the roast for the oven].

[1] Tor. impensam Tarentinam; G.-V. Terentinam.

The birdkeeper's tube may be an instrument for the cramming of fowl.

[366a] THE OTHER DRESSING IS MADE THUS:

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH A LITTLE BROTH, ADD COOKED BRAINS, RAW EGGS, COOKED SPELT, GRAVY OF THE PIG, SMALL BIRDS (IF ANY) NUTS, WHOLE PEPPER, AND SEASON WITH BROTH. STUFF THE PIG, CLOSE THE OPENING WITH PARCHMENT AND SKEWERS AND PUT IT IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE, DRESS AND GARNISH VERY NICELY, GLAZE THE BODY AND SERVE.

[367] ANOTHER SUCKLING PIG ALITER PORCELLUM

SALT, CUMIN, LASER; ADD SAUSAGE MEAT. DILUTE WITH BROTH [1] REMOVE THE WOMB OF THE PIG SO THAT NO PART OF IT REMAINS INSIDE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD WINE [2] BRAINS, MIX IN 2 EGGS, FILL THE [previously] PARBOILED PIG WITH THIS FORCEMEAT, CLOSE TIGHT, PLACE IN A BASKET AND IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK POT. WHEN DONE REMOVE THE SKEWERS BUT IN A MANNER THAT THE GRAVY REMAINS INSIDE. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.

[1] G.-V. treats the following as a separate article under the heading of porcellum liquaminatum.

[2] G.-V. unum (one brain) instead of uinum.

[368] STUFFED BOILED SUCKLING PIG PORCELLUM ELIXUM FARSILEM

REMOVE THE WOMB OF THE PIG. PARBOIL. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH. ADD COOKED BRAINS, AS MUCH AS IS NEEDED [1] LIKEWISE DISSOLVE EGGS, [add] BROTH TO TASTE, MAKE A SAUSAGE [of this forcemeat] FILL THE PIG WHICH HAS BEEN PARBOILED AND RINSED WITH BROTH. TIE THE PIG SECURELY IN A BASKET, IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK POT. REMOVE WHEN DONE, WIPE CLEAN CAREFULLY, SERVE WITHOUT PEPPER.

[1] To have a forcemeat of the right consistency.

[369] ROAST SUCKLING PIG WITH HONEY PORCELLUM ASSUM TRACTOMELINUM [1]

EMPTY THE PIG BY THE NECK, CLEAN AND DRY, CRUSH ONE OUNCE PEPPER, HONEY AND WINE, PLACE [this in a sauce pan and] HEAT; NEXT BREAK DRY TOAST [2] AND MIX WITH THE THINGS IN THE SAUCE PAN; STIR WITH A WHIP OF FRESH LAUREL TWIGS [3] SO THAT THE PASTE IS NICE AND SMOOTH UNTIL SUFFICIENTLY COOKED. THIS DRESSING FILL INTO THE PIG, WRAP IN PARCHMENT, PLACE IN THE OVEN [roast slowly, when done, glaze with honey] GARNISH NICELY AND SERVE.

[1] treated with honey.

[2] Tor. tactam siccatam for tractam.

[3] Again this very subtle method of flavoring, so often referred to. This time it is a laurel whip. Cf. {Rx} Nos. 277 seq., 345, 369, 385.

[370] MILK-FED PIG, COLD, APICIAN SAUCE PORCELLUM LACTE PASTUM ELIXUM CALIDUM IURE FRIGIDO CRUDO APICIANO

SERVE BOILED MILK-FED PIG EITHER HOT OR COLD WITH THIS SAUCE [1] IN A MORTAR, PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, AND CRUSH IT. MOISTEN WITH BROTH. ADD HONEY, WINE AND BROTH. THE BOILED PIG IS WIPED OFF HOT WITH A CLEAN TOWEL, [cooled off] COVERED WITH THE SAUCE AND SERVED [2].

[1] Tor.

[2] This sentence wanting in Tor.

[371] SUCKLING PIG A LA VITELLIUS [1] PORCELLUM VITELLIANUM

SUCKLING PIG CALLED VITELLIAN STYLE IS PREPARED THUS [2] GARNISH THE PIG LIKE WILD BOAR [3] SPRINKLE WITH SALT, ROAST IN OVEN. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING VERY LITTLE OIL, HEAT; THE ROASTING PIG BASTE WITH THIS IN A MANNER SO THAT [the aroma] WILL PENETRATE THE SKIN.

[1] Named for Vitellius, Roman emperor.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] i.e. marinated with raw vegetables, wine, spices, etc. Cf. {Rx} Nos. 329-30.

[372] SUCKLING PIG A LA FLACCUS PORCELLUM FLACCIANUM [1]

THE PIG IS GARNISHED LIKE WILD BOAR [2] SPRINKLE WITH SALT, PLACE IN THE OVEN. WHILE BEING DONE PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, GREEN RUE, AND CRUSH IT, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING A LITTLE OIL, HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX. THE ROAST PIG, FREE FROM BONES, SPRINKLE WITH POWDERED CELERY SEED AND SERVE.

[1] List. named for Flaccus Hordeonius, (puto). Flaccus was a rather common Roman family name.

[2] Cf. note 3 to {Rx} No. 371, also {Rx} Nos. 329-30. Lister is thoroughly puzzled by this procedure, but the problem is very simple: just treat the pig like wild boar.

[373] SUCKLING PIG, LAUREL FLAVOR PORCELLUM LAUREATUM

THE PIG IS BONED AND GARNISHED WITH A LITTLE WINE SAUCE [1] PARBOIL WITH GREEN LAUREL IN THE CENTER [2] AND PLACE IT IN THE OVEN TO BE ROASTED SUFFICIENTLY. MEANWHILE PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, AND LAUREL BERRIES, CRUSH THEM, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. [Put this in a sauce pan and heat] BIND [with roux; untie the pig] REMOVE THE LAUREL LEAVES; INCORPORATE THE JUICE OF THE BONES [from which a gravy has been made in the meantime] AND SERVE.

[1] marinate in the ordinary way with {oe}nogarum as the dominant flavor.

[2] It is presumed that the boned pig is rolled and tied, with the leaves in the center.

[374] SUCKLING PIG A LA FRONTO [1] PORCELLUM FRONTINIANUM

BONE THE PIG, PARBOIL, GARNISH; IN A SAUCE PAN. ADD BROTH, WINE, BIND. WHEN HALF DONE, ADD A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND DILL, SOME REDUCED MUST. WHEN COOKED WIPE THE PIG CLEAN, LET IT DRIP OFF; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.

[1] List. Probably named for Julius Fronto, praetor urbanus under Vitellius. Cornelius Fronto was an orator and author at the time of emperor Hadrian. Cf. {Rx} No. 246. G.-V. Frontinianus.

[375] SUCKLING PIG STEWED IN WINE PORCELLUM {OE}NOCOCTUM [1]

SCALD [parboil] THE PIG [and] MARINATE [2] PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN [with] OIL, BROTH, WINE AND WATER, TIE A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER; [cook (in the oven)] WHEN HALF DONE COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT AND CRUSH THEM, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD THE PIG'S OWN GRAVY AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. ADD THIS [to the meat in the sauce pan] AND LET IT BOIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX. THE PIG, PLACED ON A PLATTER, MASK [with the sauce] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Tor. vino elixatus; G.-V. {oe}nococtum.

[2] It is presumed that the pig is prepared for coction as in the foregoing, namely cleaned, washed, boned, etc. This also applies to the succeeding recipes of pig.

[376] PIG A LA CELSINUS [1] PORCELLUM CELSINIANUM

PREPARE [as above] INJECT [the following dressing made of] PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, SATURY, THE PIG'S OWN GRAVY [and] EGGS THROUGH THE EAR [2] AND OF PEPPER, BROTH AND A LITTLE WINE [make a sauce which is served] IN THE SAUCE BOAT [3]; AND ENJOY IT.

[1] Tor. Caesianus; Tac. cesinianum; G.-V. Celsinianum. Lister goes far out of his way to prove that the man for whom this dish was named was Celsinus. He cites a very amusing bit of ancient humor by Petrus Lambecius, given below.

[2] Really a dressing in a liquid state when raw, a custard syringed into the carcass, which congeals during coction. Eggs must be in proper proportion to the other liquids. The pig thus filled is either steamed, roasted or baked, well protected by buttered or oiled paper—all of which the ancient author failed to state, as a matter of course.

[3] acetabulum.

* * * * *

"The Porker's Last Will and Testament" by Petrus Lambecius

(V. Barnab. Brissonium de Formulis lib. VII, p. 677) [ex Lister, 1705, p. 196; Lister, 1709, p. 236].

"I, M. Grunter Corocotta Porker, do hereby make my last will and testament. Incapable of writing in my own hand, I have dictated what is to be set down:

"The Chief Cook sayeth: 'Come here, you—who has upset this house, you nuissance, you porker! I'll deprive you of your life this day!'

"Corocotta Porker sayeth: 'What, perchance, have I done? In what way, please, have I sinned? Have I with my feet perhaps smashed your crockery? I beg of you, Mr. Cook, I entreat you, if such be the case, kindly grant the supplicant a reprieve.'

"The Chief Cook sayeth: 'Go over there, boy! Fetch me from the kitchen that slaughtering-knife. I'm just itching to give this porker a blood-bath!'

"Mr. Porker, realizing that this is the season when cabbage sprouts are abundant, and visualizing himself potted and peppered, and furthermore seeing that death is inevitable, asks for time and begs of the cook whether it was possible to make a will. This granted, he calls out with a loud voice to his parents to save for them the food that was to have been his own in the future, to wit:

"To my father, Mr. Genuine Bacon-Fat, appointed by me in my last will I give and bequeath: thirty measures of acorns; and to my mother, Mrs. Old-Timer Sow, appointed by me in my last will, I give and bequeath: forty measures of Spartan wheat; and to my sister, Cry-Baby, appointed by me in my last will, whose wedding, alas! I cannot attend, I give and bequeath: thirty measures of barley; and of my nobler parts and property I give and bequeath, to the cobbler: my bristles; to the brawlers, my jaw-bones; to the deaf, my ears; to the shyster lawyers, my tongue; to the cow-herds, my intestines; to the sausage makers, my thighs; to the ladies, my tenderloins; to the boys, my bladder; to the girls, my little pig's tail; to the dancers, my muscles; to the runners and hunters, my knuckles; to the hired man, my hoofs; and to the cook—though not to be named—I give and bequeath and transmit my belly and appendage which I have dragged with me from the rotten oak bottoms to the pig's sty, for him to tie around his neck and to hang himself with.

"I wish to erect a monument to myself, inscribed with golden letters: 'M. Grunter Corocotta Porker lived nine-hundred-and-ninety-nine years, and had he lived another half year, a thousand years would have been nearly completed.'

"I ask of you who love me best, you who live like me, I ask you: will not my name remain to be eulogized in all eternity? if you only will prepare my body properly and flavor it well with good condiments, nuts, pepper and honey!

"My master and my relatives, all of you who have witnessed this execution of my last will and testament, you are requested to sign.

"(Signed) Hard Sausage Match Maker Fat Bacon Bacon Rind Celsinus Meat Ball Sprout Cabbage."

* * * * *

Thus far the story by Petrus Lambecius. The fifth of the signatories of the Porker's Testament is Celsinus; and since the other names are fictitious it is quite possible that Lambecius had a special purpose in pointing out the man for whom the dish, Porcellus Celsinianus,—Suckling Pig a la Celsinus—was named.

Celsinus was counsellor for Aurelianus, the emperor.

[377] ROAST PIG PORCELLUM ASSUM

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONIONS, HARD YOLKS OF EGG, BROTH, WINE, OIL, SPICES; BOIL THESE INGREDIENTS, POUR OVER THE [roast] PIG IN THE SAUCE PAN AND SERVE.

[378] PIG A LA JARDINIERE PORCELLUM HORTOLANUM [1]

THE PIG IS BONED THROUGH THE THROAT AND FILLED WITH QUENELLES OF CHICKEN FORCEMEAT, FINELY CUT [roast] THRUSHES, FIG-PECKERS, LITTLE SAUSAGE CAKES, MADE OF THE PIG'S MEAT, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, STONED DATES, EDIBLE BULBS [glazed onions] SNAILS TAKEN OUT OF THE SHELL [and poached] MALLOWS, LEEKS, BEETS, CELERY, COOKED SPROUTS, CORIANDER, WHOLE PEPPER, NUTS, 15 EGGS POURED OVER, BROTH, WHICH IS SPICED WITH PEPPER, AND DILUTED WITH 3 EGGS; THEREUPON SEW IT TIGHT, STIFFEN, AND ROAST IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE, OPEN THE BACK [of the pig] AND POUR OVER THE FOLLOWING SAUCE: CRUSHED PEPPER, RUE, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, HONEY AND A LITTLE OIL, WHICH WHEN BOILING IS TIED WITH ROUX [2].

[1] Tor. Hortulanus; Gardener's style, the French equivalent Jardiniere, a very common name for all dishes containing young vegetables. However, in the above rich formula there is very little to remind us of the gardener's style, excepting the last part of the formula, enumerating a number of fresh vegetables. It is unthinkable for any gourmet to incorporate these with the rich dressing. The vegetables should be used as a garnish for the finished roast. This leads us to believe that the above is really two distinct formulae, or that the vegetables were intended for garniture.

[2] This extraordinary and rich dressing, perfectly feasible and admirable when compared with our own "Toulouse," "Financiere," "Chipolata," can be palatable only when each component part is cooked separately before being put into the pig. The eggs must be whipped and diluted with broth and poured over the filling to serve as binder. The pig must be parboiled before filling, and the final cooking or roasting must be done very slowly and carefully—procedure not stated by the original which it takes for granted.

[379] COLD SAUCE FOR BOILED SUCKLING PIG JUS PORRO [1] FRIGIDUM IN PORCELLUM ELIXUM

CRUSH PEPPER, CARRAWAY, DILL, LITTLE ORIGANY, PINE NUTS, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, BROTH [2], DATE WINE, HONEY, PREPARED MUSTARD; SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE OIL, PEPPER, AND SERVE.

[1] Tor. only; porro indicating that the sauce may also be served with the foregoing. Wanting in List. et al.

[2] Wanting in Tor.

[380] SMOKED PIG A LA TRAJANUS PORCELLUM TRAIANUM [1]

MAKE THUS: BONE THE PIG, TREAT IT AS FOR STEWING IN WINE [{Rx} No. 375, i.e. marinate for some time in spices, herbs and wine] THEREUPON HANG IT IN THE SMOKE HOUSE [2] NEXT BOIL IT IN SALT WATER AND SERVE THUS [3] ON A LARGE PLATTER [4].

[1] Tor. and Tac. traganum.

[2] ad fumum suspendes; G.-V. et adpendeas, et quantum adpendeas, tantum salis in ollam mittes—passage wanting in other texts, meaning, probably, that the more pigs are used for smoking the more salt must be used for pickling which is a matter of course, or, the heavier the pig, ...

[3] Tor. atque ita in lance efferes; Tac. & sic eum ...; G.-V. et siccum in lance inferes.

[4] Hum. salso recente, with fresh salt pork. Tor. cum salsamento istoc recenti and Tor. continues without interruption, indicating, perhaps, that the following formula is to be served, or treated (boiled) like the above.

[381] MILK-FED PIG IN PORCELLO LACTANTE [1]

ONE OUNCE OF PEPPER, A PINT OF WINE, A RATHER LARGE GLASS OF THE BEST OIL, A GLASS OF BROTH [2], AND RATHER LESS THAN A GLASS OF VINEGAR [3].

[1] G.-V. lactans, suckling, milk-fed; other texts: lactente: Dann. wild boar.

[2] wanting in Tac. and Tor.

[3] a variant of the foregoing, a mild pickling solution for extremely young suckling pigs, prior to their smoking or boiling, or both, which the original does not state.

Schuch and his disciple Danneil, have inserted here seven more pork formulae (Sch. p. 179, {Rx} Nos. 388-394) taken from the Excerpts of Vinidarius, found at the conclusion of the Apicius formulae.



VIII

HARE LEPOREM

[382] BRAISED HARE LEPOREM MADIDUM

IS PARBOILED A LITTLE IN WATER, THEREUPON PLACE IT ON A ROASTING PAN WITH OIL, TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN. AND WHEN PROPERLY DONE, WITH A CHANGE OF OIL, IMMERSE IT IN THE FOLLOWING GRAVY: CRUSH PEPPER, SATURY, ONION, RUE, CELERY SEED; MOISTEN WITH BROTH, LASER, WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHILE THE ROASTING [of the hare] IS BEING COMPLETED IT IS SEVERAL TIMES BASTED WITH THE GRAVY.

Wanting in Goll.

A difference in the literary style from the foregoing is quite noticeable.

[383] THE SAME, WITH A DIFFERENT DRESSING ITEM ALIA AD EUM IMPENSAM

[The hare] MUST BE PROPERLY KEPT [i.e. aged for a few days after killing]. CRUSH PEPPER, DATES, LASER, RAISINS, REDUCED WINE, BROTH AND OIL; DEPOSIT [the hare in this preparation to be cooked] WHEN DONE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

Wanting in Goll. Tor. continuing without interruption.

[384] STUFFED HARE LEPOREM FARSUM

WHOLE [pine] NUTS, ALMONDS, CHOPPED NUTS OR BEECHNUTS, WHOLE PEPPER ARE MIXED WITH THE [force] MEAT OF HARE THICKENED WITH EGGS AND WRAPPED IN PIG'S CAUL TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN [1]. ANOTHER FORCEMEAT IS MADE WITH RUE, PLENTY OF PEPPER, ONION, SATURY, DATES, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, OR SPICED WINE. THIS IS REDUCED TO THE PROPER CONSISTENCY AND IS LAID UNDER; BUT THE HARE REMAINS IN THE BROTH FLAVORED WITH LASER.

[1] Reminding of the popular meat loaf, made of remnants: Falscher Hase, "Imitation Hare," as it is known on the Continent.

The ancients probably used the trimmings of hare and other meat for this forcemeat, or meat loaf, either to stuff the hare with, or to make a meal of the preparation itself, as indicated above.

We also recall that the ancients had ingenious baking moulds of metal in the shape of hares and other animals. These moulds, no doubt, were used for baking or the serving of preparations of this sort. The absence of table forks and cutlery as is used today made such preparations very appropriate and convenient in leisurely dining.

[385] WHITE SAUCE FOR HARE IUS ALBUM IN ASSUM LEPOREM

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, HARD BOILED YOLKS, PROPERLY POUNDED, MADE INTO A PASTE. IN A SAUCE PAN BOIL BROTH, WINE, OIL, A LITTLE VINEGAR AND CHOPPED ONIONS. WHILE BOILING ADD THE PASTE OF SPICES, STIRRING WITH A FAGOT OF ORIGANY OR SATURY [1] AND WHEN THE WORK IS DONE, BIND IT WITH ROUX.

[1] Fagots, or whips made of different herbs and brushes are often employed by Apicius, a very subtle device to impart faint flavors to sauces. The custom has been in use for ages. With the return of mixed drinks in America it was revived by the use of cinnamon sticks with which to stir the drinks.

The above hare formulae are wanting in Goll.

[386] LIGHTS OF HARE [1] ALITER IN LEPOREM [2]

A FINE HASH OF HARE'S BLOOD, LIVER AND LUNGS. PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN BROTH AND OIL, AND LET IT BOIL WITH FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS AND CORIANDER; NOW ADD THE LIVERS AND LUNGS, AND, WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, MINT, RUE, FLEA-BANE, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR [3].

[1] Wanting in Goll.

[2] Tor. Condimentum ex visceribus leporinis.

[3] The various texts combine the above and the following formula; but we are of the opinion that they are two distinct preparations.

[387] LIGHTS OF HARE, ANOTHER WAY ALITER

TO THE HARE'S LIVER ADD THE BLOOD AND POUND IT WITH HONEY AND SOME OF THE HARE'S OWN GRAVY; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE AND PUT IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD THE LUNGS CHOPPED FINE, MAKE IT BOIL: WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

This and the preceding formula resemble closely our purees or forcemeats of livers of game and fowl, which are spread on croutons to accompany the roast.

[388] HARE IN ITS OWN BROTH [1] ALITER LEPOREM EX SUO IURE

PREPARE THE HARE, BONE IT, GARNISH [2] PUT IT IN A STEW POT [3] AND WHEN HALF DONE ADD A SMALL BUNCH OF LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL; WHILE THIS IS BEING DONE, PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, DRY ONION, MINT, RUE, CELERY SEED; CRUSH, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD HONEY, THE HARE'S OWN GRAVY, REDUCED MUST AND VINEGAR TO TASTE; LET IT BOIL, TIE WITH ROUX, DRESS, GARNISH THE ROAST ON A PLATTER, UNDERLAY THE SAUCE, SPRINKLE AND SERVE.

[1] Cf. Goll. {Rx} No. 381.

[2] with vegetables for braising, possibly larding.

[3] braisiere, for this is plainly a "potroast" of hare. The boned carcass should be tied; this is perhaps meant by or is included in ornas—garnish, i.e. getting ready for braising.

[389] HARE A LA PASSENIANUS [1] LEPOREM PASSENIANUM

THE HARE IS DRESSED, BONED, THE BODY SPREAD OUT [2] GARNISHED [with pickling herbs and spices] AND HUNG INTO THE SMOKE STACK [3] WHEN IT HAS TAKEN ON COLOR, COOK IT HALF DONE, WASH IT, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND IMMERSE IT IN WINE SAUCE. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, AND CRUSH: MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND A LITTLE OIL, HEAT; WHEN BOILING, BIND WITH ROUX. NOW DETACH THE SADDLE OF THE ROAST HARE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] This personage, Passenius, or Passenianus, is not identified.

[2] To bone the carcass, it usually is opened in the back, flattened out and all the bones are easily removed. In that state it is easily pickled and thoroughly smoked.

[3] Lan., Tac., and Tor. suspendes ad furnum; Hum., List., and G.-V. ... ad fumum. We accept the latter reading, "in the smoke," assuming that furnum is a typographical error in Lan. and his successors, Tac. and Tor. Still, roasts have for ages been "hung on chains close to or above the open fire"; Torinus may not be wrong, after all, in this essential direction. However, a boned and flattened-out hare would be better broiled on the grill than hung up over the open fire.

[390] KROMESKIS OF HARE LEPOREM ISICIATUM

THE HARE IS COOKED AND FLAVORED IN THE SAME [above] MANNER; SMALL BITS OF MEAT ARE MIXED WITH SOAKED NUTS; THIS [salpicon] [1] IS WRAPPED IN CAUL OR PARCHMENT, THE ENDS BEING CLOSED BY MEANS OF SKEWERS [and fried].

[1] We call this preparation a salpicon because it closely resembles to our modern salpicons—a fine mince of meats, mushrooms, etc., although the ancient formula fails to state the binder of this mince—either eggs or a thickened sauce, or both.

[391] STUFFED HARE LEPOREM FARSILEM

DRESS THE HARE [as usual] GARNISH [marinate] IT, PLACE IN A SQUARE PAN [1]. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD CHICKEN LIVERS [saute] COOKED BRAINS, FINELY CUT MEAT [2] 3 RAW EGGS, BROTH TO TASTE. WRAP IT IN CAUL OR PARCHMENT, FASTEN WITH SKEWERS. HALF ROAST ON A SLOW FIRE. [Meanwhile] PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE: CRUSH AND MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE, SEASON, MAKE IT HOT, WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX; THE HALF-DONE HARE IMMERSE [finish its cooking in this broth] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Quadratum imponis, which is plain enough. The hare is to be roast therein. Dann. Cut in dice; Goll. Spread it out. Cf. illustration of square roast pan.

[2] Presumably the trimmings of the hare or of pork. This forcemeat is supposed to be used for the stuffing of the hare; it, being boned, is rolled up, the forcemeat inside, the outside covered with caul or paper, fastened with skewers. Danneil's interpretation suggests the thought that the raw hare's meat is cut into squares which are filled with forcemeat, rolled, wrapped, and roast—a roulade of hare in the regular term.

[392] BOILED HARE ALITER LEPOREM ELIXUM

DRESS THE HARE; [boil it]. IN A FLAT SAUCE PAN POUR OIL, BROTH, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE, SLICED ONION, GREEN RUE AND CHOPPED THYME [a sauce which is served on the side] AND SO SERVE IT.

Tor. continuing without interruption.

[393] SPICED SAUCE FOR HARE LEPORIS CONDITURA

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, THE HARE'S LIVER, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH RUE WHEN BOILING.

Tor. id.

[394] SPRINKLED HARE LEPOREM (PIPERE) SICCO SPARSUM [1]

DRESS THE HARE AS FOR KID A LA TARPEIUS [{Rx} No. 363]. BEFORE COOKING DECORATE IT NICELY [2]. SEASON WITH PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONION, LITTLE THYME, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ROAST IN THE OVEN; AND ALL OVER SPRINKLE HALF AN OUNCE OF PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, SATURY, 4 DATES, AND RAISINS. THE GRAVY IS GIVEN PLENTY OF COLOR OVER THE OPEN FIRE, AND IS SEASONED WITH WINE, OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, FREQUENTLY STIRRING IT [basting the hare] SO THAT IT MAY ABSORB ALL THE FLAVOR. AFTER THAT SERVE IT IN A ROUND DISH WITH DRY PEPPER.

[1] Tac., Tor. succo sparsum.

[2] We have no proof that the ancients used the larding needle as we do (or did) in our days. "Decorate" may, therefore, also mean "garnish," i.e. marinate the meat in a generous variety of spices, herbs, roots and wine. It is noteworthy that this term, "garnish," used here and in the preceding formulae has survived in the terminology of the kitchen to this day, in that very sense.

[395] SPICED HARE ALITER LEPOREM CONDITUM

[The well-prepared hare] COOK IN WINE, BROTH, WATER, WITH A LITTLE MUSTARD [seed], DILL AND LEEKS WITH THE ROOTS. WHEN ALL IS DONE, SEASON WITH PEPPER, SATURY, ROUND ONIONS, DAMASCUS PLUMS, WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND A LITTLE OIL; TIE WITH ROUX, LET BOIL A LITTLE LONGER [baste] SO THAT THE HARE IS PENETRATED BY THE FLAVOR, AND SERVE IT ON A PLATTER MASKED WITH SAUCE.



IX

DORMICE GLIRES

[396] STUFFED DORMOUSE [1] GLIRES

IS STUFFED WITH A FORCEMEAT OF PORK AND SMALL PIECES OF DORMOUSE MEAT TRIMMINGS, ALL POUNDED WITH PEPPER, NUTS, LASER, BROTH. PUT THE DORMOUSE THUS STUFFED IN AN EARTHEN CASSEROLE, ROAST IT IN THE OVEN, OR BOIL IT IN THE STOCK POT.

[1] Glis, dormouse, a special favorite of the ancients, has nothing to do with mice. The fat dormouse of the South of Europe is the size of a rat, arboreal rodent, living in trees.

Galen, III, de Alim.; Plinius, VIII, 57/82; Varro, III, describing the glirarium, place where the dormouse was raised for the table.

Petronius, Cap. 31, describes another way of preparing dormouse. Nonnus, Diaeteticon, p. 194/5, says that Fluvius Hirpinus was the first man to raise dormouse in the glirarium.

Dormouse, as an article of diet, should not astonish Americans who relish squirrel, opossum, muskrat, "coon," etc.

END OF BOOK VIII

EXPLICIT APICII TETRAPUS LIBER OCTAUUS [Tac.]



{Illustration: TITLE PAGE

Schola Apitiana, Antwerp, 1535}

{Transcription:

SCHOLA APITIANA, EX OPTIMIS QVIBVSDAM authoribus diligenter ac nouiter constructa, authore Polyonimo Syngrapheo.

ACGESSERE DIALOGI aliquot D. Erasmi Roterodami, & alia quaedam lectu iucundissima.

Vaeneunt Antuerpiae in aedibus Ioannis Steelsij.

I. G. 1535.}



APICIUS

Book IX



{Illustration: WINE PITCHER, ELABORATELY DECORATED

"Egg and bead" pattern on the rim. The upper end of handle takes the form of a goddess—Scylla, or Diana with two hounds—ending in acanthus leaves below the waist. On the curved back of handle is a long leaf; the lower attachment is in the form of a mask, ivy-crowned maenad (?). Ntl. Mus., Naples, 69171; Field M., 24048.}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

Stewpot, marmite, without a base, to fit into a hole of stove. The flat lid fits into the mouth of the pot. Found in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74806; Field M., 24171.}



BOOK IX. SEAFOOD

Lib. IX. Thalassa

CHAP. I. SHELLFISH. CHAP. II. RAY. CHAP. III. CALAMARY. CHAP. IV. CUTTLEFISH. CHAP. V. POLYPUS. CHAP. VI. OYSTERS. CHAP. VII. ALL KINDS OF BIVALVES. CHAP. VIII. SEA URCHIN. CHAP. IX. MUSSELS. CHAP. X. SARDINES. CHAP. XI. FISH SAUCES. CHAP. XII. BAIAN SEAFOOD STEW.



I

SHELLFISH IN LOCUSTA

[397] SAUCE FOR SHELLFISH IUS IN LOCUSTA ET CAPPARI [1]

CHOPPED SCALLIONS FRIED LIGHTLY, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED MUST; WHILE BOILING ADD MUSTARD.

[1] locusta, spiny lobster; Fr. langouste; G.-V. capparus; not clear, (cammarus, a crab); List. carabus—long-tailed lobster or crab, the cancer cursor of Linnaeus, according to Beckmann; mentioned by Plinius.

[398] BROILED LOBSTER LOCUSTAS ASSAS

MAKES THUS: IF BROILED, THEY SHOULD APPEAR IN THEIR SHELL; [which is opened by splitting the live lobster in two] SEASON WITH PEPPER SAUCE AND CORIANDER SAUCE [moisten with oil] AND BROIL THEM ON THE GRILL. WHEN THEY ARE DRY [1] KEEP ON BASTING THEM MORE AND MORE [with oil or butter] UNTIL THEY ARE PROPERLY BROILED [2].

[1] i.e. when the soft jelly-like meat has congealed.

[2] Same procedure as today.

[399] BOILED LOBSTER WITH CUMIN SAUCE [1] LOCUSTAM ELIXAM CUM CUMINATO

REAL BOILED LOBSTER IS COOKED WITH CUMIN SAUCE [essence] AND, BY RIGHT, THROW IN SOME [whole] [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, A LITTLE MORE WHOLE CUMIN, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND, IF YOU LIKE, ADD SOME [bay] LEAVES AND MALOBATHRON [3].

[1] Cumin, mustard and other spices similar to the above are used for cooking crawfish today.

[2] Sentence ex Tor. wanting in other texts.

[3] Malabathrum, aromatic leaves of an Indian tree; according to Plinius the laurus cassia—wild cinnamon.

[400] ANOTHER LOBSTER DISH—MINCE OF THE TAIL MEAT ALITER LOCUSTAM—ISICIA DE CAUDA EIUS SIC FACIES

HAVE LEAVES READY [in which to wrap the mince croquettes] BOIL [the lobster] TAKE THE CLUSTER OF SPAWN [from under the female's tail, and the coral of the male] THEREUPON CUT FINE THE [boiled] MEAT OF THE TAIL, AND WITH BROTH AND PEPPER AND THE EGGS MAKE THE CROQUETTES [and fry].

It is understood that hen eggs are added to bind the mince.

[401] BOILED LOBSTER IN LOCUSTA ELIXA

PEPPER, CUMIN, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.

[402] ANOTHER LOBSTER PREPARATION ALITER IN LOCUSTA

FOR LOBSTER LET US PROPERLY EMPLOY [1] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, MINT, RUE, NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND WINE.

[1] Tor. recte adhibemus, sentence not in the other texts.



II

RAY, SKATE IN TORPEDINE [1]

[403] [A Sauce for] RAY IN TORPEDINE

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, SHALLOTS, [adding] HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE WINE, ALSO A FEW DROPS OF OIL; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, BIND WITH ROUX.

[1] torpedo; the raia torpedo of Linnaeus; a ray or skate.

[404] BOILED RAY IN TORPEDINE ELIXA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, MINT, ORIGANY, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE. WINE, AND OIL. IF YOU WISH, ADD MUSTARD AND VINEGAR, OR, IF DESIRED RICHER, ADD RAISINS.

This appears to be a sauce to be poured over the boiled ray.

Today the ray is boiled in water seasoned strongly and with similar ingredients. When done, the fish is allowed to cool in this water; the edible parts are then removed, the water drained from the meat, which is tossed in sizzling brown butter with lemon juice, vinegar and capers. This is raie au beurre noir, much esteemed on the French seaboards.



III

CALAMARY IN LOLIGINE [1]

[405] CALAMARY IN THE PAN IN LOLIGINE IN PATINA

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, A LITTLE HONEY, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, AND OIL TO TASTE. WHEN COMMENCING TO BOIL, BIND WITH ROUX.

[1] Calamary, ink-fish, cuttlefish. Cf. Chap. IV. G.-V. Lolligine.

[405a] STUFFED CALAMARY [1] IN LOLIGINE FARSILI

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, CELERY SEED, YOLKS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, OIL, AND BIND [2].

[1] Ex List., Sch., and G.-V. Evidently a sauce or dressing. The formula for the forcemeat of the fish is not given here but is found in {Rx} No. 406—stuffed Sepia, a fish akin to the calamary.



IV

SEPIA, CUTTLEFISH IN SEPIIS

[406] STUFFED SEPIA IN SEPIA FARSILI

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, CARRAWAY, HONEY, BROTH, WINE, BASIC CONDIMENTS [1] HEAT [in water] THROW IN THE CUTTLEFISH; [when done] SPLIT, THEN STUFF THE CUTTLEFISH [2] WITH [the following forcemeat] BOILED BRAINS, THE STRINGS AND SKIN REMOVED, POUND WITH PEPPER, MIX IN RAW EGGS UNTIL IT IS PLENTY. WHOLE PEPPER [to be added]. TIE [the filled dish] INTO LITTLE BUNDLES [of linen] AND IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK POT UNTIL THE FORCEMEAT IS PROPERLY COOKED.

[1] Condimenta coctiva—salt, herbs, roots.

[2] G.-V. treat this as a separate formula.

[407] BOILED CUTTLEFISH [1] SEPIAS ELIXAS AB AHENO [2]

ARE PLACED IN A COPPER KETTLE WITH COLD [WATER] AND PEPPER, LASER, BROTH, NUTS, EGGS, AND [any other] SEASONING YOU MAY WISH.

[1] List. connects this article with the foregoing.

[2] Tor. aheno for copper kettle; List. amylo.

[408] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK CUTTLEFISH ALITER SEPIAS

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, DRY MINT, YOLKS, HONEY, BROTH, WINE, VINEGAR, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX.



V

POLYPUS [1] IN POLYPO

[409] POLYPUS IN POLYPO

[cook with] PEPPER, LOVAGE, BROTH, LASER, GINGER [2] AND SERVE.

[1] The polypus, or eight-armed sepia, has been described by Plinius, Galen, Cicero, Diocles, Athenaeus and other ancient writers. The ancients praise it as a food and attribute to the polypus the power of restoring lost vitality: molli carne pisces, & suaves gustu sunt, & ad venerem conferunt—Diocles.

Wanting in the Vat. Ms.

[2] Wanting in List. and G.-V. Ex Tor. p. 100.



VI

OYSTERS IN OSTREIS

[410] OYSTERS [1] IN OSTREIS

TO OYSTERS WHICH WANT TO BE WELL SEASONED ADD [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, YOLKS, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, AND WINE; IF YOU WISH ALSO ADD HONEY [3].

[1] Wanting in the Vat. Ms.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in the other texts.

[3] Cf. No. 14 for the keeping of oysters. It is not likely that the oysters brought from Great Britain to Rome were in a condition to be enjoyed from the shell—raw.

The above formula appears to be a sort of oyster stew.



VII

[411] ALL KINDS OF BIVALVES IN OMNE GENUS CONCHYLIORUM [1]

FOR ALL KINDS OF SHELLFISH USE PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, A LITTLE MORE OF CUMIN, HONEY, AND BROTH; IF YOU WISH, ADD [bay] LEAVES AND MALOBATHRON [2].

[1] Wanting in the Vat. Ms.

[2] Cf. note to {Rx} No. 399.

The shellfish is cooked or steamed with the above ingredients.



VIII

SEA URCHINS IN ECHINO

[412] SEA URCHIN IN ECHINO

TO PREPARE SEA URCHIN TAKE A NEW EARTHEN POT, A LITTLE OIL, BROTH, SWEET WINE, GROUND PEPPER, AND SET IT TO HEAT; WHEN BOILING PUT THE URCHINS IN SINGLY. SHAKE THEM WELL, LET THEM STEW, AND WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

Plinius states that only a few small parts of the sea urchin are edible.

[413] ANOTHER METHOD ALITER [IN] ECHINO

PEPPER, A LITTLE COSTMARY, DRY MINT, MEAD, BROTH, INDIAN SPIKENARD, AND [bay or nard] LEAVES.

[414] PLAIN BOILED ALITER

PUT THE SEA URCHINS SINGLY IN BOILING WATER, COOK, RETIRE, AND PLACE ON A PLATTER.

[415] IN CHAFING DISH IN THERMOSPODIO [1]

[To the meat of sea urchins, cooked as above, add a sauce made of bay] LEAVES, PEPPER, HONEY, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL, BIND WITH EGGS IN THE HOT WATER BATH [2] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] This formula is combined with the preceding in the original.

[2] Thermospodium; in this respect resembling seafood a la Newburgh. The thermospodium is an elaborate food and drink heater, used both in the kitchen and in the dining room. Our drawing illustrates an elaborate specimen which was used to prepare dishes such as this one in front of the guests.

[416] SALT SEA URCHIN IN ECHINO SALSO

[The cooked meat of] SALT SEA URCHIN IS SERVED UP WITH THE BEST [fish] BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND PEPPER TO TASTE.

Undoubtedly a commercial article like crabmeat today. The sea urchins were cooked at the fisheries, picked, shells, refuse discarded, the meat salted and marketed. The fish was also salted in the shell as seen in the following:

[417] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

TAKE SALT SEA URCHINS, ADD THE BEST BROTH AND TREAT THEM IN A MANNER AS TO LOOK LIKE FRESH THAT HAVE JUST COME OUT OF THE WATER.



IX

MUSSELS IN MITULIS [1]

[418] MUSSELS IN MITULIS

BEST [2] BROTH, FINELY CUT LEEKS, CUMIN, RAISIN WINE, MUST [3] AND ADD WATER TO MAKE A MIXTURE IN WHICH TO COOK THE MUSSELS.

[1] Variously spelled mytilus, mitylus, mutulus, an edible mussel.

Tor. and List. merula, merling, whiting, Fr. merlan. Merula also is a blackbird, which is out of place here. The Vat. Ms. reads in metulis.

[2] Tor.

[3] Tor. vinum mustum; List. v. mixtum.



X

SARDINES, BABY TUNNY, MULLET IN SARDA [1] CORDULA [2] MUGILE [3]

[419] STUFFED SARDINE SARDAM FARSILEM

PROPERLY, OUGHT TO BE TREATED IN THIS MANNER: THE SARDINE IS BONED AND FILLED WITH CRUSHED FLEA-BANE, SEVERAL GRAINS OF PEPPER, MINT, NUTS, DILUTED WITH HONEY, TIED OR SEWED, WRAPPED IN PARCHMENT AND PLACED IN A FLAT DISH ABOVE THE STEAM RISING FROM THE STOVE; SEASON WITH OIL, REDUCED MUST AND ORIGANY [4].

[1] The freshly caught sardine.

[2] Cordyla, cordilla, the young or the fry of tunny.

[3] Mugil, sea-mullet.

[4] Tor. origany; List. alece, with brine.

[420] ANOTHER PREPARATION OF SARDINES SARDA ITA FIT

COOK AND BONE THE SARDINES; FILL WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, ORIGANY, RUE, MOISTENED WITH DATE WINE, HONEY; PLACE ON A DISH, GARNISH WITH CUT HARD EGGS. POUR OVER A LITTLE WINE, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST, AND VIRGIN OIL.

[421] SAUCE FOR SARDINES IUS IN SARDA

PEPPER, ORIGANY, MINT, ONIONS, A LITTLE VINEGAR, AND OIL.

Resembling our vinaigrette.

[422] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR SARDINES [1] IUS ALIUD IN SARDA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY MINT [2] COOKED, ONION [chopped], HONEY, VINEGAR, DILUTE WITH OIL, SPRINKLE WITH CHOPPED HARD EGGS.

[1] Another Vinaigrette.

[2] Tac. and Tor. mentam aridam coctam, dry mint cooked, which is reasonable, to soften it. Hum., G.-V. dry mint, cooked onion; there is no necessity to cook the onion. As a matter of fact, it should be chopped raw in this dressing. The onion is wanting in Tac. and Tor.

[423] SAUCE FOR BROILED BABY TUNNY IUS IN CORDULA ASSA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, RUE, FIGDATE [or its wine] HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE. ALSO SUITABLE FOR SARDINES.

[424] SAUCE FOR SALT SEA-MULLET IUS IN MUGILE SALSO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ONION, MINT, RUE, SAGE [1], DATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD AND OIL.

[1] Tor. calva; G.-V. calvam. Does not exist. Hum. calva legendum puto salvia.

[425] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR SALT SEA-MULLET ALITER IUS IN MUGILE SALSO

PEPPER, ORIGANY, ROCKET, MINT, RUE, SAGE [1], DATE WINE, HONEY, OIL, VINEGAR AND MUSTARD.

[1] Same as above.



XI [1]

[426] SAUCE FOR CATFISH, BABY TUNNY AND TUNNY IUS IN SILURO [2] IN PELAMYDE [3] ET IN THYNNO [4]

TO MAKE THEM MORE TASTY USE [5] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ONIONS, MINT, RUE, SAGE [6] DATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD AND OIL.

[1] The twelve chapters of Book IX, as shown in the beginning of the text are here increased to fourteen by G.-V., to wit, XII, IUS IN MULLO TARICHO and XIII, SALSUM SINE SALSO, but these are more properly included in the above chapter XI, as does Tor. All of the above fish were salt, and probably were important commercial articles. The silurus, for instance, is best in the river Danube in the Balkans, while the red mullet, as seen in {Rx} No. 427 came from the sea of Galilee. Cf. {Rx} Nos. 144, 149.

[2] Silurus, probably the sly silurus, or sheatfish, in the U. S. called horn-pout—a large catfish.

[3] Pelamis, a tunny before it is a year old.

[4] Tunny, Tunafish.

[5] Tor. wanting in the others.

[6] Cf. note 1 to {Rx} No. 424.



XII

[427] SAUCE FOR SALT RED MULLET IUS IN MULLO [1] TARICHO [2]

IF IN NEED OF CONDIMENTS USE [3] PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, DATES, GROUND MUSTARD; MIX ALL WITH [flaked meat of] SEA URCHINS, MOISTEN WITH OIL, AND POUR OVER THE FISH WHICH IS EITHER FRIED OR BROILED, OMITTING SALT [4].

[1] Tor. mulo, the red sur-mullet—a very esteemed fish.

[2] Tarichea, town of Galilee, on the sea of Galilee. Salt mullet as prepared at Tarichea was known as Tarichus. This became finally a generic name for all kinds of salt fish, whether coming from Tarichea or from elsewhere. We have an interesting analogy in "Finnan Haddie," smoked Haddock from Findon, Scotland, corrupted into "Finnan," and now used for any kind of smoked Haddock. Cf. {Rx} Nos. 144, 149.

[3] Tor. Quite correctly, he questions the need of condiments for salt fish.

[4] List. uses this last sentence as the title for the next formula, implying that more salt be added to the salt fish; Tor. is explicit in saying that no salt be added which of course, is correct.



XIII

ANOTHER WAY, WITHOUT SALT [PORK?] ALITER, SINE SALSO [1]

[428] FISH LIVER PUDDING SALSUM, SINE SALSO [2]

COOK THE LIVER [of the mullet] CRUSH [3] AND ADD PEPPER, EITHER BROTH OR SALT [4] ADD OIL, LIVER OF HARE, OR OF LAMB [5] OR OF CHICKEN, AND, IF YOU LIKE, PRESS INTO A FISH MOULD [6] [unmould, after baking] SPRINKLE WITH VIRGIN OIL [7].

[1] Tor.

[2] G.-V. plainly, a contradiction. The possible meaning may be, "Salt Fish, without salt pork" as salt fish is frequently served with bacon.

[3] Dann. Crush the liver, which is probably correct. A paste or forcemeat of the livers and fish were made.

[4] The addition of salt would be superfluous if the liver of salt meat is used, excepting if the liver of hare, etc., predominated.

[5] G.-V. or liver of kid, wanting in Tor.

[6] Such fish-shape moulds existed, made of bronze, artistically finished, same as we possess them today; such moulds were made in various styles and shapes. Cf. {Rx} No. 384.

[7] This is an attempt to make a "fish" of livers, not so much with the intention to deceive as to utilize the livers in an attractive way. A very nutritious dish and a most ingenious device, requiring much skill.

This is another good example of Roman cookery, far from being extravagant as it is reputed to be, it is economical and clever, and shows ingenuity in the utilization of good things which are often discarded as worthless.

[429] ANOTHER WAY, FOR A CHANGE! ALITER VICEM GERENS SALSI [1]

CUMIN, PEPPER, BROTH, WHICH CRUSH, ADDING A LITTLE RAISIN WINE, OR REDUCED WINE, AND A QUANTITY OF CRUSHED NUTS. MIX EVERYTHING WELL, INCORPORATE WITH THE SALT [2] [fish]; MIX IN A LITTLE OIL AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. Alter vice salsi.

[2] Tor. & salibus imbue; List. & salsa redde. There is no sense to Lister's version, nor can we accept G.-V. who have et salari defundes.

[430] ANOTHER WAY ALITER SALSUM IN [1] SALSO

TAKE AS MUCH CUMIN AS YOUR FIVE FINGERS WILL HOLD; CRUSH HALF OF THAT QUANTITY OF PEPPER AND ONE PIECE OF PEELED GARLIC, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND MIX IN A LITTLE OIL. THIS WILL CORRECT AND BENEFIT A SOUR STOMACH AND PROMOTE DIGESTION [2].

[1] Tor., G.-V. sine.

[2] The title has reference to salt fish or salt pork; but the formula obviously is of a medicinal character and has no place here.



XII [XIV]

[431] BAIAN SEAFOOD STEW EMBRACTUM [1] BAIANUM [2]

MINCED [poached] OYSTERS, MUSSELS [3] [or scallops] AND SEA NETTLES PUT IN A SAUCE PAN WITH TOASTED NUTS, RUE, CELERY, PEPPER, CORIANDER, CUMIN, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND OIL.

[1] List. emphractum—a caudle, a stew. Seafood stews of this sort are very popular in the South of Europe, the most famous among them being the Bouillabaisse of Marseilles.

[2] Baiae, a very popular seaside resort of the ancients located in the bay of Naples. The stew was named after the place. Horace liked the place but Seneca warned against it.

[3] Tor. spondylos; List. sphondylos—scallops. Both terms, if used in connection with the shellfish are correct. Lister in several places confuses this term with spongiolus—mushroom. This instance is the final vindication of Torinus, whose correctness was maintained in {Rx} Nos. 41, 47, 115, seq.; 120, 121, 183, 309, seq.

END OF BOOK IX [1]

EXPLICIT APICII THALASSA LIBER NONUS [2]

[1] It appears to us that Book IX and the following, Book X, judging from its recipes, phraseology and from other appearances is by a different author than the preceding books. (Long after having made this observation, we learn from Vollmer, Studien, that Books IX and X were missing in the Archetypus Fuldensis.)

[2]. Tac.



{Illustration: ROAST PLATTER

The indenture is corrugated to receive the juices of the roast. Hildesheim Treas.}



{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, TORINUS EDITION, BASEL, 1541

Inscribed with comments by Lappius, contemporary scholar. The fly-leaf bears the autograph of M. Tydeman, 1806, and references to the above Lappius. There are further inscriptions by ancient hands in Latin and French, referring to the Barnhold [sic] Apicius, to The Diaitetike, to Aulus Cornelius, Celsus, Hippocrates and Galen. Also complaints about the difficulties to decipher the Apician text.}

{Transcription:

CAELII APITII SVMMI ADVLATRICIS MEDICINAE artificis DE RE CVLINARIA Libri x. recens e tenebris eruti, & a mendis uindicati, typisque summa diligentia excusi.

PRAETEREA,

P. PLATINAE CREMONENSIS VIRI VNDECVNQVE DOCTISSIMI, De tuenda ualetudine, Natura rerum, & Popinae scientia Libri x. ad imitationem C. APITII ad unguem facti.

AD HAEC,

PAVLI AEGINETAE DE FACVLTATIBVS ALIMENTORVM TRACTATVS, ALBANO TORINO INTERPRETE.

Cum INDICE copiosissimo.

BASILEAE. M. D. XLI.}



APICIUS

Book X



{Illustration: SHALLOW SAUCE PAN

The plain bowl is molded, the fluted handle ends in a head of the young Hercules in a lion's skin, with the paws tied under the neck. This corresponds somewhat to our modern chafing dish pan both in size and in utility. This pan was used in connection with the plain thermospodium for the service of hot foods in the dining room. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 73438; Field M., 24032.}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

Stewpot, kettle, marmite. The cover fits over the mouth. The rings in which the bail plays are attached by rivets to a sort of collar encircling the neck of the pot. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74775; Field M., 24173.}



BOOK X. THE FISHERMAN [1]

Lib. X. Halieus

CHAP. I. DIFFERENT KINDS OF FISH. CHAP. II. MURENAS. CHAP. III. EEL.

The numbers of the chapters differ in the various texts.



I

[432] A SAUCE FINES HERBES FOR FRIED FISH IUS DIABOTANON [2] PRO [3] PISCE FRIXO

USE ANY KIND OF FISH. PREPARE [clean, salt, turn in flour] SALT [4] AND FRY IT. CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, ORIGANY, AND RUE, ALL CRUSHED FINE, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, DATE WINE, HONEY, REDUCED MUST, OIL AND BROTH. POUR IN A SAUCE PAN, PLACE ON FIRE, WHEN SIMMERING POUR OVER THE FRIED FISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] This chapter principally deals with fish sauces. Apparently it is by a different author than Books I-VIII, which have many formulae for fish. While we have no direct proof, we are inclined to believe that Book X is a Roman version of a Greek treatise on fish sauces, a monograph, of which there existed many, according to Athenaeus, which specialized on the various departments of cookery.

[2] Tor. Diabotom (in Greek characters); Greek, relating to herbs.

[3] Tor. G.-V. in.

[4] G.-V. salsas.

[433] SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH IUS IN PISCE ELIXO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, SMALL ONIONS, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD, A LITTLE OIL; HEAT THIS SAUCE, AND IF YOU WISH [it to be richer, add] RAISINS.

[434] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH ALITER IN PISCE ELIXO [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SATURY, ONION, [hard] BOILED YOLKS, RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, OIL AND BROTH.

[1] Tor. frixo—fried fish, although his heading reads elixo.

[435] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH ALITER IUS IN PISCE ELIXO

PREPARE THE FISH CAREFULLY; IN THE MORTAR PUT SALT, CORIANDER SEED, CRUSH AND MIX WELL; TURN THE FISH THEREIN, PUT IT IN A PAN, COVER IT AND SEAL IT WITH PLASTER [1] COOK IT IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE RETIRE [the fish from the pan] SPRINKLE WITH STRONG VINEGAR AND SERVE.

[1] Remarkable culinary ingenuity, resembling in principle the North American Indian method of cooking whitefish wrapped in clay. Today we use flour and water made into a stiff paste to seal a pan hermetically if no "pressure cooker" is available.

This formula cannot be classified under "Sauce for Boiled Fish."

[436] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH ALITER IUS IN PISCE ELIXO

WHEN THE FISH IS PREPARED, PUT THE SAME IN A FLAT PAN WITH CORIANDER SEED, WATER AND GREEN DILL; WHEN COOKED SPRINKLE WITH VINEGAR AND SERVE [1].

[1] Another fair example of the incompleteness, on the one hand, of the directions, and of the superfluity, on the other hand, of words such as the initial and the closing words, which characterizes so many of the formulae. This is characteristic of ever so many culinary authors of all ages, who, lacking literary training, assume that the reader is thoroughly versed with the methods indicated. A versatile modern author would have said: "Poach the filleted fish in small water seasoned with coriander seed and green dill; sprinkle with vinegar before serving." He mentioned neither the salt nor the oil which he undoubtedly used.

[437] ALEXANDRINE [1] SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH IUS ALEXANDRINUM IN PISCE ASSO

PEPPER, DRY ONIONS [shallots] LOVAGE, CUMIN, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES [pounded in the mortar] FILLED UP [2] WITH VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, AND OIL, AND COOK IT.

[1] Alexandria, Egyptian city, at the mouth of the river Nile, third of the three great cities of antiquity excepting Carthage during Apicius' time a rival of Rome and Athens in splendor and commerce. Most important as a Mediterranean port, where fishing and fish eating was (and still is) good.

[2] G.-V. mulsum, mead.

[438] ANOTHER ALEXANDRINE SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH ALITER IUS ALEXANDRINUM IN PISCE ASSO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SEEDLESS RAISINS, WINE, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, OIL, COOKED TOGETHER.

[439] ANOTHER ALEXANDRINE SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH ALITER IUS ALEXANDRINUM IN PISCE ASSO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, OIL AND VINEGAR, AND COOK.

[440] SAUCE FOR BROILED CONGER IUS IN CONGRO ASSO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CUMIN, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HARD YOLKS, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, AND COOK.

G.-V. Gongo.

[441] SAUCE FOR HORNED FISH [1] IUS IN CORNUTAM [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONIONS, SEEDLESS RAISINS, WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; AND COOK IT [2]

[1] Cornuta, cornutus—"horned," "having horns"—an unidentified sea fish.

[2] Goll. collects all succeeding formulae for sauces into one.

[442] SAUCE FOR BROILED MULLET IUS IN MULLOS ASSOS

PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUE, HONEY, NUTS, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL; HEAT AND POUR OVER [1].

[1] List. is of the opinion that this is fresh mullet, while salt mullet was treated in the preceding formulae.

[443] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BROILED MULLET ALITER IUS IN MULLOS ASSOS

RUE, MINT, CORIANDER, FENNEL,—ALL OF THEM GREEN—PEPPER, LOVAGE, HONEY, BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL.

[444] SEASONING FOR BABY TUNNY IUS IN PELAMYDE ASSA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, GREEN CORIANDER, ONION, SEEDLESS RAISINS [1], RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, OIL, AND COOK.

[1] Wanting in Tor.

[445]

THIS SAUCE IS ALSO SUITABLE FOR BOILED [tunny]; IF DESIRED ADD HONEY.

[446] SAUCE FOR PERCH IUS IN PERCAM [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CUMIN, ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, OIL, REDUCED MUST; COOK IT.

[1] Perca, perch—sea perch or sea bass.

[447] SEASONING FOR REDSNAPPER CONDIMENTUM IN RUBELLIONEM [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, WILD THYME, CELERY SEED, DRY ONIONS, WINE, RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; BIND WITH ROUX.

[1] Rubellio—a "reddish" fish; perhaps a species of the red-mullet or red-snapper. Hum. says the Latins called the fish rubelliones, rubellos and rubros; the Greeks erythrinos or erythricos, because of their reddish color. A fish, according to Athenaeus similar to the pager or pagrus, phager or phagrus, also called pagur, which is not quite identified.



II

[448] SAUCE FOR [BROILED] MURENA IUS IN MURENA [ASSA] [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, SAFFRON [2], ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND OIL; COOK IT [3].

[1] V. doubting that this is broiled.

[2] Tor. Crocomagma; List. crocum magnum, still used today in some fish preparations, particularly in the Bouillabaisse.

[3] The laconic style in which all these fish preparations are given, is very confusing to the uninitiated. We assume that most of these ingredients were used to season the water in which to boil fish; or, to make a court-bouillon, a fish-essence of the bones and the trimmings of the fish, in which to poach the sliced fish. The liquor thus gained was reduced and in the moment of serving was bound with roux or with yolks, and the fish was masked with this sauce. The exceptions from this rule are, of course, in cases where the fish was broiled or fried.

[449] SAUCE FOR BROILED MURENA IUS IN MURENA ASSA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, [stoned] DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, OIL; COOK IT.

[450] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BROILED MURENA ALITER IUS IN MURENA ASSA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CATMINT [1] CORIANDER SEED, ONIONS, PINE NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; COOK IT.

[1] Nepeta montana—nep.

[451] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED MURENA [1] ALITER IUS IN MURENA ELIXA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, DILL, CELERY SEED, CORIANDER, DRY MINT, PINE NUTS, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE [2] BROTH, A LITTLE OIL, HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX.

[1] Ex Tac. and Tor.; wanting in List. and G.-V.

[2] Tac.; wanting in Tor.

[452] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED MURENA ALITER IUS IN MURENA ELIXA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED [1] CORIANDER, FIGDATES, MUSTARD, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED WINE.

[1] List., Sch., Dann. add here which is wanting in Tor. rhus Syriacum—Syrian Sumach.

The originals are considerably confused on the above and the following formulae.

[453] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED MURENA ALITER IUS IN MURENA ELIXA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, VINEGAR, CELERY SEED, SYRIAN SUMACH [1] FIGDATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD, AND REDUCED MUST. SERVE [2].

[1] See note to {Rx} No. 452.

[2] Ex Tor. It appears that this formula is a correction of {Rx} No. 452, as this is wanting in the other editions. Tor. also lacks the following formula.

In Tac. the above formula follows the next.

[454] SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH IUS IN PISCE ELIXO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, A LITTLE OIL, WHEN BOILING, TIE WITH ROUX AND SERVE IN A SMALL SAUCE BOAT [1].

[1] in lance; lanx may also mean a large oblong platter on which fish would be served. Cf. illustration Oval Dish with Handles.

Horace II Sat. 8—in patina porrecta—a special dish to hold the cooked murena and to display it to advantage.

Such special dishes are found in any good table service, to serve special purposes. Not so long ago special forks and knives were used for fish service which have been gradually discarded.

[455] SAUCE FOR BOILED LACERTUS FISH IUS IN LACERTOS ELIXOS [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN RUE, ONIONS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL; WHEN BOILING TIE WITH ROUX [2].

[1] Lacertus, an unidentified sea fish.

[2] Cf. note 3 to {Rx} No. 448.

In G.-V. this formula precedes the above.

[456] SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH IUS IN PISCE ASSO

A SAUCE FOR [this] BROILED FISH MAKE THUS [1] PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, GREEN CORIANDER, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, OIL, REDUCED MUST; HEAT AND STIR WELL WITH A WHIP OF RUE BRANCHES, AND TIE WITH ROUX.

[1] Tor. wanting in others.

[457] SAUCE FOR TUNNY IUS IN THYNNO

TUNNY, BY MEANS OF THIS SAUCE WILL BE MORE PALATABLE: [1] PEPPER, CUMIN, THYME, CORIANDER, ONIONS, RAISINS, VINEGAR, HONEY, WINE, AND OIL; HEAT, TIE WITH ROUX, AND SERVE FOR DINNER [2].

[1] and [2] first and last sentences from Tor., wanting in others.

[458] SAUCE FOR BOILED TUNNY IUS IN THYNNO ELIXO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, CRUSHED HERBS [1], ONIONS, FIG DATES [or fig wine] HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD AND TIE [2].

[1] Condimenta mortaria—herbs crushed in the "mortar"; also pulverized spices.

[2] "and tie" wanting in List. Leave it out, and you have an acceptable vinaigrette—a cold sauce for cold fish.

[459] SAUCE FOR BROILED TOOTH FISH IUS IN DENTICE ASSO [1]

SAUCE FOR BROILED TOOTH [1] FISH IS MADE THUS [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, MINT, DRY RUE, COOKED QUINCES [3], HONEY, WINE, BROTH, OIL; HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX.

[1] Dentex; Hum. dentex forma auratae similis, verum major—the tooth-fish is similar to the dory in shape, though larger.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Malum Cydonicum.

[460] BOILED TOOTHFISH IN DENTICE ELIXO [1]

PEPPER, DILL, CUMIN, THYME, MINT, GREEN RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, A LITTLE OIL, HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX.

[1] Ex List.; wanting in Tor.

[461] SAUCE FOR DORY IUS IN PISCE AURATA [1]

A SEASONING FOR DORY IS MADE THUS [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, ORIGANY, RUE BERRIES, MINT, MYRTLE BERRIES, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, VINEGAR, OIL, WINE, BROTH; HEAT AND USE IT SO.

[1] Aurata—the "golden" dory. Very esteemed fish. Martial, III, Ep. 90:

Non omnis laudem preliumque aurate meretur: Sed cui solus erit concha Lucrina cibus

[2] Tor. wanting in other texts.

[462] SAUCE FOR BROILED DORY. IUS IN PISCE AURATA ASSA

A SAUCE WHICH WILL MAKE BROILED DORY MORE TASTY CONSISTS OF [1] PEPPER, CORIANDER, DRY MINT, CELERY SEED, ONIONS, RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH AND OIL.

[463] SAUCE FOR SEA SCORPION [1] IUS IN SCORPIONE ELIXO

PEPPER, CARRAWAY, PARSLEY, FIGDATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD, OIL AND REDUCED WINE.

[1] Sea scorpion, boiled like shellfish, with the above ingredients; the cold meat is separated from the shell and is eaten with vinaigrette sauce.

[464] WINE SAUCE FOR FISH IN PISCE {OE}NOGARUM

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, AND HONEY; MIX IN RAISIN WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE; HEAT ON A VERY SLOW FIRE.

[465] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

THE ABOVE, WHEN BOILING, MAY BE TIED WITH ROUX.



III

EEL

[466] SAUCE FOR EEL IUS IN ANGUILLAM

EEL WILL BE MADE MORE PALATABLE BY A SAUCE WHICH HAS [1] PEPPER, CELERY SEED, LOVAGE [2], ANISE, SYRIAN SUMACH [3], FIGDATE WINE [4], HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD, REDUCED MUST.

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[2] Note the position of lovage in this formula. Usually it follows pepper. We have finally accounted for this peculiarity. Torinus, throughout the original, treats "pepper" and "lovage" as one spice, whereas we have kept the two separate. He believed it to be a certain kind of pepper—piper Ligusticum. Piper, as a matter of fact, stands for pepper, and Ligusticum is the herb, Lovage, an umbelliferous plant, also called Levisticum. The fact that the two words are here separated plainly shows that Torinus has been in the dark about this matter almost to the end.

One wonders why he did not change or correct this error in the preceding books. His marginal errata prove that his work was being printed as he wrote it, or furnished copy therefor—namely in installments. Since the printer's type was limited, each sheet was printed in the complete edition, and the type was then used over again for the next sheet.

[3] Tor. thun.

[4] Wanting in Tor.

[467] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR EEL ALITER IUS IN ANGUILLAM

PEPPER, LOVAGE, SYRIAN SUMACH, DRY MINT, RUE BERRIES, HARD YOLKS, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; COOK IT.

END OF BOOK X THE LAST OF THE BOOKS OF APICIUS

CELII APITII HALIEUS LIBER DECIMUS & ULTIMUS. EXPLICIT [Tac.]



{Illustration: CANTHARUS, WINE BOWL OR CUP

With elaborate ornamentation: Over a sacred fountain the walls of a theatre, with emblems of a theatrical nature and garlands of flowers and fruits, wine skins, tyrsus, torches, masks and musical instruments. Hildesheim Treasure.}



{Illustration: OPENING CHAPTER, BOOK I, VENICE, 1503

From the Lancilotus edition, printed by Tacuinus in Venice in 1503. Identical with the two previous editions except for very minor variants. The rubrication is not completed here. Fine initials were painted in the vacant spaces by hand; the small letter in the center of the square being the cue for the rubricator. This practice, a remnant from the manuscript books, was very soon abandoned after the printing of books became commercialized.}

{Transcription:

Laseratum Oxyporum Oxygarum digestibile Oenogarum in tubera Hypotrima Mortaria

Ciminatum in ostrea de conchiliis.

Apicii Celii epimeles Incipit liber primus conditum paradoxum.

Conditi Paradoxi compositio: mellis partes. xv. in aeneum uas mittuntur in praemissis inde sextariis duobus ut in cocturam mellis uinum decoques. quod igni lento: & aridis lignis calefactum comotum ferula dum coquitur. Si efferuere c{oe}perit uini rore compescitur preter quod subtracto igni in se redit. cum perfrixerit rursus accenditur Hoc secundo ac tertio fiet ac tum demum remotum a foco postridie despumatur cum piperis unciis iiii. iam triti masticis scrupulo. iii. folii & croci dragmae singulae. dactilorum ossibus torridis quinque hisdem dactilis uino mollitis intercedente prius suffusione uini de suo modo ac numero: ut tritura lenis habeatur: his omnibus paratis supermittes uini lenis sextaria. xviii. carbones perfecto addere duo milia.

Conditum meliromum.

Ulatorum conditum meliromum perpetuum quod subministratur per uiam peregrinanti. pp tritum cum melle despumato in cupellam mittis conditi loco. & ad mouendum quantum sit bibendum tantum aut mellis proferas: aut uinum inferas: sed suaserit non nihil uini meliromo mittas adiiciendum propter exitum solutiorem.

Absynthium romanum.

Absynthium romanum sic facies. Conditi camerini praeceptis utique pro absynthio cessante: in cuius uicem absynthi ponthici purgati terembitique unciam thebaicam dabis. masticis folii. iii. scrupulos senos. croci scrupulos. iii. uini eiusmodi sextarios. xviii. carbones amaritudo non exigit.}



THE EXCERPTS FROM APICIUS BY VINIDARIUS



{Illustration: BREVIS PIMENTORUM

Manuscript of the 8th Century. From the Codex Salmasianus, Excerpts from Apicius by Vinidarius.}

{Transcription:

BREVIS PIMENTORUM QUAE IN DOMO ESSE DEBEANT UT CONDIMENTIS NIHIL DESIT;

crocum, piper, zingiber, lasar, folium, baca murrae, costum, cariofilum, spica indica, addena, cardamomum, spica nardi. De seminibus hoc. dapaber, semen rudae, baca rutae, baca lauri, semen aneti, semen api, semen feniculi, semen ligustici, semen erucae, semen coriandri, cuminum anesum, petro silenum, careum, sisama

Apici excerpta. a Vinidario vir intut

De siccis hoc lasaris radices, menta, nepeta, saluia, cuppressum, oricanum, zyniperum, cepa gentima, bacas timmi, coriandrum, piretrum, citri fastinaca, cepa ascalonia, radices iunci, anet puleium, ciperum alium, ospera, samsucum, innula, silpium, cardamomum.

De liquoribus hoc. mel, defritum, carinum, apiperium, passum.

De nucleis hoc. nuces maiores nuclos pineos ac midula aballana.

De pomis siccis hoc. damascena, datilos, uva, passa, granata. haec omnia in loco sicco pone ne odorem et virtutem perdant. Brevis cyborum. caccabina minore. ii. caccabina fusile. iii. ofellas garatas. iiii. ofellas assas. v. aliter ofellas. vi. ofellas graton. vii. pisces, scorpiones}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

Stewpot, marmite, or kettle. With a ring base. The cover fits over the mouth. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74813; Field M., 24172.}



THE EXCERPTS FROM APICIUS BY VINIDARIUS THE ILLUSTRIOUS MAN

Apici Excerpta A Vinidario Viro Inlustri

FIFTH CENTURY

Vinidarius, a Goth, of noble birth or a scientist, living in Italy. Vinithaharjis is the native name. Of his time and life very little is known. It appears that he was a student of Apicius and that he made certain excerpts from that book which are preserved in the uncial codex of Salmasius, saec. VIII, Paris, lat. 10318.

Vollmer in his Apicius commentary says that Salmasius and his predecessors have accepted them as genuine. Schuch incorporated these recipes in the Apicius text of his editions, in appropriate places, as he thought. This course cannot be recommended, although the recipes should form an integral part of any Apicius edition.

M. Ihm, who faithfully reprinted the excerpta in the Archiv f. lat. Lex. XV, 64, ff. says distinctly: "These excerpts have nothing to do with the ten books of Apicius, even if some recipes resemble each other ..." and other researchers have expressed the same opinion. Vollmer, however, does not share this view.

If I may be permitted to concur with Vollmer, I would say that the excerpts are quite Apician in character, and that in a sense they fill certain gaps in the Apicius text, although the language is strongly vulgarized which may be readily expected to be the case in the age of Vinidarius.

The recipes of Anthimus, written around A.D. 511 also confirm the close relation existing between Vinidarius and Apicius. Anthimus was the Greek physician to Theodoric I, (The Great), Frankish king living in Italy. He was not acquainted with Apicius.

SUMMARY OF SPICES BREVIS PIMENTORUM [1]

WHICH SHOULD BE IN THE HOUSE ON HAND SO THAT THERE MAY BE NOTHING WANTING [in the line of condiments]: SAFFRON, PEPPER, GINGER, LASER, LEAVES [laurel-bay-nard], MYRTLE BERRIES, COSTMARY, CHERVIL [2], INDIAN SPIKENARD, ADDENA [3], CARDAMOM, SPIKENARD.

[1] Pigmentorumspecierum—spices. The old pigmentum is really any coloring matter; the word, corrupted to pimento and pimiento is now used for sweet red pepper and also for allspice.

[2] CariofilucaerefoliumChaerephyllon; Fr. Cerfeuille; Ger. Kerbel. This should be among the herbs.

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