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Cooking and Dining in Imperial Rome
by Apicius
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[3] We concur with Lister's idea of the use of early fruits. The use of early and unripe fruit for this and similar purposes is excellent. The above formula is a good example of our own "spiced" peaches, pears, etc., usually taken as a relish. Of course, we use sugar instead of honey for sweetening, and brandy instead of wine; but the underlying principles are alike.

This is a good illustration of and speaks well for the economy and the ingenuity of the ancients.

END OF BOOK IV

EXPLICIT APICII PANDECTER, LIBER QUARTUS [Tac.]



{Illustration: ROUND TABLE

Claw-footed bronze legs on triangular base, consisting of three molded cylindrical supports, connected by cross-bars. Near the top the legs take on a greyhound design, with a three-armed brace connecting them. The round top is of marble. Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 78613; Field M., 24281.}



APICIUS

Book V



{Illustration: POMPEII: WINE STOCK ROOM OF A TAVERN

Wine was kept in these great jugs, tightly sealed with plaster and pitch, properly dated and labeled, often remaining for many years. Some writers mention wine thus kept for a hundred years; the porosity of the earthen crocks, often holding fifty gallons or more, allowed evaporation, so that the wine in time became as thick as oil or honey, which necessitated diluting with water.

Smaller amphorae, with various vintages readily mixed, were kept cool in "bars" very similar to our present ice cream cabinets, ready for service for the guests in tavern rooms.

Elaborate dippers (see our illustration) were used to draw the wine from the amphorae.}



{Illustration: FRUIT OR DESSERT DISH, SEA-SHELL SHAPE

The curved handle ends in the head of a griffin. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 76303; Field M. 24298.}



BOOK V. LEGUMES

Lib. V. Osprion [1]

CHAP. I. PULSE, MEAL MUSH, PORRIDGE, ETC. CHAP. II. LENTILS. CHAP. III. PEAS. CHAP. IV. BEANS OR PEAS IN THE POD. CHAP. V. BARLEY BROTH. CHAP. VI. GREEN BEANS, BAIAEAN BEANS. CHAP. VII. FENUGREEK. CHAP. VIII. GREEN STRING BEANS AND CHICK-PEAS.



I

MEAL MUSH, MUSH, PULSE, PAP, PORRIDGE, POLENTA DE PULTIBUS [2]

[178] JULIAN MEAL MUSH PULTES JULIANAE [3]

JULIAN PULSES ARE COOKED THUS: SOAK WELL-CLEANED SPELT, PUT IT ON THE FIRE; WHEN COOKED, ADD OIL. IF IT THREATENS TO BECOME THICK, CAREFULLY THIN IT DOWN. TAKE TWO COOKED BRAINS AND HALF A POUND OF MEAT GROUND AS FOR FORCEMEAT, CRUSH THIS WITH THE BRAINS AND PUT IN A POT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND FENNEL SEED, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, A LITTLE WINE AND PUT IT ON TOP OF THE BRAIN AND MEAT. WHEN THIS FORCEMEAT IS HEATED SUFFICIENTLY, MIX IT WITH THE SPELT [finish boiling] TRANSFER INTO SERVICE DISH, THINNED. THIS MUST HAVE THE CONSISTENCY OF A HEAVY JUICE [4].

[1] List. Osprios; G.-V. Ospreon—cookery of leguminous plants.

[2] Puls—formerly a simple porridge of various kinds of cereals or legumes, eaten by the Romans before bread came into use. Puls remained in use after the introduction of bread only as a food of the poor. It was also used at sacrifices. The pultes and pulticulae given by Apicius are illustrations of the ever-present desire to improve—to glorify, as it were, a thing which once was or still is of vital importance in the daily life of humans. The nouveaux-riches of the ancient and the modern world cannot find it easy to separate themselves from their traditions nor are they wont to put up with their plainness, hence the fancy trimmings. The development of the American pie is a curious analogy in this respect. We see in this the intricate working of human culture, its eternal strife for perfection. And perfection is synonymous with decay. The fare of the Carthusian monks, professed, stern vegetarians, underwent the same tortuous evolution.

[3] Named for Didius Julianus, the emperor who was a vegetarian. Of course, his majesty could not live on a plain porridge, hence the Apician artistry. The pultes were popular with the many professed vegetarians though the obliging cooks mixed finely ground meat in this and other porridges.

Our various cream soups and legume purees—those most salubrious creations of modern cookery are no doubt lineal descendants from the Apician pultes. They are so scarce comparatively because they require all the ingenuity and resourcefulness of a gifted cook to be perfect.

[4] Dann. remarks that this formula is wanting in List. Both Lister's first and second editions have it.

[179] GRUEL AND WINE PULTES {OE}NOCOCTI

PORRIDGE AND WINE IS THUS MADE: [1] FLAVOR THE PULSE WELL WITH WINE [2] AND IMMERSE IN THE JUICE DAINTY MORSELS [3].

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[2] Tor. Oenogari; G.-V. Oenococti.

[3] Tor. cupedias; copadia.

[180] SIMILAR SIMILAM [1]

OR FLAVOR COOKED SPELT WITH THE LIQUOR OF DAINTY PIECES OF PORK, OR CAPON [2] COOKED IN WINE [3].

[1] Tac. inulam; Tor. mulam—misreading.

[2] Tor.; List. apponis.

[3] For practical reasons we have separated the text of {Rx} Nos. 179 and 180 which appears as one in the texts.

[181] MILK TOAST PULTES TRACTOGALATAE [1]

PUT A PINT OF MILK AND SOME WATER ON THE FIRE IN A NEW [clean] POT; BREAK ROUND BREAD INTO IT [2] DRY, STIR WELL TO PREVENT BURNING; ADD WATER AS NECESSARY [3].

[1] Tor. pulticula tractogala.

[2] List. tres orbiculos tractae; Tor. teres sorbiculos tractae.

Tractum is a piece of pastry, a round bread or roll in this case, stale, best suited for this purpose.

[3] The text continues without interruption.

[182] HONEY PAP SIMILITER

HONEY AND MEAD ARE TREATED SIMILARLY, MIXED WITH MILK, WITH THE ADDITION OF SALT AND A LITTLE OIL.

[178-183] PULSE PULTES [1]

[1] Tor. Alia pulticula.

This is a verbatim repetition of {Rx} No. 178.



II

LENTILS LENTICULA [1]

[183] LENTILS AND COW-PARSNIPS LENTICULA EX SPONDYLIS SIVE FONDYLIS [2]

PUT THE LENTILS IN A CLEAN SAUCE PAN [and cook with salt]. IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, AND FLEA-BANE, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, ADD HONEY AND BROTH AND REDUCED MUST, VINEGAR TO TASTE AND PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN. THE COOKED COW-PARSNIPS CRUSH, HEAT [mix with the lentils] WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, TIE, ADD GREEN [fresh olive] OIL AND SERVE IN AN APPROPRIATE DISH [3].

[1] Tor. De Lenticula et Castaneis.

[2] List. again: ex spongiolis sive fungulis. See notes to {Rx} Nos. 115-120 and 431.

[3] Boletar—a "mushroom" dish. G.-V. in boletari; Tac. insuper oleum uiridem mittis; Tor. inuolutari—unidentified.

[184] LENTILS [1] AND CHESTNUTS LENTICULAM DE CASTANEIS [2]

TAKE A NEW SAUCE PAN, PLACE THEREIN THE CHESTNUTS CAREFULLY CLEANED [3] ADD WATER AND A LITTLE SODA AND PLACE ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED. THIS DONE, CRUSH IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, LASER ROOT AND FLEA-BANE MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY AND BROTH; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE AND POUR THIS OVER THE COOKED CHESTNUTS, ADD OIL AND ALLOW TO BOIL. WHEN DONE CRUSH IT IN THE MORTAR [4]. TASTE TO SEE IF SOMETHING IS MISSING AND IF SO, PUT IT IN, AND AT LAST ADD GREEN [fresh virgin] OIL.

[1] Lentils are omitted in this formula; therefore see the following formula.

[2] Thus G.-V.; Tor. Chestnuts.

[3] i.e. peeled and skinned. To do this easily, boil the chestnuts with the skin, whereupon the outer brown shell and the inner membrane are easily removed.

[4] To make a puree of the chestnuts which strain through the colander.

[184a] ANOTHER WAY [1] ALITER LENTICULAM

COOK THE LENTILS, SKIM THEM [strain] ADD LEEKS, GREEN CORIANDER; CRUSH CORIANDER SEED, FLEA-BANE, LASER ROOT, MINT SEED AND RUE SEED MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR; ADD HONEY, BROTH, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST TO TASTE, THEN OIL, STIRRING [the puree] UNTIL IT IS DONE, BIND WITH ROUX, ADD GREEN OIL, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] It is evident that {Rx} No. 184 and the above are really one formula, the former dealing with the cooking of the maroons, the latter describing the lentils. Presumably the two purees are to be mixed, or to be served as integral parts of one dish.



III

[185] PEAS DE PISIS

COOK THE PEAS, WHEN SKIMMED, LAY LEEKS, CORIANDER AND CUMIN ON TOP. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DILL AND GREEN BASILICA, WINE AND BROTH TO TASTE, MAKE IT BOIL; WHEN DONE STIR WELL, PUT IN WHAT PERCHANCE SHOULD BE MISSING AND SERVE [1].

[1] This reminds us of Petits Pois a la Francaise, namely green peas (often very young ones with the pods) cooked in broth, or bouillon, with shredded bacon, lettuce, parsley, onions (or leeks, as above) fresh mint, pepper, salt and other fresh herbs such as chervil. Which is a very delectable way of preparing the tender pea. Some of its refreshing green color is sacrificed by this process, but this loss is amply offset by the savour of the dish.

[186] PEAS [supreme style] PISA FARSILIS [1]

COOK THE PEAS WITH OIL AND A PIECE OF SOW'S BELLY [2] PUT IN A SAUCE PAN BROTH, LEEK HEADS [the lower white part] GREEN CORIANDER AND PUT ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED. OF TID-BITS [3] CUT LITTLE DICE. SIMILARLY COOK THRUSHES OR OTHER SMALL [game] BIRDS, OR TAKE SLICED CHICKEN AND DICED BRAIN, PROPERLY COOKED. FURTHER COOK, IN THE AVAILABLE LIQUOR OR BROTH, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE AND BACON; COOK LEEKS IN WATER; CRUSH A PINT OF TOASTED PIGNOLIA NUTS; ALSO CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND GINGER, DILUTE WITH THE BROTH OF PORK, TIE [4] TAKE A SQUARE BAKING DISH SUITABLE FOR TURNING OVER WHICH OIL WELL AND LINE WITH CAUL [5] SPRINKLE [on the bottom] A LAYER OF CRUSHED NUTS UPON WHICH PUT SOME PEAS, FULLY COVERING THE BOTTOM OF THE SQUASH DISH; ON TOP OF THIS ARRANGE SLICES OF THE BACON [6] LEEKS AND SLICED LUCANIAN SAUSAGE; AGAIN COVER WITH A LAYER OF PEAS AND ALTERNATE ALL THE REST OF THE AVAILABLE EDIBLES IN THE MANNER DESCRIBED UNTIL THE DISH IS FILLED, CONCLUDING AT LAST WITH A LAYER OF PEAS, UTILIZING EVERYTHING. BAKE THIS DISH IN THE OVEN, OR PUT IT INTO A SLOW FIRE [covering it with live coal] SO THAT IT MAY BE BAKED THOROUGHLY. [Next make a sauce of the following] PUT YOLKS OF HARD BOILED EGGS IN THE MORTAR WITH WHITE PEPPER, NUTS, HONEY, WHITE WINE AND A LITTLE BROTH; MIX AND PUT IT INTO A SAUCE PAN TO BE COOKED; WHEN [the sauce is] DONE, TURN OUT THE PEAS INTO A LARGE [silver dish] AND MASK THEM WITH THIS SAUCE WHICH IS CALLED WHITE SAUCE [7].

[1] List. Pisa farsilis; Tor. p. farsilia; Tac., G.-V. pisam farsilem—same as fartilis, from farcio—fattened, stuffed, or crammed, or as full as it can hold, metaphorically perhaps "supreme style," "most sumptuous," etc.

[2] This meat being fat enough, the oil seems superfluous.

[3] isicia, formerly called Greek hysitia—any fine forcemeats, cut into or cooked in tiny dumplings.

[4] Liaison wanting in Tor.

[5] Tor. makes no mention of the square dish and its caul lining. Caul is the abdominal membrane.

[6] petasonis pulpas; Dann. ham, which is not quite correct. The petaso is the shoulder part of pork, either cured or fresh, generally fresh. The cooked pork shoulder here is cut into small pieces. Nothing is said about the utilization of the sow's belly mentioned at the opening of the formula. We assume that the petaso can take its place in the dish.

[7] There is nothing just like this dish in the history of gastronomy, considering both the comparatively cheap materials and the refinement of the gastronomic idea which it embodies. The chartreuses of Careme are the nearest thing to it. Lister waxes enthusiastic about it.

[187] INDIAN PEAS PISAM INDICAM [1]

COOK PEAS; WHEN SKIMMED, PUT IN THE SAUCE PAN FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS AND CORIANDER TO BE COOKED [with the peas]. TAKE SMALL CUTTLE FISH, MOST DESIRABLE BECAUSE OF THE BLACK LIQUOR AND COOK THEM ALSO. ADD OIL, BROTH AND WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEK AND [green] CORIANDER AND MAKE IT BOIL. WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, A LITTLE WILD CUMIN [2] MOISTEN WITH THE JUICE [of the peas] ADD WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE; MINCE THE FISH VERY FINE, INCORPORATE IT WITH THE PEAS, AND SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [3].

[1] Tor. pisum Indicum.

[2] Tor., Tac. casei modicum; other texts, carei.

[3] The texts continues without interruption to the next formula.

[188] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

COOK THE PEAS, WORK WELL [to make a puree] PLACE IN THE COLD, STIRRING UNTIL THEY HAVE COOLED OFF. FINELY CHOP ONIONS AND THE WHITES OF HARD BOILED EGGS, SEASON WITH SALT AND A LITTLE VINEGAR; THE YOLKS PRESS THROUGH A COLANDER INTO AN ENTREE DISH, SEASON WITH FRESH OIL AND SERVE [1].

[1] The texts fail to state that the whites, yolks, onions, vinegar and oil must eventually be combined into a dressing very similar to our own modern vinaigrette; for decorative and other gastronomic reasons the separate treatment of the whites and the yolks is both ingenious and excellent, and is very often practised in good kitchens today.

[189] PEAS OR BEANS A LA VITELLIUS PISAM VITELLIANAM SIVE FABAM [1]

PEAS OR BEANS WITH YOLKS ARE MADE THUS: [2] COOK THE PEAS, SMOOTHEN [3] THEM; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, AND ON THE CONDIMENTS PUT HARD BOILED YOLKS, 3 OUNCES OF HONEY, ALSO BROTH, WINE AND VINEGAR; [mix and] PLACE ALL IN A SAUCE PAN; THE FINELY CHOPPED CONDIMENTS WITH OIL ADDED, PUT ON THE STOVE TO BE COOKED; WITH THIS FLAVOR THE PEAS WHICH MUST BE SMOOTH; AND IF THEY BE TOO HARSH [in taste] ADD HONEY AND SERVE [4].

[1] List. Pisa Vitelliana—named for Vitellius, ninth Roman emperor, notorious glutton, according to Hum. who says that V. invented this dish: ab auctore Vitellio Imperatore luxui deditissimo. But Tor. differs; his pisum uitellinum stands for peas with yolks—vitellum—yolk, (also calf) dim. vitellinum; Tac. v——am. Cf. {Rx} No. 193.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] lias—to make a puree by crushing and straining. Tor. laevigabis, from levigo—meaning the same.

[4] If Vitellius never invented any other dish than this one, his gluttony was overrated. As a gastronomer he may be safely relegated to the vast multitude of ill-advised people whose craving for carbohydrates (which is perhaps pathological) causes them to accumulate a surplus of fat. This was fatal to Vitellius and his faithful court baker who is said to have stuck to his master to the last. The poor emperor's embonpoint proved cumbersome when he fled the infuriated mob. Had he been leaner he might have effected a "getaway." He was dragged through the streets and murdered, Dec. 21 or 22, A.D. 69.

[190] ANOTHER WAY ALITER PISAM SIVE FABAM

WHEN [the peas or beans are] SKIMMED MIX BROTH, HONEY, MUST, CUMIN, RUE, CELERY SEED, OIL AND WINE, STIR [1]. SERVE WITH CRUSHED PEPPER AND SAUSAGE [2].

[1] G.-V. tudiclabis; Tor. misceas.

[2] cum isiciis—bits of forcemeat.

[191] ANOTHER WAY ALITER PISAM SIVE FABAM

WHEN [the peas or beans are] SKIMMED FLAVOR THEM WITH CRUSHED PERSIAN [1] LASER, BROTH AND MUST; POUR A LITTLE OIL OVER AND SERVE.

[1] Parthian, from Parthia, a country of Asia.

[192] A TEMPTING DISH OF PEAS PISAM ADULTERAM [1] VERSATILEM

THIS ADROIT, TEMPTING DISH OF PEAS IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER: [2] COOK PEAS; BRAINS OR SMALL BIRDS, OR BONED THRUSHES, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, CHICKEN LIVERS AND GIBLETS—ALL OF WHICH ARE PUT IN A SAUCE PAN; BROTH, OIL AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS, GREEN CORIANDER FINELY CHOPPED, COOK WITH THE BRAINS; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND BROTH [3].

[1] Sch., Dann. crafty, i.e. not genuine. Adulteram cannot here be used in its most accepted sense, because the peas are genuine, and no attempt is made to adulterate or "fake" this dish in any way, shape or form. Never before have we applied the term "seductive" to any dish, but this is just what adultera means. "Tempting" of course is quite common.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] This formula is incomplete or mutilated, the last sentence breaks off in the middle—very likely a description of the sauce or condiments belonging to the peas.

Each and every component of this (really tempting) dish must be cooked separately; they are then composed in a dish, nicely arranged, with the peas in the center, surrounded by the several morsels, with an appropriate gravy made from the natural liquor or juices of the component parts poured over the dish.

[193] PEAS A LA VITELLIUS PISAM SIVE FABAM VITELLIANAM [1]

PEAS OR BEANS IN THE STYLE OF VITELLIUS PREPARE THUS: [2] [The peas or beans] ARE COOKED, WHEN CAREFULLY SKIMMED, ADD LEEKS, CORIANDER AND MALLOW FLOWERS [3]: WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, AND FENNEL SEED MOISTENED WITH BROTH [and put it] INTO A SAUCE PAN WITH WINE [4], ADDING OIL, HEAT THOROUGHLY AND WHEN BOILING STIR WELL; PUT GREEN OIL ON TOP AND SERVE.

[1] Named for the inventor, Emperor Vitellius; cf. notes to {Rx} No. 189. Tor. Vitellianum.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Wanting in Dann.

[4] Tor.



IV

[194] BEANS IN THE POD CONCHICLA [1]

COOK THE BEANS [2]; MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, MOISTENED WITH BROTH AND WINE, AND ADD [more] BROTH TO TASTE, PUT INTO THE SAUCE PAN [with the beans] ADDING OIL; HEAT ON A SLOW FIRE AND SERVE.

[1] Tor. Conciclaconchisconchicula—young, immature beans, string or wax, boiled in the shell or pod.

[2] conchiclam cum faba—young string beans and (dry, white or kidney) beans, cooked separately of course and mixed when done, ready for service.

[195] PEAS IN THE POD APICIAN STYLE CONCHICLAM APICIANAM

FOR PEAS IN THE POD [1] APICIAN STYLE TAKE: [2] A CLEAN EARTHEN POT IN WHICH TO COOK THE PEAS; TO THE PEAS ADD FINELY CUT LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, LITTLE PORK CAKES [3], PIECES OF MEAT [4] AND PORK SHOULDER [5]. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, DILL, DRY ONIONS [6] GREEN CORIANDER MOISTENED WITH BROTH, WINE, AND ADD [more] BROTH TO TASTE; UNITE THIS WITH THE PEAS IN THE EARTHEN POT TO WHICH ADD OIL IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY TO BE ABSORBED BY THE PEAS; FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE TO GIVE IT LIVE HEAT AND SERVE.

[1] Peas in the pod are likewise called conchicla; hence perhaps any legumes cooked in the shells.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] isiciola porcina.

[4] pulpas—in this case no specific meat.

[5] petaso; Dann. pieces of ham

[6] cepam siccam—ordinary dry onions, not shallots.

[196] SIMPLE DISH OF PEAS IN THE POD CONCHICLA DE PISA SIMPLICI [1]

COOK THE PEAS [in the pods] WHEN SKIMMED ADD A BUNCH [2] OF LEEKS AND GREEN CORIANDER. WHILE BEING COOKED CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, AND [the above] BUNCH [of herbs] [3] MOISTEN WITH ITS OWN JUICE, WINE [4] ENOUGH TO SUIT YOUR TASTE, THEN ADD OIL AND FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE [5].

[1] Thus G.-V.; Tor. Concicla Pisorum.

[2] Sch. feniculum instead of fasciculum.

[3] G.-V. de suo sibi fricabis; Tor. seorsim f.

[4] G.-V. wine wanting in Tor.

[5] Brandt, referring to {Rx} No. 154, suggests that the things crushed in a mortar be placed on top of the peas.

[197] PEAS IN THE POD A LA COMMODUS [1] CONCHICLA COMMODIANA

MAKE PEAS COMMODIAN STYLE THUS: [2] COOK THE PEAS, WHEN SKIMMED, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, DILL, SHALLOTS MOISTENED WITH BROTH; ADD WINE AND BROTH TO TASTE: STIR IN A SAUCE PAN [with the peas] TO COMBINE; FOR EACH SEXTARIUS OF PEAS BEAT 4 EGGS, AND COMBINE THEM WITH THE PEAS, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO THICKEN [avoiding ebullition] AND SERVE.

[1] Hum. Named for Commodus, the emperor; List. for Commodus Antonius, son of the philosopher Marcus.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[198] ANOTHER STYLE ALITER CONCHICLAM SIC FACIES [1]

CUT [raw] CHICKEN INTO SMALL PIECES, ADD BROTH, OIL AND WINE, AND STEW IT. CHOP ONIONS AND CORIANDER FINE AND ADD BRAINS [calf's or pork, parboiled] THE SKIN AND NERVES REMOVED, TO THE CHICKEN. WHEN THIS IS COOKED TAKE [the chicken] OUT AND BONE IT. THE PEAS COOK SEPARATELY, WITHOUT SEASONING, ONLY USING CHOPPED ONIONS AND CORIANDER AND THE BROTH OF THE CHICKEN; STRAIN [part of] THE PEAS AND ARRANGE THEM ALTERNATELY [in a dish with the pieces of chicken, brains and the unstrained peas] THEN CRUSH PEPPER AND CUMIN, MOISTENED WITH CHICKEN BROTH. IN THE MORTAR BEAT 2 EGGS WITH BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE CHICKEN AND PEAS, FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE [1], DISH OUT ON A HEAP OF PEAS, GARNISH WITH PINE NUTS AND SERVE.

[1] By congealing in a mould, which is unmoulded on a heap of peas. Danneil directs to stuff the whole chicken with the pea preparation, brains, etc., and to poach it in a square pan.

[199] STUFFED CHICKEN OR SUCKLING PIG CONCHICLATUS PULLUS VEL PORCELLUS [1]

BONE [either] CHICKEN [or suckling pig] FROM THE CHICKEN REMOVE THE BREAST BONE AND THE [upper joint bones of the] LEGS; HOLD IT TOGETHER BY MEANS OF WOODEN SKEWERS, AND MEANWHILE [2] PREPARE [the following dressing in this manner]: ALTERNATE [inside of the chicken or pig] PEAS WITH THE PODS [washed and cooked], BRAINS, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, ETC. NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND GINGER, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE AND WINE TO TASTE, MAKE IT BOIL, WHEN DONE, USE IT MODERATELY FOR SEASONING AND ALTERNATELY WITH THE OTHER DRESSING; WRAP [the chicken, or pig] IN CAUL, PLACE IT IN A BAKING DISH AND PUT IT IN THE OVEN TO BE COOKED SLOWLY, AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V., Tor. Concicla farsilis.

[2] Tor. here splits the formula, using the above title.



V

GRUELS TISANAM ET ALICAM [1]

[200] BARLEY BROTH ALICAM VEL SUCCUM TISANAE SIC FACIES [2]

CRUSH WELL WASHED BARLEY, SOAKED THE DAY BEFORE, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED. WHEN HOT ADD PLENTY OIL, A SMALL BUNCH OF DILL, DRY ONION, SATURY AND COLOCASIUM, TO BE COOKED TOGETHER BECAUSE THIS GIVES A BETTER JUICE; ADD GREEN CORIANDER AND A LITTLE SALT; BRING IT TO A BOILING POINT. WHEN WELL HEATED TAKE OUT THE BUNCH [dill] AND TRANSFER THE BARLEY INTO ANOTHER VESSEL TO AVOID BURNING ON THE BOTTOM OF THE POT; THIN IT OUT [with water, broth, milk] AND STRAIN INTO A POT, COVERING THE TIPS OF THE COLOCASIA [2]. NEXT CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE DRY FLEA-BANE, CUMIN AND SYLPHIUM, STIR WELL, ADD VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND BROTH; PUT IT BACK IN THE POT; THE REMAINING COLOCASIA FINISH ON A GENTLE FIRE.

[1] A repetition of Book IV, Chap. IV, Tisanam vel sucum, our {Rx} No. 172

[2] Tor. still has difficulties with the vegetable called by Lister colocasium. He reads here colonium and colosium. G.-V. col{oe}fium. Cf. Note 1 to {Rx} No. 172 and Note to Nos. 74, 216, 244 and 322.

[201] ANOTHER GRUEL ALITER TISANAM [1]

SOAK CHICK-PEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS, CRUSH BARLEY AND COOK WITH THE LEGUMES, WHEN WELL COOKED ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREENS, LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL, FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND GREEN AND VERY FINELY CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE CABBAGE COOK [separately; also] CRUSH FENNEL SEED, PLENTY OF IT, ORIGANY, SILPHIUM, AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN GROUND, ADD BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE PORRIDGE, STIR, AND USE SOME FINELY CHOPPED CABBAGE STEMS TO SPRINKLE ON TOP.

[1] A repetition of {Rx} No. 173.



VI

GREEN BEANS FABACIAE VIRIDES ET BAIANAE [1]

[202] GREEN BEANS FABACIAE VIRIDES

GREEN BEANS ARE COOKED IN BROTH, WITH OIL, GREEN CORIANDER, CUMIN AND CHOPPED LEEKS, AND SERVED.

[1] Beans grown in Baiae, also called bajanas or bacanas; beans without skin or pods.

[203] BEANS SAUTE ALITER: FABACIAE FRICTAE

FRIED BEANS ARE SERVED IN BROTH.

[204] MUSTARD BEANS ALITER: FABACIAE EX SINAPI

[The beans previously cooked are seasoned with] CRUSHED MUSTARD SEED, HONEY, NUTS, RUE, CUMIN, AND SERVED WITH VINEGAR.

[205] BAIAEAN BEANS BAIANAS [1]

COOKED BEANS FROM BAIAE ARE CUT FINE [and finished with] RUE, GREEN CELERY, LEEKS, VINEGAR [2] A LITTLE MUST OR RAISIN WINE AND SERVED [3].

[1] Named for Baiae, a town of Campania, noted for its warm baths; a favorite resort of the Romans.

[2] Wanting in Tor.

[3] These apparently outlandish ways of cooking beans compel us to draw a modern parallel in a cookery book, specializing in Jewish dishes. To prove that Apicius is not dead "by a long shot," we shall quote from Wolf, Rebekka: Kochbuch fuer Israelitische Frauen, Frankfurt, 1896, 11th edition. As a matter of fact, Rebekka Wolf is outdoing Apicius in strangeness—a case of Apicium in ipso Apicio, as Lister sarcastically remarks of Torinus.

Rebekka Wolf: {Rx} No. 211—wash and boil the young beans in fat bouillon (Apicius: oleum et liquamen) adding a handful of chopped pepperwort (A.: piper, ligusticum) and later chopped parsley (A.: petroselinum) some sugar (A.: mel pavo—little honey) and pepper. Beans later in the season are cooked with potatoes. The young beans are tied with flour dissolved in water, or with roux.

Id. ibid., {Rx} No. 212, Beans Sweet-Sour. Boil in water, fat, salt, add vinegar, sugar or syrup, "English aromatics" and spices, lemon peel, and a little pepper; bind with roux.

Id. ibid., {Rx} No. 213, Cut Pickled Beans (Schneidebohnen) prepare as {Rx} No. 212, but if you would have them more delicious, take instead of the roux grated chocolate, sugar, cinnamon, lemon peel and lemon juice, and some claret. If not sour enough, add vinegar, but right here you must add more fat; you may lay on top of this dish a bouquet of sliced apples.

Id. ibid., {Rx} No. 214, Beans and Pears. Take cut and pickled beans and prepare as above. To this add peeled fresh pears, cut into quarters; then sugar, lemon peel cut thin, cinnamon, "English" mixed spices, and at last the roux, thinned with broth. This dish must be sweet and very fat.

As for exotic combinations, Apicius surely survives here, is even surpassed by this Jewish cookery book where, no doubt, very ancient traditions have been stored away.



VII

[206] THE HERB FENUGREEK F{OE}NUM GRAECUM [1]

FENUGREEK [is prepared] IN BROTH, OIL AND WINE.

[1] Tor. or fenum; G.-V. Faenum.



VIII

[207] GREEN STRING BEANS AND CHICK-PEAS PHASEOLI [1] VIRIDES ET CICER

ARE SERVED WITH SALT, CUMIN, OIL, AND A LITTLE PURE WINE.

[1] Tor. Faseolus, the bean with a long, sabre-like pod; a phasel, kidney bean, when ripened.

[208] ANOTHER WAY ALITER FASEOLUS ET CICER

[Beans or chick-peas] ARE COOKED IN A WINE SAUCE AND SEASONED WITH PEPPER [1].

[1] Dann. and Goll.: "roasted" beans.

[209] BOILED, SUMPTUOUSLY ET ELIXATI, SUMPTO [1]

AND COOK THE BEANS, IN A RICH MANNER, REMOVE THE SEEDS AND SERVE [as a Salad [2]], WITH HARD EGGS, GREEN FENNEL, PEPPER, BROTH, A LITTLE REDUCED WINE AND A LITTLE SALT, OR SERVE THEM IN SIMPLER WAYS, AS YOU MAY SEE FIT.

[1] The original continues with the preceding formula.

[2] For a salad we would add finely chopped onion, pepper, and some lemon juice.

The purpose of removing the seeds is obscure. G.-V. reads semine cum ovis; Tac. semie; Hum. s. cum lobis. The passage may mean to sprinkle (sow) with hard boiled (and finely chopped) eggs, which is often done on a salad and other dishes.

END OF BOOK V

EXPLICIT APICII OSPRION LIBER QUINTUS [Tac.]



{Illustration: ADJUSTABLE TABLE

Polychrome marble in bronze frame. Four elaborately designed bronze legs, braced and hinged, so that the table may be raised or lowered. The legs end in claw feet resting on a molded base. Above they are encircled with leaves, from which emerge young satyrs, each holding a rabbit under the left arm. The legs below the acanthus leaves are ornamented with elaborate floral patterns, inlaid, with other inlaid patterns on the connecting braces and around the frame of the marble top. Bronze and marble tables that could be folded and taken down after banquets were used by the Babylonians centuries before this table was designed in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 72994; Field M. 24290.}



APICIUS

Book VI



{Illustration: THE GREAT CRATER

Found at Hildesheim in 1868. This and a number of other pieces form the collection known as The Hildesheim Treasure, now at the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin.

This wine crater is entirely of silver, a piece of supreme workmanship of Roman origin. Very delicate decoration, anticipating the Renaissance: Winged griffins and other monsters, half ox, half lion, at the base; aquatic animals, genii angling and spearing fish.

There is a second vessel inside, acting as a liner, to take the weight of the fluid off the decorated bowl. The complete weight is 9451.8 gr., but the inner liner is stamped CVM BASI PONDO XXXXI—41 pounds with the base. The weight of silver pieces was inscribed as a check on the slaves.

The bowl is 0.36 meter (about 14-1/4 inches) in height and 0.353 meter in diameter. It stands on the tripod which is depicted separately.}



{Illustration: THE DIONYSOS CUP

The Dionysos head in the center and the two satyrs are modeled realistically by a most able artist. Lion and lioness heads on the other side. Hildesheim Treasure.}



BOOK VI. FOWL

Lib. VI. Aeropetes [1]

CHAP. I. OSTRICH. CHAP. II. CRANE OR DUCK, PARTRIDGE, DOVES, WOOD PIGEON, SQUAB AND DIVERS BIRDS. CHAP. III. THRUSH [2]. CHAP. IV. FIGPECKER [2]. CHAP. V. PEACOCK [2]. CHAP. VI. PHEASANT [2]. CHAP. VII. GOOSE. CHAP. VIII. CHICKEN.

[1] Tac., Tor. Trophetes; probably an error in their rendering. List. Aeroptes, Greek for Fowl.

[2] The titles of these chapters and the classification is not adhered in the text of Book VI. The chapters are actually inscribed as follows:

Chap. I, Ostrich; II, Crane or Duck, Partridge, Turtle Dove, Wood Pigeon, Squab and divers birds; III, Partridge, Heathcock (Woodcock), Turtle Dove; IV, Wood Pigeon, Squab [Domestic Fattened Fowl, Flamingo]; V, Sauce for divers birds; VI, Flamingo; VII, In Order That Birds May Not Be Spoiled; VIII, Goose; IX, Chicken.



I

OSTRICH IN STRUTHIONE

[210] BOILED OSTRICH IN STRUTHIONE ELIXO

[A stock in which to cook ostrich] PEPPER, MINT, CUMIN, LEEKS [1], CELERY SEED, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL. BOIL THIS IN THE STOCK KETTLE [with the ostrich, remove the bird when done, strain the liquid] THICKEN WITH ROUX. [To this sauce] ADD THE OSTRICH MEAT CUT IN CONVENIENT PIECES, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER. IF YOU WISH IT MORE SEASONED OR TASTY, ADD GARLIC [during coction].

[1] G.-V. Cuminum; Tor. C., porrum, which is more likely.

[211] ANOTHER OSTRICH STEW ALITER [in] STRUTHIONE ELIXO

PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, ALSO SATURY, HONEY, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.



II

CRANE, DUCK, PARTRIDGE, DOVE, WOOD PIGEON, SQUAB, AND DIVERS BIRDS IN GRUE VEL ANATE PERDICE TURTURE PALUMBO COLUMBO ET DIVERSIS AVIBUS

[212] CRANE OR DUCK GRUEM VEL ANATEM

WASH [the fowl] AND DRESS IT NICELY [1] PUT IN A STEW POT, ADD WATER, SALT AND DILL, PARBOIL [2] SO AS TO HAVE THEM HALF DONE, UNTIL THE MEAT IS HARD, REMOVE THEM, PUT THEM IN A SAUCE PAN [to be finished by braising] WITH OIL, BROTH, A BUNCH OF ORIGANY AND CORIANDER; WHEN NEARLY DONE, ADD A LITTLE REDUCED MUST, TO GIVE IT COLOR. MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, RUE [moistened with] REDUCED WINE AND SOME HONEY, ADD SOME OF THE FOWL BROTH [3] TO IT AND VINEGAR TO TASTE; EMPTY [the sauce] INTO A SAUCE PAN, HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX, AND [strain] THE SAUCE OVER THE FOWL IN AN ENTREE DISH.

[1] Lavas et ornas, i.e., singe, empty carcass of intestines, truss or bind it to keep its shape during coction, and, usually, lard it with either strips or slices of fat pork and stuff the carcass with greens, celery leaves, etc.

[2] Dimidia coctura decoques. Apicius here pursues the right course for the removable of any disagreeable taste often adhering to aquatic fowl, feeding on fish or food found in the water, by parboiling the meat. Cf. {Rx} No. 214.

[3] Again, as so often: ius de suo sibi; here the liquor of the braising pan, for stock in which the fowl is parboiled cannot be used for reasons set forth in Note 2.

[213] ANOTHER WAY OF COOKING CRANE, DUCK OR CHICKEN ALITER IN GRUE [VEL] IN ANATE VEL IN PULLO

PEPPER, SHALLOTS, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, PRUNES OR DAMASCUS PLUMS STONES REMOVED, FRESH MUST, VINEGAR [1] BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL. BOIL THE CRANE; WHILE COOKING IT TAKE CARE THAT ITS HEAD IS NOT TOUCHED BY THE WATER BUT THAT IT REMAINS WITHOUT. WHEN THE CRANE IS DONE, WRAP IT IN A HOT TOWEL, AND PULL THE HEAD OFF SO THAT THE SINEWS FOLLOW IN A MANNER THAT THE MEAT AND THE BONES REMAIN; FOR ONE CANNOT ENJOY THE HARD SINEWS [2].

[1] Dann. mead.

[2] Remarkable ingenuity! Try this on your turkey legs. Danneil is of the opinion that the head and its feathers were to be saved for decorative purposes, in style during the middle ages when game bird patties were decorated with the fowl's plumage, a custom which survived to Danneil's time (ca. 1900). But this is not likely to be the case here, for it would be a simple matter to skin the bird before cooking it in order to save the plumage for the taxidermist.

[214] CRANE OR DUCK WITH TURNIPS GRUEM VEL ANATEM EX RAPIS [1]

TAKE OUT [remove entrails, [2]] CLEAN WASH AND DRESS [the bird] AND PARBOIL [2] IT IN WATER WITH SALT AND DILL. NEXT PREPARE TURNIPS AND COOK THEM IN WATER WHICH IS TO BE SQUEEZED OUT [3]. TAKE THEM OUT OF THE POT AND WASH THEM AGAIN [4]. AND PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN THE DUCK WITH OIL, BROTH, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER; THE TURNIPS CUT INTO SMALL PIECES; THESE PUT ON TOP OF THE [duck] IN ORDER TO FINISH COOKING. WHEN HALF DONE, TO GIVE IT COLOR, ADD REDUCED MUST. THE SAUCE IS PREPARED SEPARATELY: PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR AND DILUTED WITH ITS OWN BROTH [of the fowl]; BRING THIS TO A BOILING POINT, THICKEN WITH ROUX. [In a deep dish arrange the duck] ON TOP OF THE TURNIPS [strain the sauce over it] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Duck and Turnips, a dish much esteemed on the Continent today. Only few prepare it correctly as does Old Apicius; hence it is not popular with the multitude.

[2] Tac., Tor. excipies; Hum. legendum: ex rapis.

[3] G.-V. ut exbromari possint; Tor. expromi; Hum. expromari; all of which does not mean anything. To cook the turnips so that they can be squeezed out (exprimo, from ex and premo) is the proper thing to do from a culinary standpoint.

[4] The turnips are cooked half, the water removed, and finished with the duck, as prescribed by Apicius. It is really admirable to see how he handles these food materials in order to remove any disagreeable flavor, which may be the case both with the turnips (the small white variety) and the duck. Such careful treatment is little known nowadays even in the best kitchens. Cf. Note 2 to {Rx} No. 212.

[215] ANOTHER [SAUCE FOR] CRANE OR DUCK ALITER IN GRUEM VEL ANATEM ELIXAM

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DRY CORIANDER, MINT, ORIGANY, PINE NUTS, DATES, BROTH, OIL, HONEY, MUSTARD AND WINE [1].

[1] Supposedly the ingredients for a sauce in which the parboiled fowl is braised and served.

[216] ROAST CRANE OR DUCK ALITER GRUEM VEL ANATEM ASSAM

POUR OVER [the roast bird] THIS GRAVY: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY WITH BROTH, HONEY, A LITTLE VINEGAR AND OIL; BOIL IT WELL, THICKEN WITH ROUX [strain] IN THIS SAUCE PLACE SMALL PIECES OF PARBOILED PUMPKIN OR COLOCASIUM [1] SO THAT THEY ARE FINISHED IN THE SAUCE; ALSO COOK WITH IT CHICKEN FEET AND GIBLETS (all of which) SERVE IN A CHAFING DISH, SPRINKLE WITH FINE PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Cf. {Rx} Nos. 74, 216, 244, 322.

[217] BOILED CRANE OR DUCK IN ANOTHER MANNER ALITER IN GRUE VEL ANATE ELIXA

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, ROCKET, OR CORIANDER, MINT, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND MUSTARD. LIKEWISE USED FOR FOWL ROAST [braised] IN THE POT.



III

WAYS TO PREPARE PARTRIDGE, HEATH-COCK OR WOODCOCK, AND BOILED TURTLE-DOVE IN PERDICE ET ATTAGENA ET IN TURTURE ELIXIS

[218] PARTRIDGE IN PERDICE

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, MYRTLE BERRIES, ALSO RAISINS, HONEY [1] WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL. USE IT COLD [2] THE PARTRIDGE IS SCALDED WITH ITS FEATHERS, AND WHILE WET THE FEATHERS ARE TAKEN OFF; [the hair singed] IT IS THEN COOKED IN ITS OWN JUICE [braised] AND WHEN DONE WILL NOT BE HARD IF CARE IS TAKEN [to baste it]. SHOULD IT REMAIN HARD [if it is old] YOU MUST CONTINUE TO COOK IT UNTIL IT IS TENDER.

[1] Honey wanting in Tor.

[2] G.-V. Aliter. This is one formula.

[219] [SAUCE] FOR PARTRIDGE, HEATH-COCK AND TURTLE-DOVE IN PERDICE ET ATTAGENA ET IN TURTURE

PEPPER, LOVAGE, MINT, RUE SEED, BROTH, PURE WINE, AND OIL, HEATED.



IV

WOOD PIGEONS, SQUABS, FATTENED FOWL, FLAMINGO IN PALUMBIS COLUMBIS AVIBUS IN ALTILE ET IN FENICOPTERO

[220] FOR ROASTS: PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, CARRAWAY, SHALLOTS, MINT, YOLKS OF EGG, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL AND WINE.

[221] ANOTHER [sauce] FOR BOILED [birds] ALITER IN ELIXIS

TO THE BOILED FOWL ADD [1] PEPPER, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, PARSLEY, CONDIMENTS, MORTARIA [2] DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, OIL AND MUSTARD.

[1] Tor. wanting in other texts.

[2] Mortaria: herbs, spices, things pounded in the "mortar." Cf. {Rx} No. 38.

[222] ANOTHER [sauce] ALITER

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, CELERY SEED, RUE, PINE NUTS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD AND A LITTLE OIL.

[223] ANOTHER [sauce] ALITER

PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER, WINE [1] MOISTENED WITH BROTH. ADD WINE AND BROTH TO TASTE. MASK THE WOOD PIGEON OR SQUAB WITH IT. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2] AND SERVE.

[1] Tac., Tor. laserum, vinum; G.-V. l. vivum.

[2] Wanting in Tor.



V

[224] SAUCE FOR DIFFERENT BIRDS IUS IN DIVERSIS AVIBUS

PEPPER, DRY CUMIN, CRUSHED. LOVAGE, MINT, SEEDLESS RAISINS OR DAMASCUS PLUMS, LITTLE HONEY, MYRTLE WINE TO TASTE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL. HEAT AND WHIP IT WELL WITH CELERY AND SATURY [1].

[1] For centuries sauce whips were made of dry and green twigs, the bark of which was carefully peeled off.

[225] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR FOWL ALITER IUS IN AVIBUS

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, FENNEL BLOSSOMS [1] MOISTENED WITH WINE; ADD ROASTED NUTS FROM PONTUS [2] OR ALMONDS, A LITTLE HONEY, WINE, VINEGAR, AND BROTH TO TASTE. PUT OIL IN A POT, AND HEAT AND STIR THE SAUCE, ADDING GREEN CELERY SEED, CAT-MINT; CARVE THE FOWL AND COVER WITH THE SAUCE [3].

[1] Dann. Cnecus.

[2] Turkish hazelnuts.

[3] Tor. continuing without interruption.

[226] WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED FOWL IUS CANDIDUM IN AVEM ELIXAM

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, TOASTED NUTS FROM PONTUS, OR ALMONDS, ALSO SHELLED PINE NUTS, HONEY [1] A LITTLE BROTH, VINEGAR AND OIL.

[1] Tor. vel; List. mel.

[227] GREEN SAUCE FOR FOWL IUS VIRIDE IN AVIBUS

PEPPER, CARRAWAY, INDIAN SPIKENARD, CUMIN, BAY LEAVES, ALL KINDS OF GREEN HERBS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, LITTLE BROTH, AND OIL.

[228] WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED GOOSE IUS CANDIDUM IN ANSERE ELIXO

PEPPER, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, THYME, ONION, LASER ROOT, TOASTED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL [1]

[1] A "sweet-sour" white sauce with herbs and spices is often served with goose in northern Germany.

[229] TREATMENT OF STRONG SMELLING BIRDS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION AD AVES HIRCOSAS [1] OMNI GENERE

FOR BIRDS OF ALL KINDS THAT HAVE A GOATISH [1] SMELL [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, DRY MINT, SAGE, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED MUST, MUSTARD. THE BIRDS WILL BE MORE LUSCIOUS AND NUTRITIOUS, AND THE FAT PRESERVED, IF YOU ENVELOP THEM IN A DOUGH OF FLOUR AND OIL AND BAKE THEM IN THE OVEN [3].

[1] Probably game birds in an advanced stage of "haut gout" (as the Germans use the antiquated French term), or "mortification" as the French cook says. Possibly also such birds as crows, black birds, buzzards, etc., and fish-feeding fowl. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that the refrigeration facilities of the ancients were not too good and that fresh goods spoiled quickly. Hence, perhaps, excessive seasoning, at least, as compared to our modern methods.

List. aves piscivoras; Hum. thinks the birds to be downright spoiled: olidas, rancidas, & grave olentes.

[2] Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] For birds with a goatish smell Apicius should have repeated his excellent formula in {Rx} No. 212, the method of parboiling the birds before final coction, if, indeed, one cannot dispense with such birds altogether. The above recipe does not in the least indicate how to treat smelly birds. Wrapping them in dough would vastly increase the ill-savour.

As for game birds, we agree with most connoisseurs that they should have just a suspicion of "haut gout"—a condition of advanced mellowness after the rigor mortis has disappeared.

[230] ANOTHER TREATMENT OF ODOR ALIUD CONTRA UIROSUM ODOREM [1]

[IF THE BIRDS SMELL, [1]] STUFF THE INSIDE WITH CRUSHED FRESH OLIVES, SEW UP [the aperture] AND THUS COOK, THEN RETIRE THE COOKED OLIVES.

[1] Tor.; other texts aliter avem, i.e. that the olive treatment is not necessarily confined to ill smelling birds alone.



VI

[231] FOR FLAMINGO [and Parrot] IN PH{OE}NICOPTERO

SCALD [1] THE FLAMINGO, WASH AND DRESS IT, PUT IT IN A POT, ADD WATER, SALT, DILL, AND A LITTLE VINEGAR, TO BE PARBOILED. FINISH COOKING WITH A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER, AND ADD SOME REDUCED MUST TO GIVE IT COLOR. IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, MINT, RUE, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD DATES, AND THE FOND OF THE BRAISED BIRD, THICKEN, [strain] COVER THE BIRD WITH THE SAUCE AND SERVE. PARROT IS PREPARED IN THE SAME MANNER.

[1] Prior to removing the feathers; also singe the fine feathers and hair.

[232] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

ROAST THE BIRD. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, SESAM [1] PARSLEY, MINT, SHALLOTS, DATES, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR, OIL, REDUCED MUST TO TASTE.

[1] Tor. sesamum, defrutum; G.-V. s. frictum.



VII

[233] TO PREVENT BIRDS FROM SPOILING AVES OMNES NE LIQUESCANT

SCALDED WITH THE FEATHERS BIRDS WILL NOT ALWAYS BE JUICY; IT IS BETTER TO FIRST EMPTY THEM THROUGH THE NECK AND STEAM THEM SUSPENDED OVER A KETTLE WITH WATER [1].

[1] Dry picking is of course the best method. Apicius is trying to overcome the evils of scalding fowl with the feathers. This formula is mutilated; the various texts differ considerably.



VIII

[FOR GOOSE] [IN ANSERE]

[234] BOILED GOOSE WITH COLD APICIAN SAUCE ANSEREM ELIXUM EX IURE APICIANO FRIGIDO

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER SEED [1] MINT, RUE, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND A MODERATE AMOUNT OF OIL. TAKE THE COOKED GOOSE OUT OF THE POT AND WHILE HOT WIPE IT CLEAN WITH A TOWEL, POUR THE SAUCE OVER IT AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V.; Tor. (fresh) coriander, more suited for a cold sauce.



IX

[FOR CHICKEN] [IN PULLO]

[235] RAW SAUCE FOR BOILED CHICKEN IN PULLO ELIXO IUS CRUDUM

PUT IN THE MORTAR DILL SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, FIG WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE MUSTARD, OIL AND REDUCED MUST, AND SERVE [1] [Known as] DILL CHICKEN [2].

[1] This and the preceding cold dressings are more or less variations of our modern cold dressings that are used for cold dishes of all kinds, especially salads.

[2] Tor. heads the following formula praeparatio pulli anethi—chicken in dill sauce, which is the correct description of the above formula. Tac., G.-V. also commence the next with pullum anethatum, which is not correct, as the following recipe contains no dill.

[236] ANOTHER CHICKEN ALITER PULLUS [1]

A LITTLE HONEY IS MIXED WITH BROTH; THE COOKED [parboiled] CHICKEN IS CLEANED [skin taken off, sinews, etc., removed] THE CARCASS DRIED WITH A TOWEL, QUARTERED, THE PIECES IMMERSED IN BROTH [2] SO THAT THE SAVOUR PENETRATES THOROUGHLY. FRY THE PIECES [in the pan] POUR OVER THEIR OWN GRAVY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.

[1] Hum., List. cf. Note 2 to {Rx} No. 235.

[2] Marinated; but the nature of this marinade is not quite clear; a spicy marinade of wine and herbs and spices would be appropriate for certain game birds, but chicken ordinarily requires no marinade except some oil before frying. It is possible that Apicius left the cooked chicken in the broth to prevent it from drying out, which is good.

[237] CHICKEN PARTHIAN STYLE PULLUM PARTHICUM [1]

DRESS THE CHICKEN CAREFULLY [2] AND QUARTER IT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND A LITTLE CARRAWAY [3] MOISTENED WITH BROTH, AND ADD WINE TO TASTE. [After frying] PLACE THE CHICKEN IN AN EARTHEN DISH [4] POUR THE SEASONING OVER IT, ADD LASER AND WINE [5] LET IT ASSIMILATE WITH THE SEASONING AND BRAISE THE CHICKEN TO A POINT. WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Lister is of the opinion that the pullus Parthicus is a kind of chicken that came originally from Asia, Parthia being a country of Asia, the present Persia or northern India, a chicken of small size with feathers on its feet, i.e., a bantam.

[2] Pluck, singe, empty, wash, trim. The texts: a navi. Hum. hoc est, a parte posteriore ventris, qui ut navis cavus & figurae ejus non dissimile est. Dann. takes this literally, but navo (navus) here simply means "to perform diligently."

[3] Tor. casei modicum; List. carei—more likely than cheese.

[4] Cumana—an earthenware casserole, excellent for that purpose.

[5] G.-V. laser [et] vivum.

[238] CHICKEN SOUR PULLUM OXYZOMUM

A GOOD-SIZED GLASS OF OIL, A SMALLER GLASS OF BROTH, AND THE SMALLEST MEASURE OF VINEGAR, 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, PARSLEY AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS.

G.-V. [laseris] satis modice.

These directions are very vague. If the raw chicken is quartered, fried in the oil, and then braised in the broth with a dash of vinegar, the bunch of leeks and parsley, seasoned with pepper and a little salt, we have a dish gastronomically correct. The leeks may be served as a garnish, the gravy, properly reduced and strained over the chicken which like in the previous formula is served in a casserole.

[239] GUINEA HEN PULLUM NUMIDICUM

PREPARE [1] THE CHICKEN [as usual; par-] BOIL IT; CLEAN IT [2] SEASONED WITH LASER AND PEPPER, AND FRY [in the pan; next] CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, RUE, FIG DATES AND NUTS, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE [3] WHEN BOILING THICKEN WITH ROUX [strain] POUR OVER THE CHICKEN, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Curas.

[2] Remove skin, tissues, bones, etc., cut in pieces and marinate in the pickle.

[3] Immerse the chicken pieces in this sauce and braise them to a point.

[240] CHICKEN WITH LASER PULLUM LASERATUM

DRESS THE CHICKEN CAREFULLY [1] CLEAN, GARNISH [2] AND PLACE IN AN EARTHEN CASSEROLE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER MOISTENED WITH WINE [3] ADD BROTH AND WINE TO TASTE, AND PUT THIS ON THE FIRE; WHEN DONE SERVE WITH PEPPER SPRINKLED OVER.

[1] a navi. cf. Note 2 to {Rx} No. 237.

[2] G.-V. lavabis, ornabis, with vegetables, etc.

[3] G.-V. laser vivum.

[241] ROAST CHICKEN PULLUM PAROPTUM

A LITTLE LASER, 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, A GLASS OF OIL, A GLASS OF BROTH, AND A LITTLE PARSLEY.

[1] Paropsis, parapsis, from the Greek, a platter, dish.

A most incomplete formula. It does not state whether the ingredients are to be added to the sauce or the dressing. We have an idea that the chicken is pickled in this solution before roasting and that the pickle is used in making the gravy.

[242] BOILED CHICKEN IN ITS OWN BROTH PULLUM ELIXUM EX IURE SUO

CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, A LITTLE THYME, FENNEL SEED, MINT, RUE, LASER ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, ADD FIG DATES [1] WORK WELL AND MAKE IT SAVORY WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE: THE BOILED CHICKEN PROPERLY CLEANED AND DRIED [with the towel] IS MASKED WITH THIS SAUCE [2].

[1] Goll. cloves—cariophyllus; the originals have caryotam and careotam.

[2] Apparently another cold sauce of the vinaigrette type similar to {Rx} No. 235.

[243] CHICKEN AND PUMPKIN PULLUM ELIXUM CUM CUCURBITIS ELIXIS

TO THE ABOVE DESCRIBED DRESSING ADD MUSTARD, POUR OVER [1] AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. Perfundes; Tor. piper fundes.

The pumpkin, not mentioned here, is likewise served cold boiled, seasoned with the same dressing. It is perhaps used for stuffing the chicken and cooked simultaneously with the same.

[244] CHICKEN AND DASHEENS [1] PULLUM ELIXUM CUM COLOCASIIS ELIXIS

THE ABOVE SAUCE IS ALSO USED FOR THIS DISH. STUFF THE CHICKEN WITH [peeled] DASHEENS AND [stoned] GREEN OLIVES, THOUGH NOT TOO MUCH SO THAT THE DRESSING MAY HAVE ROOM FOR EXPANSION, TO PREVENT BURSTING WHILE THE CHICKEN IS BEING COOKED IN THE POT. HOLD IT DOWN WITH A SMALL BASKET, LIFT IT UP FREQUENTLY [2] AND HANDLE CAREFULLY SO THAT THE CHICKEN DOES NOT BURST [3].

[1] Dasheens are the equivalent of the ancient colocasium; at least they are very close relatives. Cf. Notes to {Rx} Nos. 74, 216, 244, 322.

[2] For inspection. G.-V. levas; Tor. lavabis, for which there is no reason.

[3] Dann. and Goll., not knowing the colocasium or dasheen have entirely erroneous versions of this formula. The dasheen is well adapted for the stuffing of fowl. Ordinarily the dasheen is boiled or steamed, mashed, seasoned and then stuffed inside of a raw chicken which is then roasted. Being very starchy, the dasheen readily absorbs the fats and juices of the roast, making a delicious dressing, akin in taste to a combined potato and chestnut puree.

As the above chicken is cooked in bouillon or water, the dasheen may be used in a raw state for filling. We have tried this method. Instead of confining the chicken in a basket, we have tied it in a napkin and boiled slowly until done. Serve cold, with the above dressing.

[245] CHICKEN A LA VARUS [1] PULLUS VARDANUS

COOK THE CHICKEN IN THIS STOCK: BROTH, OIL, WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEKS, CORIANDER, SATURY; WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, NUTS WITH 2 GLASSES OF WATER [2] AND THE JUICE OF THE CHICKEN. RETIRE THE BUNCHES OF GREENS, ADD MILK TO TASTE. THE THINGS CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR ADD TO THE CHICKEN AND COOK IT TOGETHER: THICKEN THE SAUCE WITH BEATEN WHITES OF EGG [3] AND POUR THE SAUCE OVER THE CHICKEN. THIS IS CALLED "WHITE SAUCE."

[1] G.-V. Vardanus; Tor. Vardamus; Hum. Vardanus legendum, puto, Varianus, portentuosae luxuriae Imperator. Hum. thinks the dish is dedicated to emperor Varianus (?) The word may also be the adjective of Varus, Quintilius V., commander of colonial armies and glutton, under Augustus. Varus committed suicide after his defeat in the Teutoburg Forest by the Germans.

[2] G.-V. broth, own stock—ius de suo sibi.

[3] Strain, avoid ebullition after the eggs have been added. Most unusual liaison; usually the yolks are used for this purpose. The whites are consistent with the name of the sauce.

[246] CHICKEN A LA FRONTO [1] PULLUM FRONTONIANUM

A HALF-COOKED CHICKEN MARINADED IN A PICKLE OF BROTH, MIXED WITH OIL, TO WHICH IS ADDED A BUNCH OF DILL, LEEKS, SATURY AND GREEN CORIANDER. FINISH IT IN THIS BROTH. WHEN DONE, TAKE THE CHICKEN OUT [2] DRESS IT NICELY ON A DISH, POUR OVER THE [sauce, colored with] REDUCED MUST, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Named for a Roman by the name of Fronto. There is a sucking pig a la Fronto, too. Cf. {Rx} No. 374. M. Cornelius Fronto was orator and author during the reign of Emperor Hadrian. According to Dann. a certain Frontone under Emperor Severus.

[2] List., G.-V. levabis; Tor. lavabis, for which there is little or no occasion. He may mean to clean, i.e. remove skin, tissues, sinews, small bones, etc.

[247] CREAMED CHICKEN WITH PASTE [1] PULLUS TRACTOGALATUS [2]

COOK THE CHICKEN [as follows, in] BROTH, OIL, WITH WINE ADDED, TO WHICH ADD A BUNCH OF CORIANDER AND [green] ONIONS. WHEN DONE TAKE IT OUT [3] [strain and save] THE BROTH, AND PUT IT IN A NEW SAUCE PAN, ADD MILK AND A LITTLE SALT, HONEY AND A PINT [4] OF WATER, THAT IS, A THIRD PART: PLACE IT BACK ON A SLOW FIRE TO SIMMER. FINALLY BREAK [the paste, [1]] PUT IT LITTLE BY LITTLE INTO [the boiling broth] STIRRING WELL SO IT WILL NOT BURN. PUT THE CHICKEN IN, EITHER WHOLE OR IN PIECES [5] DISH IT OUT IN A DEEP DISH. THIS COVER WITH THE FOLLOWING SAUCE [6] PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTENED WITH HONEY AND A LITTLE REDUCED MUST. ADD SOME OF THE [chicken] BROTH, HEAT IN A SMALL SAUCE PAN AND WHEN IT BOILS THICKEN WITH ROUX [7] AND SERVE.

[1] Spaetzle, noodles, macaroni; this dish is the ancient "Chicken Tetrazzini." Dann. Chicken pie or patty.

[2] tractum and gala, prepared with paste and milk. Cf. tractomelitus, from tractum and meli, paste and honey.

[3] Cf. Note 2 to {Rx} Nos. 244 and 246.

[4] List. minimum; Tor. heminam; Sch. eminam. See Measures. The noodle paste should be cooked separately in the water.

[5] List. vel carptum, which is correct. Tor. vel careotam, out of place here.

[6] This sauce seems to be superfluous. Very likely it is a separate formula for a sauce of some kind.

[7] Seems superfluous, too. The noodle paste in the chicken gravy makes it sufficiently thick.

[248] STUFFED CHICKEN [OR PIG] PULLUS FARSILIS [1]

EMPTY THE CHICKEN THROUGH THE APERTURE OF THE NECK SO THAT NONE OF THE ENTRAILS REMAIN. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, CUT MEAT [2] COOKED SPELT, BESIDES CRUSH BRAINS COOKED IN THE [chicken] BROTH, BREAK EGGS AND MIX ALL TOGETHER IN ORDER TO MAKE A SOLID DRESSING; ADD BROTH TO TASTE AND A LITTLE OIL, WHOLE PEPPER, PLENTY OF NUTS. WITH THIS DRESSING STUFF EITHER A CHICKEN OR A SUCKLING PIG, LEAVING ENOUGH ROOM FOR EXPANSION [3].

[1] Tor. fusilis.

[2] Preferably raw pork or veal.

[3] A most sumptuous dressing; it compares favorably with our popular stale bread pap usually called "chicken dressing."

[249] STUFFED CAPON LIKEWISE SIMILITER IN CAPO FACIES [1]

THE CAPON IS STUFFED IN A SIMILAR WAY BUT IS COOKED WITH ALL THE BONES REMOVED [2].

[1] Sch. in capso. May be interpreted thus: Cooked in an envelope of caul or linen, in which case it would correspond to our modern galantine of chicken.

[2] Tor. ossibus eiectis; Hum. omnibus e.; i.e. all the entrails, etc., which is not correct. The bones must be removed from the capon in this case.

[250] CHICKEN AND CREAM SAUCE [1] PULLUS LEUCOZOMUS [2]

TAKE A CHICKEN AND PREPARE IT AS ABOVE. EMPTY IT THROUGH THE APERTURE OF THE NECK SO THAT NONE OF THE ENTRAILS REMAIN. TAKE [a little] WATER [3] AND PLENTY OF SPANISH OIL, STIR, COOK TOGETHER UNTIL ALL MOISTURE IS EVAPORATED [4] WHEN THIS IS DONE TAKE THE CHICKEN OUT, SO THAT THE GREATEST POSSIBLE AMOUNT OF OIL REMAINS BEHIND [5] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [6].

[1] The ancient version of Chicken a la Maryland, Wiener Backhaehndl, etc.

[2] Tor. Leocozymus; from the Greek leucozomos, prepared with white sauce. The formula for the cream sauce is lacking here. Cf. {Rx} No. 245.

[3] The use of water to clarify the oil which is to serve as a deep frying fat is an ingenious idea, little practised today. It surely saves the fat or oil, prevents premature burning or blackening by frequent use, and gives a better tasting friture. The above recipe is a mere fragment, but even this reveals the extraordinary knowledge of culinary principles of Apicius who reveals himself to us as a master of well-understood principles of good cookery that are so often ignored today. Cf. Note 5 to {Rx} No. 497.

[4] The recipe fails to state that the chicken must be breaded, or that the pieces of chicken be turned in flour, etc., and fried in the oil.

[5] Another vital rule of deep fat frying not stated, or rather stated in the language of the kitchen, namely that the chicken must be crisp, dry, that is, not saturated with oil, which of course every good fry cook knows.

[6] With the cream sauce, prepared separately, spread on the platter, with the fried chicken inside, or the sauce in a separate dish, we have here a very close resemblance to a very popular modern dish.

(Schuch and Danneil insert here Excerpta XXIX, XXX and XXXI.)

END OF BOOK VI

[explicit] TROPHETES APICII. LIBER SEXTUS [Tac.]



{Illustration: FRYING PAN, ROUND

Provided with a lip to pour out fluids, a convenience which many modern pans lack. The broad flat handle is of one piece with the pan and has a hole for suspension. On some ancient pans these handles were hinged so as to fold over the cavity of the pan, to save room in storing it away, particularly in a soldier's knapsack. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 76571; Field M. 24024.}



{Illustration: FRONTISPICE, SECOND LISTER EDITION

purporting to represent the interior of an ancient kitchen. J. G{oe}ree, the artist and engraver, has invented it. The general tidiness differs from contemporary Dutch kitchens and the clothing of the cooks reminds one of Henry VIII, who issued at Eltham in 1526 this order: "... provide and sufficiently furnish the kitchens of such scolyons as shall not goe naked or in garments of such vilenesse as they doe ... nor lie in the nights and dayes in the kitchens ... by the fire-side...."—MS. No. 642, Harleian Library.}



APICIUS

Book VII



{Illustration: THE GREAT PALLAS ATHENE DISH

One of the finest show platters in existence. Of Hellenic make. The object in the right hand of Athene has created considerable conjecture but has never been identified.

Hildesheim Treasure.}



{Illustration: FRYING PAN, OVAL

This oblong pan was no doubt primarily used in fish cookery. An oblong piece of food material fitted snugly into the pan, thus saving fats and other liquids in preparation. Around the slender handle was no doubt one of non-heat-conducting material. The shape and the lip of the pan indicate that it was not used for "sauter." Ntl. Mus., Naples, 76602; Field M. 24038.}



BOOK VII. SUMPTUOUS DISHES

Lib. VII. Polyteles

CHAP. I. SOW'S WOMB, CRACKLINGS, BACON, TENDERLOIN, TAILS AND FEET. CHAP. II. SOW'S BELLY. CHAP. III. FIG-FED PORK. CHAP. IV. TID-BITS, CHOPS, STEAKS. CHAP. V. ROASTS. CHAP. VI. BOILED AND STEWED MEATS. CHAP. VII. PAUNCH. CHAP. VIII. LOINS AND KIDNEYS. CHAP. IX. PORK SHOULDER. CHAP. X. LIVERS AND LUNGS. CHAP. XI. HOME-MADE SWEETS. CHAP. XII. BULBS, TUBERS. CHAP. XIII. MUSHROOMS. CHAP. XIV. TRUFFLES. CHAP. XV. TAROS, DASHEENS. CHAP. XVI. SNAILS. CHAP. XVII. EGGS.

[In addition to the above chapters two more are inserted in the text of Book VII, namely Chap. X, Fresh Ham and Chap. XI, To Cook Salt Pork; these being inserted after Chap. IX, Pork Shoulder, making a total of XIX Chapters.]



I

SOW'S WOMB, CRACKLINGS, UDDER, TENDERLOIN, TAILS AND FEET VULVAE STERILES, CALLUM LUMBELLI COTICULAE ET UNGELLAE

[251] SPAYED SOW'S WOMB [1] VULVAE STERILES

STERILE SOW'S WOMB (ALSO UDDER AND BELLY) IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER: TAKE [2] LASER FROM CYRENE OR PARTHIA, VINEGAR AND BROTH.

[1] The vulva of a sow was a favorite dish with the ancients, considered a great delicacy. Sows were slaughtered before they had a litter, or were spayed for the purpose of obtaining the sterile womb.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[252] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

TAKE PEPPER, CELERY SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.

[253] SPAYED SOW'S WOMB VULVAE STERILES

WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND PARTHIAN LASER.

[254] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE [1] AND BROTH AND A LITTLE CONDIMENT.

[1] Wanting in Lister.

[255] CRACKLINGS, PORK SKIN, TENDERLOIN, TAILS AND FEET CALLUM, LUMBELLI [1] COTICULAE, UNGELLAE

SERVE WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND LASER (WHICH THE GREEKS CALL "SILPHION") [2].

[1] Tor., G.-V. libelli.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[256] GRILLED SOW'S WOMB VULVAM UT TOSTAM FACIAS

ENVELOPE IN BRAN, AFTERWARDS [1] PUT IN BRINE AND THEN COOK IT.

[1] We would reverse the process: first pickle the vulva, then coat it with bran (or with bread crumbs) and fry.



II

[257] SOW'S BELLY SUMEN

SOW'S UDDER OR BELLY WITH THE PAPS ON IT IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER [1] THE BELLY BOIL, TIE IT TOGETHER WITH REEDS, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND PLACE IT IN THE OVEN, OR, START ROASTING ON THE GRIDIRON. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, WITH BROTH, PURE WINE, ADDING RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, THICKEN [the sauce] WITH ROUX AND POUR IT OVER THE ROAST.

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[258] STUFFED SOW'S BELLY SUMEN PLENUM

FULL [1] SOW'S BELLY IS STUFFED WITH [2] CRUSHED PEPPER, CARRAWAY, SALT MUSSELS; SEW THE BELLY TIGHT AND ROAST. ENJOY THIS WITH A BRINE SAUCE AND MUSTARD.

[1] Full grown, also stuffed with forcemeat.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.



III

FIG-FED PORK FICATUM [1]

[1] Tor. De Sycoto, id est, Ficato.

[259] WINE SAUCE FOR FIG-FED PORK IN FICATO {OE}NOGARUM [1]

FIG-FED PORK LIVER (THAT IS, LIVER CRAMMED WITH FIGS) IS PREPARED IN A WINE SAUCE WITH [2] PEPPER, THYME, LOVAGE, BROTH, A LITTLE WINE AND OIL [3].

[1] Tor. Ficatum, iecur suillum.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[3] Reinsenius, ficatum [or sicatum] projecore.

According to the invention of Marcus Apicius, pigs were starved, and the hungry pigs were crammed with dry figs and then suddenly given all the mead they wanted to drink. The violent expansion of the figs in the stomachs, or the fermentation caused acute indigestion which killed the pigs. The livers were very much enlarged, similar to the cramming of geese for the sake of obtaining abnormally large livers. This latter method prevailed in the Strassburg District until recently when it was prohibited by law.

[260] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

TRIM [the liver] MARINATE IN BROTH, WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, TWO LAUREL BERRIES, WRAP IN CAUL, GRILL ON THE GRIDIRON AND SERVE.

Goll. Stick figs into the liver by making apertures with the knife or with a needle.

It is by no means clear that the liver is meant.



IV

TID-BITS, CHOPS, CUTLETS OFFELLAE [1]

[261] OSTIAN [2] MEAT BALLS OFFELLAE OSTIENSES

PREPARE THE MEAT IN THIS MANNER [3] CLEAN THE MEAT [of bones, sinews, etc.] SCRAPE IT AS THIN AS A SKIN [and shape it]. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CARRAWAY, SILPHIUM, ONE LAUREL BERRY, MOISTENED WITH BROTH; IN A SQUARE DISH PLACE THE MEAT BALLS AND THE SPICES WHERE THEY REMAIN IN PICKLING FOR TWO OR THREE DAYS, COVERED CROSSWISE WITH TWIGS. THEN PLACE THEM IN THE OVEN [to be roasted], WHEN DONE TAKE THE FINISHED MEAT BALLS OUT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, WITH THE BROTH, ADD A LITTLE RAISIN WINE TO SWEETEN. COOK IT, THICKEN WITH ROUX, IMMERSE THE BALLS IN THE SAUCE AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. Ofellae; apparently the old Roman "Hamburger Steak." The term covers different small meat pieces, chops, steaks, etc.

[2] Ostia, town at the mouth of the river Tiber, Rome's harbour.

[3] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[262] APICIAN ROULADES OFFELLAS APICIANAS

BONE THE MEAT FOR THE [roulades—a pork loin, roll it, tie it] OVEN, SHAPE ROUND, COVER WITH OR WRAP IN RUSHES. [Roast] WHEN DONE, RETIRE, ALLOW TO DRIP AND DRY ON THE GRIDIRON BUT SO THAT THE MEAT DOES NOT HARDEN. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUSH [1], CUMIN, ADDING BROTH AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. PLACE THE ROULADES WITH THIS SAUCE TOGETHER IN A SAUCE PAN [finish by braising] WHEN DONE, RETIRE THE ROULADES AND DRY THEM. SERVE WITHOUT THE GRAVY SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER. IF TOO FAT REMOVE THE OUTER SKIN [2].

[1] Cyperis, —os, —um, cypirus, variants for a sort of rush; probably "Cyprian Grass."

[2] Dann. Dumplings; but this formula appears to deal with boneless pork chops, pork roulades or "filets mignons."

[263] PORK CUTLETS, HUNTER STYLE OFFELLAE APRUGNEO [1] MORE

IN THE SAME MANNER YOU CAN MAKE TIDBITS OF SOW'S BELLY [2] PORK CHOPS PREPARED IN A MANNER TO RESEMBLE WILD BOAR ARE [3] PICKLED IN OIL AND BROTH AND PLACED IN SPICES. WHEN THE CUTLETS ARE DONE [marinated] THE PICKLE IS PLACED ON THE FIRE AND BOILED; THE CUTLETS ARE PUT BACK INTO THIS GRAVY AND ARE FINISHED WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, SPICES, HONEY, BROTH, AND ROUX. WHEN THIS IS DONE SERVE THE CUTLETS WITHOUT THE BROTH AND OIL, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER.

[1] G.-V. Aprugineo; List. Offellae Aprugneae, i.e. wild boar chops or cutlets. Vat. Ms. aprogneo more; Tor. pro genuino more; Tac. aprogeneo—from aprugnus, wild boar.

Mutton today is prepared in a similar way, marinated with spices, etc., to resemble venison, and is called Mouton a la Chasseur, hunter style.

[2] This sentence, probably belonging to the preceding formula, carried over by Torinus.

[3] This sentence only in Torinus.

[264] TIDBITS ANOTHER WAY ALITER OFFELLAE

THE BALLS OR CUTLETS ARE [1] PROPERLY FRIED IN THE PAN, NEARLY DONE. [Next prepare the following] ONE WHOLE [2] GLASS BROTH, A GLASS OF WATER, A GLASS OF VINEGAR AND A GLASS OF OIL, PROPERLY MIXED; PUT THIS IN AN EARTHEN BAKING DISH [immerse meat pieces] FINISH ON THE FIRE AND SERVE.

[1] Tor.

[2] Tor. Summi; List. sumis, i.e. broth of the pork.

[265] TIDBITS IN ANOTHER STYLE ALITER OFFELLAS

ALSO FRY THE CUTLETS THIS WAY: [1] IN A PAN WITH PLENTY OF WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE. [ANOTHER WAY] [2] THE CUTLETS PREVIOUSLY SALT AND PICKLED IN A BROTH OF CUMIN, ARE PROPERLY FRIED [3].

[1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[2] The texts have two formulae; by the transposition of the two sentences the formula appears as a whole and one that is intelligible from a culinary point of view.

[3] The texts have: in aqua recte friguntur; the acqua presumably belongs to the cumin pickle. To fry in water is not possible.



V

CHOICE ROASTS [1] ASSATURAE

[266] ROASTING, PLAIN ASSATURAM SIMPLICEM [2]

SIMPLY PUT THE MEATS TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN, GENEROUSLY SPRINKLED WITH SALT, AND SERVE [it glazed] WITH HONEY [3].

[1] Tor. De assaturae exquisitae apparatu.

[2] Brandt adds "plain."

[3] Corresponding to our present method of roasting; fresh and processed ham is glazed with sugar.

Roasting in the oven is not as desirable as roasting on the spit, universally practised during the middle ages. The spit seems to have been unknown to the Romans. It is seldom used today, although we have improved it by turning it with electrical machinery.

[267] ANOTHER STYLE FOR ROASTS ALITER ASSATURAS

TAKE 6 SCRUPLES OF PARSLEY, OF LASER [1] JUST AS MANY, 6 OF GINGER, 5 LAUREL BERRIES, 6 SCRUPLES OF PRESERVED LASER ROOT, CYPRIAN RUSH 6, 6 OF ORIGANY, A LITTLE COSTMARY, 3 SCRUPLES OF CHAMOMILE [or pellitory], 6 SCRUPLES OF CELERY SEED, 12 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, AND BROTH AND OIL AS MUCH AS IT WILL TAKE UP [2].

[1] G.-V. asareos [?] Asarum, the herb foalbit, wild spikenard.

[2] No directions are given for the making of this compound which are essential to insure success of this formula. Outwardly it resembles some of the commercial sauces made principally in England (Worcestershire, etc.), which are served with every roast.

[268] ANOTHER [Condiment for] ROAST ALITER ASSATURAS

CRUSH DRY MYRTLE BERRIES WITH CUMIN AND PEPPER, ADDING HONEY ALSO BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL. HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX. POUR THIS OVER THE ROAST THAT IS MEDIUM DONE, WITH SALT; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[269] ANOTHER ROAST [Sauce] ALITER ASSATURAS

6 SCRUPLES PEPPER, 6 SCRUPLES LOVAGE, 6 SCRUPLES PARSLEY, 6 SCRUPLES CELERY SEED, 6 SCRUPLES DILL, 6 SCRUPLES LASER ROOT, 6 SCRUPLES WILD SPIKENARD [1], 6 SCRUPLES CYPRIAN RUSH, 6 SCRUPLES CARRAWAY, 6 SCRUPLES CUMIN, 6 SCRUPLES GINGER, A PINT OF BROTH AND A SPOONFUL OIL.

[1] Tor. assareos; cf. note 1 to {Rx} No. 267.

[270] ROAST NECK [1] ASSATURAS IN COLLARI

PUT IN A BRAISIERE [2] AND BOIL PEPPER, SPICES, HONEY, BROTH; AND HEAT THIS WITH THE MEAT IN THE OVEN. THE NECK PIECE ITSELF, IF YOU LIKE, IS ALSO ROASTED WITH SPICES AND THE HOT GRAVY IS SIMPLY POURED OVER AT THE MOMENT OF SERVING [3].

[1] A piece of meat from the neck of a food animal, beef, veal, pork; a muscular hard piece, requiring much care to make it palatable, a "pot roast."

[2] A roasting pan especially adapted for braising tough meats, with closefitting cover to hold the vapors.

[3] Tor. combines this and the foregoing formula. G.-V. siccum calidum, for hot gravy. Perhaps a typographical error for succum.



VI

BOILED, STEWED MEATS, AND DAINTY FOOD IN ELIXAM ET COPADIA

[271] SAUCE FOR ALL BOILED DISHES JUS IN ELIXAM OMNEM

PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, RUE, SILPHIUM, DRY ONION, WINE, REDUCED WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, A LITTLE OIL, BOILED DOWN, STRAINED THROUGH A CLOTH AND POURED UNDER THE HOT COOKED MEATS [1].

[1] A very complicated sauce for boiled viands. Most of the ingredients are found in the Worcestershire Sauce.

[272] SAUCE FOR BOILED VIANDS JUS IN ELIXAM

MAKE IT THUS: [Tor.] PEPPER, PARSLEY, BROTH, VINEGAR, FIG-DATES, ONIONS, LITTLE OIL, POURED UNDER VERY HOT.

[273] ANOTHER JUS IN ELIXAM

CRUSH PEPPER, DRY RUE, FENNEL SEED, ONION, FIGDATES, WITH BROTH AND OIL.

[274] WHITE [bread] [1] SAUCE FOR BOILED VIANDS JUS CANDIDUM IN ELIXAM

WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED DISHES IS MADE THUS: [2] PEPPER, BROTH, WINE, RUE, ONIONS, NUTS, A LITTLE SPICE, BREAD SOAKED TO THE SATURATION POINT, OIL, WHICH IS COOKED AND SPREAD UNDER [the meat].

[1] Our present bread sauce, somewhat simpler, but essentially the same as the Apician sauce, is very popular with roast partridge, pheasant and other game in England.

[2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

[275] ANOTHER WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED VIANDS ALITER JUS CANDIDUM IN ELIXAM

ANOTHER WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED DISHES CONTAINS: [1] PEPPER, CARRAWAY, LOVAGE, THYME, ORIGANY, SHALLOTS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.

[276] WHITE SAUCE FOR DAINTY FOOD IN COPADIIS [1] JUS ALBUM

TAKE CUMIN, LOVAGE, RUE SEED, PLUMS FROM DAMASCUS [2] SOAK IN WINE, ADD HONEY MEAD AND VINEGAR, THYME AND ORIGANY TO TASTE [3].

[1] Lacking definite description of the copadia it is hard to differentiate between them and the offelae.—Cupedia (Plaut. and Goll.), nice dainty dishes, from cupiditas, appetite, desire for dainty fare. Hence cupedinarius (Terent.) and cupediarius (Lamprid.) a seller or maker of dainties, a confectioner.

[2] Damascena; they correspond apparently to our present stewed (dried) prunes. It is inconceivable how this sauce can be white in color, but, as a condiment and if taken in small quantity, it has our full approval.

[3] G.-V. agitabis, i.e. stir the sauce with a whip of thyme and origany twigs. Cf. note to following.

[277] ANOTHER WHITE SAUCE FOR APPETIZERS ALITER JUS CANDIDUM IN COPADIIS

IS MADE THUS [1] PEPPER, THYME, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, FENNEL, RUE, MINT [2], MYRTLE BERRIES, RAISINS, RAISIN WINE, AND MEAD TO TASTE; STIR IT WITH A TWIG OF SATURY [3].

[1] Tor.

[2] G.-V., rue wanting.

[3] An ingenious way to impart a very subtle flavor. The sporadic discoveries of such very subtle and refined methods (cf. notes to {Rx} No. 15) should dispell once and for all time the old theories that the ancients were using spices to excess. They simply used a greater variety of flavors and aromas than we do today, but there is no proof that spices were used excessively. The great variety of flavors at the disposal of the ancients speaks well for the refinement of the olfactory sense and the desire to bring variety into their fare. Cf. {Rx} Nos. 345, 369 and 385.

[278] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS JUS IN COPADIIS

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, MINT, LEAVES OF SPIKENARD (WHICH THE GREEKS CALL "NARDOSACHIOM") [sic!] [1] YOLKS, HONEY, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL. STIR WELL WITH SATURY AND LEEKS [2] AND TIE WITH ROUX.

[1] Tor. [sic!] spicam nardi—sentence wanting in other texts. G.-V. nardostachyum, spikenard.

[2] A fagot of satury and leeks! Cf. notes to {Rx} Nos. 276 and 277.

[279] WHITE SAUCE FOR TIDBITS JUS ALBUM IN COPADIIS

IS MADE THUS: [1] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, THYME, NUTS, WHICH SOAK AND CLEAN, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL TO BE ADDED [2].

[1, 2] First three and last three words in Tor.

[280] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS JUS IN COPADIIS

PEPPER, CELERY SEED, CARRAWAY, SATURY, SAFFRON, SHALLOTS, TOASTED ALMONDS, FIGDATES, BROTH, OIL AND A LITTLE MUSTARD; COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST.

[281] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS JUS IN COPADIIS

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, SHALLOTS, TOASTED ALMONDS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL.

[282] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS JUS IN COPADIIS

CHOP HARD EGGS, PEPPER, CUMIN, PARSLEY, COOKED LEEKS, MYRTLE BERRIES, SOMEWHAT MORE HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.

[283] RAW DILL SAUCE FOR BOILED DISH IN ELIXAM ANETHATUM CRUDUM

PEPPER, DILL SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, POUR UNDER: VINEGAR, DATE WINE, HONEY, BROTH, AND A LITTLE MUSTARD, REDUCED MUST AND OIL TO TASTE; AND SERVE IT WITH ROAST PORK SHOULDER.

[284] BRINY SAUCE FOR BOILED DISH JUS IN ELIXAM ALLECATUM

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, THYME, SHALLOTS, DATES, FISH BRINE [1] STRAINED HONEY, AND WINE TO TASTE; SPRINKLE WITH CHOPPED GREEN CELERY AND OIL AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. allecem; Tor. Halecem.



VII

PAUNCH VENTRICULA

[285] PIG'S PAUNCH VENTREM PORCINUM

CLEAN THE PAUNCH OF A SUCKLING PIG WELL WITH SALT AND VINEGAR AND PRESENTLY WASH WITH WATER. THEN FILL IT WITH THE FOLLOWING DRESSING: PIECES OF PORK POUNDED IN THE MORTAR, THREE BRAINS—THE NERVES REMOVED—MIX WITH RAW EGGS, ADD NUTS, WHOLE PEPPER, AND SAUCE TO TASTE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SILPHIUM, ANISE, GINGER, A LITTLE RUE; FILL THE PAUNCH WITH IT, NOT TOO MUCH, THOUGH, LEAVING PLENTY OF ROOM FOR EXPANSION LEST IT BURSTS WHILE BEING COOKED. PUT IT IN A POT WITH BOILING WATER, RETIRE AND PRICK WITH A NEEDLE SO THAT IT DOES NOT BURST. WHEN HALF DONE, TAKE IT OUT AND HANG IT INTO THE SMOKE TO TAKE ON COLOR; NOW BOIL IT OVER AGAIN AND FINISH IT LEISURELY. NEXT TAKE THE BROTH, SOME PURE WINE AND A LITTLE OIL, OPEN THE PAUNCH WITH A SMALL KNIFE. SPRINKLE WITH THE BROTH AND LOVAGE; PLACE THE PIG NEAR THE FIRE TO HEAT IT, TURN IT AROUND IN BRAN [or bread crumbs] IMMERSE IN [sprinkle with] BRINE AND FINISH [the outer crust to a golden brown] [1].

[1] The good old English way of finishing a roast joint called dredging.

Lister has this formula divided into two; Danneil and Schuch make three different formulas out of it.



VIII

LOINS AND KIDNEYS LUMBI ET RENES

[286] ROAST LOINS MADE THUS LUMBULI ASSI ITA FIUNT

SPLIT THEM INTO TWO PARTS SO THAT THEY ARE SPREAD OUT [1] SPRINKLE THE OPENING WITH CRUSHED PEPPER AND [ditto] NUTS, FINELY CHOPPED CORIANDER AND CRUSHED FENNEL SEED. THE TENDERLOINS ARE THEN ROLLED UP TO BE ROASTED; TIE TOGETHER, WRAP IN CAUL, PARBOIL IN OIL [2] AND BROTH, AND THEN ROAST IN THE OVEN OR BROIL ON THE GRIDIRON.

[1] "Frenched," the meat here being pork tenderloin.

[2] G.-V. best broth and a little oil, which is more acceptable.



IX

HAM PERNA

[287] [Baked Picnic] HAM [Pork Shoulder, fresh or cured] PERNAM

THE HAM SHOULD BE BRAISED WITH A GOOD NUMBER OF FIGS AND SOME THREE LAUREL LEAVES; THE SKIN IS THEN PULLED OFF AND CUT INTO SQUARE PIECES; THESE ARE MACERATED WITH HONEY. THEREUPON MAKE DOUGH CRUMBS OF FLOUR AND OIL [1] LAY THE DOUGH OVER OR AROUND THE HAM, STUD THE TOP WITH THE PIECES OF THE SKIN SO THAT THEY WILL BE BAKED WITH THE DOUGH [bake slowly] AND WHEN DONE, RETIRE FROM THE OVEN AND SERVE [2].

[1] Ordinary pie or pastry dough, or perhaps a preparation similar to streusel, unsweetened.

[2] Experimenting with this formula, we have adhered to the instructions as closely as possible, using regular pie dough to envelop the parboiled meat. The figs were retired from the sauce pan long before the meat was done and they were served around the ham as a garnish. As a consequence we partook of a grand dish that no inmate of Olympus would have sneezed at.

In Pompeii an inn-keeper had written the following on the wall of his establishment: Ubi perna cocta est si convivae apponitur non gustat pernam linguit ollam aut caccabum.

When we first beheld this message we took the inn-keeper for a humorist and clever advertiser; but now we are convinced that he was in earnest when he said that his guests would lick the sauce pan in which his hams were cooked.

[288] TO COOK PORK SHOULDER PERNAE [1] COCTURAM

HAM SIMPLY COOKED IN WATER WITH FIGS IS USUALLY DRESSED ON A PLATTER [baking pan] SPRINKLED WITH CRUMBS AND REDUCED WINE, OR, STILL BETTER, WITH SPICED WINE [and is glazed under the open flame, or with a shovel containing red-hot embers].

[1] Perna is usually applied to shoulder of pork, fresh, also cured.

Coxa is the hind leg, or haunch of pork, or fresh ham. Cf. note 1 to {Rx} No. 289.



X

[289] FRESH HAM MUSTEIS [1] PETASONEM [2]

A FRESH HAM IS COOKED WITH 2 POUNDS OF BARLEY AND 25 FIGS. WHEN DONE SKIN, GLAZE THE SURFACE WITH A FIRE SHOVEL FULL OF GLOWING COALS, SPREAD HONEY OVER IT, OR, WHAT'S BETTER: PUT IT IN THE OVEN COVERED WITH HONEY. WHEN IT HAS A NICE COLOR, PUT IN A SAUCE PAN RAISIN WINE, PEPPER, A BUNCH OF RUE AND PURE WINE TO TASTE. WHEN THIS [sauce] IS DONE, POUR HALF OF IT OVER THE HAM AND IN THE OTHER HALF SOAK SPECIALLY MADE GINGER BREAD [3] THE REMNANT OF THE SAUCE AFTER MOST OF IT IS THOROUGHLY SOAKED INTO THE BREAD, ADD TO THE HAM [4].

[1] Musteus, fresh, young, new; vinum mustum, new wine, must. Properly perhaps, Petasonem ex mustaceis; cf. note 3.

[2] Hum. verum petaso coxa cum crure [shank] esse dicitur....

Plainly, we are dealing here with fresh, uncured ham.

[3] A certain biscuit or cake made of must, spices and pepper, perhaps baked on laurel leaves. Mustaceus was a kind of cake, the flour of which had been kneaded with must, cheese, anise, etc., the cake was baked upon laurel leaves.

[4] Tor. continues without interruption. He has the three foregoing formulae thrown into one.



XI

[290] BACON, SALT PORK LARIDI [1] COCTURA

COVER WITH WATER AND COOK WITH PLENTY OF DILL; SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE OIL AND A TRIFLE OF SALT.

[1] Lister, at this point, has forgotten his explanation of laridum, and now accepts the word in its proper sense. This rather belated correction by Lister confirms the correctness of our own earlier observations. Cf. note to {Rx} Nos. 41 and 148.



XII

LIVERS AND LUNGS JECINORA SIVE PULMONES

[291] SHEEP LIVER JECINORA H{OE}DINA VEL AGNINA [1]

COOK THUS: MAKE A MIXTURE OF WATER, MEAD, EGGS AND MILK IN WHICH THOROUGHLY SOAK THE SLICED LIVER. STEW THE LIVER IN WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. Iecinera h{oe}dina.

[292] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK LUNG ALITER IN PULMONIBUS

LIVER AND LUNG ARE ALSO COOKED THIS WAY: [1] SOAK WELL IN MILK, STRAIN IT OFF IF OFFENSIVE IN TASTE [2] BREAK 2 EGGS AND ADD A LITTLE SALT, MIX IN A SPOONFUL HONEY AND FILL THE LUNG WITH IT, BOIL AND SLICE [3].

[1] Tor.

[2] Lungs of slaughtered animals are little used nowadays. The soaking of livers in milk is quite common; it removes the offensive taste of the gall.

[3] G.-V. continue without interruption.

[293] A HASH OF LIVER ALITER

CRUSH PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE, PURE OIL, CHOP THE LIGHTS [1] FINE AND ADD WINE SAUCE [2].

[1] Edible intestines, livers, lung, kidney, etc., are thus named.

[2] List., Tor., G.-V. have both recipes in one. Dann. is in doubt whether to separate them or not.



XIII

HOME-MADE SWEET DISHES AND HONEY SWEET-MEATS DULCIA DOMESTICA [1] ET MELCAE

[294] HOME-MADE SWEETS DULCIA DOMESTICA

LITTLE HOME CONFECTIONS (WHICH ARE CALLED DULCIARIA) ARE MADE THUS: [2] LITTLE PALMS OR (AS THEY ARE ORDINARILY CALLED) [3] DATES ARE STUFFED—AFTER THE SEEDS HAVE BEEN REMOVED—WITH A NUT OR WITH NUTS AND GROUND PEPPER, SPRINKLED WITH SALT ON THE OUTSIDE AND ARE CANDIED IN HONEY AND SERVED [4].

[1] Dulcia, sweetmeats, cakes; hence dulciarius, a pastry cook or confectioner.

The fact that here attention is drawn to home-made sweet dishes may clear up the absence of regular baking and dessert formulae in Apicius. The trade of the dulciarius was so highly developed at that time that the professional bakers and confectioners supplied the entire home market with their wares, making it convenient and unprofitable for the domestic cook to compete with their organized business, a condition which largely exists in our modern highly civilized centers of population today. Cf. "Cooks."

[2 + 3] Tor.

[4] Still being done today in the same manner.

[295] ANOTHER SWEETMEAT ALITER DULCIA

GRATE [scrape, peel] SOME VERY BEST FRESH APHROS [1] AND IMMERSE IN MILK. WHEN SATURATED PLACE IN THE OVEN TO HEAT BUT NOT TO DRY OUT; WHEN THOROUGHLY HOT RETIRE FROM OVEN, POUR OVER SOME HONEY, STIPPLE [the fruit] SO THAT THE HONEY MAY PENETRATE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2] AND SERVE.

[1] Tor., Tac., Lan. musteos aphros; Vat. Ms., G.-V. afros; List. apios, i.e. celery, which is farthest from the mark. Goll. interprets this a "cider apple," reminiscent, probably, of musteos, which is fresh, new, young, and which has here nothing to do with cider.

Aphros is not identified. Perhaps the term stood for Apricots (Old English: Aphricocks) or some other African fruit or plant; Lister's celery is to be rejected on gastronomical grounds.

The above treatment would correspond to that which is given apricots and peaches today. They are peeled, immersed in cream and sweetened with sugar. Apicius' heating of the fruit in milk is new to us; it sounds good, for it has a tendency to parboil any hard fruit, make it more digestible and reduce the fluid to a creamy consistency.

[2] The "pepper" again, as pointed out in several other places, here is some spice of agreeable taste as are used in desserts today.

[296] ANOTHER SWEET DISH ALITER DULCIA

BREAK [slice] FINE WHITE BREAD, CRUST REMOVED, INTO RATHER LARGE PIECES WHICH SOAK IN MILK [and beaten eggs] FRY IN OIL, COVER WITH HONEY AND SERVE [1].

[1] "French" Toast, indeed!—Sapienti sat!

[297] ANOTHER SWEET ALITER DULCIA

IN A CHAFING-DISH PUT [1] HONEY, PURE WINE, RAISIN WINE, RUE, PINE NUTS, NUTS, COOKED SPELT, ADD CRUSHED AND TOASTED HAZELNUTS [2] AND SERVE.

[1] G.-V. Piperato mittis. Piperatum is a dish prepared with pepper, any spicy dish; the term may here be applied to the bowl in which the porridge is served. Tac. Dulcia piperata mittis.

[2] Dann. Almonds.

[298] ANOTHER SWEET ALITER DULCIA

CRUSH PEPPER, NUTS, HONEY, RUE, AND RAISIN WINE WITH MILK, AND COOK THE MIXTURE [1] WITH A FEW EGGS WELL WORKED IN, COVER WITH HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH [crushed nuts, etc.] AND SERVE.

[1] Tractam, probably with a starch added, or else it is a nut custard, practically a repetition of {Rx} Nos. 129 and 143.

[299] ANOTHER SWEET ALITER DULCIA

TAKE A PREPARATION SIMILAR [1] [to the above] AND IN THE HOT WATER [bath or double boiler] MAKE A VERY HARD PORRIDGE OF IT. THEREUPON SPREAD IT OUT ON A PAN AND WHEN COOL CUT IT INTO HANDY PIECES LIKE SMALL COOKIES. FRY THESE IN THE BEST OIL, TAKE THEM OUT, DIP INTO [hot] HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2] AND SERVE.

[1] This confirms the assumption that some flour or meal is used in {Rx} No. 298 also without which this present preparation would not "stand up."

[2] It is freely admitted that the word "pepper" not always stands for the spice that we know by this name. Cf. note 2 to {Rx} No. 295 et al.

[300] A STILL BETTER WAY ALITER

IS TO PREPARE THIS WITH MILK INSTEAD OF WATER.

[301] CUSTARD TYROPATINAM

ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF MILK NECESSARY FOR THIS DISH AND SWEETEN IT WITH HONEY TO TASTE; TO A PINT [1] OF FLUID TAKE 5 EGGS; FOR HALF A PINT [2] DISSOLVE 3 EGGS IN MILK AND BEAT WELL TO INCORPORATE THOROUGHLY, STRAIN THROUGH A COLANDER INTO AN EARTHEN DISH AND COOK ON A SLOW FIRE [in hot water bath in oven]. WHEN CONGEALED SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [3].

[1] Sextarium.

[2] ad heminam.

[3] Dann. calls this a cheese cake, which is a far-fetched conclusion, although standard dictionaries say that the tyropatina is a kind of cheese cake. It must be borne in mind, however, that the ancient definition of "custard" is "egg cheese," probably because of the similarity in appearance and texture.

Cf. {Rx} Nos. 129 and 143.

[302] OMELETTE SOUFFLEE [1] OVA SPHONGIA EX LACTE

FOUR EGGS IN HALF A PINT OF MILK AND AN OUNCE OF OIL WELL BEATEN, TO MAKE A FLUFFY MIXTURE; IN A PAN PUT A LITTLE OIL, AND CAREFULLY ADD THE EGG PREPARATION, WITHOUT LETTING IT BOIL [2] HOWEVER. [Place it in the oven to let it rise] AND WHEN ONE SIDE IS DONE, TURN IT OUT INTO A SERVICE PLATTER [fold it] POUR OVER HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [3] AND SERVE [4].

[1] Dann. misled by the title, interprets this dish as "Floating Island"; he, the chef, has completely misunderstood the ancient formula.

[2] Tor. sinas bullire—which is correct. List. facies ut bulliat—which is monstrous.

[3] G.-V.

[4] Tor. continues without interruption.

[303] CHEESE AND HONEY MEL ET CASEUM [1]

PREPARE [cottage] CHEESE EITHER WITH HONEY AND BROTH [brine] OR WITH SALT, OIL AND [chopped] CORIANDER [2].

[1] G.-V. Melca ... stum; List. mel castum, refined honey; Tac. Mel caseum; Tor. mel, caseum. Cf. {Rx} No. 294.

[2] To season cottage (fresh curd) cheese today we use salt, pepper, cream, carraway or chopped chives; sometimes a little sugar.



XIV

[304] BULBS [1] BULBOS

SERVE WITH OIL, BROTH AND VINEGAR, WITH A LITTLE CUMIN SPRINKLED OVER.

[1] Onions, roots of tulips, narcissus. Served raw sliced, with the above dressing, or cooked. Cf. notes to {Rx} No. 307.

[305] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

SOAK [1] THE BULBS AND PARBOIL THEM IN WATER; THEREUPON FRY THEM IN OIL. THE DRESSING MAKE THUS: TAKE THYME, FLEA-BANE, PEPPER, ORIGANY, HONEY, VINEGAR, REDUCED WINE, DATE WINE, IF YOU LIKE [2] BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Tor. tundes; probably a typographical error, as this should read fundis, i.e. infundis. Wanting in the other texts.

[306] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

COOK THE BULBS INTO A THICK PUREE [1] AND SEASON WITH THYME, ORIGANY, HONEY, VINEGAR, REDUCED WINE, DATE WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL.

[1] Tundes, i.e. mash. Practically a correction of {Rx} No. 305, repeated by Tor.

[307] VARRO SAYS OF BULBS [1] VARRO SI QUID DE BULBIS DIXIT

COOKED IN WATER THEY ARE CONDUCIVE TO LOVE [2] AND ARE THEREFORE ALSO SERVED AT WEDDING FEASTS, BUT ALSO SEASONED WITH PIGNOLIA NUT OR WITH THE JUICE OF COLEWORT, OR MUSTARD, AND PEPPER.

[1] The first instance in Apicius where the monotony and business-like recital of recipes is broken by some interesting quotation or remark.

Brandt is of the opinion that this remark was added by a posterior reader.

[2] The texts: qui Veneris ostium quaerunt—"seek the mouth of Venus."

This favorite superstition of the ancients leads many writers, as might be expected, into fanciful speculations. Humelberg, quoting Martial, says: Veneram mire stimulant, unde et salaces a Martiali vocantur. 1. XIII, Ep. 34:

Cum sit anus conjunx, cum sint tibi mortua membra Nil aliud, bulbis quam satur esse potes.

We fail to find this quotation from Varro in his works, M. Teren. Varronis De Re Rustica, Lugduni, 1541, but we read in Columella and Pliny that the buds or shoots of reeds were called by some "bulbs," by others "eyes," and, remembering that these shoots make very desirable vegetables when properly cooked, we feel inclined to include these among the term "bulbs." Platina also adds the squill or sea onion to this category. Nonnus, p. 84, Diaeteticon, Antwerp, 1645, quotes Columella as saying: Jam Magaris veniant genitalia semina Bulbi.

[308] FRIED BULBS BULBOS FRICTOS

ARE SERVED WITH WINE SAUCE [Oenogarum].



XV

MUSHROOMS OR MORELS [1] FUNGI FARNEI VEL BOLETI

[309] MORELS [2] FUNGI FARNEI

MORELS ARE COOKED QUICKLY IN GARUM AND PEPPER, TAKEN OUT, ALLOWED TO DRIP; ALSO BROTH WITH CRUSHED PEPPER MAY BE USED [to cook the mushrooms in].

[1] It is noteworthy that the term spongiolus which creates so much misunderstanding in Book II is not used here in connection with mushrooms. Cf. {Rx} No. 115.

[2] "Ashtree-Mushrooms."

[310] FOR MORELS IN FUNGIS FARNEIS

PEPPER, REDUCED WINE, VINEGAR AND OIL.

[311] ANOTHER WAY OF COOKING MORELS ALITER FUNGI FARNEI

IN SALT WATER, WITH OIL, PURE WINE, AND SERVE WITH CHOPPED CORIANDER.

[312] MUSHROOMS BOLETOS FUNGOS

FRESH MUSHROOMS ARE STEWED [1] IN REDUCED WINE WITH A BUNCH OF GREEN CORIANDER, WHICH REMOVE BEFORE SERVING.

[1] Tor.

[313] ANOTHER STYLE OF MUSHROOMS BOLETOS ALITER [1]

MUSHROOM STEMS [or buds, very small mushrooms] ARE COOKED IN BROTH. SERVE SPRINKLED WITH SALT.

[1] Tor. Boletorum coliculi; G.-V. calyculos.

[314] ANOTHER WAY OF COOKING MUSHROOMS BOLETOS ALITER

SLICE THE MUSHROOM STEMS [1] [stew them as directed above] AND FINISH BY COVERING THEM WITH EGGS [2] ADDING PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE HONEY, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE.

[1] Thyrsos.

[2] G.-V. in patellam novam; nothing said about eggs. Tor. concisos in patellam; ovaque perfundes; Tac. ova perfundis.

A mushroom omelette.



XVI

[315] TRUFFLES TUBERA

SCRAPE [brush] THE TRUFFLES, PARBOIL, SPRINKLE WITH SALT, PUT SEVERAL OF THEM ON A SKEWER, HALF FRY THEM; THEN PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN WITH OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, WINE, PEPPER, AND HONEY. WHEN DONE [retire the truffles] BIND [the liquor] WITH ROUX, DECORATE THE TRUFFLES NICELY AND SERVE [1].

[1] This formula clearly shows up the master Apicius. Truffles, among all earthly things, are the most delicate and most subtle in flavor. Only a master cook is privileged to handle them and to do them justice.

Today, whenever we are fortunate enough to obtain the best fresh truffles, we are pursuing almost the same methods of preparation as described by Apicius.

The commercially canned truffles bear not even a resemblance of their former selves.

[316] ANOTHER WAY TO PREPARE TRUFFLES ALITER TUBERA

[Par]BOIL THE TRUFFLES, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND FASTEN THEM ON SKEWERS, HALF FRY THEM AND THEN PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN WITH BROTH, VIRGIN OIL, REDUCED WINE, A LITTLE PURE WINE [1] CRUSHED PEPPER AND A LITTLE HONEY; ALLOW THEM TO FINISH [gently and well covered] WHEN DONE, BIND THE LIQUOR WITH ROUX, PRICK THE TRUFFLES SO THEY MAY BECOME SATURATED WITH THE JUICE, DRESS THEM NICELY, AND WHEN REAL HOT, SERVE.

[1] Preferably Sherry or Madeira.

[317] ANOTHER WAY ALITER

IF YOU WISH YOU MAY ALSO WRAP THE TRUFFLES IN CAUL OF PORK, BRAISE AND SO SERVE THEM.

[318] ANOTHER TRUFFLE ALITER TUBERA

STEW THE TRUFFLES IN WINE SAUCE, WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, RUE, BROTH, HONEY, WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL.

[319] ANOTHER WAY FOR TRUFFLES ALITER TUBERA

BRAISE THE TRUFFLES WITH PEPPER, MINT, RUE, HONEY, OIL, AND A LITTLE WINE. HEAT AND SERVE.

[320] ANOTHER WAY FOR TRUFFLES ALITER TUBERA [1]

PEPPER, CUMIN, SILPHIUM, MINT, CELERY, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, OR WINE, SALT OR BROTH, A LITTLE OIL.

[1] Wanting in G.-V.

[321] ANOTHER WAY FOR TRUFFLES ALITER TUBERA [1]

COOK THE TRUFFLES WITH LEEKS, SALT, PEPPER, CHOPPED CORIANDER, THE VERY BEST WINE AND A LITTLE OIL.

[1] Wanting in Tor.

This, to our notion of eating truffles, is the best formula, save {Rx} Nos. 315 and 316.



XVII

TARO, DASHEEN IN COLOCASIO

[322] COLOCASIUM [1] TARO, DASHEEN COLOCASIUM

FOR THE COLOCASIUM (WHICH IS REALLY THE COLOCASIA PLANT, ALSO CALLED "EGYPTIAN BEAN") USE [2] PEPPER, CUMIN, RUE, HONEY, OR BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL; WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX [3] COLOCASIUM IS THE ROOT OF THE EGYPTIAN BEAN WHICH IS USED EXCLUSIVELY [4].

[1] Cf. notes to {Rx} Nos. 74, 172, 216, 244; also the copious explanations by Humelberg, fol. III.

[2] Tor. who is trying hard to explain the colocasium. His name, "Egyptian Bean" may be due to the mealiness and bean-like texture of the colocasium tuber; otherwise there is no resemblance to a bean, except, perhaps, the seed pod which is not used for food. This simile has led other commentators to believe that the colocasium in reality was a bean.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has in recent years imported various specimens of that taro species (belonging to the colocasia), and the plants are now successfully being farmed in the southern parts of the United States, with fair prospects of becoming an important article of daily diet. The Department has favored us repeatedly with samples of the taro, or dasheen, (Colocasium Antiquorum) and we have made many different experiments with this agreeable, delightful and important "new" vegetable. It can be prepared in every way like a potato, and possesses advantages over the potato as far as value of nutrition, flavor, culture and keeping qualities are concerned. As a commercial article, it is not any more expensive than any good kind of potato. It grows where the potato will not thrive, and vice versa. It thus saves much in freight to parts where the potato does not grow.

The ancient colocasium is no doubt a close relative of the modern dasheen or taro. The Apician colocasium was perhaps very similar to the ordinary Elephant-Ear, colocasium Antiquorum Schott, often called caladium esculentum, or tanyah, more recently called the "Dasheen" which is a corruption of the French "de Chine"—from China—indicating the supposed origin of this variety of taro. The dasheen is a broad-leaved member of the arum family. The name dasheen originated in the West Indies whence it was imported into the United States around 1910, and the name is now officially adopted.

Mark Catesby, in his Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, London, 1781, describes briefly under the name of arum maximum Aegypticum a plant which was doubtless one of the tanyahs or taros. He says: "This was a welcome improvement among the negroes and was esteemed a blessing; they being delighted with all their African food, particularly this, which a great part of Africa subsists much on."

Torinus, groping for the right name, calls it variously colosium, coledium, coloesium, till he finally gets it right, colocasium.

[3] The root or tubers of this plant was used by the ancients as a vegetable. They probably boiled and then peeled and sliced the tubers, seasoning the pieces with the above ingredients, heated them in bouillon stock and thickened the gravy in the usual way. Since the tuber is very starchy, little roux is required for binding.

[4] Afterthought by Tor. printed in italics on the margin of his book.



XVIII

SNAILS COCHLEAS

[323] MILK-FED SNAILS COCHLEAS LACTE PASTAS

TAKE SNAILS AND SPONGE THEM; PULL THEM OUT OF THE SHELLS BY THE MEMBRANE AND PLACE THEM FOR A DAY IN A VESSEL WITH MILK AND SALT [1] RENEW THE MILK DAILY. HOURLY [2] CLEAN THE SNAILS OF ALL REFUSE, AND WHEN THEY ARE SO FAT THAT THEY CAN NO LONGER RETIRE [to their shells] FRY THEM IN OIL AND SERVE THEM WITH WINE SAUCE. IN A SIMILAR WAY THEY MAY BE FED ON A MILK PORRIDGE [3].

[1] Just enough so they do not drown.

[2] Wanting in Tor.

[3] The Romans raised snails for the table in special places called cochlearia. Fluvius Hirpinus is credited with having popularized the snail in Rome a little before the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey. If we could believe Varro, snails grew to enormous proportions. A supper of the younger Pliny consisted of a head of lettuce, three snails, two eggs, a barley cake, sweet wine, refrigerated in snow.

Snails as a food are not sufficiently appreciated by the Germanic races who do not hesitate to eat similar animals and are very fond of such food as oysters, clams, mussels, cocles, etc., much of which they even eat in the raw state.

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