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Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2
by Jane Marcet
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INDEX.

A

Absorbent vessels, ii. 304 Absorption of caloric, i. 59. 66 Acetic acid, ii. 75. 197 Acetous fermentation, ii. 232 —— acid, ii. 193. 232 Acidulous gaseous mineral waters, ii. 129 —— salts, ii. 200 Acids, i. 262. ii. 69 Aeriform, i. 36 Affinity, i. 19. ii. 1 Agate, ii. 51 Agriculture, ii. 252 Air, i. 182. ii. 262 Albumen, ii. 277. 288 Alburnum, ii. 267 Alchemists, i. 4 Alcohol, or spirit of wine, ii. 215. 222 Alembic, i. 258 Alkalies, ii. 19 Alkaline earths, ii. 50. 58 Alloys, i. 344 Alum, or sulphat of alumine, ii. 55. 95 Alumine, ii. 54 Alumium, i. 13 Amalgam, i. 347 Ambergris, ii. 358 Amethyst, ii. 58 Amianthus, ii. 66 Ammonia, or volatile alkali, i. 363. ii. 20. 35 Ammoniacal gas, ii. 36 Ammonium, i. 13 Analysis, i. 287 —— of vegetables, ii. 165 Animals, ii. 276 Animal acids, ii. 75. 290 —— colours, ii. 292 —— heat, ii. 337 —— oil, ii. 178. 283 Animalization, ii. 276. 297. 315 Antidotes, ii. 41. 87 Antimony, i. 14 Aqua fortis, ii. 105 —— regia, i. 340. ii. 144 Arrack, ii. 220 Argand's Lamp, i. 208 Arsenic, i. 14. 340. 348 Arteries, ii. 304. 323 Arterial blood, ii. 305. 326. 338 Asphaltum, ii. 240 Assafoetida, ii. 188 Assimilation, ii. 298 Astringent principle, ii. 198 Atmosphere, i. 90. 181. ii. 262 Atmospherical air, i. 182 Attraction of aggregation, or cohesion, i. 16. ii. 2 —— of composition, i. 16. ii. 1 Azot, or nitrogen, i. 182, ii. 100 Azotic gas, i. 182

B

Balsams, ii. 165. 188 Balloons, i. 245 Bark, ii. 193. 265 Barytes, ii. 44. 58. 61 Bases of acids, i. 263. ii. 69 —— gases, i. 183 —— salts, ii. 5 Beer, ii. 212. 220 Benzoic acid, ii. 74. 197 Bile, ii. 308 Birds, ii. 347 Bismuth, i. 14 Bitumens, ii. 239 Black lead, or plumbago, i. 304 Bleaching, i. 32. ii. 89. 140. Blow-pipe, i. 324. ii. 226 Blood, ii. 306. 317 Blood-vessels, ii. 298 Boiling water, i. 93 Bombic acid, ii. 75. 290 Bones, ii. 298, 299 Boracic acid, i. 365. ii. 131 Boracium, i. 13. ii. 132 Borat of soda, ii. 133 Brandy, ii. 218 Brass, i. 344 Bread, ii. 233 Bricks, ii. 56 Brittle-metals, i. 14 Bronze, i. 341 Butter, ii. 351 Butter-milk, ii. 352

C

Calcareous earths, ii. 65 —— stones, ii. 123 Calcium, i. 13 Caloric, i. 12. 33 ——, absorption of, i. 66 ——, conductors of, i. 70 ——, combined, i. 122 ——, expansive power of i. 35 ——, equilibrium of, i. 50 ——, reflexion of, i. 54. 67 ——, radiation of, i. 52. 61 ——, solvent power of, i. 96. 102 ——, capacity for, i. 124 Calorimeter, i. 156 Calx, i. 183 Camphor, ii. 165. 185 Camphoric acid, ii. 74. 197 Caoutchouc, ii. 165. 189 Carbonats, ii. 25. 129 Carbonat of ammonia, ii. 41 —— lead, i. 320 —— lime, ii. 59. 130 —— magnesia, ii. 67 —— potash, ii. 25 Carbonated hydrogen gas, i. 302 Carbon, i. 282. ii. 329 Carbonic acid, i. 290. 359. ii. 327 Carburet of iron, i. 304. 342 Carmine, ii. 295 Cartilage, ii. 303 Castor, ii. 359 Cellular membrane, ii. 311 Caustics, i. 349 Chalk, ii. 62. 123 Charcoal, i. 282 Cheese, ii. 356 Chemical attraction, i. 15. ii. 9 Chemistry, i. 3 Chest, ii. 318 China, ii. 54 Chlorine, i. 214 Chrome, i. 14. 340 Chyle, ii. 305. 317 Chyme, ii. 316 Citric acid, ii. 74. 197 Circulation of the blood, ii. 322 Civet, ii. 359 Clay, i. 48. ii. 55 Coke, ii. 241 Coal, ii. 240. 252 Cobalt, i. 14 Cochineal, ii. 295 Cold, i. 50. 58 —— from evaporation, i. 102. 113. 150 Colours of metallic oxyds, i. 319 Columbium, i. 14. 340. 348 Combined caloric, i. 122 Combustion, i. 190 ——, volatile products of, i. 207 ——, fixed products of, i. 207 ——, of alcohol, ii. 225 ——, of ammoniacal gas, ii. 42 ——, of boracium, ii. 133 ——, by oxymuriatic acid or chlorine, ii. 142 ——, of carbon, i. 289 ——, of coals, i. 207. 297 ——, of charcoal by nitric acid, ii. 102 ——, of candles, i. 236. 309. ii. 179 ——, of diamonds, i. 292 ——, of ether, ii. 230 ——, of hydrogen, i. 229. ——, of iron, i. 200. 322 ——, of metals, i. 321 ——, of oils, i. 208. ii. 178. 309 ——, of oil of turpentine by nitrous acid, ii. 6 ——, of phosphorus, i. 272 ——, of sulphur, i. 261 —— of potassium, i. 358. ii. 132. 138, 139 Compound bodies, i. 9. ii. 14 —— or neutral salts i. 333. ii. 4 Conductors of heat, i. 71 ——, solids, i. 73 ——, fluids, i. 78 ——, Count Rumford's theory, i. 79 Constituent parts, i. 9 Copper, i. 14. 331 Copal, ii. 187. 224 Cortical layers, ii. 265. 267 Cotyledons, or lobes, ii. 256 Cream, ii. 351 Cream of tartar, or tartrit of potash, ii. 200. 222 Cryophorus, i. 154 Crystallisation, i. 338. ii. 47 Cucurbit, i. 258 Culinary heat, i. 88 Curd, ii. 351. 354 Cuticle, or epidermis, ii. 310

D

Decomposition, i. 8. 20 —— of atmospherical air, i. 181. 209 —— of water by the Voltaic battery, i. 220 —— of salts by the Voltaic battery, ii. 14 —— of water by metals, i. 225. 334 —— —— by carbon, i. 301 —— of vegetables, ii. 202 —— of potash, i. 356 —— of soda, i. 56 —— of ammonia, i. 363. ii. 37 —— of the boracic acid, ii. 132 —— of the fluoric acid, ii. 136 —— of the muriatic acid, ii. 139 Deflagration, ii. 118 Definite proportions, ii. 13 Deliquescence, ii. 95 Detonation, i. 219. ii. 116 Dew, i. 105 Diamond, i. 285 Diaphragm, ii. 320 Digestion, ii. 316 Dissolution of metals, i. 165. 316. 333 Distillation, i. 259. ii. 218 —— of red wine, ii. 218 Divellent forces, ii. 12 Division, i. 7 Drying oils, ii. 181 Dying, ii. 191

E

Earths, ii. 44 Earthen-ware, ii. 53. 57 Effervescence, i. 298 Efflorescence, ii. 94 Elastic fluids, i. 37 Electricity, i. 12. 25. 160. 220. ii. 139 Electric machine, i. 169 Elective attractions, ii. 9 Elementary bodies, i. 8. 12 Elixirs, tinctures, or quintessences, ii. 225 Enamel, ii. 57 Epidermis of vegetables, ii. 269 —— of animals, ii. 310 Epsom salts, ii. 63. 95 Equilibrium of caloric, i. 50 Essences, i. 307. ii. 183. 224 Essential, or volatile oils, i. 307. ii. 183 Ether, i. 111. ii. 229 Evaporation, i. 103 Evergreens, ii. 274 Eudiometer, i. 276 Expansion of caloric, i. 36 Extractive colouring matter, ii. 165. 190

F

Falling stones, i. 319 Fat, i. 306. ii. 311 Feathers, ii. 300 Fecula, ii. 176 Fermentation, ii. 205 Fibrine, ii. 277. 289 Fire, i. 7. 27 Fish, ii. 346 Fixed air, or carbonic acid, i. 290. ii. 125 —— alkalies, ii. 20 —— oils, i. 307. ii. 165. 177 —— products of combustion, i. 207 Flame, i. 237 Flint, ii. 30. 51 Flower or blossom, ii. 271 Fluoric acid, ii. 54. 134 Fluorium, or Fluorine, i. 12. ii. 136 Formic acid, ii. 290 Fossil wood, ii. 242 Frankincense, ii. 187 Free or radiant caloric, or heat of temperature, i. 33 Freezing mixtures, i. 142 —— by evaporation, i. 104. 150, &c. Frost, i. 94 Fruit, ii. 271 Fuller's earth, ii. 55 Furnace, i. 304

G

Galls, ii. 199 Gallat of iron, ii. 98 Gallic acid, ii. 74. 197, 198 Galvanism, i. 163 Gas, i. 182 Gas-lights, i. 240 Gaseous oxyd of carbon, i. 296 —— nitrogen, ii. 111 Gastric juice, ii. 316 Gelatine, or jelly, ii. 277. 280 Germination, ii. 256 Gin, ii. 221 Glands, ii. 298. 307 Glass, ii. 30 Glauber's salts, or sulphat of soda, ii. 92 Glazing, ii. 57 Glucium, i. 13 Glue, ii. 281. 287 Gluten, ii. 165. 177 Gold, i. 14. 323 Gum, ii. 170 —— arabic, ii. 170 —— elastic, or caoutchouc, ii. 189 —— resins, ii. 165. 188 Gunpowder, ii. 116 Gypsum, or plaister of Paris, or sulphat of lime, ii. 95

H

Hair, ii. 300 Harrogate water, i. 268. 341 Hartshorn, ii. 35. 39. 281. 285 Heart, ii. 323 —— wood, ii. 268 Heat, i. 26. 33 —— of capacity, i. 127. 135 —— of temperature, i. 33 Honey, ii. 175 Horns, ii. 282. 300 Hydro-carbonat, i. 241. 303 Hydrogen, i. 214 —— gas, i. 215

I

Jasper, ii. 51 Ice, i. 138 Jelly, ii. 281 Jet, ii. 240 Ignes fatui, i. 277 Ignition, i. 119 Imponderable agents, i. 12 Inflammable air, i. 215 Ink, ii. 98. 199 Insects, ii. 349 Integrant pans, i. 9 Iridium, i. 14 Iron, i. 14. 319. 328 Isinglass, ii. 194. 285 Ivory black, ii. 295 Iodine, i. 214. ii. 157

K

Kali, ii. 34 Koumiss, ii. 356

L

Lac, ii. 358 Lactic acid, ii. 75. 290. 356 Lakes, colours, ii. 190 Latent heat, i. 133 Lavender water, ii. 184. 224 Lead, i. 14. 318. 330 Leather, ii. 193. 287 Leaves, ii. 260 Life, ii. 159. 168 Ligaments, ii. 303 Light, i. 12. 26. ii. 261 Lightning, i. 248 Lime, ii. 59 —— water, ii. 61 Limestone, ii. 60 Linseed oil, ii. 178 Liqueurs, ii. 224 Liver, ii. 308 Lobes, ii. 256. 332 Lunar caustic, or nitrat of silver, i. 350. ii. 119 Lungs, ii. 319. 330 Lymph, ii. 304 Lymphatic vessels, ii. 304

M

Magnesia, ii. 44. 66 Magnium, i. 13 Malic acid, ii. 74. 197 Malt, ii. 211 Malleable metals, i. 14 Manganese, i. 14. 317 Manna, ii. 176 Manure, ii. 247 Marble, ii. 123 Marine acid, or muriatic acid, ii. 136 Mastic, ii. 187. 224 Materials of animals, ii. 277 —— of vegetables, ii. 165 Mercury, i. 14. 346 ——, new mode of freezing, i. 155. 347 Metallic acids, i. 340 —— oxyds, i. 316 Metals, i. 12. 314 Meteoric stones, i. 342 Mica, ii. 66 Milk, ii. 299. 306. 350 Minerals, i. 315. ii. 44. 158 Mineral waters, i. 296. ii. 129 —— acids, ii. 73 Miner's lamp, i. 249 Mixture, i. 99 Molybdena, i. 14. 340 Mordant, ii. 165. 192 Mortar, ii. 53. 65 Mucilage, ii. 170 Mucous acid, ii. 74. 171. 197 —— membrane, ii. 311 Muriatic acid, or marine acid, ii. 136 Muriats, ii. 151 Muriat of ammonia, ii. 35. 152 —— lime, i. 100 —— soda, or common salt, ii. 136. 151 —— potash, ii. 138 Muriatium, i. 13 Muscles of animals, ii. 298. 303 Musk, ii. 359 Myrrh, ii. 188

N.

Naphtha, i. 357. ii. 240 Negative electricity, i. 25. 161. 185 Nerves, ii. 279. 298. 308 Neutral, or compound salts, i. 333. ii. 4. 22. 69 Nickel, i. 13. 343 Nitre, or nitrat of potash, or saltpetre, ii. 32. 104. 116 Nitric acid, ii. 100 Nitrogen, or azot, i. 181. ii. 100 —— gas, i. 182. 211 Nitro-muriatic acid, or aqua regia, ii. 144 Nitrous acid gas, ii. 101. 106 —— air, or nitrit oxyd gas, ii. 107 Nitrats, ii. 116 Nitrat of copper, ii. 5 —— ammonia, ii. 113. 118 —— potash, or nitre, or saltpetre, ii. 32. 104. 116 —— silver, or lunar caustic, ii. 19 Nomenclature of acids, i. 264. ii. 69 —— compound salts, ii. 4. 22 —— other binary compounds, i. 278 Nut-galls, ii. 98. 199 Nut-oil, ii. 178 Nutrition, ii. 297

O

Ochres, i. 320 Oils, i. 285. ii. 306 Oil of amber, ii. 241 —— vitriol, or sulphuric acid, ii. 80 Olive oil, ii. 178 Ores, i. 315 Organized bodies, ii. 159 Organs of animals, ii. 290. 310 —— vegetables, ii. 159. 265. 271 Osmium, i. 14. 348 Oxalic acid, ii. 74. 197 Oxyds, i. 198 Oxyd of manganese, i. 117. 317 —— iron, i. 204. 319 —— lead, i. 319 —— sulphur, ii. 91 Oxydation, or oxygenation, i. 196 Oxygen, i. 11. 181. 201. 211 —— gas, or vital air, i. 182. 201 Oxy-muriatic acid, ii. 140 Oxy-muriats, ii. 153 Oxy-muriat of potash, ii. 155

P

Palladium, i. 13. 348 Papin's digester, i. 120. ii. 284 Parenchyma, ii. 256. 266 Particles, i. 16 Pearlash, ii. 24 Peat, ii. 242 Peculiar juice of plants, ii. 268 Perfect metals, i. 14. 324 Perfumes, i. 308. ii. 183 Perspiration, ii. 333. 329 Petrification, ii. 237 Pewter, i. 344 Pharmacy, i. 14 Phosphat of lime, ii. 99. 299 Phosphorated hydrogen gas, i. 277 Phosphorescence, i. 29 Phosphoric acid, i. 273. ii. 99 Phosphorous acid, i. 274. ii. 99 Phosphorus, i. 270 Phosphoret of lime, i. 278. 341 —— sulphur, i. 279. 341 Pitch, ii. 187 Plaster, ii. 65 Platina, i. 14. 323 Plating, i. 345 Plumbago, or black lead, i. 304 Plumula, ii. 257 Porcelain, ii. 56 Positive electricity, i. 25. 161. 185 Potassium, i. 13. 357. ii. 15 Pottery, ii. 56 Potash, i. 356. ii. 22 Precipitate, i. 22 Pressure of the atmosphere, i. 112. 116 Printer's ink, ii. 144 Prussiat of iron, or prussian blue, ii. 291 —— potash, ii. 291 Prussic acid, ii. 75. 290 Putrid fermentation, ii. 235. 360 Pyrites, i. 341. ii. 97 Pyrometer, i. 38. 42

Q

Quick lime, ii. 59 Quiescent forces, ii. 12

R

Radiation of caloric, i. 52 ——, Prevost's theory, i. 52 ——, Pictet's explanations, i. 54 ——, Leslie's illustrations, i. 61 Radicals, ii. 5. 69 Radicle; or root, ii. 257 Rain, i. 104 Rancidity, ii. 182 Rectification, ii. 223 Reflexion of caloric, i. 54. 64 Reptiles, ii. 349 Resins, ii. 165, 186. 266 Respiration, ii. 317. 326 Reviving of metals, i. 327 Rhodium, i. 14. 348 Roasting metals, i. 316 Rock crystal, ii. 61 Ruby, ii. 53 Rum, ii. 219 Rust, i. 318. 328

S

Saccharine fermentation, ii. 208 Sal ammoniac, or muriat of ammonia, ii. 35 —— polychrest, or sulphat of potash, ii. 91 —— volatile, or carbonat of ammonia, ii. 41 Salifiable bases, ii. 5 Salifying principles, ii. 5 Saltpetre, or nitre, or nitrat of potash, ii. 32. 104. 116 Salt, ii. 91 Sand, ii. 30. 51 Sandstone, ii. 51 Sap of plants, ii. 165. 260. 262. 270. 272 Sapphire, ii. 58 Saturation, i. 101. Sapphire, ii. 58 Saturation, i. 101 Seas, temperature of, i. 33. Sebacic acid, ii. 75. 182. 290. 353 Secretions, ii. 307 Seeds of plants, ii. 210. 271 Seltzer water, i. 289. ii. 63. 129 Senses, ii. 310 Silex, or silica, ii. 30. 51 Silicium, i. 13. Silk, ii. 359 Silver, i. 321 Simple bodies, i. 10. 12 Size, ii. 281 Skin, ii. 279. 310. 193 Slakeing of lime, i. 147. ii. 56 Slate, ii. 51. 66 Smelting metals, i. 316 Smoke i. 208 Soap, ii. 24 Soda, i. 363. ii. 33 —— water, i. 299 Sodium, i. 13. 363 Soils, i. 42. ii. 245 Soldering, i. 345 Solubility, ii. 92 Solution, i. 96 —— by the air, i. 102 —— of potash, ii. 28 Specific heat, i. 126 Spermaceti, ii. 358 Spirits, ii. 313 Steam, i. 140. 182 Steel, i. 305 Stomach, ii. 315 Stones, ii. 46 Stucco, ii. 65 Strontites, ii. 44. 68 Strontium, i. 13 Suberic acid, ii. 74. 197 Sublimation, i. 257 Succin, or yellow amber, ii. 241 Succinic acid, ii. 74. 197. 241 Sugar, ii. 165. 174. 208 —— of milk, ii. 355 Sulphats, ii. 5. 91 Super oxygenated sulphuric acid, ii. 70. Sulphat of alumine, or alum, ii. 54. 95 —— barytes, ii. 58 —— iron, ii. 96 —— lime, or gypsum, or plaster of Paris, ii. 95 —— magnesia, or Epsom salt, ii. 67. 95 —— potash, or sal polychrest, ii. 91 —— soda, or Glauber's salts, ii. 92 Sulphur, i. 256 —— flowers of, i. 257 Sulphurated hydrogen gas, i. 165. 268 Sulphurets, i. 341 Sulphurous acid, i. 254. ii. 88 Sulphuric acid, i. 74. ii. 265 Sympathetic ink, i. 354 Synthesis, i. 287

T

Tan, ii. 192 Tannin, ii. 165. 192 Tar, ii. 187 Tartarous acid, ii. 74. 197 Tartrit of potash, ii. 222 Teeth, ii. 300 Tellurium, i. 14 Temperature, i. 33 Thaw, i. 158 Thermometers, i. 40 ——, Fahrenheit's, i. 42 ——, Reaumur's, i. 42 ——, Centigrade, i. 43 ——, air, i. 44 ——, differential, i. 46 Thunder, i. 248 Tin, i. 14. 344 Titanium, i. 14. 348 Turf, ii. 242 Turpentine, ii. 187 Transpiration of plants, ii. 260 Tungsten, i. 14. 340

V

Vapour, i. 36. 49. 93. 182 Vaporisation, i. 103 Varnishes, ii. 187 Vegetables, ii. 158 Vegetable acid, i. 310. ii. 74. 197 —— colours, ii. 190 —— heat, ii. 272 —— oils, ii. 177 Veins, ii. 304. 323. Venous blood, ii. 305. 326. 338 Ventricles, ii. 324 Verdigris, i. 352 Vessels, ii. 304 Vinegar, ii. 232 Vinous fermentation, ii. 212 Vital air, or oxygen gas, i. 182 Vitriol, or sulphat of iron, ii. 81 Volatile oils, i. 307. ii. 165. 183. 224. 269 —— products of combustion, i. 207 —— alkali, i. 363. ii. 20. 35 Voltaic battery, i. 164. 220. 356. ii. 15

U

Uranium, i. 14

W

Water, i. 215. ii. 262 ——, decomposition of, by electricity, i. 200. 225 ——, condensation of, i. 32 —— of the sea, i. 86 ——, boiling, i. 93 ——, solution by, i. 96 —— of crystallisation, i. 339 Wax, i. 309. ii. 180. 358 Whey, ii. 351 Wine, ii. 212 Wood, ii. 267 Woody fibre, ii. 156. 196. 267 Wool, ii. 300

Y

Yeast, ii. 234. Yttria, ii. 44. Yttrium, i. 13.

Z

Zinc, ii. 14. 344 Zirconia, ii. 44 Zirconium, i. 14 Zoonic acid, ii. 75. 220

END.

Printed by A. Strahan, Printers-Street, London

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Terminology

oxy-muriatic acid = chlorine (proposed as an element in 1815: see Conversation XIX) "columbium or tantalium" = niobium and tantalum (the two elements always occur together, and were not recognized as separate until much later in the 19th century) phosphat of lime = calcium diphosphate or calcium (the element calcium was isolated in 1808, but is named only once in this 1817 edition) glucium = beryllium (Humphry Davy's name for the element)

muriatic acid = hydrochloric acid (still called "muriatic acid" for some commercial uses) muriat of lime = calcium chloride oxymuriate of potash = potassium chlorate muriat of soda = sodium chloride (table salt) carbonic acid = carbon dioxide

Note also:

simple body, fundamental principle = element fecula = starch (usually spelled "faecula") spirit of wine = alcohol philosopher = scientist arts = industry, manufacture, crafts etc. (seldom "fine arts")

Some essential concepts relating to living things—photosynthesis, microorganisms, the cell, proteins—are either unknown or not mentioned. The atom theory had been proposed, but not by Humphry Davy; it is not mentioned in this book.

The word "explode" is used at least once in its orginal, figurative sense ("a word that should be exploded in chemistry") but far more often in its later, concrete one. The word "explosion" is always used concretely ("an explosion, or a detonation as chemists commonly call it").

Calculated Values:

"the point of zero, or the absolute privation of heat, must consequently be 1260 degrees below 32 degrees"

[-1228 deg. F. The calculation is based on wrong premises; the correct figure is about -460 deg. F or -273 deg. C.]

"Mercury congeals only at seventy-two degrees below the freezing point."

[-40 deg. F, which is also -40 deg. C. This figure is correct, though approximate.]

"The proportion stated by Sir H. Davy, in his Chemical Researches, is as 1 to 2.389."

"[ammonia] consisted of about one part of hydrogen to four parts of nitrogen.... and from the latest and most accurate experiments, the proportions appear to be, one volume of nitrogen gas to three of hydrogen gas"

[These and similar calculations involving weight and volume make more sense when one knows the elements' atomic weights. For nitric acid, HNO3, the figures are 1:14:48, giving a proportion closer to 1:3.5. For ammonia, NH3 (not 4), the figures are 14:3.]

"The oxalic acid, distilled from sorrel, is the highest term of vegetable acidification; for, if more oxygen be added to it, it loses its vegetable nature, and is resolved into carbonic acid and water;"

[Oxalic acid = H2C2O4; carbonic acid (carbon dioxide) = CO2. H2C2O4 + O becomes H2O + CO2 + CO2.]

* * * * * * * * *

Contents: Numbering and Changes

The 3rd and 4th editions used the same Conversation numbering. Changes between the 4th and 5th (present text) edition are shown. Some illustrations were also changed.

Volume I: On Simple Bodies

(I, II, III no change)

IV. On Specific Heat, Latent Heat, and Chemical Heat. IV. On Combined Caloric, Comprehending Specific Heat and Latent Heat.

— V. [New Chapter] On The Chemical Agencies Of Electricity.

V. VI. On Oxygen And Nitrogen.

VI. VII. On Hydrogen. [5th edn: adds sections on Gas lights and Miner's Lamp]

VII. VIII. On Sulphur And Phosphorus. [5th edn: adds section on Decomposition of Sulphur]

VIII. On Carbone. IX. On Carbon. [4th edn: Section "Diamond is Carbon in a State of perfect purity"; later edn: "Diamond" alone]

IX. X. On Metals.

X. XIV. On Alkalies. XI. XV. On Earths. [5th edn: both moved to Vol. II.]

Volume II. On Compound Bodies

XII. XIII. On The Attraction Of Composition.

[5th edn. XIV, XV = 4th edn. X, XI]

XIII. On Compound Bodies. XVI. On Acids. [Most of XIII, On Compound Bodies, became XVI, On Acids. Some introductory material was moved to XIV, On Alkalies.]

XIV. On The Combinations of Oxygen with Sulphur and with Phosphorus; and of the Sulphats And Phosphats. XVII. Of the Sulphuric and Phosphoric Acids: or, The Combinations of ....

XV. On The Combination of Oxygen With Nitrogen and with Carbone; and of The Nitrats And Carbonats. XVIII. Of The Nitric And Carbonic Acids: Or The Combination ...

XVI. On Muriatic And Oxygenated Muriatic Acids; and on Muriats. XIX. On The Boracic, Fluoric, Muriatic, and Oxygenated Muriatic Acids; and on Muriats.

XVII. XX. On The Nature And Composition Of Vegetables.

(remaining Conversations: 4th edn. + 3 = 5th edn.)

* * * * * * * * *

ERRATA

Inconsistencies are generally unchanged; see end of Errata list.

Two items are noted in the printed Errata, immediately after the Contents for Vol. I:

Vol. I. page 56. last line but one, for "caloric," read "calorific." 179. Note, for "Plate XII." r. "Plate XIII."

I.56 The principal use of the mirrors in this experiment is, to prove that the calorific emanation ... I.179 fn. A model of this mode of construction is exhibited in PLATE XIII. Fig. 1.

Errata Noted by Transcriber:

Contents II ... Dr. Herschel's Experiments [body text has "Herschell"] XIV ... Hartshorn and Sal Volatile [ad]

Conversation I [Emily] the electric spark which is visible, and [aud]

Conversation II [Mrs. B., parenthesis] (PLATE I. Fig. 1.) [Fig. I.] [Mrs. B.] it has been called differential thermometer [missing "the"?] [Mrs. B., parenthesis] (PLATE III. Fig. 1.) [Fig. I.] [Emily] the tin surface should radiate the least caloric [carolic]

Conversation III [Emily] the glass skreen [spelling unchanged] [Mrs. B., parenthesis] (PLATE IV. Fig. 1.) [error for Fig. 2.] [Plate IV caption] Thermometers one in the Ether, the other [invisible comma after "Thermometers"?] [Mrs. B.] he found that it was considerably colder [is was]

Conversation IV [Caroline] But how can you reverse this experiment? [printed "expe-/periment" at line break] [Mrs. B.] instead of being 75 degrees, will be 80 degrees [error for 88?] [Emily, footnote] See page 102. [in Conversation III] [Mrs. B.] then soke it in ether [spelling unchanged]

Conversation V [Mrs. B.] at regular distances in wooden troughs [throughs] [Caroline] the nature of the action of the Voltaic battery [Votaic]

Conversation VI [Caroline] the nature of OXYGEN, which come next in our table [error for "comes"?]

Conversation VII [Mrs. B., parenthesis] (c, d, PLATE VIII. fig. 2.) [fig. 2,] [Caroline] be soon adopted every where, [every where.] [Plate X] C. apperture for supplying Oil. [spelling unchanged]

Conversation VIII [Mrs. B.] sulphur is a very combustible substance [sulpur] [Mrs. B.] I now put into the receiver [missing "it"?] [Emily] What is ... after its detonation? [. for ?]

Conversation IX [Mrs. B.] we are to burn the carbon [bnrn] [Mrs. B.] since they may be prepared [thay] [Mrs. B.] artificial Seltzer water [artifical]

Conversation X [Mrs. B.] increase the rapidity of its combustion [of of] [Caroline] a pair of scissars [spelling unchanged] [Mrs. B.] as well as by evaporating the liquid. [? for .] [Mrs. B., footnote] page 155. of this volume [near the end of Conversation IV] [Caroline] amongst the metals. I had no notion [, for .] [Emily] But is it not very singular [singulr] [Mrs. B.] Thenard and Gay Lussac [usually hyphenated: "Gay-Lussac"]

Conversation XIII [Emily] ... render that decomposition perceptible? [. for ?]

Conversation XIV [Mrs. B.] an acrid burning taste [on acrid] [Caroline] according to which heat is disengaged [t in "heat" invisible] [Mrs. B.] one volume of nitrogen gas to three of hydrogen gas [text has "oxygen" for "hydrogen"]

Conversation XV [Mrs. B.] so many interesting and important compounds [interesing] [Caroline] And of what nature ... painting porcelain? [. for ?] [speaker's name missing; supplied from other editions]

Conversation XVI [Mrs. B.] combined with acidifiable radicals [acidificiable] [Mrs. B.] this power of charring wood [charing]

Conversation XVIII [Caroline] not mentioning this acid [printed "mention-/this" at line break] [Mrs. B. (footnote)] 1 to 2.389.] [printed "2,389": no other decimal numbers occur in the text, but a comma appears once as a thousands separator] [Mrs. B.] You, understand, now, I hope, [all commas in original]

Conversation XX [Mrs. B.] of vegetables; we shall, therefore [, for ;]

Conversation XXI [Mrs. B.] the compound last formed will be destroyed; [detroyed] [Mrs. B.] in such climates great part of the water [missing "a" before "great"?] [Mrs. B.] a state of debility and languor [langour] [Mrs. B., parenthesis] (PLATE XIV. Fig. 2.) [PLATE XIII.] [Mrs. B.] burns at so slow a temperature [text unchanged: error for "low" or correct as printed?] [Mrs. B.] the poor in heathy countries [not an error: "heath-y", not "healthy"]

Conversation XXII [Mrs. B., parenthesis] (PLATE XV. Fig. 4.) [PLATE XIV.] [Mrs. B.] so many vessels or apparatus [not an error: "apparatus" is the Latin plural form] [Mrs. B.] chesnut [common variant spelling]

Conversation XXIII [Mrs. B.] pure gelatine [gelantine]

Conversation XXV [Mrs. B.] The muscular action of the diaphragm [diaphram]

Conversation XXVI [Mrs. B.] the air had been previously consumed [previouly] [Mrs. B.] this is by the Tartan Arabs [text unchanged: Tartar?] [Mrs. B.] or studying the inventions of art, let us, therefore [; for ,]

Index Arrack [body text has "arack"] [Cold] —— from evaporation, i. 102. 113. 150 [volume number missing] Culinary heat, i. 88 [volume number missing] [Decomposition] —— of ammonia, i. 363. ii. 37 [ammonnia; "i" invisible] Frankincense [Francincense] [Freezing mixtures] —— by evaporation, i. 104. 150, &c. [volume number invisible] Glue, ii. 281. 287 [volume number missing] N. [anomalous . unchanged] Phosphorous acid, i. 274. ii. 99 [volume I body text always has "Phosphorus acid"] [Sulphat] —— lime, or gypsum, or [gypsum of] [Sulphur] —— flowers of, i. 257 [volume number missing] [Thermometers] ——, Centigrade, i. 43 [Centrigade] [Thermometers] ——, differential, i. 46 [differentiial] V, U [alphabetized as shown] Zirconia, ii. 44 [Zicornia] Zirconium, i. 14 [Zicornium ... 13]

Inconsistencies and variant spellings:

Standard spellings in this book include: bason, judgment, embrio, volcanos (plural), potatoe (singular)

Inconsistencies include: capitalization of "Fig." or "fig." hyphenization of words such as "oxy-muriatic" "glauber salt" and "Glauber's salt" both occur

Variant forms include: opake, opaque aeriform, aeriform (with and without dieresis) gasses, gases phosphoret, phosphuret (but always carburet) Libya, Lybia dy(e)ing [from "dye"] nap(h)tha pla(i)ster slak(e)ing earthen-ware, earthen ware "sulphurous", "naphtha" are used in the Contents and the Index; "sulphureous", "naptha" in the body text forms in "-xion" (such as "connexion") appear only in the Contents and the Index

Volume I has more archaic forms than Volume II: "shew", "inclose" are sometimes used instead of "show", "enclose" "carbone" with final "e" appears in one Plate caption. (In the same plate's header, the "e" appears to have been removed by the engraver.) "develope(ment)" is more common in Volume I, "develop(ment)" in Volume II "-ize" and "-yze" forms (for later "-ise" and "-yse") are common in Volume I, rare in Volume II except in the Index

The "Dr. Marcet" mentioned in a few footnotes and figure captions is the author's husband. Humphry Davy ("Sir H. Davy") was knighted in 1812, between the 3rd and 4th editions of the book.

Reminder:

DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

THE END

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