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Concrete Construction - Methods and Costs
by Halbert P. Gillette
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Table XXIII—Sizes, Capacities and Weights of Scheiffler Proportioning Mixers. The Hartwick Machinery Co., Jackson, Mich.

Mixer Number. No. 2. No. 2. No. 3. Dimensions of hopper, ins. 5533 5333 6040 Height, from ground to top of hopper, ins. 43 43 48 Width over all on trucks, ins. 46 46 46 Length over all on trucks, ins. 126 126 132 Hourly capacity in cubic yards 5-6 8 12-15 Horsepower required, gasoline engine 2 3 4 Horsepower required, steam engine. 3 4 Weights: On trucks, without power, lbs. 2,400 2,900 3,300 On trucks, gasoline engine, lbs. 3,000 3,600 4,500 On trucks, steam engine, lbs. 2,800 3,330 4,000 On trucks, steam engine and boiler, lbs. 3,500 3,700 4,800

Table XXIV—Sizes, Capacities and Weights of Eureka Mixers. Eureka Machine Co., Lansing, Mich.

- Mixer Number No. 81 No. 82 No. 83 - Sand 18"25" Size hoppers, ins. Cement 17"25" do do Stone 30"25" Height, ground to hopper top 49" 49" 49" Width over all on trucks 40" 40" 40" Length over all on trucks 12'-9" 10'-0" 10'-0" Capacity per hour, cu. yds. 10 to 18 10 to 18 10 to 18 Engine horsepower 3 stm. 3 stm. 3 gas Boiler horsepower 4 Weight on trucks, no power 1,980 1,980 1,980 Weight trucks steam engine 2,800 Weight trucks gas engine 2,300 Weight trucks, eng. and boiler 3,000 -

- Mixer Number No. 84 No. 25 No. 23 - Sand 18"25" 18"25" 18"25" Size hoppers, ins. Cement 17"25" 17"25" 17"25" Stone 30"25" Height, ground to hopper top 49" 49" 49" Width over all on trucks 40" 40" 40" Length over all on trucks 10'-0" 8'-0" 8'-0" Capacity per hour, cu. yds. 10 to 18 10 to 18 2 to 4 Engine horsepower 3 el. motr Pulley. Hand. Boiler horsepower Weight on trucks, no power 1,980 1,400 1,400 Weight trucks steam engine Weight trucks gas engine Weight trucks, eng. and boiler -

Table XXV—Sizes, Capacities and Weights of Snell Mixers. R. Z. Snell Mfg. Co., South Bend, Ind.

Mixer Number. No. 0. No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. Size batch, cu. ft. 3 7 11 24 Capacity per hour, cu. yds. 2 5 8 20 Speed revs. per min. 30 30 25 19 Weight on Skids: With pulley, lbs. 480 800 900 2,000 With engine, lbs. 800 1,550 2,050 3,500 With eng. and boiler, lbs. 2,170 2,900 4,000 Weight on Wheels: With engine, lbs. 1,100 2,200 3,450 4,700 With engine and boiler, lbs. 3,570 4,750 5,200 Engine: Size cylinder, ins. 46 34 45 56 Rated horsepower 1 4 5 6 Boiler: Size, ins. 2460 2660 3060 Rated horsepower 5 6 8 Outside dimensions on skids 2'9"4' 3'4"5'6" 4'6' 6'9' Total height on skids 3'8" 4'6" 5' 5'6"

Table XXVI—Sizes, Capacities and Horsepower of Ransome Mixers. Ransome Concrete Machinery Co., Dunellen, N. J.

Mixer number. No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. Size batch, cu. ft. 10 to 14 20 30 40 Capacity per hr., cu. yds. 10 20 30 40 Speed, Revs. per min. 16 15 14 14 Weight on Skids: Pulley or gear, lbs. 3,300 3,650 5,900 7,400 With engine, lbs. 4,600 5,050 7,700 9,250 With engine and boiler, lbs. 6,450 8,700 12,200 14,700 Weight on Wheels: With engine, lbs. 5,100 5,550 8,200 9,750 With engine and boiler, lbs. 6,950 9,200 12,700 15,000 Engines: Size cylinder, ins. 66 77 88 99 Rated horsepower 7 10 14 20 Boiler: Size, ins. 3669 4275 4287 4893 Rated horsepower 10 15 20 30

Table XXVII—Sizes, Capacities and Horsepowers of Chicago Improved Cube Mixers. Municipal Engineering and Contracting Co., Chicago, Ill.

Mixer No. No. No. No. No. No. number. "Handy." 6. 11. 17. 22. 33. 64. Size batch, cu. ft. 2 6 11 17 22 33 64 Capacity per hr., cu. yds. 5 13 24 40 50 70 120 Speed, revs. per min. 24 20 18 17 16 15 12 Weight on Skids: Pulley or gear, lbs. 1,000 1,900 2,800 5,000 7,000 9,600 19,000 With engine, lbs. 2,500 3,600 6,100 8,200 12,000 With eng. and boiler, lbs. 3,100 4,300 7,800 10,000 16,000 Weight on Wheels: With engine, lbs. 1,400 3,200 4,500 7,100 9,500 15,000 With eng. and boiler, lbs. 4,000 6,000 8,800 10,300 17,000 Engine: Size cylinder, ins. 44 66 67 78 89 Rated horsepower 2 3 6 8 12 15 30 Boiler, rated horsepower 4 8 10 15 18 35 Width over all 4'-5" 5'-10" 7'-1" 7'-8" 8'-6" 9'-8" Length over all 4'-10" 6'-9" 8'-0" 8'-10" 10'-2" 13'-6" Height bot. sill to charging hopper 3'-4" 3'-5" 3'-10" 4'-7" 5'-0" 5'-9" Additional height on wheels 9-7/8" 1'-5-1/8" 1'-5-1/8" 6-3/8" 5"

Table XXVIII—Sizes, Capacities and Horsepowers of Cropp Mixers. A. J. Cropp, Concrete Machinery, Chicago, Ill.

Mixer number. No. 0. No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. Size batch, cu. ft. 7 to 8 10 13 16 20 Cap. per hr., cu. yds. 15 20 25 30 40 Speed, revs. per min. 12 10 10 10 10 Weight on Skids: With engine, lbs. 1,375 1,650 1,700 1,975 2,100 With eng. and boiler, lbs. 2,575 2,950 3,000 3,775 3,900 Weight on Wheels: With engine, lbs. 1,775 2,050 2,200 2,475 2,600 With eng. and boiler, lbs. 2,900 3,350 3,400 4,250 4,350 Engine: Size cylinder, ins. 44 55 55 66 66 Rated horsepower 3 5 5 7 7 Boiler: Size inside 24"4' 24"6' 24"6' 30"6' 30"6' Rated horsepower 4 6 6 9 9 Out. dimensions on skids 40" 40" 40" 48" 48" Total height 50" 56" 56" 56" 62" Height fr. ground on trucks: Charging, ins. 20 20 20 20 20 Discharging, ins. 30 30 30 30 30

TABLE XXIX—SIZES, CAPACITIES AND HORSEPOWERS OF CHICAGO CONCRETE MIXERS. Chicago Concrete Machinery Co., Chicago, Ill.

Number of mixer. No. 00. No. 0. No. 1. No. 2. Standard charge in cu. ft. cement 1 1 2 " " Sand 1 2 4 8 " " stone 3 5 8 16 Total unmixed batch in cu. ft 5 8 13 26 Mixed concrete per batch, loose in cu. ft. 3 6 9 18 Cubic yards of unmixed material per hour, 45 batches per hour 8 14 21 42 Cubic yards of mixed concrete per hour, 45 batches per hour 6 10 15 30 Minimum horsepower required 2 4 6 8 Revolutions of driving pulley per min 200 190 185 170 Revolutions of drum per min 20 18 15 13 Diameter and face of driving pulley 203 204 245 286 Weight: On skids with pulley, lbs. 1,550 2,150 2,900 4,850 On truck with pulley or gears, lbs. 1,800 2,550 3,500 5,150 On skids with st. engine only, lbs. ... 2,400 3,400 4,600 On truck with st. engine only ... 2,900 4,000 5,300 On skids with st. eng. and boiler, lbs. ... 2,800 4,700 6,000 On truck with st. eng. and boiler, lbs. 2,400 4,200 5,750 7,850 On skids with gasoline engine, lbs. 2,000 3,500 5,000 6,500 On truck with gasoline engine, lbs. 2,400 4,300 5,800 7,800

TABLE XXX—SIZES, CAPACITIES AND HORSEPOWERS OF KOEHRING MIXERS. Koehring Machine Co., Milwaukee, Wis.

Mixer number. No. 0-B. No. 1-B. No. 2-B. No. 3-B. Capacity per charge, in cu. ft 7 11 22 27 Capacity per hour in cu. yds 7 14 25 30 Horsepower, steam engine 4 6 8 10 Horsepower, steam boiler 5 8 10 14 Horsepower, gasoline engine 4 6 10 12 Horsepower, electric motor 5 6 7 10 Speed of drum 20 17 15 15 Speed of intermediate shaft 132 108 75 75 Weight of mixer on skids 1,800 2,800 5,200 5,500 Weight of mixer on skids, with steam eng. 2,300 3,550 6,500 7,000 Weight of mixer on skids, with steam engine and boiler 3,300 5,000 8,000 9,300 Weight of mixer on skids, gasoline engine and housing 3,000 4,400 7,500 8,600 Weight of trucks with pole 400 600 850 950 Weight of automatic loading bucket complete 500 700 1,000 1,100 Weight of mixing through complete 200 250 400 400

TABLE XXXI—SIZES, CAPACITIES AND HORSEPOWERS OF SMITH MIXERS. Contractors' Supply & Equipment Co., Chicago, Ill.

Mixer number. No. 0. No. 1. No. 2. No. 2. No. 4. No. 5.

Stand. charge cu. ft. Cement 1 1 2 2 3 4 " " " " Sand 2 4 6 7 10 14 " " " " Stone 5 8 12 15 21 28 Total unmixed per batch, cu. ft. 8 13 20 24 34 46 Mixed material per batch (loose), cu. ft. 6 9 13 16 22 30 Cubic yards mixed per hour, up to 9 20 30 39 46 62 Power required—H.P. 4 6 8 10 15 19 Revs. per minute of driving pulley 218 180 173 162 160 125 Diameter and face of driving pulley, ins. 204 245 285 286 366 487 Weight on skids with pulley only, lbs. 1,740 2,500 3,600 4,400 6,200 7,900 Weight on truck with pulley or gears, lbs. 2,200 3,650 4,750 5,500 7,400 .... Weight on truck with steam eng. & boil., lbs. 3,750 5,600 7,200 8,600 11,400 .... Weight on truck with gasoline engine, lbs 4,000 5,100 7,400 9,300 .... ....

TABLE XXXII—SIZES, WEIGHTS AND CAPACITIES OF POLYGON MIXER. Waterloo Cement Machinery Co., Waterloo, Iowa.

Mixer number. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. No. 7.

Maximum charge, cu. ft. 6 10 12 16 Cubic yards mixed per day (10 hrs.) up to 60 190 130 180 Weight on skids with pulley (approx.) 1,600 2,200 3,500 4,000 Weight on skids with steam engine and boiler (approx.) 3,100 3,900 5,500 6,200 Weight on skids with gasoline engine (approx.) 2,900 3,900 5,100 5,700 Weight on trucks with steam engine and boiler (approx.) 3,600 4,600 6,000 7,000 Weight on trucks with gasoline engine (approx.) 3,400 4,650 5,700 6,750

DATA FOR ESTIMATING THE WEIGHT OF STEEL IN REINFORCED CONCRETE.—Architects' and engineers' plans record the steel used in reinforced concrete in various ways. Sometimes complete schedules of shapes, dimensions and weights of the various reinforcing elements are drawn up and submitted to bidders with the plans. In such cases the estimating is usually a simple problem for the contractor. In other cases the amount of steel that will be required is stated as a percentage of the volume of the concrete. In still other cases the detail drawings merely show the number, location and dimensions of the reinforcing bars, stirrups, etc., and the contractor has to compile from them his own schedule of quantities. The following tables and discussion will aid the contractor in making his estimates. Before proceeding with these data, however, the authors would strongly advise that to facilitate rapid estimating the contractor should keep accurate records of all reinforced concrete structures in such form as to show the percentages of steel used. In doing this, however, he should be careful to separate the foundations, etc., which are not reinforced from the superstructure which is reinforced. A reinforced concrete arch bridge, for example, usually rests on piers and abutments which are not reinforced. Do not lump together all the concrete in recording the weight of reinforcement used, but separate the reinforced arch from the unreinforced portions.

Method of Computing Weight from Percentage of Volume.—In a cubic yard of concrete there is 1 per cent. of 27 cu. ft. or 0.27 cu. ft. of steel if the reinforcement is 1 per cent. Now a cubic foot of steel weighs 490 lbs., but for all practical purposes we can call it 500 lbs. Hence reinforced concrete containing 1 per cent. of steel has 0.27 500 = 135 lbs. per cubic yard. Table XXXIII has been computed in this manner; knowing the price of steel it is a matter of simple multiplication to estimate from the table the cost of steel for any percentage of reinforcement.

Weights and Dimensions of Plain and Special Reinforcing Metals.—Steel for reinforcement is used in the shape of plain round and square bars, deformed bars, woven and welded netting and metal mesh of various sorts. Tables XXXIV to XXXVII show the weights, dimensions, etc., of these various metals.

TABLE XXXIII—SHOWING WEIGHT OF STEEL PER CUBIC FOOT AND PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE FOR VARIOUS PERCENTAGES OF REINFORCEMENT.

Per cent Lbs. steel Lbs. steel of steel. Per cu. ft. Per cu. yd. 0.20 1.00 27.0 0.25 1.25 33.8 0.30 1.50 40.5 0.35 1.75 47.3 0.40 2.00 54.0 0.45 2.25 60.8 0.50 2.50 67.5 0.55 2.75 74.3 0.60 3.00 81.0 0.65 3.25 87.5 0.70 3.50 94.5 0.75 3.75 101.3 0.80 4.00 108.0 0.85 4.25 114.8 0.90 4.50 121.5 0.95 4.75 128.3 1.00 5.00 135.0

TABLE XXXIV—WEIGHTS OF ROUND AND SQUARE BARS OF DIMENSIONS COMMONLY USED FOR REINFORCING CONCRETE.

Thickness or Weight of square Weight of round diameter in inches bars. Lbs. per ft. rods. Lbs. per ft. 1/16 0.013 0.010 1/8 0.053 0.042 3/16 0.119 0.094 0.212 0.167 5/16 0.333 0.261 3/8 0.478 0.376 7/16 0.651 0.511 0.850 0.668 9/16 1.076 0.845 5/8 1.328 1.043 11/16 1.607 1.262 1.913 1.502 7/8 2.608 2.044 1 3.400 2.670 1-1/8 4.303 3.380 1 5.312 4.172 1 7.650 6.008 1 10.404 4.178 2 13.600 10.68

TABLE XXXV—DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT OF EXPANDED METAL.

Mesh, Sectional area sq. Weight, lbs. inches. ins. per ft. width. per sq. ft. Standard 0.209 0.74 Standard 0.225 0.80 Standard 1 0.207 0.70 Standard 2 0.166 0.56 Standard 3 0.083 0.28 Light 3 0.148 0.50 Standard 3 0.178 0.60 Heavy 3 0.267 0.90 Extra heavy 3 0.356 1.20 Standard 3 0.400 1.38 Standard 3 0.600 2.07 Old style 4 0.093 0.42 Standard 6 0.245 0.84 Heavy 6 0.368 1.26

TABLE XXXVI—DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT OF KAHN RIB METAL.

Size Section area Weight per No. per ft. width sq. ins. sq. ft. lbs.

2 0.54 2.13 3 0.36 1.43 4 0.27 1.08 5 0.22 0.87 6 0.18 0.72 7 0.15 0.62 8 0.14 0.55

TABLE XXXVII—WEIGHTS OF DEFORMED BARS OF DIMENSIONS COMMONLY USED FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE.

Size. Weight, lbs. Area. Size Weight, lbs. Area ins. per ft. sq. ins. ins. per ft. sq. ins.



0.212 0.063 0.24 0.06 0.85 0.25 0.85 0.25 5/8 1.32 0.319 5/8 1.33 0.39 1.91 0.563 1.91 0.56 7/8 2.6 0.765 7/8 2.60 0.77 1 3.4 1.000 1 3.40 1.00 1 5.3 1.563 1 5.30 1.56

0.85 0.25 1 0.73 0.19 5/8 1.33 0.39 5/161 1.18 0.32 1.91 0.56 3/81-3/8 1.35 0.41 7/8 2.60 0.76 3/81 1.97 0.54 1 3.40 1.00 3/82 2.27 0.65 1 5.31 1.56 3/82 2.85 0.80

—No. 1 Mill— —No. 2 Mill.— 0.16 0.047 ... ... ... 0.61 0.18 0.58 0.17 5/8 0.95 0.28 5/8 0.92 0.27 1.39 0.41 1.34 0.39 7/8 1.87 0.55 7/8 1.79 0.53 1 2.42 0.71 1 2.32 0.68 1 3.74 1.10 1 3.55 1.04 1 5.30 1.56 1 5.20 1.53 1 7.07 2.08 .... .... .... 2 9.02 2.65 .... .... ....



0.4 0.55 0.25 0.222 0.625 0.85 0.32 0.87 0.250 ... .... .... 5/8 1.35 0.3906 ... .... .... 1.94 0.5625 0.8 2.18 0.64 7/8 2.64 0.7656 1 3.37 1.00 1 3.45 1.00 ... .... .... 1 5.37 1.5625 1 7.75 2.25 1 7.70 2.25



3/8 0.48 .... 0.86 .... 5/8 1.35 .... 1.95 .... 7/8 2.65 .... 1 3.46 .... 1-1/8 4.38 .... 1 4.51 ....

RECIPES FOR COLORING MORTARS.—The following recipes for coloring cement mortar have been found reliable; the weights given being weight of coloring matter per bag of cement and for a 1-2 mortar:

Brown Stone: 4 to 5 lbs. brown ochre or lb. best quality roasted iron oxide.

Buff Stone: 4 lbs. yellow ochre.

Red Stone: 5 lbs. raw violet iron oxide.

Bright Red Stone: 5 to 7 lbs. English or Pompeiian red.

Blue Stone: 2 lbs. ultramarine blue.

Dark Blue Stone: 4 lbs. ultramarine blue.

Slate: Lamp black lb. light slate; 4 lbs. dark blue slate.

Light Terra Cotta: 2 lbs. Chattanooga iron ore.



CHAPTER XXV.

METHODS AND COST OF WATERPROOFING CONCRETE STRUCTURES.

Resistance to penetration by water is desirable in all concrete structures, and is essential in such structures as tanks, reservoirs, vaults, subways, basements and roofs. Concrete, as it is ordinarily made, is pervious to water, hence to secure concrete structures through which water will not penetrate some method of waterproofing the concrete must be employed. Many methods have been proposed and are being used; none of these methods is without faults, the best one of them has not yet been determined, and the evidence available as to their comparative merits is biased and conflicting. For these reasons any discussion of waterproofing for concrete is at the present time bound to be unsatisfactory.

Methods of waterproofing may be roughly classified as follows: (1) Use of mixtures so proportioned as to be impervious; (2) admixture of substances designed to produce impermeability; (3) use of waterproof coatings, washes or diaphragms. In succeeding sections enough examples of each method are given to indicate current practice; no attempt has been made to catalog all the waterproofing substances and systems being promoted—there are too many of them.

The art of waterproofing concrete is in a transition stage. Outside of the manufacturers of waterproofing material the art has received serious study by comparatively few persons. No comparative tests by independent investigators are available. Practical experience with most of the materials used has not extended over a long enough period of time to permit true conclusions to be drawn. Students of the subject are not even agreed upon the broad questions whether it is better to work toward developing an impervious concrete or toward perfecting a waterproof covering for concrete. On the minor subdivisions there is no agreement at all.

In the present state of the art one can lay fast hold to only three things. The first is that waterproofing is one component of a system of drainage; the second is that structures must, to get the best results, be designed with the fact in mind that waterproofing is a component structural element, and the third is that skilled and conscientious workmanship are essential elements in the success of all waterproofing materials and methods.

IMPERVIOUS CONCRETE MIXTURES.—The compounding of the regular concrete materials so as to produce an impervious concrete has been made the subject of numerous experiments. The most elaborate of these experiments were those conducted over a period of five years by Mr. Feret, of the Boulogne (France) Laboratory of the Ponts et Chaussees. Feret's experiments led him to the following conclusions:

"That in all mortars of granulometric composition the most permeable are those which contain the least quantity of cement.

"Of all mortars of the same richness, but of varying granulometric composition, those which contain very few fine grains are much more permeable. They are the more so where, with equal proportions of the fine grains, the coarse grains predominate more in relation to the grains of medium size.

"The minimum permeability is found in mortars where the proportion of medium-sized grains is small, and the coarse and fine grains are about equal to each other."

Mr. Feret also found that permeability decreased with time and that wet mixtures were less permeable than dry mixtures.

Tests made by Messrs. J. B. McIntyre and A. L. True at the Thayer School of Civil Engineering in 1902 gave the following results:

All the specimens composed of 1-1 mortar in the proportions of 30, 35, 40 and 45 per cent. of the whole mass were impermeable. Some of the specimens composed of 1-2 mortar in the proportions of 40 and 45 per cent. were also impermeable, as well as the 1-2-4 and 1-2-4 mixtures. All other mixtures leaked at the high pressure (80 lbs. per sq. in.) and in a general way exhibited a degree of imperviousness in direct proportion to the proportion of mortar in them, with the lower pressures from 20 lbs. per sq. in. up as well as for the 80-lb. pressure.

Other tests confirm those cited. In general we may conclude that those mixtures richest in cement and mortar are the most impervious. It is doubtless practicable by exercising proper care to proportion, mix and place a concrete mixture which will be so nearly impervious that visible leakage will be small. The task, however, is one difficult to perform in actual construction work, and its accomplishment is never certain.

STAR STETTIN CEMENT.—Star Stettin cement is a Portland cement made by grinding a clinker which has been "impregnated" with substances which impart waterproofing properties to the ground product. The process is the invention of Richard Liebold, and the cement is made by the Star Stettin Portland Cement Works, Stettin, Germany. It is asserted that a 1-4 fine sand mortar made with this cement is impervious. To use it the ordinary precautions adopted in the employment of Portland cement are necessary, and in addition the following: The cement must be mixed with moist instead of dry sand before the water is added; the sand should be clean, sharp and fine of grain; the mortar must be more perfectly mixed than ordinarily, and somewhat more water should be used than is ordinarily used. Perfectly even mixing is essential to the best results.

MEDUSA WATERPROOFING COMPOUND.—This compound is a dry powder which is mixed with the cement in proportions of from 1 per cent. to 2 per cent. by weight, or from 4 lbs. to 8 lbs. per barrel of cement. The compound costs 12 cts. per lb., so that its addition increases the cost from 48 to 96 cts. per barrel of cement. Thorough mixing of the compound with the cement is of the utmost importance, otherwise none but the ordinary precautions in the use of Portland cement is necessary. Absorption tests on concrete blocks treated and untreated with the compound and nine months old have shown the absorbtion of treated blocks to be about one-fourth or one-fifth that of untreated blocks. The compound is made by the Sandusky Portland Cement Co., Sandusky, Ohio.

NOVOID WATERPROOFING COMPOUND.—This compound is a dry powder which is mixed dry with the cement in the proportion of 1 to 2 per cent. by weight or about 1 to 2 lbs. per bag of cement. The compound costs 12 cts. per pound or about from 48 to 96 cts. per barrel of cement. Directions for making waterproofing mortar are: To 100 lbs. of Portland cement add 2 to 2 lbs. of compound and 200 lbs. of clean and sharp sand and mix the materials dry and very thoroughly. The water is then added in the proportion necessary to make a good working mortar and the mortar mixed and applied in the ordinary manner. Used as a wash 2 lbs. of compound are thoroughly mixed dry with a bag of cement. Any portion of the mixture is then mixed with water to produce a creamy grout, which is applied to a thoroughly wet surface with a brush. This compound is made by The Abbey-Dodge-Brooks Concrete Co., Newark, N. J.

IMPERMEABLE COATINGS AND WASHES.—The most common means employed for rendering concrete structures waterproof is to coat or wash the surface with some substance itself impervious to water or having the property of closing the pores of the surface skin of concrete so that water cannot penetrate.

Bituminous Coatings.—Bituminous coatings of one composition or another are among the most commonly used of impermeable coatings. The bituminous compound is used both alone and in combination with layers of a fabric of some sort to form the coating. Where bituminous coatings are used on surfaces exposed to the sun and frost attention must be given to the fact that a compound of different properties is required where the range of temperature is great than is required where this range is smaller. Asphalt, for example, should have a flow point of 212 F. and a brittle point of -15 F. when exposed directly to sun and frost as compared with say a flow point of 185 F. and a brittle point of 0 F. when covered from the direct action of sun and frost. Another point to be kept in mind particularly in using exterior coatings is that the concrete surface must be properly prepared to receive the coating or else it will peel off. The following are examples from actual practice of waterproofing with bituminous coatings.

The following method of waterproofing with asphalt coating is given by W. H. Finley: The asphalt used must be of the best grade, free from coal tar or any of its products, and must not volatilize more than 0.5 per. cent, under a temperature of 100 F. for 10 hours. It must not be affected by a 20 per cent. solution of ammonia, a 35 per cent. solution of hydrochloric acid, a 25 per cent. solution of sulphuric acid, or a saturated solution of sodium chloride. For structures underground a flow point of 185 F. and a brittle point of 0 F. shall be required. If the surface cannot be made dry and warm it should first be coated with an asphalt paint made of asphalt reduced with naphtha. The asphalt should be heated in a kettle to a temperature not exceeding 450 F. It has been cooked enough when a piece of wood can be inserted and withdrawn without the asphalt clinging to it. The first coat should consist of a thin layer poured from buckets on the prepared surface and thoroughly mopped over. The second coat should consist of a mixture of clean sand and screenings, free from earthy admixtures, previously heated and dried, and asphalt, in the proportion of 1 of asphalt to 3 or 4 of sand or screenings by volume. This is to be thoroughly mixed in the kettle and then spread out on the surface with warm smoothing irons, such as are used in laying asphalt streets. The finishing coat should consist of pure hot asphalt spread thinly and evenly over the entire surface, and then sprinkled with washed roofing gravel, torpedo sand, or stone screenings, to harden the top. The thickness of the coating will depend on the character of the work and may vary from in. to 2 ins. in thickness.

Several firms manufacture and sell ready made priming paints and mastics for waterproofing concrete by substantially the above method. Sarco compounds made by the Standard Asphalt & Rubber Co., of Chicago, Ill., are examples. Sarco waterproofing is a compound analyzing 99.7 per cent. pure bitumen and having a range of ductility of 200 F. In waterproofing large car barn roofs of concrete in Chicago, the concrete was first swept clean and a coat of priming compound was thoroughly brushed in. On the priming coat was mopped a coat of waterproofing compound, applied hot, and covered with a layer of fine sand. The thickness of the completed coating was 1/16 in. Where a heavier waterproofing is necessary the waterproofing compound is covered with one or more 5/8-in. coats of Sarco mastic.

The following bituminous coatings have been used in waterproofing concrete fortifications by the U. S. Army Engineers:

Mobile, Ala.—The top of the concrete was covered with a thin coat of 1-2 cement mortar and given a rough trowel finish. As soon as the surface was dry it was covered with a layer of asphalt mastic 1 in. thick and rubbed down to a finish with dry sand and cement in equal parts. To prepare the mastic take 500 lbs. of Diamond T asphalt mastic, broken into small pieces, 30 lbs. of Diamond T asphalt flux, and 5 lbs. of petroleum residuum oil. When thoroughly melted add 400 lbs. clean, dry torpedo gravel previously heated. Stir gravel and asphalt until thoroughly mixed at a temperature of about 375 F.

Key West, Fla.—The top of the concrete was covered with smooth plaster, proper slope for drainage being given. Above this two layers of asphalt of an aggregate thickness of in. were applied. The composition of the asphalt was as follows: 440 lbs. rock asphalt mastic, 3 gallons coal tar, and 5 gallons silicious sand.

Delaware River Defenses.—The concrete was waterproofed with coal tar and sand. The tar was made hot and applied to the surfaces with rubber squeegees and then sanded. Joints were filled with the hot tar. A surplus of sand was left on for a few days and then swept off. One barrel of coal tar covered 2,279 sq. ft. with one coat and cost $4.25 per barrel delivered. The cost including material and labor was 0.74 ct. per sq. ft.

San Francisco Harbor.—The roof had a pitch of about 3 in 20 and was covered with an earth fill. The concrete was troweled to a fairly smooth surface, was mopped with a heavy coat of roofing asphaltum, or mastic, then covered with the heaviest grade roofing felt laid 3 ply, starting at the coping of the parade wall and made 4 ply in the gutter. On this assumed watertight surface 3-in. book tile was laid with joints normal to the gutter and cemented. The purpose of the tile was to afford a free passage for the water as soon as it met the roof. The expectations were fully realized and no water, or even a sign of moisture, has appeared in this battery, or at another of the same type since built, after a fair test of time.

The total cost of the work, including mastic, felt and tile, was 17 cts. per sq. ft. for 6,200 sq. ft. covering three roofs.

In conclusion it may be noted that any of the methods of constructing impermeable diaphragms can be used for constructing impermeable coatings.

Szerelmey Stone Liquid Wash.—This wash has been used in England for waterproofing and preserving masonry for some 20 years. It is a thin liquid compound which is applied to the surface with a brush. The stone or concrete surface is required to be dry and thoroughly clean, with all scale and loose particles removed. The standard treatment is three coats; 1 gallon of liquid is in most cases sufficient for treating (three coats) 25 sq. yds., but in exceptionally bad cases 1 gallon for 15 sq. yds. has been found necessary. The precautions necessary for the successful use of the liquid are: It must be well stirred; it must be applied to a perfectly dry, clean surface, and it must be well rubbed into the masonry. The American agency for the liquid is Szerelmey & Co., Washington, D. C.

Sylvester Wash.—Waterproofing with Sylvester wash consists in applying alternately to the concrete surface a soap solution wash and an alum solution wash. The soap solution is applied first, and it must be applied hot and to a dry surface; the alum solution is applied second and 24 hours after the soap solution and is applied cold. This constitutes one treatment. After 24 hours a second treatment may be given, and as many treatments may be given as necessary. In some cases as many as six treatments have been employed. The proportions of the solutions used in practice vary. In waterproofing the standpipe described in Chapter XXII the soap solution consisted of 12 oz. pure Castile olive oil soap per gallon of water, and the alum solution consisted of 2 oz. of alum per gallon of water. In repairing the bottom of a reservoir lined with 4 to 6 ins. of concrete the following solutions were used: lb. Olean soap to 1 gallon of water and lb. alum to 4 gallons of water. Both alum and soap were well dissolved and the soap solution was boiled. The boiling hot soap solution was applied on the clean, dry concrete; 24 hours later the alum wash was applied cold. This treatment was repeated after 24 hours. Two men applied the solutions, using whitewash brushes, while a third man carried pails of the solution. In making the soap solution two men attended four kettles, one man kept up fires, two men carried solution to men applying it. The alum solution required fewer men, being made cold in barrels. After applying the second soap wash to the concrete slopes, the men had to be held by ropes to keep from slipping. The rope was placed around two men, who started work at the top of the slope, a third man paying out the rope. The work was done in 8 days and cost as follows:

Labor: 1,140 hours labor at 15 cts. $171.00 83 hours foreman at 30 cts. 24.90 83 hours waterboy at 6 cts. 4.98 Add for superintendence 15% 30.13 ———- Total labor $231.01 Materials: 900 lbs. Olean soap at 4-1/3 cts. $ 39.00 210 lbs. alum at 3 cts. 6.30 6 10-in. whitewash brushes at $2.25 13.50 6 stable brushes at $1.25 7.50 ———- Total materials $ 66.30 Total labor and materials $297.31

This covered 131,634 sq. ft., hence the cost of the two coats of soap and alum was $2.26 per 1,000 sq. ft., or 0.23 ct. per sq. ft.

The ordinary Sylvester wash, as described above, has been modified with success on Government fortification work as follows: To 2 gals. of water add 1 lb. concentrated lye and 5 lbs. alum and mix until completely dissolved. This is a concentrated stock solution. In use 1 pt. of solution and 10 lbs. of cement are mixed with enough water to make a mixture that will lather freely under the brush. Two coats of this wash are applied, the second at any time after the first is dry, and the first as soon as the forms are removed from the concrete. The wash should be applied to a wet surface, if the concrete is dry it should be wet down with a brush ahead of the wash.

Sylvester Mortars.—In this class of coatings the alum and soap are added to the mortar which is used for facing. A successful recipe for such a mortar is given as follows: To 1 part cement and 2 parts sand add lb. of pulverized alum for each cubic foot of sand and mix these ingredients dry; then add the proper quantity of water, in which has been dissolved lb. of soap to the gallon, and mix the mortar thoroughly. Such a mortar is but slightly inferior in strength to ordinary mortar of the same proportions. In plastering a clear water well to prevent leaking a 1-2 mortar was made as follows: 1 lbs. of soap were dissolved in 15 gallons of water and 3 lbs. of powdered alum were mixed with 1 bag of cement. Two coats of plaster of an aggregate thickness of in. were applied and completely stopped the leaking. The cost of this treatment was as follows:

2 lbs. soap (with 24 gals. water) at 7 cts. $0.15 12 lbs. alum at 3 cts. 0.42 ——— Total per barrel of cement $0.57

In lining a new reservoir near Wilmerding, Pa., a mortar was made as follows: A stock solution of 2 lbs. caustic potash and 5 lbs. alum to 10 quarts of water was made in barrel lots, from which 3 quarts were taken for each batch of 2 bags of cement and 4 bags of sand. A batch of mortar covered an area 68 ft. with a 1-in. coat. The extra cost of the waterproofing was:

100 lbs. caustic potash at 10 cts. $10.00 70 lbs. caustic potash at 9 cts. 6.30 960 lbs. alum at 3, 3 and 4 cts. 34.38 60 hours mixing at 15 cts. 9.00 Freight, express and haulage 11.50 ——— Total for 74,800 sq. ft. $71.18

This gives a cost of 95 cts. per 1,000 sq. ft., or less than 0.1 ct. per sq. ft. It was found that if less than 2 parts of sand to 1 part of cement was used the mortar cracked badly in setting. Clean sand was imperative, as any organic impurities soon decomposed, leaving soft spots. Do not use an excess of potash; a slight excess of alum, however, does not decrease the strength of the mortar.

Hydrolithic Coating.—This waterproofing is a dry mortar composed by mixing a cementing compound with sand, and sold dry in sacks containing 96 lbs. each. The dry mortar is mixed with water to proper consistency for plastering, and is applied as a plaster to the surfaces to be waterproofed. The dry mortar is mixed with water to a grout of the consistency of thick cream and then this grout is stiffened to the proper consistency by adding more dry mortar. Thoroughness of mixing is absolutely essential. The concrete surface is prepared by picking and scoring sufficiently to get a fresh surface and washing away all chips, dust and loose material, or instead of picking in new work the outer skin may be removed by a 1 to 9 muriatic acid solution and then washed free of all acid and scrubbed with wire brushes. After preparing the fresh surface it is well wetted; in fact water soaked, so that, while not oozing moisture it will absorb no more water. The mixed mortar is then applied with a trowel in a workmanlike manner. In mixing, no more than 8 gallons of water per barrel of mortar should be used. The coatings used are 3/8 to 5/8 in. for walls and to in. for floors. The following estimate of cost is made by the manufacturers, the E. J. Winslow Co., Chicago, Ill. The figures are presented with the understanding that they are to be considered merely as average costs for waterproofing, without special construction, and subject to change in accordance with local conditions, and to the time of year when the work will need to be performed:

Per sq. ft. To prepare surfaces to receive "coating" may cost the contractor 5 cts. The coating material, f. o. b. Chicago, may cost the contractor 4 cts. The labor of application may cost the contractor 7 cts. Administration and incidental expenses may cost the contractor 7 cts. ———— 25 cts.

The lowest price yet asked for work was 20 cts., and the highest, 55 cts., these two prices representing the opposite extremes of conditions that different jobs will present.

Cement Mortar Coatings.—Rich cement mortar mixtures offer considerable resistance to penetration by water and when well made may be used with a fair degree of success to waterproof ordinary concrete. European engineers make wide use of mortar coatings for waterproofing tanks and reservoirs and appear to have good success with them. The experience in this country is that no great reliance can be placed on them, where the pressures are at all large. Records of work done show both successes and failures, with no apparent reason for either so far as composition of mortar or quality of workmanship goes. A rich mortar plaster will reduce leakage, and may prevent it entirely, but it is uncertain how far it will prove water tight.

Oil and Paraffin Washes.—The theory of the use of oil and paraffin washes is that the material soaks into the concrete and closes the surface pores against the penetration of water. Paraffin has been quite widely used for preserving stone masonry walls for buildings. It is applied hot, and in the best practice is applied to a dry heated surface. Concerns doing such work on buildings have portable devices for heating the masonry. Oil is sometimes applied hot but is more often flushed onto the surface and allowed to soak in as it will.

IMPERMEABLE DIAPHRAGMS.—The most generally employed method of waterproofing concrete structures, with the possible exception of painting and coating methods, is to embed in the wall, roof and floor slabs a diaphragm that is impervious to water. Such diaphragms are usually composed of layers of waterproof felt or paper cemented together and to the concrete by asphalt, coal tar pitch or patented cementing compound. Another construction consists of a layer of asphaltic compound between two layers of cement mortar. In some cases also the combination felt and cementing compound diaphragm is further strengthened by placing it between layers of mortar. In wall work the diaphragm is frequently applied to the face of a single layer brick wall and the concrete filled against it. The brick wall may be further waterproofed by laying the brick in hot asphalt instead of in mortar.

Within the last few years a number of firms have devoted their efforts to producing special fabrics (felts or papers) and special cementing compounds designed to be used with the fabrics for waterproofing concrete. These fabrics and cements are in most cases superior in toughness, flexibility, ease of application, etc., to the ordinary roofing and waterproofing fabrics designed originally for general building purposes.

Long Island R. R. Subway.—In constructing the Long Island R. R. subway the roof was waterproofed according to specifications as follows: After the roof concrete was crowned, brought to a smooth surface and thoroughly dried, it was swabbed over with hot melted "medium hard" coal tar pitch to an even thickness of not less than 1-16 in. Immediately upon the first coat of pitch and while it was still melted was laid a covering of single-ply roofing felt, with the sheets lapping 4 ins. on all cross joints and 12 ins. on longitudinal joints. This felt was in turn mopped with pitch, and upon that again was laid another layer of roofing felt, which was given a final coating of pitch. The pitch used was of a grade somewhat softer than that used for roofing purposes, or such as would soften at a temperature of 60 F. and melt at a temperature of 100 F. The felt used consisted of pure wood paper pulp or asbestos pulp, which had been thoroughly treated and soaked in refined coal tar and which weighed for single ply at least 15 lbs. per 100 sq. ft.

After the waterproofing with pitch and felt had thoroughly hardened it was plastered over with a trowel with a 1-in. layer of Portland cement mortar, laid in uniform squares, in every respect similar to the plaster on top of granolithic pavement. The dimensions of the squares were 55 ft. Their purpose was to take up expansion and contraction in the coating.

During the year 1903, there were laid 9,056 sq. yds. of the waterproofing described. The labor cost of placing the two layers of felt and the three coats of pitch was as follows: 206 days labor at a cost of $498 (or an average of $2.41 per day) for the 9.056 sq. yds., which is equivalent to 5 cts. per sq. yd. for labor. Since this is for two layers of felt the labor cost was 2 cts. per sq. yd. of single layer. The labor cost of mixing and placing the 1-in. mortar covering was as follows: It required 589 days at a cost of $1,306 (or an average of $2.22 per day) to place 9,056 sq. yds., which is equivalent to 14 cts. per sq. yd. The total cost of labor for two layers of tar felt and the layer of cement mortar was, therefore, 20 cts. per sq. yd.

New York Rapid Transit Subway.—The waterproofing consisted of alternate layers of asbestos felt and asphalt laid on the concrete and covered with concrete. A coat of hot asphalt was laid on the concrete and on this a layer of felt, then another coat of asphalt and another layer of felt, and so on until the required number of layers of felt, from 2 to 6, were laid with asphalt between and on top and bottom. Natural asphalt containing not less than 95 per cent bitumen was specified. The felt was required to weigh 10 lbs. per 100 sq. ft. In constructing sidewalls the alternative was allowed of placing the waterproofing layer between a 4-in. outside wall of brick laid in asphalt and the concrete lining. On two sections of the work the actual cost of waterproofing was as follows:

98,074 sq. yds. Single-Ply Felt. Per sq. yd. Labor laying $0.05 Materials and plant 0.10 ——— Total $0.15

1,337 cu. yds. Brick in Asphalt: Per cu. yd.

Labor laying $6.32 Materials and plant 11.48 ——— Total $17.80



INDEX.



A Page

Abutment Construction Cost of Bridges Over City Streets 254 Ernst St. Bridge, Cincinnati, O. 257 Kansas City Outer Belt & Electric Ry. 253 Lonesome Valley Viaduct 256 Railway Bridge 106 Methods of Bridges over City Streets 253 Illinois & Mississippi Canal 196, 197 Lonesome Valley Viaduct 254, 255 Railway Bridge 105, 250 Summary of 230

Aggregates Balanced, Value of 14 Broken Stone 13 Cinders 14 Cost of 15 Gravel 14 Heating (See Heating Aggregates) Kinds Used 13 Measuring, Methods of 42 Open Box 42, 50 Trump Automatic Measurer 44 Quantities in Concrete, Test Determinations 192 Screened or Crusher Run, Stone for 15 Sizes Used 15 Slag 14 Voids in 25 Weighing, Apparatus for 102

Aqueduct Construction Cost of Cedar Grove Reservoir 549, 550 Salt River Irrigation Work 540 Methods of Cast Pipe Swansea, England 584 Cedar Grove Reservoir 545 Jersey City Water Supply 544 Salt River Irrigation Works 538 Torresdale Filters 540

Asphalt Concrete Definition of 108 Furnace for Heating 109, 110 Machine Mixing of 111

Asphalt Concrete Construction Cost of Base for Mill Floor 110, 111 Slope Paving for Dam 109 Methods of Base for Mill Floor Slope Paving for Dam 108, 109

B

Bags (See Cement Bags) Depositing Concrete Under Water 89, 90

Barrels (See Cement Barrels)

Belt Conveyors Capacity of 65 Gas Works Foundations, Astoria, N. Y. 64 Horse Power Required 65

Bench Monuments Construction of 656 Cost of 657

Blasting Concrete 655

Bonding New Concrete to Old 659

Breakwater Construction Cost of Buffalo, N. Y. 214 Marquette, Mich. 209, 212 Methods of Buffalo, N. Y. 212, 214 Marquette, Mich. 208, 212

Bridge Centers (See Centers)

Bridge Construction Cost of Arch Viaduct 373 Connecticut Ave. Bridge 392, 397 Elkhart, Ind., Arch 398 Five Span Arch 407 Girder Highway 377, 379 Grand Rapids Bridge 410, 413 Molded Slab Girders 387 Plainwell, Mich., Arch 399 Railway Bridge 375 Methods of Connecticut Ave. Bridge 387 Elkhart, Ind., Arch 397 Five Span Arch 400 Girder Highway 367, 377 Grand Rapids, Mich., Arch 407 Molded Slab Girders 384 Plainwell, Mich., Arch 398

Bridge Pier Construction Cost of Calf Killer River Bridge 243, 245 City Island Bridge 236 Miami River Bridge 257 Steel Cylinder 241 Viaducts, Cincinnati, O. 258 Williamsburg Bridge 230, 231 Methods of Calf Killer River Bridge 241, 245 City Island Bridge 235 K. C., M. & O. Ry. 245, 250 Lonesome Valley Viaduct 254, 255 Miami River Bridge 256 Nova Scotia Railways 108 Railway Bridge 231, 235 Scottish Railways 107, 108 Summary of 230 Tharsis & Calamas Ry. 106, 107 Williamsburg Bridge 237, 241

Broken Stone Crushing (See Stone Crushing) Quarrying (See Quarrying) Rocks for, Best 13 Shoveling (See Shoveling) Screened or Crusher Run 15 Voids in Amount of 29, 30 Effect of Granulometric Composition 30 Effect of Hauling 33, 34 Effect of Loading 29 Variation, Causes of 28 Weight no Index 32 Weight of 32, 33

Building Construction Cost of Four-Story Garage 510 Wall Columns for Power Station 490 Walls for Factory Building 507 Divisions of Work 433 Methods of Four-Story Garage 509 One-Story Car Barn 495 Six-Story Building 491 Wall Columns 488 Walls for Factory Building 505

C

Cableways Capacity of 64 Construction of Bridge Work 369 Cost of 64 Fortification Work 186 Retaining Wall Work 269

Cars Mixer Charging 72

Carts (See Concrete Carts, Horse Carts)

Cement Classification of 1 Natural Definition of 2 Portland, Definition of 1 Quantity in Concrete Formula for Computing 37 Rule for Figuring 40 Tables Showing 39, 40, 41 Quantity in Mortar Formula for Computing 36 Tables Showing 38 Test Determinations 40, 41 Theory of 35 Shrinkage by Wetting 35 Slag, Definition of 2 Weight 2, 4

Cement Bags Capacity of 2 Packing for Shipment 3 Rebate on 3 Storage House for 3

Cement Barrels Capacity of 2, 3, 4 Dimensions of 4

Cement Specifications 4

Cement Testing, Cost of 4

Centers Computation of Luten Arch 566 Construction of Conditions Governing 363 Cocket, 50 ft. Span 364 Connecticut Ave. Bridge 392 Five Span Arch 400 Grand Rapids Bridge 408 Luten Arch 365 Mechanicsville Bridge 365 Parabolic Arch 366 Supported, 50 ft. Span 364 Walnut Lane Bridge 368 Cost of Connecticut Ave. Bridge 392, 393 Deflection of Test Determinations 367 Types of 363

Charging Barrows Ransome, Description 71 Sterling, Description 71

Charging Buckets Wheeled 74

Charging Mixer Cost of 270, 272 Gravity from Bins 69 Methods of Car Plants 72 Charging Barrows 70, 71 Derricks and Buckets 73 Elevating Charging Hoppers 70 Enumeration 68 Gravity from Bins 68, 69 Shoveling 72, 73 Wheelbarrows 70 Wheeled Bucket for 74

Chutes Cement Bag, Construction of 65 Concrete. Examples of 66, 67, 68 Working Gradients 65, 66

Cinders 15

Cofferdam Construction Cost of Bridge Pier 232

Coloring Concrete, Recipes for 666

Colors for Mortar, Recipes for 666

Concrete Asphalt (See Asphalt Concrete) Definition of 1 Depositing (See Depositing Concrete) Mixers (See Mixers) Mixing (See Mixing Concrete) Proportioning, Methods of 25

Concrete Bucket Side Dumping 486 Subaqueous Cyclopean 87 O'Rourke 86 Stuebner 88

Concrete Block Molding (See Molding Concrete Blocks) Sling for Handling 216

Concrete Cars Lock Work, Coosa River 195

Concrete Carts Hand, Capacity of 53, 54 Horse, Briggs 298 Ransome Two-Wheeled 53

Culvert Construction Characteristics of 414 Cost of Arch 26 ft. Span 425 Arch, N., C. & St. L. Ry. 418, 419, 422 Kalamazoo, Mich. 430 Kansas City Outer Belt & Electric Ry. 252 Pennsylvania R. R. 424 Methods of Arch, N., C. & St. L. Ry. 417 Arch, Wabash Ry. 422 Box, C., B. & Q. R. R. 414 Kalamazoo, Mich. 427 Pennsylvania R. R. 423

Curb and Gutter Construction Cost of Champaign, Ill. 326 Estimating 321 Ottawa. Ont. 324 Methods of Champaign, Ill. 325 General Discussion 321 Kinds of 318 Ottawa, Ont. 321

Curbing, Wood for Shafts 160, 161

D

Dam Construction Cost of Hemet 104 Richmond, Ind. 224 Rock Island, Ill. 225 Spier Falls 103 Methods of Barossa Dam 101 Boonton, N. J., Dam 103 Boyds Corner Dam 105 Chaudiere Falls, Quebec 228 Chattahoochee River Dam 100 Hemet Dam 103, 104 McCall Ferry, Pa. 225, 228 Richmond, Ind. 223 Rock Island, Ill. 224, 225 Spier Falls Dam 103 Water Works Reservoir 104

Depositing Concrete Subaqueous Bags Bridge Foundations 91 Marquette Breakwater 209, 210 Peterhead Pier 89, 90 Buckets Marquette Breakwater. 208, 209 Pier Construction 222 Characteristics of 86 Closed Buckets 86, 87, 88 Tremie Charlestown Bridge Foundations 92, 93 Masonry Bridge Foundations, France 93, 94 Harvard Bridge Foundations 91 Nussdorf Lock Foundations 94, 95

Drilling Concrete, Drill Mounting for 653

Dumping Concrete Cost of Wheelbarrows 55 Methods of Chutes 55 Wheelbarrows 55

Dump Wagons for Transporting Concrete 54

E

Efflorescence Causes of 126 Preventing, Methods of 126, 127 Removing, Cost of 127

Ejecters for Washing Sand 7

Erecting Derrick Cost of Bridge Pier 232

Erecting Forms Derrick for 501 Directions for Building Work 460

Erecting Molded Columns Cost of 520 Methods of 520

Erecting Molded Roof Slabs Cost of 522

Excavating Cofferdams Cost of 232, 244, 250

F

Fabricating Reinforcement Bending Machine for 468 Bending Tables for 466 Methods of Building Work 464 Five Span Arch Bridge 402

Falseworks in Form Construction 144

Finishing Concrete Surfaces Methods of Acid Etching and Washing 133 Careful Mixing and Placing Concrete 125, 126 Coloring 135 Form Construction 124, 125 Grout Washing 130 Mortar Facing 128, 129 Plastering 128 Scrubbing and Washing 131, 132, 133, 134 Spading and Troweling 127, 128 Special Facing Mixtures 130 Stuccoing 128 Tooling 133, 134 Washed Gravel or Pebble 134

Form Construction Cost of Aqueduct, Cedar Grove Reservoir 550 Arch Culverts 418, 419, 422, 425, 430 Battery Emplacement 188 Bridge Abutment 257 Bridge 233, 235, 250 Bridge Pier Work 243 Building Work 493, 496, 501, 503, 507, 511 Connecticut Ave. Bridge 392, 393 Dam Rock Island, Ill. 225 Effect of Design on 137 Estimating, Method of 146, 147, 148, 149 Girder for Separate Casting 517 Girder Highway Bridge 377, 380, 382 Grand Rapids Bridge 412 Guard Lock, Ill., & Miss. Canal 201 Gun Emplacements 185 Lock, Coosa River 196 Lock, Ill. & Miss. Canal 202, 206, 207 Mortar Battery Platform 187 Permanent Way Structures 252 Piers for Taintor Gates 198 Pier Superior Entry, Wis. 222 Reservoir for Fire Protection 591, 592, 593 Retaining Walls 273, 275 Retaining Wall Work 270, 272 Slab and I-Beam Floors 450 Subway Lining 362 Economics of 136 Falseworks and Bracing 144, 145 Methods of Aqueduct, Cedar Grove Reservoir 546 Aqueduct Torresdale Filters 541 Arch Culvert 427 Arch Culverts 421 Blocks for Lake Pier 216 Blocks Molded Under Water 217-219 Box Culverts 417 Bridge Piers 255 Building Work 492, 495 Cement Pipe Molded in Place 577 Circular Columns 445 Columns 434 Connecticut Ave. Bridge 392 Coping for Walls 264 Culvert Pipe 431 Curb and Gutter 319, 321, 323 Dam Abutments 196 Dam, Rock Island, Ill. 228 Five Span Arch Bridge 400 Gasholder Tank 612 Girder for Separate Casting 516 Guard Lock, Ill. & Miss. Canal 200 Lock, Coosa River 195 Lock, Ill. & Miss. Canal 201, 203 Manhole Hartford, Conn. 536 Marquette Breakwater 211, 212 Ornamental Columns 446, 447 Piers for Taintor Gates 198 Polygonal Columns 443, 444 Rectangular Columns 435, 443, 490, 492, 511 Reservoir Bloomington, Ill. 605 Reservoir, Ft. Meade, S. Dak. 600 Retaining Wall, C., B. & Q. R. R. 262 Retaining Wall, Chicago Drainage Canal 275 Retaining Wall, Grand Central Terminal 281 Retaining Walls, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. 261, 262 Salt River Aqueduct 539 Sewer, Cleveland, O. 564 Sewer Invert, Haverhill, Mass. 554 Sewer, Invert, Medford, Mass. 535 Sewer, Invert, Middlesborough, Ky. 561 Sewer, South Bend, Ind. 551 Sewer, Wilmington, Del. 572 Sidewalks 309 Six-Story Building 492 Slab and Girder Floors 450, 456, 492 Slab and I-Beam Floors 448, 450 Slab Girders 385 Steel for Conduits 533 Steel, McCall Ferry Dam 227, 228 Steel Sheathed Collapsible for Conduits 533 Tunnel Centers 335, 341, 352, 358 Tunnel Sidewalls 330, 335, 340, 351, 358 Wall 456, 460, 505 Wall Columns for Factory 498 Computation, Methods of 140, 141 Design Considerations in 141 Details Entering 142, 143 Lubrication, Methods of 144 Lumber Dressing, Purpose of 138 Finish and Dimensions 138, 139 Kinds Suitable 138 Mortar Facing 129 Pile Round 179 Rectangular Pier Cost of, Rule for Calculating 14 Removing, Time of, Directions for 145, 146 Unit Construction, Purposes of 143 Steel, Opportunity for Development 136

Fortification Construction Cost of Battery Emplacement 188, 189, 190 Gun Emplacements 185 Mortar Battery Platform 187 Methods of Battery Emplacement 187, 189 Gun Emplacements 185 Mortar Battery Platform 186

Foundation Construction Street Railway Cost of Continuous Mixer 301 Methods of Continuous Mixer 300, 301

Freezing Weather, Laying Concrete in 112

G

Grain Elevator Bins Construction, Methods of 635

Gravel Characteristics of 14 Commercial Sizes of 22 Screening and Washing Plants 23 Screening (See Screening Gravel) Voids in Amount of 30, 31 Effect of Granulometric Composition 29, 30 Weight no Index 32 Amount of 31, 32

Grouting Under Water Hermitage Breakwater 96 Tests of Efficiency of 95

H

Heating Aggregates Efficiency of 114 Methods of Bridge Work, Plano, Ill. 118 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. 118 Hot Water Tanks 120 Huronian Power Co.'s Dam Work 118 Portable Combination Heater 115 Stationary Bin Outfits 115, 116 Steam Box 119 Steam Jets 119 Wachusett Dam Work 117 Water Power Plant, Billings, Mont. 116, 117

Hoists Gallows, Frame and Horse 54 Ransome 476 Wallace-Lindesmith 474

Housing Concrete Work Methods of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. 119 Dam, Chaudiere Falls, Quebec 120, 121 Portable Unit System for Buildings 122, 123

I

Inclines Grades of 62

L

Laying Concrete Blocks Cost of 526, 529

Loading Concrete Characteristic Features 53 Rate of 53

Loading Materials Cost of Shoveling into Wheelbarrows 47 Rate of 6

Lock Construction Cost of Coosa River 196 Ill. & Miss. Canal 200, 202, 205, 207 Cascades Canal 190, 191, 192, 193 Coosa River 194, 195 Ill. & Miss. Canal 200, 207 Lock Foundation 207

M

Manhole Construction Cost of Rye, N. Y. 577 Methods of Rye, N. Y. 576

Mixers Batch Chicago 662 Chicago Improved Cube 75, 661 Cropp 661 Forms of 75 Koehring 662 Polygon 663 Ransome 75, 661 Rate of Output 83, 84 Smith 77, 662 Snell 660 Charging (See Charging Mixers) Continuous Advanced 660 Eureka Automatic Feed 78, 660 Forms of 78 Foote 297 Scheiffler 660 Efficiency of Rating, Methods of 84, 85 Gravity Forms of 79 Gilbreth Trough 80 Hains, Fixed Hopper 80, 81 Hains, Telescoping Hopper 81 Output Conditions Affecting 83, 84 Hains Gravity 83 Types of 74

Mixing Concrete Hand Cost of Abutment Construction 197 Culvert Work 428, 430 Fortification Work 189 Girder Highway Bridge 380, 382 Lock, Cascades Canal 192 Marquette Breakwater, 209, 210, 212 Retaining Wall, Allegheny 284 Superintendence, 57, 58 Cost of, 52, 59 Methods of Abutment Construction, 196, 197 Examples from Practice, 49 Fortification Work, 189 Lock Foundation, 207 Marquette Breakwater, 209 Retaining Wall, Allegheny, 283, 284 Rates of, 50, 51, 52 Specific Directions, Necessity, 51, 52 Machine Cost of, 361, 362, 518 Buffalo Breakwater, 214 Building Work, 504, 507, 511 Dam Work, Rock Island, Ill., 225 Fortification Work, 190 Hains Gravity Mixer, 83 Lock, Cascades Canal, 193 Lock, Ill. & Miss. Canal, 206, 207 Pier, Superior Entry, Wis., 222 Retaining Wall, Allegheny, 284 Retaining Wall Work, 270, 273, 275 Methods of Bridge Abutment Work, 253, 254 Building Work, 471 Fortification Work, 189 Hains Gravity Mixer, 82, 83 Operations Enumerated, 61 Piers in Caissons, 165, 166

Mixing Plants Construction Battery Emplacement, 187, 188 Bridge Construction, 369, 371, 372, 374, 386, 389, 403. Culvert Work, 415, 416, 418, 420, 422, 423 Dam, McCall Ferry, Pa., 226 Lock, Cascades Canal, 190, 191 Lock Work, Coosa River, 194 Lock Work, Ill. & Miss. Canal, 198, 199, 204 Pier Work, Superior, Wis., 221 Retaining Wall, Grand Central Terminal, 277 Scow, Port Colborne Harbor, 216, 217 Traveling, Chaudiere Falls Dam, 228 Traveling, Chicago Track Elevation, 267 Traveling, Galveston Sea Wall, 268 Cost of Lock Work, Ill. & Miss. Canal, 199 Retaining Walls, Chicago Drainage Canal, 274

Mixing Water Reducing Freezing Point Methods of, 112 Salt (Sodium Chloride), 113 Solutions for, Composition of, 113

Molding Blocks Cost of, 524, 528, 530, 531 Marquette Breakwater, 211 Connecticut Ave. Bridge, 395 Separate Casting, 519 Methods of, 523, 526 Connecticut Ave. Bridge, 393 Marquette Breakwater, 211 Pier, Port Colbourne Harbor, 215 Separate Casting, 513, 515

Molding Cement Pipe Cost of Irrigon, Ore., 584 Ransome Mold, 577, 579 Methods of Irrigon, Ore., 581 Ransome Mold, 577

Molding Culvert Pipe Cost of Chic. & En. Ill. R. R., 432 Methods of Chic. & En. Ill. R. R., 430

Molding Girders Cost of Separate Casting, 519 Methods of Separate Casting, 513, 514, 515

Molding Piles Forms for (See Forms) Methods of Corrugated Polygonal, 176 Round, 179 Plant Arrangements for, 169 Cost of, 522

Molding Roof Slabs Methods of, 521

Mortar Facing Cost of Lock, Ill. Miss. Canal, 206 Forms for, 129

N

Natural Cement (See Cement)

O

Ornament Construction Methods of Iron Molds, 644 Molding in Place, 647 Plaster Molds, 646 Sand Molding, 644 Wooden Molds, 637

P

Pavement Base Construction Cost of Batch Mixer, 306 Batch Mixer and Wagon Haulage, 302 Brick, Champaign, Ill., 296 Continuous Mixers, 298, 300, 305 Miscellaneous Examples 294, 295, 296 New Orleans 293 Stone Block, New York 292 Toronto, Ont. 293 Traction Mixer 304 Methods of Batch Mixer 305 Batch Mixer and Wagon Haulage 302 Continuous Mixers 297-300, 304 Hand Mixing 290 Machine Mixing 290, 291 Traction Mixer 303 Mixtures Employed 288 Organization for 288 Stock Pile Distribution 289

Pavement Construction Cost of Fortification Work 186 Richmond, Ind. 318 Windsor, Ont. 317 Methods of Richmond, Ind. 318 Windsor, Ont. 316

Pier Construction Cost of Lonesome Valley Viaduct 255 Superior Entry, Wis. 222, 223 Taintor Gates 198 Methods of Port Colborne Harbor 215-217 Superior Entry, Wis. 217-223

Piers in Caissons Construction of Methods of 159-168 Cost of 168, 169

Pile Construction. (See Molding Piles, Pile Driving.) Cost of Ocean Pier 173, 174 Raymond Process 152, 154, 155 Methods of Building Foundation Work 174, 175, 178, 179 Compressed Process 158, 159 Enumeration of 151 Molding in Forms 161-170, 172, 179, 180 Molding in Place 151 Ocean Pier 172, 173 Raymond Process 152 Rolling Process 181 Simplex Process 155, 156, 157 Spread Footing Process 157, 158 Track Scales 181

Pile Driving Conditions Requisite for Cost of Ocean Pier 173, 174 Methods of Corrugated Polygonal 177, 178 Hammer 179, 180, 181 Water Jetting 172, 177

Pile Driving Caps 177, 178, 180

Pile Rolling Machine 182

Piles (See Molding Piles) Construction Compressol Process 158, 159 Octagonal 180 Rolling Process 181 Round Piles 178, 179 Spread Footing Process 157, 158 Square 179, 180 Cost of Rolling Process 183 Driving (See Pile Driving) Handling, Sling for 175 Raymond Construction, Method of 151, 152 Cost of 152, 154, 155 Simplex Construction, Methods of 155, 156, 157

Placing Concrete Cost of Bags, Under Water 210 Belt Conveyors 275 Buckets Under Water 209 Buffalo Breakwater 214 Car and Trestle Plant 196, 201, 202, 206, 207, 244 280, 422 Cars and Chute 193 Cars and Derrick 285 Derricks 192, 233, 235 Port Colborne Harbor 217 Pneumatic Caissons 230 Retaining Wall Work 270, 272 Steel Cylinder Pier 241 Subaqueous Buckets 223 Wheelbarrows 189, 197, 198, 257, 285, 418, 419, 423 Methods of Building Work 486 Locks Coosa River 194 Pneumatic Caissons 237, 238 Retaining Wall Work 266 Sewer Work 537

Placing Reinforcement Cost of Building Work 494 Directions for 470 Permanent Way Structures 252

Pole Base, Cost of 658

Portland Cement (See Cement)

Proportioning Concrete (See Concrete)

Q

Quarrying Cost of Limestone 18, 276 Trap Rock 17 Methods of Limestone 18 Trap Rock 17

R

Ramming Concrete (See also Placing Concrete) Cost of 423 Conditions Governing 56 Examples from Practice 56, 57 Pavement Base 292, 294 Methods of Piers, Lonesome Valley Viaduct 255 Specific Directions, Necessity of 57

Raymond Piles (See Piles)

Reinforcement Weight in Concrete Tables for Estimating, 663-665

Removing Forms Derrick for, 502 Methods of Building Work, 461 Time for Building Work, 462

Reservoir Construction Cost of Covered for Fire Protection, 594, 595 Ft. Meade, S. Dak., 601 Methods of Bloomington, Ill., 603 Covered for Fire Protection, 588 Fort Meade, S. Dak., 597

Reservoir Lining Cost of Canton, Ill., 629 Chelsea, Mass., 623 Jerome Park, 628 Pittsburg, Pa., 630 Quincy, Mass., 619 Methods of Chelsea, Mass., 620 Jerome Park, 628 Quincy, Mass., 617

Reservoir Roof, Cost of 632

Retaining Wall Construction Cost of, 286 Chicago Drainage Canal, 273-277 Footing for Masonry, 283 Grand Central Terminal, 280 Railway Yard, 282 Methods of Allegheny Track Elevation, 283 Chicago Drainage Canal, 272-277 Grand Central Terminal, 277-281 Subway in Trench, 269, 270

Retaining Walls Comparison of Plain and Reinforced, 260, 261 Types of, 259

Rubble Concrete Construction Cement, Saving in, 98 Cost of Abutment, Railway Bridge, 106 Hemet Dam, 104 Spier Falls Dam, 103 Economy, Limitations to, 98, 99 Methods of Abutment, Railway Bridge, 105 Barossa Dam, 101 Boonton Dam, 103 Bridge Piers, Nova Scotia, 108 Bridge Piers, Scotland, 107, 108 Bridge Piers, Spain, 106, 107 Chattahoochee River Dam, 100 Dams for Waterworks, 104, 105 Hemet Dam, 103, 104 Spier Falls Dam, 103 Percentages Rubble Stone, 100, 101, 103, 105, 108 Shape of Stones for, 99

Runway Construction, Methods of, 48

S

Salt Percentages in Mixing Water, 114

Sand Balanced, Value of, 6 Cleanness, Value of, 5 Cost of Excavating and Loading, 6 Granulometric Composition, 28 Prices Charged for, 6 Sharpness, Value of, 5 Substitutes for, 5 Voids in Amount of, 26, 28 Conditions Affecting, 25 Effect of Moisture, 25 Effect of Size of Grains, 27 Volume in Concrete, 5 Weight of, 6, 26

Sand Washing Cost of Ejector Method, 10 Hose Method, 7 Tank Method, 13 Methods of Ejectors, 7 Hose, 7 Tank, 10 Rate of Ejector Method, 9 Hose Method, 7 Tank Method, 10, 12, 13 Water Required Ejector Method, 9

Sand Washing Plants, 7-13

Screening Gravel Cost of L. S. & M. S. Ry., 22 Stewart-Peck Sand Co., 24 Methods of Handwork, 19 Lock, Cascades Canal, 191 Scraper into Wagons, 21 Stewart-Peck Sand Co, 23

Sewer Construction Cost of Cleveland, O., 566 Coldwater, Mich., 574 Haverhill, Mass., 557 Medford, Mass., 535 Middlesborough, Ky., 562 St. Louis, Mo., 560, 561 South Bend, Ind., 554 Wilmington, Del., 571, 573 Methods of Cleveland, O., 563 Coldwater, Mich., 573 Haverhill, Mass., 554 Medford, Mass., 535 Middlesborough, Ky., 561 Pipe, St. Joseph, Mo., 579 St. Louis, Mo., 558 South Bend, Ind., 551 Wilmington, Del., 569

Shoveling Cost of Concrete into Barrows, 197 Rate of Broken Stone from Piles, 46 Broken Stone from Shoveling Boards, 46 Broken Stone from Cars, 45 Gravel Against Screens, 21 Sand into Wheelbarrows, 46

Shoveling Boards Wooden, for Broken Stone, 46

Sidewalk Construction Cost of Estimation of, 311, 312 Quincy, Mass., 314 San Francisco, Cal., 315 Toronto, Ont., 313 Methods of Bonding Wearing Surface to Base, 310 Edger for, 310 General Discussion, 307 Points for, 310 Prevention of Cracks, 311 Protection from Weather, 311 Quincy, Mass., 314 Toronto, Ont., 313 San Francisco, Cal., 314

Silo Construction Cost of, 632 Methods of, 631

Slag, 14

Slag Cement (See Cement)

Specific Gravity, Stone, Various, 32, 33

Spreading Concrete Cost of, 197 Effect of Method of Dumping on, 55

Standpipe Construction Cost of Attleborough, Mass., 611 Methods of Attleborough, Mass., 609

Stock Piles Capacity of, 46 Distribution, Pavement Work, 289 Purposes of, 45

Stone Specific Gravity, 32, 33

Stone Crushing Cost of Cobblestone, 20 Limestone, 18, 225, 273, 276 Trap Rock, 17 Methods of Cobblestone, 19 Limestone, 18 Trap Rock, 17

Stone Crushing Plant Construction Lock Work. Ill. & Miss. Canal, 200

Stone Dust, Value for Mortar, 5

Storing Materials, Cost of, 185, 225

Subway Lining Cost of Long Island R. R., 361 New York Rapid Transit Ry, 357, 358 Methods of Long Island R. R., 361 New York Rapid Transit Ry., 356

Superintendence Cost of, 57, 58, 185, 193, 197, 210, 211, 212, 273, 275, 397

T

Tamping Concrete Cost of, 197 Lock, Ill. & Miss. Canal, 206, 207 Method of Lock, Ill. & Miss. Canal, 204

Tank Construction Methods of Gas Holder, Des Moines, Ia., 609 Gas Holder, New York, 614

Tooling Concrete Cost of, 394, 396

Transporting Concrete Cost of Cableways, 270 Cars, 280 Chutes, 67 Cars and Derricks, 285 Car and Trestle Plant, 63, 210, 212, 222 Wheelbarrows, 53, 189, 197, 272, 285, 293, 294, 296 Methods of Belt Conveyors (See also Belt Conveyors), 64-65 Bucket Hoists, 474 Building Work, 472 Cableways, 64, 186, 289, 369, 370 Cars, 404, 421 Cars and Chute, 191, 192 Car and Trestle, 63, 243, 246, 377 Chutes (see also Chutes), 66, 67, 68 Derricks, 479 Dump Wagons, 54 Effect on Placing, 54 Enumeration of, 52 Hand Costs, 53 Hoist and Cars, 372 Platform Hoists, 479 Pulley and Horse, 489 Traveling Derrick Plant, 374 Trestle Runways, 54 Wheelbarrows, 53

Transporting Materials Cars for, 45 Cost of Bridge Pier Work, 243 Cars, 275 Car and Trestle Plant, 222 Dam, Rock Island, Ill., 225 Horse Carts, 49, 270, 273 Lock, Ill. & Miss. Canal, 206, 207 Wheelbarrows, 47, 48, 189, 197, 214, 280, 292, 293, 294, 296, 419 Methods of Belt Conveyors (see also Belt Conveyors), 64-65 Cableways, 64, 269 Carrying in Shovels, 47 Chutes (see also Chutes), 46, 65, 66 Hand Carts, 48 Horse Carts 48 Indians 62 Shoveling to Derrick Buckets 46 Trestle and Car Plants 63 Wheelbarrows 47

Trestle Runways, Cost of 54, 55

Trestles Car, Cost of 63 Structural Details 63

Tunnel Construction (See Tunnel Lining)

Tunnel Lining Backfilling Machine for 330 Cost of Cascade Tunnel 338 Gunnison Tunnel 355 Hodges Pass Tunnel 345 Mullan Tunnel 333 Peekskill Tunnel 336 Short Railway 344 Methods of Burton Tunnel 347 Capitol Hill, Washington, D. C. 329 Cascade Tunnel 336 General Discussion 328 Gunnison Tunnel 353 Hodges Pass Tunnel 338 Mullan Tunnel 332 Peekskill, N. Y. 333 Mortar Car for 333 Removing Old, Methods of 332 Traveling Derrick for 330 Traveling Platform for 337, 350

U

Unloading Materials Cost of Grab Buckets 62 Methods of Grab Buckets 62

V

Voids (See also Gravel, Sand, Stone) Conditions Governing 25

W

Wall Ties Construction of 265

Washing Gravel Cost of L. S. & M. S. Ry. 22 Stewart-Peck Sand Co. 24

Washing Gravel Methods of Lock, Cascades Canal 191 Stewart-Peck Sand Co. 23

Water Quantity in Concrete Rule for Figuring 42

Waterproofing Cost of Hydrolithic Coating 677 Long Island R. R. Subway 679 New York Subway 680 Sylvester Mortar 675 Sylvester Wash 674 Methods of Bituminous Coatings 670 Covered Reservoir for Fire Service 596 Hydrolithic Coating 676 Impervious Mixtures 668 Long Island R. R. Subway 678 Medusa Compound 669 Moisture Coatings 677 New York Subway 679 Novoid Compound 670 Oil and Paraffin Washes 677 Star Stellen Cement 669 Sylvester Mortar 675 Sylvester Wash 673 Szerelmey Wash 673

Wheelbarrows Loads for 47

THE END

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