Still in the vigor of life, Mr. Clark has the opportunity of doing much more for the prosperity of the city by increasing the manufacturing business, and this his practical nature leads him to do.
It will be seen that Mr. Clark has been the architect of his own fortune. His sympathies are with the industrial classes, from which he sprang, and in return he has the confidence and good will of a large portion of that class.
Mr. Clark was married in 1853, and has a family of five children.
Jacob Lowman was born in Washington county, Maryland, Sept. 22, 1810. He worked with his father on the farm until he was eighteen, at which time he became an apprentice to the smithing department of the carriage building trade. At the expiration of his apprenticeship, in 1832, he came to Ohio. He stopped in Stark county for a few months, and then came to Cleveland, in search of work, which he readily obtained, with Elisha Peet, on Seneca street, where Frankfort street now intersects it. He worked about a year and a half, for which he received nine dollars per month and board. Being of steady habits, he saved in that time about seventy-five dollars. Mr. Lowman then bought out his employer, and commenced at once on his own account, at the same place. After two years, he built a shop where the Theatre Comique now stands, and remained there eight years. At first he labored alone, after awhile he had one journeyman, soon adding still another, and another, till, at the end of the eight years, he employed about fifteen men. He then removed to Vineyard street, having built shops there to accommodate his increasing business. This was about the year 1842—3. After moving to the new buildings, his business constantly grew with the city, and more men were employed. In 1851, Mr. Lowman commenced the erection of a still larger building to meet his increasing demands; he was then employing from thirty-five to forty men. About this time too, he associated with him Mr. Wm. M. Warden, who had then been in his employ for about ten years. Their facilities were sufficient till about the time of the war, when they erected a large brick building on Champlain street, now occupied as a smith shop, trimming shop, store room, etc., since which they have employed about sixty men. Mr. Lowman, for a number of years, did little beside a local trade, but for the last five or six years he has built up quite a large foreign trade, shipping West extensively— Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Nebraska, Indiana and Kentucky, being the principal markets.
Mr. Lowman has been strictly temperate all his life. He has taken a lively interest in the Sunday schools of the city, in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he has been a member nearly since he came to the city.
He was married in 1841 to Miss Minerva E. Peet, by whom he had four children, three of whom are now living—the oldest son being in business with his father. He suffered the loss of his partner in life in 1857. He married again in 1863, to Mrs. Sarah D. Goodwin, of Lorain county, Ohio, formerly of Vermont.
He attributes his success in business to the fact that he had an object in view, and endeavored to attain it, strict attention to business, economy, and studying to give satisfaction by his work.
He is only fifty-eight years of age, and well preserved, and in all human probability will live to enjoy the fruit of his labor for many years to come.
W. G. Wilson.
W. G. Wilson, now president of the Wilson Sewing Machine Company of Cleveland, was born in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, on the first of April, 1841. His education was obtained at a village school house. When he was in his thirteenth year his parents removed to Ohio, and the lad remained with them until his eighteenth year, when he left home with a somewhat indefinite idea of doing something for himself, although possessing neither money nor friends to aid him in his start in life. Until the year 1864, he wandered from place to place, turning his hand to various employments, but was dissatisfied with them all, being convinced that he had not yet found his right vocation or location.
In 1864, he was visiting some friends at Madison county, Ohio, when his attention was attracted by a cheap sewing machine. Believing that money could be made by the sale of such machines he purchased one, mastered its mode of operation, and took a traveling agency. Finding this a more profitable business than any he had yet undertaken, he prosecuted it with vigor, and being of an inquiring mind, soon picked up important facts concerning the business, the manufacture of the machines, and the profits of the manufacturers and dealers. He discovered that the largest profits were not made by those who retailed the machines, and, therefore, he set to work to change his position in the business and so enlarge his profits.
In Fremont, Ohio, he formed the acquaintance of a young man in the grocery business, who had thought at times of entering on the sewing machine trade. A partnership was formed. Mr. Wilson contributed his whole available means, sixty-five dollars, to which he added the experience he had gained, whilst his partner contributed to the common stock three hundred dollars. With this slender cash capital, but abundant confidence in their success, the new firm came to Cleveland, which they selected as the base of their operations on account of its superior shipping facilities, and opened a wareroom in Lyman's Block, having previously made arrangements with manufacturers in Massachusetts to make machines for them. The new firm of Mather & Wilson were successful beyond their expectations.
About a year had been passed in this way when suits were brought against Mather & Wilson, in common with a number of other parties throughout the West, for an alleged infringement of a sewing machine patent. Under the pressure of these suits, which were prosecuted with a large capital to back up the litigating parties, Mr. Wilson endeavored to secure the co-operation of the more powerful of the defendants, but without success, each party preferring to fight the battle singly. After a hard fight in the courts, a compromise was effected, the suit against Mather & Wilson withdrawn on each party paying his own costs, and they were allowed to carry on the business unmolested.
Shortly afterwards Mr. Wilson sold out his interest in the firm. A few weeks subsequently he made an agreement with H. F. Wilson, whereby the latter was to perfect and patent a low priced shuttle machine, and assign the patent to the former. In two months the machine was in the patent office, and in 1867 the manufacture was commenced in Cleveland. No money or labor was spared in perfecting the machine, which achieved an instant success and became exceedingly profitable.
In 1868, the Wilson Sewing Machine Company was organized with a paid up capital of one hundred thousand dollars, the principal portion of their stock being owned by Mr. Wilson, who is president of the company. The business of the concern has grown until it now reaches five hundred machines per week, and branch houses have been established in Boston and St. Louis, with general agencies in the principal cities of the United States. Through the rapid development of their business the company have recently purchased a tract of land at the junction of Platt street and the Pittsburgh railroad crossing, in Cleveland, for the purpose of erecting a large building for the manufacture of their sewing machines, that will give employment to between two and three hundred men.
The Wilson Sewing Machine Company is one of the latest established manufactories in Cleveland, but promises to take rank among the most important. It deserves especial mention among the record of Cleveland enterprises, as producing the first local sewing machine that has succeeded, although many attempts have been made.
Albert C. McNairy.
This department of the present work would be imperfect without a reference to the firm of McNairy, Claflen & Co., which ranks among the heaviest and most important contracting firms in the country.
Albert C. McNairy, the head of the firm and a man of great enterprise and energy of character, was born June 14, 1815, at Middletown, Connecticut, and was early engaged in work of a similar character to that now undertaken by the firm. In 1848, he constructed the famous Holyoke Dam, across the Connecticut river at Holyoke, which is over a thousand feet between the abutments, and thirty feet in height. In 1851, he became a member of the bridge building firm of Thatcher, Burt & Co., of Cleveland, whose operations in the construction of bridges were very extensive. In 1864, the firm name became McNairy, Claflen & Co., by the admission of Henry M. Claflen, who had been in the employ of the firm since 1854. In 1866, Mr. Thatcher and Mr. Burt retired and Harvey T. Claflen, (who had been connected with the establishment since 1852,) and Simeon Sheldon were admitted.
From 1851 to a recent date, the Howe Truss Bridge was nearly the only bridge made by the concern. They now are largely engaged in the construction of iron bridges and all kinds of railway cars. The concern has built three thousand two hundred and eighty-one bridges—about sixty miles in the aggregate. The streams of nearly every State east of the Rocky Mountains are spanned by their bridges, and it is a historical fact that not one bridge of their construction has fallen.
Three hundred and fifty men are employed by the firm, and the aggregate of their business reaches two millions of dollars yearly.
The firm is now constructing the New York and Oswego Midland Railroad, from Oneida to Oswego, a distance of sixty-five miles, and furnishing the cars.
The general management of the affairs of the company is in the hands of Messrs. McNairy and Henry M. Claflen. The management of the works is assigned to Harvey T. Claflen, whilst the engineering department falls to the particular superintendence of Mr. Sheldon. The Messrs. Claflen are natives of Taunton, Massachusetts, and Mr. Sheldon of Lockport, New York.
J. H. Morley.
J. H. Morley is a native of Cayuga county, New York. He came to Cleveland in 1847, and commenced the hardware business on Superior street, under the firm name of Morley & Reynolds. This firm continued, successfully, for about twelve years, after which, for some time, Mr. Morley was engaged in no active business. In 1863, he commenced the manufacture of white lead, on a limited scale. Three years subsequently, a partnership was formed with T. S. Beckwith, when the capacity of the works was immediately enlarged. Every year since that time they have added to their facilities. Their factory has a frontage on Canal and Champlain streets, of over three hundred feet. Their machinery is driven by a hundred horse-power engine, and four hundred corroding pots are run. About one thousand tons of lead are manufactured yearly, and find a ready market in Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and New York.
The telegraphic history of Cleveland is mainly written in the story of the connection with this city of the two leading telegraphers whose biographical sketches are given in this work. The master spirit of the great telegraphic combination of the United States, and the chief executive officer of that combination, have made Cleveland their home and headquarters. Their story, as told in the immediately succeeding pages, is therefore the telegraphic history of Cleveland.
Jeptha H. Wade.
Foremost on the roll of those who have won a distinguished position in the telegraphic history of the West, is the name of Jeptha H. Wade, until recently president of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and who still, although compelled by failing health to resign the supreme executive control, remains on the Board of direction, and is one of the leading spirits in the management.
Mr. Wade was born in Seneca county, New York, August 11, 1811, and was brought up to mechanical pursuits, in which he achieved a fair amount of success. Having a taste for art, and finding his health impaired by the labors and close application consequent on his mechanical employment, he, in 1835, turned his attention to portrait painting, and by arduous study and conscientious devotion to the art, became very successful. Whilst engaged in this work, the use of the camera in producing portraits came into notice. Mr. Wade purchased a camera, and carefully studied the printed directions accompanying the instrument. These were vague, and served but as hints for a more careful investigation and more thorough development of the powers of the camera. By repeated experiments and intelligent reasoning from effects back to causes, and from causes again to effects, he at length became master of the subject, and succeeded in taking the first daguerreotype west of New York.
When busy with his pencil and easel taking portraits, and varying his occupation by experimenting with the camera, news came to him of the excitement created by the success of the telegraphic experiment of building a line between Baltimore and Washington. This was in 1844. Mr. Wade turned his attention to the new science, studied it with his accustomed patience and assiduity, mastered its details, so far as then understood, and immediately saw the advantage to the country, and the pecuniary benefit to those immediately interested, likely to accrue from the extension of the telegraph system which had just been created. Without abandoning his devotion to art, he entered on the work of extending the telegraph system. The first line west of Buffalo was built by him, between Detroit and Jackson, Michigan, and the Jackson office was opened and operated by him, although he had received no practical instruction in the manipulation of the instruments. In the year 1848, an incident occurred, which, though at the time he bitterly deplored it as a calamity, was, in fact, a blessing in disguise, and compelled him perforce to embark on the tide which bore him on to fame and fortune. He was an operator in the line of the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company, at Milan, Ohio, when a conflagration destroyed all the materials and implements forming his stock in trade as a portrait painter. After a brief consideration of the subject, he decided not to replace the lost implements of his art, but to cut loose altogether from the career of an artist, and hereafter to devote himself solely to the business he had entered upon with fair promise of success.
The first years of telegraph construction were years of much vexation of spirit to those engaged in such enterprises. Difficulties of all kinds, financial, mechanical, and otherwise, had to be encountered and overcome. There were those who objected to the wires crossing their land or coming in proximity to their premises, fearing damage from the electric current in storms. Those who had invested their capital wanted immediate large returns. Some of those who had to be employed in the construction of the lines were ignorant of the principles of electrical science, and their ignorance caused serious embarrassments and delays. Defective insulation was a standing cause of trouble, and telegraphers were studying and experimenting how to overcome the difficulties in this direction, but without satisfactory result. In the face of all these difficulties, Mr. Wade proceeded with the work of extending and operating telegraph lines. In addition to the interest he had secured in the Erie and Michigan line. he constructed the "Wade line" between Cleveland via Cincinnati, to St. Louis, and worked it with success. The "House consolidation" placed Mr. Wade's interest in the lines mentioned in the hands of the Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company, and before long this consolidation was followed by the union of all the House and Morse lines in the West, and the organization of the Western Union Telegraph Company. In all these acts of consolidation the influence of Mr. Wade was active and powerful. Realizing the fact that competition between short detached lines rendered them unproductive, and that in telegraphing, as in other things, union is strength, he directed his energies to bringing about the consolidation, not only of the lines connecting with each other, but of rival interests. The soundness of his views has been proved by the unremunerativeness of the lines before consolidation and their remarkable prosperity since.
Mr. Wade was one of the principal originators of the first Pacific telegraph, and on the formation of the company he was made its first president. The location of the line, and its construction through the immense territory—then in great part a vast solitude—between Chicago and San Francisco, were left mainly to his unaided judgment and energy, and here again those qualities converted a hazardous experiment into a brilliant success. Mr. Wade remained president of the Pacific Company until he secured its consolidation with the Western Union Telegraph Company, to accomplish which, he went to California, in the latter part of 1860, and succeeded in harmonizing the jarring telegraphic interests there. On the completion of this consolidation, Mr. Wade was made president of the Western Union Telegraph Company, his headquarters being in Cleveland.
At a meeting of the Board of Directors, in July, 1867, a letter was received from Mr. Wade, declining a re-election to the office of president. The following resolutions were unanimously adopted by the Board:
Resolved, That in receiving the letter of J. H. Wade, Esq., declining re-election to the presidency of this company, we cannot pass it to the officiai files without recording our testimony to the distinguished service he has rendered to the general system of American Telegraphs, and especially to the company whose management he now resigns.
Connecting himself with it in its earliest introduction to public use, and interesting himself in its construction, he was the first to see that the ultimate triumph of the telegraph, both as a grand system of public utility, and of secure investment, would be by some absorbing process, which would prevent the embarrassments of separate organizations.
To the foresight, perseverance and tact of Mr. Wade, we believe is largely due the fact of the existence of one great company to-day with its thousand arms, grasping the extremities of the continent, instead of a series of weak, unreliable lines, unsuited to public wants, and, as property, precarious and insecure.
Resolved, That we tender to Mr. Wade our congratulations on the great fruition of his work, signalized and cemented by this day's election of a Board representing the now united leading telegraph interests of the nation, accompanied with regrets that he is not with us to receive our personal acknowledgements, and to join us in the election of a successor to the position he has so usefully filled.
Office of the Western Union Telegraph Company, New York, July 10th, 1867.
William Orton, President. O. H. Palmer, Secretary.
As before mentioned, Mr. Wade remains a director and leading spirit in the Board, where his suggestions are listened to with respect and acted on without unnecessary delay. In addition to his connection with the telegraph Company, Mr. Wade is heavily interested in several of the most important manufactories, in the railroads, and in the leading banks of Cleveland. The wealth he has accumulated is mostly invested in such a manner as to largely aid in building up the property of Cleveland, a city in which he feels a strong interest, not only from the fact that it has been for the past twenty years his place of residence, but that the wealth enabling him to enjoy the beautiful home he has secured there, was made in Cleveland.
It has already been noted that Mr. Wade, when a painter, took the first daguerreotype west of New York. Soon after his entering upon the business of telegraphy, he put into practice, for the first time, the plan of enclosing a submarine cable in iron armor. It was applied to the cable across the Mississippi, at St. Louis, in 1850. Weights had been applied to the previous cables, at regular distances, on account of the sand, change of bottom, drifts, and other difficulties that interfered with the safety of the cable. Mr. Wade conceived the idea of combining weight and protection in the cable itself. He constructed it with eighteen pieces of wire, placed lengthwise around the cable, and bound together with soft iron wire at intervals. While the spiral cordage of hemp, such as was used at that time on the cable from Dover to Calais, would stretch, and allow the strain to come on the cable itself. This invention caused the strain to come on the armor. It was a complete success, and lasted until the line was abandoned. Mr. Wade also invented, in 1852, what is now known as the Wade insulator, which has been used more extensively, perhaps, than any other.
Among the strong points in Mr. Wade's character, is his readiness and ability to adapt himself to whatever he undertakes to do. The evidence of his common sense, business foresight and indomitable perseverance, has been proved by the success attending the various pursuits in which circumstances have placed him. Finding, in early manhood, his mechanical labor undermining his health, he turned his attention to portrait and miniature painting, to which he applied himself so close that after a dozen years or more at the easel, he was compelled to abandon it and seek more active and less sedentary pursuits. Having so long applied himself to painting—the business of all others the most calculated to disqualify a man for everything else—but few men would have had the courage to enter so different a field, but Mr. Wade seemed equal to the task, and with appropriate courage and renewed energy grappled with the difficulties and mystories of the telegraph business, then entirely new, having no books or rules to refer to, and without the experience of others to guide him, and having, as it were, to climb a ladder, every round of which had to be invented as he progressed. But nothing daunted him. Through perseverance and system he succeeded, not only in supplying the United States in the most rapid manner with better and cheaper telegraphic facilities than has been afforded any other country on the globe, but in making for himself the ample fortune to which his ability and energy so justly entitle him. And when care and over-work in the telegraph business had made such an impression upon his health as to induce him to retire from its management, and give more attention to his private affairs, he was again found equal to the emergency, and has proved himself equally successful as a financier and business man generally, as he had before shown himself in organizing and building up the telegraph speciality.
One of the most widely known names in connection with telegraphy in the West—and not in the West alone, but probably throughout the United States—is that of General Anson Stager. From the organization of the Western Union Telegraph Company, General Stager has had the executive management of its lines as general superintendent, and the position has not only brought him into close relations with all connected in any way with the telegraph, but has given him a larger circle of business acquaintances than it falls to the lot of most men to possess. The natural effect of his position and the extraordinary course of events during his occupation of that position, have brought him into communication, and frequently into intimate confidential relations, with the leading men in commerce, in science, in journalism, in military affairs, and in State and national governments.
Anson Stager was born in Ontario county, New York, April 20, 1825. At the age of sixteen he entered a printing office under the instruction of Henry O'Reilly, well known afterwards as a leader in telegraph construction and management. For four or five years he continued his connection with the "art preservative of all arts," and the knowledge of and sympathy with journalism which he acquired through his connection with it during this period of his life, enabled him during his subsequent telegraphic career to deal understandingly with the press in the peculiar relations it holds with the telegraph, and has occasioned many acts of courtesy and good will which the managers of the press have not been backward in recognizing and acknowledging.
In October, 1846, General Stager changed his location from the compositor's case to the telegraph operator's desk, commencing work as an operator in Philadelphia. With the extension of the lines westward, he removed to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and then crossed the Alleghenies to Pittsburgh, where he was the pioneer operator. His ability and intelligence were speedily recognized by those having charge of the new enterprise, and in the Spring of 1848, he was made chief operator of the "National lines" at Cincinnati, a post he filled so well that, in 1852, he was appointed superintendent of the Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company. Immediately following his appointment to that position the company with which he was connected absorbed the lines of the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, and General Stager's control was thus extended over that State.
Whilst holding the position of executive manager of the lines of this company, the negotiations for the consolidation of the competing and affiliated lines into one company were set on foot. General Stager warmly favored such a consolidation on equitable terms and set to work vigorously to promote it. On its consummation, and the organization of the Western Union Telegraph Company his services in that respect and his general fitness as a telegraph manager, were recognized by his appointment as general superintendent of the consolidated company. The position was, even then, one of great responsibility and difficulty, the vast net work of lines extending like a spider's web over the face of the country requiring a clear head, and practical knowledge to keep it free from confusion and embarrassment, whilst the delicate and complicated relations in which the telegraph stood with regard to the railroads and the press increased the difficulties of the position. The rapid extension of the wires increased the responsibilities and multiplied the difficulties yearly, but the right man was in the right position, and everything worked smoothly.
The extensive and elaborate System of railroad telegraphs which is in use on all the railroads of the West and Northwest owes its existence to General Stager. The telegraphs and railroads have interests in common, and yet diverse, and the problem to be solved was, how to secure to the telegraph company the general revenue business of the railroad wires, and at the same time to enable the railroad companies to use the wires for their own especial purposes, such as the transmission of their own business correspondence, the moving of trains, and the comparison and adjustment of accounts between stations. How to do this without confusion and injustice to one or the other interest was the difficult question to be answered, and it was satisfactorily met by the scheme adopted by General Stager. That scheme, by the admirable simplicity, complete adaptability and perfection of detail of its system of contracts and plan of operating railroad telegraph lines, enabled the diverse, and seemingly jarring, interests to work together in harmony. Telegraph facilities are always at the disposal of the railroads in emergency, and have repeatedly given vital aid, whilst the railroad interests have been equally prompt and active in assisting the telegraph when occasion arises.
The relations between the journalistic interests of the country and the telegraph, through the various press associations for the gathering and transmission of news by telegraph, have also given occasion for the exercise of judgment and executive ability. The various and frequently clashing interests of the general and special press associations and of individual newspaper enterprise, and the necessity, for economical purposes, of combining in many instances the business of news gathering with news transmission, make the relations between the press and telegraph of peculiar difficulty and delicacy, and probably occasioned not the smallest portion of General Stager's business anxieties. It is safe to say, that in all the embarrassing questions that have arisen, and in all the controversies that have unavoidably occurred at intervals, no complaint has ever been made against General Stager's ability, fairness, or courtesy to the press.
Whilst the Western Union Telegraph Company has been developing from its one wire between Buffalo and Louisville into its present giant proportions, General Stager has had a busy life. His planning mind and watchful eye were needed everywhere, and were everywhere present. The amount of travel and discomfort this entailed during the building of the earlier lines may be imagined by those who know what a large extent of country is covered by these lines, and what the traveling facilities were in the West before the introduction of the modern improvements in railway traveling, and before railroads themselves had reached a large portion of the country to be traveled over.
With the breaking out of the rebellion, a new era in General Stager's life commenced. With the firing of the first rebel gun on Fort Sumpter, and the resultant demand for troops to defend the nation's life, the Governors of Ohio, Illinois and Indiana united in taking possession of the telegraph lines in those States for military purposes, and the superintendent of the Western Union Telegraph Company was appointed to represent these in their official capacity. General Stager acted with promptness and vigor, and no small share of the credit accorded to those States for the promptness with which their troops were in the field and striking effective blows for the Union, is due to General Stager for the ability with which he made the telegraph cooeperate with the authorities in directing the military movements. When General McClellan took command of the Union forces in West Virginia and commenced the campaign that drove the rebels east of the mountains, General Stager accompanied him as chief of the telegraph staff, and established the first system of field telegraph used during the war. The wire followed the army headquarters wherever that went, and the enemy were confounded by the constant and instant communications kept up between the Union army in the field and the Union government at home. When General McClellan was summoned to Washington to take command of the Army of the Potomac, General Stager was called by him to organize the military telegraph of that department. This he accomplished, and remained in charge of it until November, 1862, when he was commissioned captain and assistant quartermaster, and by order of the Secretary of war, appointed chief of the United States Military Telegraphs throughout the United States—a control that covered all the main lines in the country. He was subsequently commissioned colonel and aid-de-damp, and assigned to duty in the War Department, and was also placed in charge of the cypher correspondence of the Secretary of War. The cryptograph used throughout the war was perfected by him, and baffled all attempts of the enemy to translate it. At the close of the war he left the active military service of the government, retiring with the brevet of Brigadier General, conferred for valuable and meritorious services.
At the close of the war the Southwestern and American Telegraph Companies were consolidated with the Western Union Telegraph Company, and a re-organization of the latter company effected. The general superintendency of the Consolidated company was urged upon General Stager, but as this would necessitate his removal to New York, he declined it, preferring to live in the west. For a time he meditated retiring altogether from the telegraph business and embarking in newspaper life, for which his early training had given him a taste, and towards which he always maintained an affection. Eventually the company persuaded him to remain in connection with them, and to suit his wishes, the field of the company's operations was divided into three divisions, the Central, Eastern and Southern. General Stager assumed control of the Central, which covered the field with which he had so long been identified, and which left him with his headquarters in the home he had for years occupied, in Cleveland. Early in 1869, the duties of his position rendered it necessary that he should remove to Chicago, which he did with great reluctance, his relations with Cleveland business, and its people, being close and uniformly cordial.
General Stager is a man with a host of friends and without, we believe, one enemy. His position was such as to bring him into contact with every kind of interest, and frequently, of necessity, into conflict with one or other, but his position was always maintained with such courtesy, as well as firmness, that no ill feeling resulted from the controversy, however it terminated.
Socially he is one of the most genial of companions; in character the personification of uprightness and honor; firm in his friendships and incapable of malice toward any one. Well situated financially, happy in his domestic circle, of wide popularity, and possessing the esteem of those who know him best, General Stager is one of those whose lot is enviable, and who has made his position thus enviable by his own force of character and geniality of disposition.
Cleveland covers a large extent of territory. The width of its streets and the unusual amount of frontage possessed by most of the dwellings, made the work of city improvements in the way of paving, sewerage and water supply, at first very slow of execution. The light gravelly soil, on which the greater portion of the city is built, enabled these works to be postponed, until the increased number and compactness of the population, and excess of wealth, would render the expense less burdensome.
The first attempts at paving were made on Superior street, below the Square, and on River street. The paving was of heavy planks laid across the street, and was at the time a source of pride to the citizens; but when, in coming years, the planks were warped and loosened, it became an intolerable nuisance. On River street the floods of the Cuyahoga sometimes rushed through the warehouses and covered the street, floating off the planks and leaving them in hopeless disorder on the subsidence of the waters. It was at last determined to pave these streets with stone. Limestone was at first chosen, but found not to answer, and Medina sandstone was finally adopted, with which all the stone paving of the streets has been since done. Within two or three years the Nicholson wood pavement has been introduced, and has been laid extensively on the streets above the bluff. On the low land along the river valley the paving still continues to be of stone. At the present time there are between seventeen and eighteen miles of pavement finished or under construction, about half of which is Nicholson wood pavement, and the remainder Medina sandstone.
Within a few years the work of sewering the city has been systematized and pushed forward vigorously. At first, the sewers were made to suit the needs of a particular locality, without any reference to a general system, and consequently were found utterly inadequate to the growing necessities of the city. Proper legislation was obtained from the General Assembly, money was obtained on the credit of the city, the territory was mapped out into sewer districts, with sewer lines for each district, so arranged as to form a part of one harmonious whole, and the work commenced. All the main sewers drain into the lake. There are now about twenty-seven miles of main and branch sewers finished, and additional sewers are in progress of construction.
The rapid growth of the city, and the gradual failure, or deterioration, of the wells, in the most thickly settled parts, rendered it necessary to find some other source of a constant supply of pure water. It was determined to obtain the supply from Lake Erie, and for this purpose an inlet pipe was run out into the lake, west of the Old River Bed. The pipe is of boiler plate, three-eighths of an inch thick, fifty inches in diameter, and three hundred feet long, extending from the shore to the source of supply at twelve feet depth of water, and terminating in the lake at a circular tower, constructed of piles driven down as deep as they can be forced into the bottom of the lake. There are two concentric rows of piles, two abreast, leaving eight feet space between the outer and interior rows, which space is filled with broken stones to the top of the piles. The piles are then capped with strong timber plates, securely bolted together and fastened with iron to the piles. The outside diameter of the tower is thirty-four feet, the inside diameter is eight feet, forming a strong protection around an iron well-chamber, which is eight feet in diameter and fifteen feet deep, which is riveted to the end of the inlet pipe. An iron grating fixed in a frame which slides in a groove, to be removed and cleaned at pleasure, is attached to the well-chamber, and forms the strainer, placed four feet below the surface of the lake, through which the water passes into the well-chamber and out at the inlet pipe. A brick aqueduct connects the shore end of the inlet pipe with the engine house, three thousand feet distant. From the engine house the water is conveyed to the reservoir, on Franklin, Kentucky and Duane streets, built on a ridge thirty feet higher than any other ground in the city.
The Cleveland Water Works were commenced on the 10th day of August, 1854, and were so far completed as to let water on the city on the 19th day of September, 1856. The time required to build the Works was two years and thirty-nine days. The capacity of these Works to deliver water is greater than the originally estimated wants of the population the works were intended to supply, which was for 100,000. They are, however, capable of supplying at least 300,000 inhabitants with abundance of water. By an enlargement of the main pump barrel and plunger to each Cornish engine, which was contemplated in the plans, the supply may be increased to an almost unlimited extent. No fear can be entertained that the present Water Works in the next fifty years will fail to yield a superabundant supply of water.
The water was first introduced into the city temporarily at the earnest solicitation of the Mayor, Common Council, and Trustees of Water Works, in which the citizens generally participated, on the occasion of the State Fair, on the 24th of September, 1856. Apart from the Fair, this event was hailed with demonstrations of great joy as the celebration of the introduction of the waters of Lake Erie into the city of Cleveland. At the intersection of the road ways, crossing at the centre of the Public Square, a capacious fountain, of chaste and beautiful design was erected, from which was thrown a jet of pure crystal water high into the air, which, as the centre, greatest attraction, gratified thousands of admiring spectators. It became necessary after the Fair to shut off the water as was anticipated, to remove a few pipes near the Ship Channel which had broke in two by the unequal settling of the pipes in the quicksand bed through which they were laid. These repairs were promptly made, and the water let on the city again; since which time the supply has been regular and uninterrupted. The length of pipes laid up to the first of January, 1869, aggregated thirty-nine and one-half miles. The total cost of the Works to that period was $722,273.33. The earnings, over running expenses, for 1868, were $36,340.23, being a little over five per cent, on the capital invested. The preliminary work is now doing for the construction of a tunnel under the bed of the lake, in order to obtain a water supply at such a distance from the shore as to be beyond the reach of the winter ice-field and the impurities collected beneath the ice-crust.
Three commodious and tasteful markets have been erected within a few years, one on the west side of the river, one in the fifth ward, and the Central Market, at the junction of Woodland avenue and Broadway.
Four horse railroads are in active operation within the city: the East Cleveland, organized in 1859, and running from the junction of Superior and Water streets, by the way of Euclid avenue and Prospect street, to the eastern limit of the city on Euclid avenue, thence continuing to East Cleveland. This line has also a branch running off the main line at Brownell street, and traversing the whole length of Garden street, to the eastern limit of the city. The Kinsman street line, organized in 1859, runs from the junction of Superior and Water streets, through Ontario street and Woodland avenue to Woodland Cemetery. The West Side railroad runs from the junction of Superior and Water streets, by way of South Water, Detroit and Kentucky street, to Bridge street, with a branch along Pearl street. The St. Clair street railroad, the latest built, runs along St. Clair from Water street to the eastern line of the city. Besides these, a local railroad, operated by steam, connects the Kinsman street line with Newburg, and another of a similar character connects the West Side railroad with Rocky River. Charters have been obtained for a railroad to connect the Pearl street branch of the West Side railroad with University Heights, and for a line to run parallel with the bluff overlooking the north bank of the Cuyahoga from River street, to the boundary between the city and Newburg township.
Henry S. Stevens.
To Henry S. Stevens, more than to any other man, are the citizens of Cleveland indebted for their facilities in traveling, cheaply and comfortably, from point to point in the city, and for the remarkable immunity the Forest City has enjoyed from hack driving extortions and brutality, which have so greatly annoyed citizens and strangers in many other cities. To his foresight, enterprise and steady perseverance is Cleveland indebted for its excellent omnibus and public carriage system, and for the introduction of street railroads. Both these improvements were not established without a sharp struggle, in the former case against the determined opposition of the hack drivers who preferred acting for themselves and treating the passenger as lawful prey, and in the case of street railroads, having to overcome interested opposition, popular indifference or prejudice, and official reluctance to permit innovations.
Mr. Stevens was born in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, January, 1821. After spending seven years at school in Salem and Boston, his father's family moved to New Hampshire. He attended school there for two years. Before he was twenty years of age he developed a desire to visit new scenes and a propensity for observing strange characters and manners, which seems to have strengthened with his years. Our railroad system and ocean steam navigation were then in their infancy, and the first journey he made was almost equivalent to a journey around the globe at the present day. He took passage in a packet ship from Boston for the West Indies, visiting Porto Rico, Matanzas and Havana, thence to New Orleans, the interior of Texas and Arkansas, and remained a winter at Alexandria, in western Louisiana. About a year after his return to New Hampshire the family removed to Maryland, where he resided nine years, and finally came to Cleveland in 1849, when this city had less than a fifth of its present population. He was one of the early proprietors of the Weddell House, and upon his retirement from the business, he established the omnibus local transit for passengers and baggage at a uniform rate of charge, which system has been generally adopted in the principal cities in the country.
In 1856, in company with two other gentlemen from New York, he explored the southern part of Mexico from the Gulf to the Pacific ocean, with reference to its availability for a railroad and preliminary stage road. The result was, that two years later he completed an arrangement with the Louisiana Tehuantepec Company to carry out the provisions of their charter. He chartered a vessel at New York and shipped mechanics and other employees, coaches and materials, and in two months thereafter the line commenced moving a distance of one hundred and twelve miles through the forests and over the rolling plains of Southern Mexico.
For nearly a year this continued successfully, and it was owing either to his good fortune or good management, that no accident to passengers or property was incurred, and of the large number of his employees from the States, every one returned in good health. The rebellion was then in its incipiency, and the Southern owners of the route decided to suspend operations until their little difficulty was adjusted with the North.
Mr. Stevens, however, is better known as having started the street railroad system here, which has proved so great a convenience to our citizens, and which has enhanced the price of real estate in this city more than any other one cause. He built the Prospect street, Kinsman street and West Side railroads; the first two without aid from capitalists, and in the face of many discouragements. In the Fall of 1865, he went to Rio Janeiro for the purpose of establishing street railroads in that city. These roads are now in successful operation there. In this journey Mr. Stevens visited many other places in Brazil, including Pernambuco, Bahia, St. Salvador and Para, on the river Amazon. Returning by the way of Europe, he stopped at the Cape de Verde Islands, on the coast of Africa, thence to Lisbon and across Portugal to Madrid. During his sojourn in Spain he visited Granada, the Alhambra, and many cities in the south of Spain. His route home was through Paris, London and Liverpool. Two years later he made an extended tour over Europe, including Russia, Hungary, and other places of the Danube.
Mr. Stevens has served four years in the city council, and for two years was president of that body. During his official term he was noted for regularity and punctuality of attendance, close attention to business, and watchful care of the public interests. As presiding officer he had few equals. Dignified, yet courteous, in manner, and thoroughly impartial, he possessed the respect of all parties in the council, and was always able to so conduct the deliberations as to prevent unseemly outbreaks or undignified discussions. Methodical in the disposition of business, he was able to get through a large amount in a short time, without the appearance of haste.
Mr. Stevens is one of that class of travelers of whom there are, unhappily, but few, who not only travel far, but see much, and are able to relate what they saw with such graphic power as to give those who remain at home a pleasure only secondary to visiting the scenes in person. His several wanderings in Mexico and Central America, in South America, Western Europe, and Russia, have all been narrated briefly, or more at length, in letters to the Cleveland Herald, which for felicity of expression and graphic description, have had no superiors in the literature of travel. This is high praise, but those who have read the several series of letters with the well known signature "H. S. S." will unqualifiedly support the assertion. In his journeyings he generally avoided the beaten track of tourists and sought unhackneyed scenes. These were observed with intelligent eyes, the impressions deepened and corrected by close investigation into the historical and contemporary facts connected with the localities, and the result given in language graphic, direct, and at the same time easy and graceful. A collection of these letters would make one of the most delightful volumes of travel sketches in the language.
Theodore R. Scowden.
Theodore R. Scowden, son of Theodore Scowden, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was born June 8, 1815, and was educated at Augusta College, Kentucky.
On leaving college, in 1832, he was apprenticed to the steam engine business at Cincinnati, and continued at this about four years, when he engaged as engineer on a steamer plying between Cincinnati and New Orleans. From the time of commencing engine building, he employed all his spare moments in studying mechanics, hydraulics and civil engineering. He remained in the position of engineer on the river for about eight years, when, in 1844, he turned his attention to the work of designing and planning engines, and so put into practice the knowledge acquired by application for the previous twelve years, and, in fact, for which he more particularly fitted himself while at college. He was then appointed by the city council of Cincinnati, engineer of water works, the primitive works then existing being inadequate to the increased wants of the city. The water was conveyed in log pipes, and the work before Mr. Scowden was to replace these logs by iron pipes, and to design and erect new works. In about a year from his appointment his plans were perfected and he was ready to commence operation. A great difficulty under which he labored, was, the necessity of keeping up the supply of water all the time, and being at the same time compelled to place the new reservoir and engine house in the exact spot of the old. This made the construction extend through nearly eight years, during which time from forty to fifty miles of iron pipe were laid, and a reservoir of great capacity constructed. This was his first great public work completed, and was a perfect success.
The first low pressure engine ever successfully used in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, was designed by Mr. Scowden and introduced into these works. It was found that the sedimentary matter of the Ohio river cut the valves in the condensing apparatus, and so destroying the vacuum, rendered the working of the engine ineffective. This Mr. Scowden overcame by introducing vulcanized india rubber valves, seated on a grating. Since that time he has designed several low pressure engines for the Mississippi river, which are still working successfully.
In 1851, Mr. Scowden was commissioned by the city of Cincinnati, to make the tour of England and France for the purpose of examining the principles and workings of public docks, drainage, paving and water works. After returning and making his report he resigned his post and came to Cleveland, for the purpose of constructing the water works now in operation in this city. The plan and designs were completed during 1852, and active operations commenced in 1853. The site of these works is said to have presented more engineering difficulties than any other in the country. At the time the tests were made for the foundation of the engine house, the water was nearly knee deep, and four men forced a rod thirty feet long and three-quarters of an inch in diameter twenty-eight feet into the ground. By the aid of five steam engines and pumps he succeeded in excavating to the depth of fourteen feet, and not being able to proceed further, he commenced the foundation. It is well to note the fact here, that the soil was in such a semi-fluid state that it could not be handled with a shovel, and altogether the chances of success for securing a permanent foundation looked, to the public, at least, very dubious. The citizens grew uneasy; they thought it was a waste of public money, but Mr. Snowden never despaired, though he with his own hand thrust a pole down twelve feet from the bottom of the excavation.
He laid down over the whole area two courses of timber laid cross-wise, leaving a space of twelve inches between each timber. The first timber was drawn by a rope, and floated to its place. In order to get a bed he scooped a space of two feet in length at one end, which was filled with gravel. This process was continued through the whole length of the timber. The second timber was floated to its place, leaving a foot between them, and the same operation was performed throughout the whole foundation.
All the spaces between the timbers were filled with broken stone and hydraulic cement; then the cross timbers were laid, filling the spans with the concrete also. It is to be observed that not a single pile was driven in all the foundation.
The masonry was commenced upon the timbers, and carried up about nineteen feet, and, notwithstanding the misgivings of scientific and experienced contractors and builders, and others, the superstructure was completed in 1855, and from that day to this not a crack in an angle of the building has been seen, although it may with truth be said that the engine house floats on a bed of quicksand. There were three thousand feet of aqueduct from the engine house to the lake, which presented similar difficulties, as did also the laying of pipes under the Cuyahoga river.
The engines in use in the Cleveland works are the first Cornish engines introduced west of the Allegheny mountains. After completing the works and putting them in successful operation, Mr. Scowden resigned his position here, in 1856.
In 1857, Mr. Scowden commenced the construction of the water works of Louisville, Kentucky, and finished them in 1860, and for character, capacity and finish they are acknowledged to be second to none in the United States, if in the world. The second pair of Cornish engines used west of the mountains were introduced there.
The next public work of Mr. Scowden was the extension and enlargement of the canal around the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville, which comprises a new work, as very little of the old was used. The engineering of the work was done under the direction of a board of directors, the president of which was James Guthrie, former Secretary of the Treasury under Pierce, and late United States Senator.
The locks in these works are the largest in the known world for width, length, and lift, not excepting the Suez Canal. There are two locks of thirteen feet lift, and containing fifty-two thousand yards of masonry. The canal is crossed by iron swing bridges. The work has been inspected by the United States topographical engineers, and General Wietzel, now in charge of the work, has pronounced it unsurpassed by anything within the range of his knowledge, and, what is more remarkable, a like tribute to the skill of our fellow citizen has been accorded by French, English and German engineers, and also by the president of the board.
This was his last and greatest triumph of engineering skill; and being a national work, and he a civilian, he may well feel proud of his achievement.
After completing the last mentioned work, Mr. Scowden returned to Cleveland and engaged in the iron trade, constructing a rolling mill at Newburg, for the American sheet and boiler plate company, with which he is still connected.
As an engineer, Mr. Scowden stands high. He never was baffled, though established principles failed, for he had resources of his own from which to draw. Without an exception, every great public work undertaken by him has been not only completed, but has proved entirely successful.
As a man he enjoys the respect and confidence of his fellow citizens. His manner is affable and unassuming, and his disposition kindly. Constant application for twenty-five years has had its effect upon him, but with care, he may yet be spared many years to enjoy the fruits of his labors.
John H. Sargent.
John H. Sargent has been, and is, so intimately connected with the construction and management of some of the most important public improvements of the city, and notably so with the sewerage system and water works management, that it is eminently proper he should be noticed here as a representative man in the department of City Improvements.
Mr. Sargent was born March 7, 1814, at Carthage, near Rochester, New York. His parents were but recent emigrants from New Hampshire, and when he was but three years old they removed again toward the land of the setting sun, taking up their residence in what is now the city of Monroe, Michigan, but which was then known as River Raisin. In that place they remained but a year, at the end of which time they removed to Cleveland. Levi Sargent, the father of the subject of this sketch, was by trade a blacksmith, and was at one time a partner in that business with Abraham Hickox, then, and long after, familiarly known to every one in the neighborhood as "Uncle Abram." He soon removed to the west side of the river, and thence to Brooklyn, where he built him one of the first houses erected on that side, on top of the hill. Hard knocks upon the anvil could barely enable him to support his family, so the boy, at the age of nine, was sent to the Granite State, where for ten years he enjoyed, during the Winter months, the advantages of a New England district school, and worked and delved among the rocks upon a farm the remainder of the year. At the age of nineteen, with a freedom suit of satinet, and barely money enough to bring him home, he returned to Cleveland.
Here, after supporting himself, he devoted all his leisure time to the study of mathematics, for which he had a predilection. Subsequently he spent some time at the Norwich University, Vermont, at an engineering and semi-military school, under the management of Captain Patridge.
When the subject of railroads began to agitate the public mind, and the project of a railroad along the south shore of Lake Erie was resolved upon, Mr. Sargent was appointed resident engineer upon the Ohio Railroad, which position he held until the final collapse of that somewhat precarious enterprise, in 1843. Sandusky City had already taken the lead in Ohio in the matter of railroads, having a locomotive road in operation to Tiffin, and horse road to Monroeville. Upon the reconstruction and extension of this last road Mr. Sargent was appointed resident engineer, and while there, seeing the advantages that Sandusky was likely to gain over Cleveland by her railways, at the solicitation of J. W. Gray, he sent a communication to the Plain Dealer, illustrating the same with a map, urging the construction of a railroad from Cleveland to Columbus and Cincinnati. He also advocated the project in the Railroad Journal, but that paper discouraged the matter, as it was likely to be too much of a competing line with the Sandusky road already begun. But the agitation continued until the preliminary surveys were made, the greater part of them under Mr. Sargent's immediate charge. When the project hung fire for a time, Mr. Sargent, in company with Philo Scovill, spent two seasons among the copper mines of Lake Superior. When the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati railroad was begun in good earnest, he was called upon once more and located the line upon which it was built. Mr. Sargent remained upon the road until opened to Wellington, when he went upon the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana railroad, where, for nearly five years, he was engaged in extending and reconstructing that road, and in locating and building its branches.
Since 1855, most of his time has been spent in Cleveland, in engineering and works of public utility. While city civil engineer he strongly advocated, though for the time unsuccessfully, the introduction of the Nicholson pavement, and introduced and established the present system of sewerage, a work, the importance of which to the health and comfort of the citizens, can not be overestimated.
Mr. Sargent has been chosen one of the commissioners for enlarging and extending the water works so as to meet the altered circumstances and enlarged demands of the city.
In politics Mr. Sargent is, and has always been, a Democrat, but never allows party prejudices to sway him, and is in no sense a professed politician. The honesty of his convictions and his uprightness of conduct have won for him the respect and friendship of men of all parties, who have confidence in his never permitting party considerations to interfere with his honest endeavor to serve the public interests to the best of his ability, whenever placed in a position to do so. During the rebellion he was zealous and untiring in his support of the government, and aiding, by all the means in his power, to crush out the rebellion.
Previous to the rebellion, Cleveland had the honor of possessing military companies famous for their drill and efficiency, and which were the pride of the citizens and a credit to the State. At the outbreak of the rebellion, the Cleveland companies were foremost in tendering their services, were among the first Ohio troops that rushed to the scene of danger, and were in the first skirmish of the war between the volunteer troops of the North and the organized troops of the rebels—that at Vienna. The first artillery company organized in the West was formed in Cleveland, and kept its organization up for many years before the war. The breaking out of the war found this artillery organization ready for service, and scarcely waiting for authority, it was speedily on its way to the point where its services seemed most needed. To its promptness and efficiency is largely due the swift expulsion of the rebels from West Virginia and the saving of that State to the Union cause. As the war progressed, companies first, and then whole regiments, were rapidly organized, and sent forward from Cleveland, until at length every portion of the field of war had Cleveland representatives in it. Those who remained at home eagerly aided those in the field. Money was raised in large sums whenever wanted, to forward the work of enlistment, to provide comforts for the soldiers in the field, and to care for the sick and wounded. Busy hands and sympathetic hearts worked together in unison, enlarging their field of operation until the Cleveland Soldiers' Aid Society became the Northern Ohio Soldiers' Aid Society, and that again developed into the Western Branch of the Sanitary Commission.
In the imposing ceremonies of the inauguration of the Perry statue on the Public Square in Cleveland on the tenth of September, 1860, a few months before the breaking out of actual hostilities between the North and South, the whole military force of the city participated. The organizations represented were the First Regiment Cleveland Light Artillery, under command of Colonel James Barnett and Lieutenant Colonel S. B. Sturges, composed of the following companies: Co. A, Capt. Simmons; Co. B, Capt. Mack; Co. D, Capt. Rice; Co. E, Capt. Heckman. [Co. C, Capt. Kenny, belonged to Geneva. It took part in the ceremonies, under the general command of Colonel Barnett, but at that time retained its old organization as Independent Battery A.] Brooklyn Light Artillery, Capt. Pelton; Cleveland Light Dragoons, Capt. Haltnorth; Cleveland Grays, Capt. Paddock; Cleveland Light Guards, Capt. Sanford; Hibernian Guards, Capt. Kenny. Of these the Cleveland Grays had achieved the greatest reputation in past years for its drill and efficiency. It had been the pet of the citizens, and in its ranks, at one time or another, had been found the very best class of the people of Cleveland, who continued to take pride in the organization, and contribute to its maintenance, long after they ceased to be actually connected with it.
When President Lincoln's call for troops was received, the Cleveland Grays and Hibernian Guards promptly tendered their services, and the first named company started for the field without a single hour's unnecessary delay. It was formed with the First Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was in the skirmish at Vienna. On the re-organization of the Ohio troops into three years' regiments, a large proportion of the Cleveland Grays found positions as officers in new regiments, where their knowledge of drill and discipline was of great value in bringing the masses of raw volunteers into speedy use as efficient soldiers. The Hibernian Guards followed the Cleveland Grays and did good service throughout the war. Many of the original members of this company also became gradually scattered throughout other regiments as company or staff officers. The Cleveland Light Guards formed the nucleus of the Seventh Ohio, whose history is identical with that of its two principal officers, which will be found in subsequent pages. The story of the Cleveland Light Artillery is mainly told in that of General Barnett, its commander and leading spirit.
It is, of course, impossible to furnish an exact account of the number of men furnished by Cleveland to the army of the Union, or even to designate the particular organizations belonging to that city. Clevelanders were to be found scattered through a number of regiments not raised in this vicinity, and among the regiments organized in Cleveland camps many were almost entirely composed of men from beyond the city, or even county lines. To the 1st Ohio Infantry Cleveland contributed the Cleveland Grays. The 7th Ohio was organized at Camp Cleveland, and contained three companies raised exclusively in Cleveland. The 8th Ohio, organized in Cleveland, contained one Cleveland company—the Hibernian Guards. The 23d and 27th Ohio, organized at Camp Chase, contained Cleveland companies. The 37th Ohio, (German) was organized in Cleveland, and a large part of its members enlisted at this point. The 41st Ohio was a Cleveland regiment, recruited mainly in the city. The 54th Ohio, organized at Camp Dennison, contained one Cleveland company. The 58th Ohio, (German,) also contained a Cleveland contingent. Clevelanders also were in the 61st, organized at Camp Chase. The 67th Ohio had a considerable proportion of Clevelanders. The 103rd Ohio was organized in Cleveland, and was, to a large extent, a Cleveland regiment, in both officers and men. The 107th Ohio, (German,) was organized and largely recruited in Cleveland. The 124th Ohio was organized in Cleveland, most of its companies recruited there and the regiment officered mainly by Cleveland men. The 125th Ohio was organized in Cleveland, with some Cleveland recruits. The 128th Ohio, (Prisoner's Guards,) was recruited and organized in Cleveland. It did duty on Johnson's Island. The 129th Ohio was organized in Cleveland, having been partially recruited and officered in the same place. It was organized for six months' service. The 150th Ohio, National Guard, for one hundred days' service, was organized in Cleveland, and contained eight companies from the city, (the 29th Ohio Volunteer Militia,) with one from Oberlin, and another from Independence. It garrisoned some of the forts around Washington and took part in the repulse of the rebel attack in June, 1864. The 177th Ohio, one year regiment, was organized and partly recruited in Cleveland. The 191st, organized at Columbus, was commanded and partly recruited with Clevelanders. The 2nd, 10th and 12th Ohio Cavalry regiments were organized and partially recruited in Cleveland. The 1st regiment of Ohio Light Artillery was made out of the 1st regiment Cleveland Light Artillery. Besides these Cleveland furnished to the service, in whole or part, the 9th, 14th, 15th, 19th and 20th Independent Batteries. Other regiments were organized at the Cleveland camps, but probably contained no members that could be credited to Cleveland, and mention of them is therefore omitted here. In addition a large number of recruits were obtained for the regular army, and for the navy, besides contributions to the colored regiments raised during the war. A number of Clevelanders, for one reason or another, also took service in regiments of other States.
Colonel Charles Whittlesey.
Although Colonel Whittlesey was trained to the profession of arms, and has a military record of which he may well be proud, it is not in the field of battle that he has won the honors he prizes most, but in the broader fleld of science. It is among the heroes who have achieved distinction in grappling with the mysteries of nature and who have developed means for making life more useful and comfortable, that Colonel Whittlesey would have preferred taking position, rather than among those whose distinction comes rather of destruction than construction or production. But the exigencies of this work prevent the formation of a distinct scientific department, and the military services of Colonel Whittlesey have been such that he could not, without injustice, be omitted from this department of our work.
Charles Whittlesey was born in Southington, Connecticut, about midnight of October 4-5, 1808, being the first born of Asaph and Vesta Whittlesey. When four years old he was sent to the old red school house "to be out of harm's way," whilst his father was in the Ohio wilderness, exploring for a home.
The location was found, and in 1813 the family removed to Talmadge, Summit county, Ohio. There the young boy trudged from home to the log school house, south of Talmadge Centre, until 1819, when the frame academy was finished and the eleven year old lad attended school in the new building during the Winter, and in Summer worked on the farm. This mode of life continued until 1824.
In 1827, he was appointed a cadet at West Point.
During his second year at West Point, a fiery Southerner made a Personal assault upon a superior officer, the military punishment for which is death. He was condemned by a court-martial to be shot. While the sentence was being forwarded to Washington for approval the culprit was confined in the cadet prison, without irons. Cadet Whittlesey was one evening on post at the door of the prison, and as he passed on his beat, his back being for a moment towards the door, the prisoner, who was a powerful man, sprang out and seized the sentinel's musket from behind. At the same instant the muzzle of a pistol was presented to the ear of the young cadet with an admonition to keep quiet. This, however, did not prevent him from calling lustily for the "corporal of the guard." Cadet O. M. Mitchel, of subsequent fame, happened to be in charge of the guard as corporal and then coming up stairs with the relief. With his usual activity he sprang forward and the scion of chivalry ran. The guns of the sentinels at West Point are not loaded. The escaping prisoner could not, therefore, be shot, but in the pursuit by Cadet Whittlesey he had nearly planted a bayonet in his back when the guard seized him.
After passing through the regular course of instruction at West Point, he graduated, and, in 1831, was made Brevet Second Lieutenant of the Fifth United States Infantry, and served in the Black Hawk campaign of 1832. He afterwards resigned, and for the next quarter of a century his record is wholly a scientific one. Recognizing the right of the government to his military services in national emergencies he offered to resume his old rank in the Florida war of 1838, and in the Mexican war of 1846, but his offers were not accepted.
In 1837, he was appointed on the geological survey of Ohio, and was engaged on that work two years, the survey eventually terminating through the neglect of the Legislature to make the necessary appropriations. Incomplete as the work was, the survey was of immense importance to Ohio, as the investigations of Colonel Whitlesey and his associates revealed a wealth of mineral treasures hitherto unsuspected, and enabled capital and enterprise to be directed with intelligence to their development. The value of the rich coal and iron deposits of North-eastern Ohio was disclosed by this survey, and thus the foundation was laid for the extensive manufacturing industry that has added enormously to the population, wealth and importance of this portion of the State. It was with the important results of his labors in Ohio in mind, that the State Government of Wisconsin secured his services for the geological survey of that State, which was carried on through the years 1858, 1859 and 1860, terminating with the breaking out of the war. From this survey also very important results have already followed, and still more will be arrived at in the course of a few years.
From 1847 to 1851, both inclusive, Colonel Whittlesey was employed by the United States government in the survey of Lake Superior and the upper Mississippi in reference to mines and minerals. In addition to this he has spent much time in surveying particular portions of the mineral districts of the Lake Superior basin, and has, in all, spent fifteen seasons on the waters of Lake Superior and upper Mississippi, making himself thoroughly familiar with the topography and geological character of that portion of our country.
Colonel Whittlesey was at home in Cleveland quietly pursuing his scientific studies and investigations, when the national trouble commenced. When the entrance of President Lincoln into Washington was threatened by violence in February, 1861, he was an enrolled member of one of the companies tendering their services to General Scott. Seeing that war was inevitable, he personally urged the Governor and Legislature of Ohio to prepare for it before the proclamation of April 15, 1861, and on the 17th he joined the Governor's staff as assistant quartermaster general. He served in the field in Western Virginia, with the three months levies, as State military engineer with the Ohio troops under Generals McClellan, Cox and Hill, and at Scary Run, on the Kanawha, July 17, 1861, behaved with great gallantry under fire, and conducted himself with intrepidity and coolness during an engagement that lasted two hours, and in which his horse was wounded under him. At the expiration of the service of the three months troops he was appointed Colonel of the 20th regiment Ohio volunteers, and detailed by General O. M. Mitchel as chief engineer of the department of the Ohio, where he planned and constructed the defences of Cincinnati, which he afterwards volunteered to defend, in September, 1862. At the battle of Fort Donelson he was with his regiment, and was complimented by General Grant on the morning of the surrender by being put in charge of the prisoners. A published correspondence from the prisoners proves with what kindness and courtesy to the unfortunate this task was performed. A testimony to a similar effect is the correspondence from the leading residents of the rebel counties of Owen, Grant, Carroll and Gallatin, in Kentucky, which in the Winter of 1861, were placed under his command, and which he ruled with such firmness, yet moderation, that both Union men and rebels bore witness to his conservative, moderate, and gentlemanly course, as well as to his promptness and decision.
At the battle of Shiloh, Colonel Whittlesey, on the second day of that desperate fight, commanded the third brigade of General Wallace's division. The part borne by this brigade in the battle has become historic. It was composed of Ohio troops, the 20th, 56th 76th, and 78th regiments, and it was against their line that General Beauregard attempted to throw the whole weight of his force for a last desperate charge, when he was driven back by the terrible fire poured into him. General Wallace, in his officiai report, makes especial and honorable mention of the important part taken by this brigade and its commander in the battle.
Soon after the battle Colonel Whittlesey sent in his resignation, which he had intended sending in earlier, but withheld because he foresaw some important military movements in which he desired to take part. The critical condition of his wife's health and his own disabilities, which had reached a point threatening soon to unfit him for any service whatever, compelled him to take this step. After the battle of Shiloh, when he could resign with honor and without detriment to the service, he sent in his resignation. General regret was expressed by the officers with whom he had been associated and by his old command. The application was endorsed by General Grant "We cannot afford to lose so good an officer." General Wallace, General Cox, and General Force added their commendations of his abilities and services, and few officers retired from the army with a clearer or more satisfactory record, or with greater regret on the part of his military associates.
Since his retirement, Colonel Whittlesey has been leisurely engaged in scientific and literary pursuits, has again spent much time in geological explorations in the Lake Superior and Upper Mississippi country, has organized and brought into successful operation the Western Reserve Historical Society, of which he continues to be president, and has accumulated in its spacious hall a good collection of historical works relating to the West, and a rich collection of geological and antiquarian specimens, gathered in Ohio and the Northwest.
Colonel Whittlesey has contributed largely to scientific literature, and his works have attracted wide attention, not only among scientific men of America, but of Europe. His published works are to be found in the Geological Reports of Ohio, 1838-9; United States Geological Surveys of the Upper Mississippi, D. D. Owen, 1847, 1849; United States Geological Surveys of Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Foster and Whitney, 1850, 1851; Life of John Fitch, Spark's American Biography, new series, Volume 6, 1845; Fugitive Essays, mainly historical, published at Hudson, Ohio, 8vo., pp. 357, 1854; Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge;—Ancient Works of Ohio, 1852; Fluctuation of Lake Levels, 1860; Ancient Mining on Lake Superior, 1863; Fresh Water Glacial Drift, 1866. In addition to these are an essay on the Mineral Resources of the Rocky Mountains, in 1863; a handsome and valuable volume on the Early History of Cleveland, in 1866, and about thirty essays, reports, and pamphlets, besides very numerous and valuable contributions to newspapers and scientific journals.
General James Barnett.
James Barnett was born on the 21st of June, 1821, at Cherry Valley, Otsego county, New York. He came to Cleveland when about four years of age, and after receiving a common school education commenced his business career by entering the hardware store of Potter, Clark & Murfey, where he served three years as clerk. At the end of that time he went into the hardware house of George Worthington, and has for many years been a member of the firm of George Worthington & Co. As a business man and good citizen he stands very high in the estimation of the people of Cleveland, but it is with his military record that we have now chiefly to deal.
In 1840, an independent Company of artillery was organized in Cleveland, and at its start was made a part of the old Cleveland Grays, afterwards the artillery part formed a company by itself, which had for its commanders D. L. Wood and A. S. Sanford. This organization was kept up until the breaking out of the war, and was, without doubt, the best drilled and equipped artillery organization west of the mountains; the State supplied the guns, harness and caissons, but the expenses for horses, the meeting and drill houses, and equipments, and all their expenses, were paid by themselves. They drilled regularly, took an excursion every year, visited Niagara, Syracuse, Sandusky, Wooster, and also Chicago, on the occasion of the assembling of the River and Harbor Convention. At every point they visited they never failed to infuse a military spirit into the people, and to create a desire for similar companies. Nearly all the artillery organizations of the West sprang out of this little nucleus at Cleveland, for at the places visited and instructed by the Cleveland company, men were obtained at the breaking out of the war who were to some extent familiar with artillery drill, and many of them became, because of this, commanders during the rebellion. Such commanders were to be found throughout the service.
About two years before the war, the Ohio militia law was so amended as to permit the organization of artillery companies, with one gun to a company, every six guns to form a command, entitled to elect a colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and major. The Cleveland Light Artillery took immediate advantage of this by organizing into the First, Regiment Light Artillery, O. V. M., with the following officers: Colonel, James Barnett; Lieutenant Colonel, S. B. Sturges; Major, Clark Gates; Quartermaster, Amos Townsend; Quartermaster's Sergeant, Randall Crawford; Co. A, Captain Wm. R. Simmons; Co. B, Captain John G. Mack; Co. C, Captain D. Kenny; Co. D, Captain Percy Rice; Co. E, Captain F. W. Pelton. The three city companies drilled at what is now the Varieties, on Frankfort street, Captain Pelton's company at Brooklyn, and Captain Kenny's at Geneva.
In the Winter of 1860, the regiment tendered their services to the State authorities in case of difficulty, as the rebels in West Virginia were assuming a threatening attitude. This offer was accepted, but the opinion expressed in the acceptance, that the proffered services would probably not be needed. Five days after the fall of Fort Sumter the order came for the regiment to report with its six guns to Columbus. On the second day after the date of the order the organization, with full complement of men and guns, passed through Columbus en route to Marietta, where a rebel demonstration was expected. Here it remained a little over a month, when a detachment with two guns, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Sturges, crossed into West Virginia at Parkersburg, and the remainder, under command of Colonel Barnett, crossed the river at Benwood and proceeded to Grafton, West Virginia. The two guns under Lieutenant Colonel Sturges went up the Baltimore and Ohio line to Philippi, and in the affair at that place did telling service. Theirs was the first artillery fired in the field by the National forces in the war of the rebellion. About a month after, the detachment rejoined the main body of the regiment, and the guns of the artillery did good service in the attack on the rebels at Laurel Hill, the result being the hasty flight of the enemy.
In the pursuit from Laurel Hill, two pieces pushed over the mountains and pressed their rear guard with great energy for two days, during nearly the whole time in a drenching rain, deep mud, and through fords, the men all anxiety to overtake the fleeing foes. The rebels had felled trees to obstruct the road. Some chopped the trees asunder, some helped the guns through the mud, and all worked like desperate men. Finally the transportation of the rebels stuck fast in quicksand and stopped the whole train. The rebels were compelled to make a stand to protect their baggage. To effect this they drew up their forces on a little table land, near Carrick's Ford—the position being hid by a row of bushes on the edge of the hill, and overlooking the line of Colonel Barnett's command. The head of the column was pushing on with great impetuosity when they were suddenly opened upon from the point of land on their right hand, but, fortunately, from the elevation, their fire mostly passed over their heads. The troops were immediately put into position to repel the attack; the guns, to give them scope, were wheeled out into the field and opened fire immediately with canister. Although fired upon by two pieces of artillery from the eminence, they lost no one, and after a few rounds the rebel guns were silenced, and the gallant attack by the infantry under Colonel Steadman of the 14th Ohio, Colonel Dumont, 6th Indiana, and Colonel Milroy, 9th Indiana, at the same time, drove them from their position. When taken, it was found that the gunner of one piece had been killed and was lying across the trunnions of the piece with the cartridge only half rammed—the horses having been killed at the same time and in falling broke the pole, so that it was impossible to get the gun away. Our men soon improvised another pole and harness, hitched some mules to the piece, and brought it away, together with the captured supplies. The pursuing column returned to camp at Laurel Hill.
Immediately after this, Colonel Barnett was ordered to report to General McClellan in person, at Beverly. There a consultation was had on the policy of taking the artillery on a campaign up the Kanawha, after General Wise. There was some question about ordering them on the campaign, from the fact that they were not in the United States command, their organization then not having been recognized by the General Government. They were Ohio troops, and their invasion of West Virginia was excused on the plea that it was necessary to the "defence of the State," for which purpose only they were mustered into the State service.
While the matter of a new campaign was being submitted to the command, the battle of Bull's Run took place, and McClellan was peremptorily ordered to Washington to take command of the army of the Potomac. Colonel Barnett returned to Columbus with his command, which was mustered in and mustered out of the United States service on the same day.
This affair, in connection with the operation at Rich Mountain, under Rosecrans, closed the campaign made by General McClellan in Western Virginia, and preserved the State to the Union.
Colonel Barnett and his command returned to Cleveland, bringing with them, by permission of Governor Dennison, the piece of artillery captured at Carrick's Ford, which still remains in Cleveland and is used for firing salutes. On reaching Cleveland the returning soldiers were received with public demonstrations of joy, and a vote of thanks, couched in the strongest terms of commendation, was unanimously adopted by the city council at their regular meeting, July 30, 1861.
Governor Dennison had strongly urged the General Government to grant him permission to furnish a twelve battery regiment of artillery as part of the State quota of troops. This was steadily refused for a considerable time, but at length a Mr. Sherwin, of Cincinnati, was granted permission to raise such a regiment, provided he could do it within a stated time. The attempt proving a failure, Governor Dennison obtained permission from the War Department to appoint Colonel Barnett to the task. Colonel Barnett at once left for Columbus, and in August, 1861, commenced the work of recruiting and equipping, the batteries being sent to the field as rapidly as they could be got ready. Co. A and Co. C reported to General Thomas in time to participate in the battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky. The other batteries were sent to different commands in Western Virginia and Kentucky, as soon as ready.
Colonel Barnett reported to General Buell, at Louisville, the following Spring, with a portion of the command, and on the arrival of the army at Nashville, in March, he was placed in command of the Artillery Reserve of the Army of the Ohio, in which capacity he served until ordered to Ohio, in July, 1862, on recruiting service, and was in command through the campaign embracing the battles of Pittsburgh Landing, Corinth and other affairs, up to the time of the occupation of Huntsville by Buell's army.
After having obtained the requisite number of recruits for his regiment, he was assigned to duty, in September, upon the staff of General C. C. Gilbert, at that time commanding the centre corps of the Army of the Ohio. After the battle of Perryville, the Colonel was transferred to the staff of Major General McCook, as Chief of Artillery, which position he filled until November 24, 1862, when he was designated by General Rosecrans, Chief of Artillery of the army of the Cumberland.
In the battles of Stone River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, and the various other operations of the grand old army of the Cumberland, Colonel Barnett was constantly and actively engaged, and is mentioned with special commendation by General Rosecrans in his official report, and received the confidence and support of the final commander of that department, the sturdy and gallant Thomas.
After the close of operations around Chattanooga, Colonel Barnett was put in command of the artillery of the department, requiring reorganization and remounting, which was formed in two divisions, consisting of six batteries in a division; the first division being batteries in the regular service; the second division being volunteer batteries, and principally composed of batteries of the First Ohio Light Artillery, having their camps near the city of Nashville, where they were thoroughly drilled, reorganized and equipped, and held in readiness for the field at any moment on requisition of the department commander; which command he retained until mustered out of the service, October 20, 1864.
Colonel Barnett also participated in the battle of Nashville, in which, however, he acted in a volunteer capacity, the battle having taken place subsequent to his muster out of the service.
Subsequently he was awarded a Brevet Brigadier Generalship, in consideration of his eminent abilities and the valuable services he had performed. On his return home he resumed his position in the old firm, having, by the generosity of his partners, been allowed to retain his interest without detriment during the whole time of his service.
Colonel Wm. H. Hayward.
Wm. H. Hayward was born at Lebanon, Connecticut, in 1824, was brought to Cleveland in 1826, received a good common school education, and at the age of fifteen became an apprentice to the printing business in the office of Sanford & Lott. At the end of his five years apprenticeship he was admitted as partner, solely because of his proficiency, not having any capital to put in. Mr. Lott retired on account of ill health, and the firm became Sanford & Hayward, which it has ever since remained, and which has steadily built up a large and profitable blank-book and lithographing business.
From boyhood Mr. Hayward had a taste for military studies, and he was early connected with the military organizations of the city. In the early days of the Cleveland Light Artillery, when it was under the command of his partner, General A. S. Sanford, he was First Lieutenant. When permission was received for the organization of the First Ohio Artillery as a three years regiment, Mr. Hayward was tendered, and from a sheer sense of duty to the country accepted, the Lieutenant Colonelcy of the regiment. He took an active part in recruiting, drilling, and organizing the men as fast as received, and sending them to the front. When the regiment was divided and sent in different directions his command was ordered to the Shenandoah Valley to report to General Shields. Under this command he took part in the fight at Port Republic, June 12, 1862, fought whilst another battle was going on at Cross Keys, seven miles distant. Soon afterwards he and his command became part of the Army of the Potomac, being attached to the Third Division under General Whipple, who was subsequently mortally wounded at Chancellorsville. On being assigned to that Division, Colonel Hayward was made Chief of Artillery. At the time of the battle of Gettysburg Colonel Hayward was assigned to duty in Washington.
His health, never good, having completely broken down, he was compelled to resign and return home. Here he remained attending his business duties and rendering such aid as lay in his power until the call for hundred days troops to defend Washington. At the time he was in command of the 29th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Militia, organized for just such emergencies, and which contained eight companies. With these two other companies were Consolidated, and the organization styled the 150th Ohio National Guards. Colonel Hayward led it to Washington, and took a leading part in the repulse of Early. The attack of the rebel forces was mainly against that part of the defences garrisoned by the 150th Regiment. There were no hopes of permanently keeping the rebels out of Washington with so small a force, but the main object was to keep them at bay until succor could arrive. To do this strategy was adopted. About eight hundred quartermaster's men, darkeys and teamsters, were sent off from Washington to swell the force; these men were kept marching and counter-marching around a piece of wood, then wheeled around and brought again into the view of the rebels, who, thinking there was a large force being massed there, deferred the attack till morning, when the veteran Sixth corps came up to their relief, and Early was driven back in discomfiture.
On the expiration of their term of service the 150th National Guards returned to Cleveland, and Colonel Hayward resumed business life.
Colonel Wm. R. Creighton.
No Infantry regiment raised in Cleveland became so thoroughly identified with Cleveland as the "Fighting Seventh." This was in great measure due to the fact that it was the first complete regiment sent from Cleveland, and that it contained a large number of the spirited young men of the city, taken from all classes of the population. The fortunes of the Seventh were followed with deep interest, their successes exulted in, and their losses mourned over. No public sorrow, saving that for the death of President Lincoln, was so general and deep as that which followed the news of the fall of the gallant leaders of the "old Seventh," as they led their handful of men, spared from numerous murderous battles, in the face of certain death up the hill at Ringgold. Grief for the loss was mingled with indignation at the stupidity or wanton cruelty that had sent brave men to such needless slaughter.
William R. Creighton, with whom the history of the Seventh is identified, was born in Pittsburgh, in June, 1837. At ten years old he was placed in a shoe store where he remained two years and then was placed for six months in a commercial college. From there he entered a printing office, where he served an apprenticeship of four years, and came to Cleveland, where he entered the Herald office, remaining there, with the exception of a few months, until just previous to the breaking out of the war.
In 1858, he became a member of the Cleveland Light Guards and rose to become a lieutenant in that organization. He was a great favorite with his fellow members of the company, and was not only a genial companion, but an excellent disciplinarian. At the breaking out of the war, he organized a company with the old Cleveland Light Guards as a nucleus, and soon had so many applications that his company was full and a second company was organized. A third company was also recruited. This was the beginning of the Seventh Ohio.
On a beautiful Sunday morning, in May, 1861, the Seventh marched through the streets of Cleveland, the first full regiment that had left the city, on the way to the railroad. The whole population turned out to bid them farewell. The regiment went to Camp Dennison, unarmed, without uniforms—except such uniforms as belonged to the old independent organizations—and with but temporary regimental organization. When but a few days in Camp Dennison, the call came for three years troops, and the regiment, with but few exceptions, volunteered for the three years service, with E. B. Tyler as Colonel, and Wm. E. Creighton as Lieutenant Colonel. The places of those who declined to enlist for three years were soon filled by fresh recruits.