King Richard being aduertised of his comming, hasted foorth to met him, and giuing the onset vpon him, forced him to fle vnto Gisors, where at the entring of the bridge there was such preasse, that the bridge brake, so that amongst other, [Sidenote: King Philip almost drowned.] the king himselfe with his horsse and all fell into the riuer of Geth, and with much adoo was releeued, and got out of the water, no small number of right hardie and valiant gentlemen being taken at the same time, which put themselues forward to staie the Englishmen, till the king was recouered out of the present danger. To conclude, there were taken to the number of an hundred knights, [Sidenote: Seuen score saith R. Houed. Matth. Paris. R. Houed.] and two hundred barded horsses, besides seruitors on horssebacke, and footmen with crossebowes. Amongst other prisoners these are named, Matthew de Montmorancie, Gales de Ports, Iollen de Bray, and manie other also innumerable. King Richard hauing got this victorie, wrote letters thereof vnto the archbishops, bishops, abbats, earles and barons of his realme, that they might praise God for his good successe.
A notable example to all princes that haue the conquest ouer their enimies, to referre the happie getting thereof to God, and to giue praise vnto him who giueth victorie vnto whom it pleaseth him. Which the Psalmograph saw verie well, and therefore ascribed all the issue of his prosperous affaires to God, as may well be noted by his words, saieng expresselie, [Sidenote: Eob. Hess. in Psal. 144.] —— ab illo Munior, hic instar turris & arcis erat, Dura manus in bella meas qui format & armat, Ad fera qui digitos instruit arma meos.
Now will we staie the proceedings of the king of France at this time, and make no further relation thereof for a while, till we haue touched other things that happened in England at the same season. And first ye shall vnderstand, that Hugh Bardolfe, Roger Arundell, and Geffrey Hachet, to whom as iustices, the counties of Lincolne, Notingham, Yorke, Derbie, Northumberland, Westmerland, Cumberland, and Lancaster were appointed for circuits, held not onelie ples of assises, and of the crowne, [Sidenote: Inquisitions taken.] but also tooke inquisitions of escheats, and forfaitures of all maner of transgressions, and of donations of benefices, of marriages of widowes and maids, and other such like things as apperteined to the king, whereby any aduantages grew to his vse, the which for tediousnesse we passe ouer. These things were streightlie looked vnto, not without the disquieting of manie.
Herewith came an other trouble in the necke of this former, to diuerse persons within the realme, through inquiries taken by the iustices of the forrests: for Hugh Neuille, Hugh Waley, and Heruisius Neuill, appointed iustices itinerants in that case, were commanded by the king to call before them archbishops, bishops, earles, barons, knights, and freholders, with the reeue, and foure of the substantiall men of euerie towne or village, to heare and take knowledge of the kings commandement, [Sidenote: Ordinances of forrests.] touching the ordinances of forrests, the which were verie straight in sundrie points, so that whereas before those that offended in killing of the kings deere were punished by the purse, now they should loose their eies and genitals, as the lawe was in the daies of king Henrie his grandfather: and those that offended in cutting downe woods or bushes, or in digging and deluing vp of turues and clods, or by any other maner of waie made waste and distruction in woods or grasse, or spoile of venison, within the precinct of the forrests, contrarie to order, they should be put to their fines.
[Sidenote: Prests to be arrested offending in forrests.] He gaue commandement also, that it should be lawful to the forresters to take and put vnder arrest, as well prests and those of the cleargie, as temporall men, being found offendors in forrest grounds and chases. Manie other ordinances were decred touching the preseruation of forrests, and the kings prerogatiue, aduantages and profits rising and growing by the same, as well for sauing of his woods and wasts, as in pannage and agistements, greatlie to the restraint of them that might vsurpe or incroch vpon the grounds within the compasse of his forrests.
Ye haue heard before, how the moonks of Canturburie did send to exhibit a complaint to the pope, for that their archbishop tooke vpon him to deale in exercise of matters belonging to a temporall man, [Sidenote: Ger. Dor.] and not to such a one as had rule ouer the spiritualtie: but this was not the cause that did greue them so much, as that he went forward with the erection of that church at Lameth, which his predecessor archbishop Baldwine had first begun at Haketon, now called S. Stephans (as before ye haue heard) and after was driuen through the importunate suit of the moonks to leaue off, and race that which he had there begun, to obeie the popes pleasure: [Sidenote: The church of Lameth.] and after laid a new foundation at Lameth.
The moonks of Canturburie therefore still fearing least that church should greatlie preiudice such rights and liberties, as they pretended, namlie in the election of their archbishop, would neuer rest, but still complained and followed their suit in most obstinate maner in the court of Rome, as well in the daies of the said Baldwine, as now against Hubert, (when he tooke in hand to continue the worke according to the purpose of his predecessour the said Baldwine, which was to haue instituted a colledge there, and to haue placed secular canons in the same) and such was the earnest trauell of the moonks herein, that in the end now after the deceasse of pope Celestine, they found such fauour at the hands of pope Innocent his successor, that the same Innocent directed his letters of comandement to the archbishop, and other bishops of this land, [Sidenote: The pope comandeth the church of Lameth to be raced.] to destroie and race the same foundation, as a pece of worke derogatorie to the se of Canturburie, and verie preiudiciall to the estate of holie church.
The archbishop at the first trusted to be borne out by the king (who was highlie offended with the moonks for their presumptuous dealing) and therefore refused to obeie the popes commandement. The king in deed stomached the matter so highlie, that he sent letters vnto the moonks by no worsse messengers than by Geffrey Fitz Peter, and Hugh Fitz Bardolfe his iustices, signifieng to them not onelie his high displeasure for their presumptuous proceedings in their suit without his consent, but also commanding them to surceasse, and not to proced further in the matter by virtue of any such the popes letters, which they had purchased contrarie to the honour and dignitie of his crowne and realme. Moreouer, he wrote to the bishops, commanding them to appeale; and to the archbishop, forbidding him in any wise to breake downe the church which he had so builded at Lameth.
[Sidenote: The presumtuous stoutnesse of the moonks.] The shiriffe of Kent also was commanded to seize into his hands all the tenements and possessions that belonged to the moonks (a frie of satan and as one saith verie well of them and the like leuen of lewdnesse, —— sentina malorum, Agnorum sub pelle lupi, mercede colentes Non pietate Deum, &c.) who neuer the lesse were so stout in that quarell, that they would not prolong one daie of the time appointed by the pope for the racing of that church. Herevpon the king for his part and the bishops in their owne behalfes wrote to the pope. Likewise the abbats of Boxeley, Fourd, Stratford, Roberts-bridge, Stanlie, and Basing Warke, wrote the matter to him: and againe the pope and the cardinals wrote to the king, to the archbishops, and bishops: and so letters passed to and fro, till at length the pope sent a Nuncio of purpose, to signifie his full determination, as in the next yeare it shall be shewed at full.
[Sidenote: Welshmen vanquished. Ger. Dor. ascribeth this victorie vnto Hubert archb. of Canturburie and saith there were slaine about 500 of the enimies.] About the same time Geffrey Fitz Peter, lord cheefe iustice of England, raised a power of men, and went into Wales to succour the tenants of William de Brause, which were besieged of the king, or rather prince of that countrie, named Owen, the brother of Cadwalaine, [Sidenote: Mauds castle.] in Mauds castell: but the lord chefe iustice comming to the reskue of them within, gaue battell to the aduersaries, and vanquishing them slue three thousand of them, and seauen hundred of those that were taken prisoners and wounded. And all the while the warres continued in France, the losse for the most part still redounded to the Frenchmen. Earle John burnt Newburg, and tooke eighteene knights of such as were sent to the reskue.
[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester.] The earle of Leicester with a small companie came before the castell of Pascie, which (although the Frenchmen held it) did yet of right belong vnto the said earle. The souldiors within issued foorth, and being too strong for the earle, caused him to flee, for otherwise he had bene taken. But returning on the morrow after with more companie about him, and laieng ambushes for the enimie, he approched the said castell, and trained the Frenchmen foorth till he had them within his danger, and then causing his men to breake out vpon them tooke an eightene knights, and a great multitude of other people. [Sidenote: Marchades.] Also Marchades with his rout of Brabanders did the Frenchmen much hurt, in robbing and spoiling the countries.
About this season the archbishop of Canturburie went ouer into Normandie to speake with king Richard, and at the French kings request he passed into France, to common with him of peace, which the French king offered to conclude, in restoring all the townes and castels which he had taken (Gisors onelie excepted) and touching the possession and title thereof, he was contented to put the matter in compremise, to the order and award of six barons in Normandie to be named by him; and of six barons in France which king Richard should name. But king Richard would not thus agre, except the earle of Flanders and others which had forsaken the French king to take his part, might be comprised in the same peace. At length yet in Nouember, there was truce taken betwixt the two kings till the feast of S. Hilarie next insuing.
In the meane time pope Innocent the third, vnderstanding in what present danger things stood in the holie land, and on the other side, considering what a weakening it was vnto christendome, to haue these two kings thus to warre with mortall hatred one against the other: [Sidenote: A truce taken betwixt the two kings.] he thought it stood him vpon to trauell betwixt them, to bring them vnto some peace and agreement. Herevpon he dispatched one Peter the cardinall of Capua into France, as legat from the se of Rome, vnto the two foresaid kings, to instruct them in what present danger the state of the christians in Asia presentlie stood, so that without the aid of them and of other christian princes, it could not be holpen, but needs it must come to vtter ruine, and the Saracens yer long to be possessed of the whole. Therefore both in respect hereof, and also for the auoiding of the further wilfull spilling of christian bloud in such ciuill and vngodlie warre, he besought them to staie their hands, and to ioine in some frendlie band of concord, whereby they might with mutuall consent bestow their seruice in that necessarie and most godlie warre, wherein by ouercomming the enimies of Christ, they might looke for worthie reward at his hands, which is the fre giuer of all victories.
[Sidenote: 1199.] The cardinall comming into France, and dooing his message in most earnest wise, was present at the interuiew appointed betwixt the two kings in the feast of S. Hilarie, but yet could not he bring his purpose to full effect: [Sidenote: R. Houed. A truce concluded for fiue yeares.] onelie he procured them to take truce for the term of fiue yeares, farther he could not get them to agre. The fault by authors is ascribed aswell to king Richard, as to king Philip: for king Richard being first euill vsed, and put to hinderance, determined either to vanquish, or neuer to giue place.
This forbearance from warre was concluded and taken in the yeare 1199 after the incarnation, and tenth of king Richards reigne. But immediatlie after, there arose matter of new displeasure betwixt these two kings to kepe their minds in vre with secret grudges, though by reason of the truce they outwardlie absteined from declaring it by force of armes. [Sidenote: Contention about the choosing of the emperour.] It chanced that in the election of a new emperour, the electors could not agre, one part of them choosing Otho duke of Saxonie, nephue to king Richard by his sister Maud, and another part of them naming Philip duke of Tuscaine, and brother to the last emperour Henrie.
King Richard (as reason was) did procure what fauour he could to the furtherance of his nephue Otho: and king Philip on the contrarie part, did what he could in fauour of the foresaid Philip. At length Otho was admitted by the pope to end the strife: but yet the grudge remained in the harts of the two kings: Philip finding himselfe much greued in that he had missed his purpose, and Richard being as little pleased for that he had woone his so hardlie, and with so much adoo. And thus matters passed for that yeare.
[Sidenote: R. Houed. The popes letters to the king for the church of Lameth.] In the beginning of the next, the popes Nuncio came with letters, not onlie to the archbishop and bishops of England, but also to the king himselfe, signifieng the popes resolute decree touching the church and colledge of Lameth to be broken downe and suppressed. Wherevpon the king and archbishop (though sore against their willes) when they saw no waie longer to shift off the matter, yelded to the popes pleasure: and so the archbishop sent his letters to Lameth, where the 21 daie of Januarie they were read, and the 27 daie of the same moneth was the church cast downe, & the canons which were alreadie these placed, had commandement to depart from thence without further delaie. [Sidenote: The moonks borne out by the pope.] Thus the moonks in dispite of the king and archbishop had their willes, but yet their vexation ceassed not, for the king and archbishop bearing them no small euill will, for that they had so obteined their purpose contrarie to their minds and intents, molested them diuerse waies, although the moonks still vpon complaint to the pope, were verie much releeued, and found great freendship both with him and likewise with his court. So that it may be obserued that these dishclouts of the popes kitchen haue in all ages, since their first quickening bene troublesome and mutinous, sawcie and insolent, proud and malapert. But, [Sidenote: M. Pal. in suo sag.] Proh pudor! hos tolerare potest ecclesia porcos, Cm sint lasciui nimim, nimimq; superbi, Duntaxt ventri, veneri somnq; vacantes?
In this meane time, king Richard being now at rest from troubles of warre, studied busilie to prouide monie, meaning to make a new voiage into the holie land. Therefore finding himselfe beare of treasure, by reason of the French warres had emptied his cofers, [Sidenote: A tax. Fiue shillings of euerie plough land, as saith Matt. Westm.] he set a great tax vpon his subiects, and by that meanes, hauing recouered a great summe, he builded that notable strong castell in Normandie, vpon the banke of the riuer of Saine, [Sidenote: Chasteau Galiard built.] named Chateau Galiard: which when it was finished he fell a iesting thereat and said; "Behold, is not this a faire daughter of one yeares growth." The soile where this castell was builded, belonged to the archbishop of Rouen, for which there followed great strife betwixt the king and the archbishop, till the pope tooke vp the matter (as before ye haue heard.)
After this, he determined to chastise certeine persons in Poictou, which during the warres betwixt him and the French king, had aided the Frenchmen against him: wherevpon with an armie he passed foorth towards them, but by the waie he was informed, that one Widomer a vicount in the countrie of Britaine, had found great treasure: [Sidenote: Images of an emperour and of his wife & children all of fine gold. The annales of Aquitaine.] and therefore pretending a right thereto by vertue of his prerogatiue, he sent for the vicount, who smelling out the matter, and supposing the king would not be indifferent in parting the treasure, fled into Limosin, where although the people were tributaries to the king of England, yet they tooke part with the French king.
[Sidenote: Chalus Cheuerell. R. Houed.] There is a towne in that countrie called Chalus Cheuerell, into which the said vicount retired for safegard of himselfe, and then gaue the townesmen a great portion of treasure, to the end they should defend him and his quarell for the rest. King Richard still following him, as one that could not auoid his fatall ordinance, hasted into the confines of Limosin, fullie determining either to win the towne by force, if the inhabitants should make resistance, or at leastwise, to get into his hands the preie, which he so earnestlie pursued. [Sidenote: K. Richard besiegeth Chalus.] At his first approch he gaue manie fierce assaults to the towne, but they within hauing throughlie prouided aforehand for to defend a siege, so resisted his attempts, that within thre daies after his comming, he ceassed to assaile the towne, meaning to vndermine the walles, which otherwise he perceiued would verie hardlie be gotten; considering the stoutnesse of them within, and withall, the naturall strength and situation of the place it selfe.
Herevpon therefore on the 26 of March, whiles he (togither with capteine Marchades) went about vnaduisedlie to view the towne (the better to consider the place which waie he might conueie the course of his mine) they came so farre within danger, [Sidenote: He is wounded.] that the king was stricken in the left arme, or (as some write) in the shoulder, where it ioined to the necke, with a quarell inuenomed (as is to be supposed by the sequele.) [Sidenote: Ra. Niger.] Being thus wounded, he gat to his horsse, and rode home againe to his lodging, where he caused the wound to be searched and bound vp, and as a man nothing dismaid therewith, continued his siege with such force and assurance, that within 12 daies after the mishap, the towne was yelded vnto him, although verie little treasure (to make any great accompt of) was at that time found therein.
In this meane season, the king had committed the cure of his wound to one of Marchades his surgions, who taking in hand to plucke out the quarell, drew foorth onelie the shaft at the first, and left the iron still within, and afterwards going about most vnskilfullie to get foorth the head of the said quarell, he vsed such incisions, and so mangled the kings arme, yer he could cut it, [Sidenote: The king despaired of life.] that he himself despaired of all helpe and longer life, affirming flatlie to such as stood about him, that he could not long continue by reason of his butcherlie handling. To be short feling himselfe to wax weaker and weaker, preparing his mind to death, which he perceiued now to be at hand, [Sidenote: He ordeineth his testament.] he ordeined his testament, or rather reformed and added sundrie things vnto the same which he before had made, at the time of his gooing foorth towards the holie land.
Vnto his brother Iohn he assigned the crowne of England, and all other his lands and dominions, causing the Nobles there present to sweare fealtie vnto him. [Sidenote: R. Houed.] His monie, his iewels, and all other his goods mooueable he willed to be diuided into thre parts, of the which Otho the emperor his sisters sonne to haue one, his houshold seruants an other part, and the third to be distributed to the poore. Finallie remembring himselfe also of the place of his buriall, he commanded that his bodie should be interred at Fonteurard at his fathers feet, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] but he willed his heart to be conueied vnto Rouen, and there buried, in testimonie of the loue which he had euer borne vnto that citie for the stedfast faith and tried loialtie at all times found in the citizens there. His bowels he ordeined to be buried in Poictiers, as in a place naturallie vnthankefull and not worthie to reteine any of the more honorable parts of his bodie.
Moreouer he caused the arcubalistar that wounded him, to be sought out, whose name was Barthram de Garden, or Peter Basill (for so he named himselfe as some write) who being brought before the king, [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] he demanded wherein he had so much offended him, that he should so lie in wait to slea him, rather than Marchades, who was then in his companie, and attendant on his person? The other answered boldlie againe, saieng; "I purposed to kill thee, bicause thou sluest my father, and two of my brethren heretofore, and wouldest also now haue slaine me, if I had happened to fall into thy hands. Wherefore I intended to reuenge their deaths, not caring in the meane time what became of my selfe, so that I might in anie wise obteine my will of the, who in such sort hast bereft me of my freends." The king harkening vnto his words, and pondering his talke by good aduisement, [Sidenote: A notable example of forgiuing an enimie. Matth. Paris.] frelie pardoned him, and withall commanded that he should be set at libertie, and thereto haue an hundred shillings giuen him in his pursse, and so to be let go. Moreouer, he gaue strait charge that no man should hurt him, or seke any reuenge for this his death hereafter. Thus the penitent prince not onelie forgaue, but also rewarded his aduersarie. Howbeit after his deceasse, Marchades getting him into his hands, first caused the skin to be stripped off his bodie, and after hanged him on a gibit.
[Sidenote: King Richard departed this life.] At length king Richard by force of sicknesse (increased with anguish of his incurable wound) departed this life, on the tuesdaie before Palmesundaie, being the ninth of Aprill, and the xj. daie after he was hurt, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 1199. in the 44 yeare of his age, and after he had reigned nine yeares, nine moneths, and od daies: he left no issue behind him. [Sidenote: His stature & shape of bodie. Gal. Vinsaf.] He was tall of stature, and well proportioned, faire and comelie of face, so as in his countenance appeared much fauour and grauitie, of haire bright aborne, as it were betwixt red and yellow, with long armes, and nimble in all his ioints his thighes and legs were of due proportion, and answerable to the other parts of his bodie.
[Sidenote: His disposition of mind.] As he was comelie of personage, so was he of stomach more couragious and fierce, so that not without cause, he obteined the surname of Cueur de lion, that is to saie, The lions hart. Moreouer he was courteous to his souldiors, and towards his frends and strangers that resorted vnto him verie liberall, but to his enimies hard and not to be intreated, desirous of battell, an enimie to rest and quietnesse, verie eloquent of speech and wise, but readie to enter into ieopardies, and that without feare or forecast in time of greatest perils.
[Sidenote: The vices that were in king Richard.] These were his vertuous qualities, but his vices (if his vertues, his age, and the wars which he mainteined were throughlie weied) were either none at all, or else few in number, and not verie notorious. He was noted of the common people to be partlie subiect vnto pride, which surelie for the most part foloweth stoutnesse of mind: of incontinencie, to the which his youth might happilie be somewhat bent: and of couetousnesse, into the which infamie most captieins and such princes as commonlie follow the warres doo oftentimes fall, when of the necessitie they are driuen to exact monie, as well of frends as enimies, to mainteine the infinit charges of their wars.
Hereof it came, that on a time whiles he soiourned in France about his warres, which he held against K. Philip, [Sidenote: Fulco a prest.] there came vnto him a French prest whose name was Fulco, who required the K. in any wise to put from him thre abhominable daughters which he had, and to bestow them in marriage, least God punished him for them. Thou liest hypocrite (said the king) to thy verie face, for all the world knoweth that I haue not one daughter. I lie not (said the prest) for thou hast thre daughters, one of them is called pride, the second couetousnesse, and the third lecherie. With that the king, called to him his lords & barons, and said to them; "This hypocrite heere hath required me to marrie awaie my thre daughters, which (as he saith) I cherish, nourish, foster and mainteine, that is to say pride, couetousnesse, and lecherie. And now that I haue found out necessarie & fit husbands for them, I will doo it with effect, and seeke no more delaies. I therefore bequeath my pride to the high minded templers and hospitallers, which are as proud as Lucifer himselfe. My couetousnesse I giue vnto the white moonks, otherwise called of the Cisteaux order, for they couet the diuell and all. My lecherie I commit to the prelates of the church, who haue most pleasure and felicitie therein."
[Sidenote: Baldwine & Hubert archbishops of Canturburie.] There liued in the daies of this king Richard, men of worthie fame amongst those of the cleargie, Baldwine archbishop of Canturburie, and Hubert who succeeded him in that se, also Hugh bishop of Lincolne, a man for his worthinesse of life highlie to be commended. Moreouer, William bishop of Elie, who though otherwise he was to be dispraised for his ambition and pompous hautinesse, yet the king vsed his seruice for a time greatlie to his profit and aduancement of the publike affaires. Also of learned men we find diuerse in these daies that flourished here in this land, as Baldwine of Deuonshire that came to the bishop of Worcester in this kings time, and after his deceasse, he was aduanced to the gouernment of the archbishops se of Canturburie, who wrote diuerse treatises, namelie of matters perteining to diuinitie. [Sidenote: Iohn Bales.] Daniell Morley well seene in the Mathematicals, Iohn de Hexam, and Richard de Hexham two notable historicians; Guilielmus Stephanides a moonke of Canturburie, who wrote much in the praise of archbishop Becket. Beside these, we find one Richard, that was an abbat of the order Premonstratensis, Richard Diuisiensis, Nicholas Walkington, Robert de Bello Foco, an excellent philosopher, &c. See Bale in his third Centurie.
In martiall renowme there flourished in this kings daies diuerse noble capteines, as Robert earle of Leicester, Ranulfe de Fulgiers, two of the Bardulphes, Hugh and Henrie, thre Williams, Marshall, Brunell, and Mandeuill, with two Roberts, Ros and Sabeuile. [Sidenote: A great derth.] Furthermore, I find that in the daies of this king Richard, a great derth reigned in England, and also in France, for the space of three or foure yeares during the wars betwene him & king Philip, so that after his returne out of Germanie, and from imprisonment, a quarter of wheat was sold at 18 shillings eight pence, no small price in those daies, if you consider the alay of monie then currant.
Also immediatlie after, that is to say, in the yeare of our Lord, a thousand, one hundred, nintie six, which was about the seuenth yere of the said kings reigne, [Sidenote: A great mortalitie of people. Wil. Paruus.] there followed a maruellous sore death, which dailie consumed such numbers of people, that scarse there might be found any to kepe and looke to those that were sicke, or to burie them that died. Which sickenesse was a pestilentiall feuer or sharpe burning ague. The accustomed manner of buriall was also neglected: so that in manie places they made great pits, and threw their dead bodies into the same, one vpon an other. For the multitude of them that died was such, that they could not haue time to make for euerie one a seuerall graue. This mortalitie continued for the space of fiue or six months, and at length ceassed in the cold season of winter.
[Sidenote: Two sunnes.] In the octaues of Pentecost before this great death, in the first houre of the day, there appeared two sunnes, the true sunne & another, as it were a counterfeit sunne: but so apparentlie, that hard it was to the common people, to discerne the one from the other. The skilfull also were compelled by instruments to distinguish the one from the other: in taking their altitudes and places, whereby in the end they found the new apparition, as it were, to wait vpon the planet, and so continued by the space of certeine houres. At length when the beholders (of whom Wil. Paruus that recorded things in that age was one) had well wearied their eies in diligent marking the maner of this strange appearance, the counterfeit sunne vanished awaie.
This strange woonder was taken for a signification of that which followed, that is to say, of war, famine and pestilence: or to say the truth, it betokened rather the continuance of two of those mischiefs. For warre and famine had sore afflicted the people before that time, and as yet ceassed not: but as for the pestilence, it began soone after the strange sight, whereof insued such effect, as I haue alreadie rehearsed.
Thus farre king Richard.
There are no footnotes in the original. The original spelling and punctuation have been retained, with the exception of obvious errors which have been corrected by reference to the 1587 edition of which the original is a transcription.
 Original reads 'where'; corrected to 'were'.
 Original reads 'whith'; corrected to 'with'.
 Original reads 'were'; corrected to 'where'.
 Original reads 'be Camuille'; corrected to 'de Camuille'.
 Original reads 'which tossed them them'; corrected to 'which tossed them'.
 Original reads 'connterfet'; corrected to 'counterfet'.
 Original reads 'holi'; corrected to 'holie'.
 Original reads 'easile'; corrected to 'easilie'.
 Original reads 'forfied'; corrected to 'fortified'.
 Original reads 'wearie dwith'; corrected to 'wearied with'.
 Original reads 'Houden'; corrected to 'Houeden'.
 Original reads 'a might bred as'; corrected to 'as might bred a'
 Original reads 'Lancastsr'; corrected to 'Lancaster'.
 Original reads "de' Rancin"; corrected to "de Rancin".
 Original reads 'aud'; corrected to 'and'.
 Original reads 'wherepon'; corrected to 'wherevpon'.
 Original reads 'eiuill'; corrected to 'ciuill'.
 Original reads 'victories,'; corrected to 'victories.'.
 Original reads 'insolent,ro ud'; corrected to 'insolent, proud'.
 Original reads 'at he first'; corrected to 'at the first'.
 Original reads 'be Garden'; corrected to 'de Garden'.
 Original reads 'that no no'; corrected to 'that no'.