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Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (6 of 12) - Richard the First
by Raphael Holinshed
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Furthermore, king Richard the same day in which he was restored to libertie, summoned by his letters Hugh Nouant bishop of Couentrie, to appeare in his court, to answer such things as were to be obiected against him, both before spirituall iudges in that he was a bishop, and also before temporall in that he had holden and exercised a temporall office. On the verie same day also the emperour and the princes of the empire, sent letters vnder their hands and seales to the French king, and to John erle of Mortaigne, commanding them immediatlie vpon sight of the same letters, to restore vnto king Richard all those castels, cities, townes, lands, and other things, which they had taken from him during the time of his remaining in captiuitie, and if they refused thus to doo, then they gaue them to vnderstand by the same letters, that they would aid king Richard to recouer that by force, which had beene wrongfullie taken from him.

Moreouer king Richard gaue and by his deed confirmed vnto sundrie princes of the empire for their homage and fealtie, [Sidenote: Yerelie pensions giuen by the king to certeine princes of the empire.] certeine yearelie pensions, as to the archbishop of Ments and Cullen, to the bishop of Liege, to the dukes of Austrich and Louaine, to the marquesse of Mountferrat, [Sidenote: Memburge.] to the duke of Meglenburge, to the duke of Suaben the emperors brother, to the earle of Bins, to the earle of Holland, and to the sonne of the earle of Henault, of all the which, and other mo, he receiued homage, or rather had their promise by oth to aid him against the French king, which French king, now that he sawe no hope nor likelihood remaining to bring the emperour to the bent of his bowe for the deteining of K. Richard still in captiuitie, raised a power foorthwith, [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. The French king inuadeth Normandie.] & entring into Normandie (the truce notwithstanding) tooke the towne of Eureux, with diuerse other fortresses thereabouts, and after he had doone mischefe inough, as it were wearied with[10] euill dooing, he granted eftsoones to stand to the truce, and so returned home.

Finallie after king Richard had dispatched his businesse with the emperour, and the princes of Almaigne, he set forward on his iournie towards England, and hauing the emperours passeport, came to Cullen, where he was ioifullie receiued of the archbishop, the which archbishop attended on him till he came to Antwerpe, where king Richard tooke the water in a gallie that belonged to Alane de Trenchmere, but in the night he went into a ship of Rie, being a verie faire vessell, and so laie aboord in hir all the night, [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] and in the morning returned to the gallie, and so sailed about the coast, till he came to the hauen of Swin in Flanders, and there staieng fiue daies, on the six day he set foorth againe, [Sidenote: He landed the 20. of March being sundaie as R. Houeden[11] and Rafe de Diceto write.] and at length in good safetie landed at Sandwich the twelfe daie of March, and the morrow after came to Canturburie where he was receiued with procession, as Ger. Dor. saith. From thence he went to Rochester, and on the Wednesday being the sixteenth of March, he came vnto London, where he was receiued with great ioy and gladnesse of the people, giuing heartie thanks to almightie GOD for his safe returne and deliuerance.

It is recorded by writers, that when such lords of Almaine as came ouer with him, saw the great riches which the Londoners shewed in that triumphant receiuing of their souereigne lord and king, they maruelled greatlie thereat, insomuch that one of them said vnto him; "Surelie oh king, your people are wise and subtile, which do nothing doubt to shew the beautifull shine of their riches now that they haue receiued you home, whereas before they seemed to bewaile their need and pouertie, whilest you remained in captiuitie. For verelie if the emperour had vnderstood that the riches of the realme had bin such, neither would he haue beene persuaded that England could haue bene made bare of wealth, neither yet should you so lightlie haue escaped his hands without the paiment of a more huge and intollerable ransome."

The same yeare that king Richard was taken (as before is mentioned) by the duke of Austrich, one night in the moneth of Januarie about the first watch of the same night, the northwest side of the element appeared of such a ruddie colour as though it had burned, without any clouds or other darknesse to couer it, so that the stars shined through that rednesse, and might be verie well discerned. Diuerse bright strakes appeared to flash vpwards now and then, diuiding the rednesse, thorough the which the stars semed to be of a bright sanguine colour. In Februarie next insuing, one night after midnight the like woonder was sene, and shortlie after newes came that the king was taken in Almaigne.

On the second daie of Nouember also a little before the breake of the daie, the like thing appeared againe with lesse feare and woonder to the people (than before) being now better accustomed to the like sight againe. And now the same daie and selfe houre that the king arriued at Sandwich, being the second houre of that daie, whilest the sunne shone verie bright and cleare, there appeared a most brightsome and vnaccustomed clearnesse, not farre distant from the sunne, as it were to the length and breadth of a mans personage, hauing a red shining brightnesse withall, like to the rainbow, which strange sight when manie beheld, there were that prognosticated the king alreadie to be arriued.

[Sidenote: R. Houed. Diuerse sieges held at one time.] In this meane while the bishop of Durham with a great armie besieged the castell of Tickhill; and earle Dauid brother to the king of Scots, with Ranulfe earle of Chester, and earle Ferrers, besieged the castell of Notingham, whilest at the same present the archbishop of Canturburie with a great power besieged Marleburgh castell, the which within a few daies was rendred into his hands, the liues and lims of them within saued. Also the castell of Lancaster was deliuered to him, the which the same archbishops brother had in keping vnder earle John, [Sidenote: S. Michaels mount.] and likewise the abbeie of S. Michaels mount in Cornwall, the which abbeie Henrie de la Pomerey chasing out the moonks, had fortified against the king, and hearing newes of the kings returne home, died (as it was thought) for mere grefe and feare. These three places were surrendered to the archbishop before the kings returne, but Tickhill & Notingham held out.

King Richard being returned into England, and vnderstanding both how the French king made warre against him in Normandie, and that the state of England was not a little disquieted, by the practise of his brother earle John and his complices, speciallie by reason that diuerse castels were defended by such as he had placed in them, he thought good with all speed to cut off such occasions as might bred a[12] further mischefe. [Sidenote: The king goeth to Notingham and winneth the castel. Rog. Houed.] Wherevpon he first went to Notingham, and within thre daies after his comming thither (which was on the daie of the Annunciation of our ladie) he constreined them that kept the castell there in his brothers name, to yeeld themselues simplie vnto his mercie, after they had abidden diuerse assaults, by the which euen the first daie the vtter gates were burnt, and certeine defenses destroied, which they had made before the same.

The cheefe of them that were within this castell to defend it were these, William de Vendeuall conestable there, Roger de Mountbegun, Rafe Murdach, Philip de Worceter and Ranulfe de Worceter, brethren. The morow after the surrender was made, the king went to Clipstone, [Sidenote: The forest of Shirewood.] and rode into the forrest of Shirewood, where he had neuer bene before, the view whereof pleased him greatlie. The castell of Tickhill was likewise at the same time yelded vnto the bishop of Durham, who receiued it to the kings vse, and them that kept it as prisoners, without anie composition, but standing simplie to the K. mercie. For although those that had these castels in keeping, were sufficientlie prouided of all necessarie things for defense, yet the sudden comming of the king (whom they thought verelie would neuer haue returned) put them in such feare, that they wist not what to make of the matter, and so (as men amazed) they yelded without anie further exception. [Sidenote: The castel of Tickhill yelded. Rog. Houed.] The bishop of Durham bringing those prisoners with him which had yelded vp this castell of Tickhill, came to the king the 27 daie of March, the verie daie before that Notingham castell was giuen ouer.

[Sidenote: Strife betwixt y^e archbishops for carieng of their crosses.] Moreouer, this is to be remembred, that during the siege of Notingham, contention arose betwixt the two archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke, about the carriage of their crosses. For Hubert archbishop of Canturburie comming thither, had his crosse borne before him; the archbishop of Yorke (hauing no crosse there at all) was verie sore offended, that anie other should go with crosse borne before him in his diocesse, and therfore complained hereof to the king. But the archbishop of Canturburie mainteined that he had not doone anie thing but that which was lawfull for him to doo, and therevpon made his appeale to Rome, that the pope might haue the hearing and iudging of that controuersie betwixt them.

In the meane time, after the king had got the castells of Notingham and Tickhill into his hands (as ye haue heard) he called a parlement at Notingham, where the quene mother sat on the right hand of him, and the archbishops of Canturburie & Yorke on the left, with other bishops, earles and barons according to their places. [Sidenote: Officers discharged.] On the first daie of their session was Gerard de Camuille discharged of the office which he had borne of shiriffe of Lincolne, and dispossessed both of the castell & countie. And so likewise was Hugh Bardolfe of the castell and countie of Yorke, and of the castell of Scarbourgh, and of the custodie and keping of the countrie of Westmerland, the which offices being now in the kings hands, [Sidenote: Lieutenantships set on sale.] he set them on sale to him that would giue most. Hereof it came to passe, that where the lord chancellour offered to giue fiftene hundred markes before hand, for the counties of Yorke, Lincolne and Northampton, and an hundred markes of increase of rent for euerie of the same counties, [Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorks offer.] Geffrey archbishop of Yorke offered to the king thre thousand markes aforehand, onelie for the countie of Yorke, and an hundred markes yearelie of increase, and so had the same committed to his regiment.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Chester.] Moreouer in this parlement, the king demanded iudgement against his brother John, and Hugh Nouant the bishop of Couentrie and Chester, for such traitorous and most disloiall attempts as they had made against him and his countries, and iudgement was giuen that both the said earle and bishop should haue summons giuen them peremptorilie to appeare, and if within fortie daies after, they came not to answer such plaints as might be laid against them, then should earle John forfeit all that he had within the realme, and the bishop should stand to the iudgement of the bishops, in that he was a bishop, and to the temporall lords in that he had bene the kings shiriffe.

[Sidenote: A subsidie.] In this parlement also, in the kalends of Aprill, the king procured a subsidie to be granted to him, to wit, two shillings of euerie plough land through England, which maner of subsidie by an old name is called Teemen toll, or Theyme toll. He also commanded that euerie man should make for him the third part of knights seruice, accordinglie as euerie fe might beare, to furnish him foorth into Normandie. He demanded of the moonks Cisteaux, all their wooles for the same yeare. But bicause that seemed an ouer greeuous burthen vnto them, they fined with him, as after shall appeare. The fourth day of this parlement, by the kings permission manie greeuous complaints were exhibited against the archbishop of Yorke, [Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke accused.] for extortion and other vniust vexations, which he had practised: but he passed so little thereof, that he made no answer vnto their billes.

[Sidenote: Gerard de Camuille charged with felonie and treason.] Moreouer through the procurement of the lord chancellour, Gerard de Camuille was arreigned for receiuing theues, and robbers, which had robbed certeine merchants of their goods, that were going to the faire of Stamfort; also they appealed him of treason for refusing to stand to his triall by order of the kings lawes at commandement of the kings iustices, bearing himselfe to be earle Johns man, and aiding the same earle against the king. But all these accusations he flatlie denied, and so his aduersaries put in pledges to follow their suit, and he put in the like to defend himselfe by one of his freholders.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots commeth to se the king of England.] The same daie king Richard receiued the king of Scots at Clipstone, comming now to visit him, and to reioise with him for his safe returne home after so long a iournie, and so manie passed perils. After they had spent the time a certeine space in ioy and mirth, the fourth of Aprill at their being togither at Malton, the king of Scots required of king Richard to haue restored to him the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmerland, with the countie of Lancaster also, the which in right of his predecessors belonged to him (as he alledged.)

[Sidenote: A parlement.] King Richard assembling a parlement of the Nobles of his realme at Northampton, about sixtene daies after that the Scotish king had made this request, gaue him answer that by no means he might as then satisfie his petition: for if he should so doo, his aduersaries in France would report that he did it for feare, and not for any loue or hartie frendship. [Sidenote: A grant made to the king of Scots what allowance he should haue when he came to England.] But yet king Richard in the presence of his mother quene Elianor, and the lords spirituall and temporall of his realme togither at that present assembled, granted and by his ded confirmed vnto the said king of Scots, and to his heires for euer, that whensoeuer he or any of them should come by summons of the king of England vnto his court, the bishop of Durham, and the shiriffe of Northumberland should receiue him at the water of Twed, and safe conduct him vnto the water of These, and there should the archbishop of Yorke, and the shiriffe of Yorke be readie to receiue him of them, and from thence giue their attendance vpon him vnto the borders of the next shire.

It was also granted to the said king, that he should be attended from shire to shire by prelats and shiriffes, till he came to the kings court, also from the time that the king of Scotland should enter this realme of England, he should haue dailie out of the kings pursse for his liuerie an hundred shillings, and after he came to the court, he should haue an allowance dailie for his liuerie, so long as he there remained, thirtie shillings and twelue manchet wastels, twelue manchet simnels, foure gallons of the best wine, and eight gallons of houshold wine, two pound of pepper, foure pound of cumin, two stone of wax, or else foure links, and fortie great and long colpons of such candels as are serued before the king, and foure and twentie colpons of other candels that serue for the houshold. And when he should returne into his countrie againe, then should he be conueied with the bishops and shiriffes from countie to countie, till he come to the water of Twed, hauing an hundred shillings a day of liuerie, &c: as is before appointed. The charter of this grant was deliuered vnto William king of Scots in the towne of Northampton, in Easter weke, by the hands of William bishop of Elie lord chancellour, in the yeare of our lord 1194, and in the fift yeare of king Richard his reigne.

[Sidenote: A councell holden at Winchester.] After this, on the fiftenth day of Aprill, king Richard hauing the said king of Scots in his companie came to Winchester, where he called a councell, and there in open assemblie he highlie commended all those of the Nobilitie, that in his absence had shewed themselues faithfull, and resisted his brother, and such other his complices, which had as disloiall persons rebelled against him. Here he also proclaimed his said brother, and all those that tooke his part, traitours to the crowne, and tooke order for the punishment of them, that (being of their faction) could by any means be apprehended.

Furthermore, to put awaie as it were the reproofe of his captiuitie and imprisonment (by the reuiuing of his noblenesse, which he had in high estimation. —— pretio nam dignior omni est Nobilitas, hc non emitur nec venditur auro) [Sidenote: The king crowned anew.] he caused himselfe to be eftsoones crowned by the archbishop Hubert, on the 18 of Aprill, at Winchester, and so shewed himselfe as a new crowned king (in hope of good successe and better lucke to follow) in the presence of the said king of Scots, [Sidenote: R. Houed. The king of Scots beareth one of the swords before the king of England.] who bare one of the thre swords before him, going in the middle betwixt two earles, that is to saie, Hamelin earle of Warren going on his right hand, and Ranulfe earle of Chester on his left. The canapie vnder the which he went was borne vp also by foure earles, Norffolke, Lislewight, Salisburie, and Ferrers. The bishop of Elie lord chancellour went on the right hand of the king, and the bishop of London on the left. [Sidenote: The citizens of London.] At dinner also the citizens of London serued him in the butterie by reason of two hundred marks which they had giuen the king that they might so doo, notwithstanding the claime and challenge made by the citizens of Winchester, the which serued him in the kitchin.

The archbishop of Yorke was commanded that he should not be present at the coronation, least some tumult might arise about the hauing of his crosse borne afore him, to the displeasure of the archbishop of Canturburie, who stood in it, that no prelat within his prouince ought to haue any crosse borne before him, himselfe excepted.

[Sidenote: A parlement called.] After this, he called a parlement, by vertue whereof he reuoked backe and resumed into his hands all patents, annuities, fes, and other grants (before his voiage into the holie land) by him made, or otherwise granted or alienated. And bicause it shuld not seeme that he vsed a mere violent extortion herein, he treated with euerie one of them in most courteous wise, bearing them in hand, that he knew well they ment not to let foorth their monie to him vpon vsurie, but would be contented with such reasonable gaine and profit, as had bene raised to their vse in time of his absence of those things which they held of him by assignation in way of lone, so that now the same might be restored to him againe, sith he ment not to sell them, but to let them foorth as it were to farme for the time, as all men might well vnderstand, considering that he could not mainteine the port of a king without receipt of those profits which he had so let foorth. With these gentle words therefore mixed with some dreadfull allegations, he brought them all into such perplexitie, [Sidenote: The bold courage of the bishop of Lincolne.] that not one of them durst withstand his request, nor alledge that he had wrong doone to him, except Hugh the bishop of Lincolne, who sticked not to saie, that the king in this demand did them and the rest open iniurie. [Sidenote: The bishop of Durham lost his earledome.] The bishop of Durham lost his earledome, and was constreined to content himselfe with his old bishoprike, and to leaue the dignitie of an earle, or at the leastwise the possessions which he had bought of the king before his setting forward into the holie land.

Thus the king recouered those things for the which he had receiued great summes of monie, without making any recompense, where the most part of the occupiers had not receiued scarselie a third part of the principall which they had laid foorth. For no sufficiencie of grant, patent, or other writing to any of them before made, did any thing auaile them. [Sidenote: K. Richards practises. The moonks Cisteaux.] Moreouer, where he had borrowed a great summe of monie of the merchants of the staple, he wrought a feat with the moonks of the Cisteaux order to discharge that debt. He told these moonks that being constreined with vrgent necessitie, he had borowed that monie of the merchants beyond the sea, vpon confidence of their good beneuolence, and therefore he required them to extend their liberallitie so farre toward him, as to deliuer so much wooll in value, as should discharge that debt. To be short, the moonks being ouercome with the kings words, threatning kindnesse vpon them, fulfilled his request. Moreouer not satisfied herewith, he leuied a taske throughout the realme, exacting of euerie hide of land two shillings, according to the grant made to him at Notingham: and the same was generallie gathered, as well of the spirituall mens lands as of the temporall.

[Sidenote: Rog. Houed. The king of Scots maketh suit for Northumberland.] The king of Scots vnderstanding that the bishop of Durham had giuen ouer and resigned the earledome of Northumberland into the kings hands, thought good once againe to assaie if he might compasse his desire, and herewith he began his former suit afresh, offering to king Richard fiftene thousand markes of siluer for the whole earledome of Northumberland with the appurtenances, as his father earle Henrie did hold the same before. The king taking counsell in the matter, agreed that he should haue it for that monie, excepting the castels: but the king of Scots would haue castels and all, or else he would not bargaine.

Finallie, after he had sundrie times mooued this suit for the hauing of the lands vnto which he pretended a title, and could get nothing of king Richard but faire words, putting him as it were in hope to obteine that he required at his next returne out of France, vpon the 22 daie of Aprill being fridaie, he tooke leaue of the king, and returned towards his countrie, not verie ioifull, in that he could not obteine his suit. King Richard in this meane while caused all those prisoners that were taken in the castels of Notingham, Tickhill, Marleburgh, Lancaster[13], and S. Michaels mount, which were of any wealth to be put in prison, [Sidenote: Mainprise.] that they might fine for their ransoms. The residue he suffered to depart vpon suerties, that were bound for them in an hundredth marks a peece, to be forth comming when they should be called.

Now the king (after he had gathered a great portion of monie, and ordeined diuerse things for the behoofe of the common-wealth, thereby to satisfie the harts of the people) prepared himselfe to saile into Normandie. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] But first he reconciled the archbishop of Yorke, and the bishop of Elie lord chancellour, aswell for the apprehension & imprisoning of the archbishop at Douer, as for the dishonourable expulsion of the chancellour out of England, in such wise that the chancellour should vpon reasonable summons giuen to him by the archbishop, sware with the hands of an hundred prests with him, that he neither commanded nor willed that the archbishop should be apprehended. The controuersie betwixt the two archbishops about the bearing of their crosses, the king would not meddle withall, for (as he said) that perteined to the pope. Yet the archbishop of Canturburie complained to king Richard of the iniurie doone to him at that present by the archbishop of Yorke, presuming within his prouince to haue his crosse borne before him. At length when the kings prouision was once readie for his voiage into Normandie, he came to Douer, and hearing that the French king had besieged the towne of Vernueil, and that the same was in danger to be taken, he tooke the sea togither with his mother quene Elianor on the ninth daie of Maie, [Sidenote: The king transporteth ouer into France.] and transporting ouer into Normandie, arriued at Harflet with an hundred great ships fraught with men, horsses and armour.

The French king hearing of king Richards arriuall, and that he was comming with a great power to the succour of them within Vernueil, and was alreadie incamped nere to the towne of the Eagle, [Sidenote: The French king raiseth his siege from Vernueil.] he plucked vp his tents in the night before Witsundaie, and leauing the siege, departed from thence, and tooke a certeine small fortresse by the waie as he marched, wherein he left a few souldiers to keepe it to his vse. King Richard herewith entring into the French dominions, sent three bands of souldiers towards Vale de Ruell, and went himselfe vnto Loches, and besieging that castell wan it within a short time. [Sidenote: N. Triuet.] The Normans also recouered the citie of Eureux out of the French mens hands, but those that were sent vnto Ruell, and had besieged the castell there an eight daies without any gaine, hearing that the French king was comming towards them, departed thence, & came backe to the kings campe, wherevpon the French king comming to Ruell raced it to the ground, bicause his enimie should not at anie time in winning it nestle there to the further damage of the countrie.

[Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] About the same time, Robert earle of Leicester issuing foorth of Rouen in hope to worke some feat to the damage of the Frenchmen, as he rode somewhat vnaduisedlie in the lands of Hugh Gourney, [Sidenote: The earle of Leicester taken prisoner.] fell within danger of his enimies, who tooke him prisoner, and a few other that were in his companie. The French king after this came with his armie into the coasts of Touraine; and marched neere Vandosme, and there incamped, whereof king Richard being aduertised, drew nere to Vandosme, meaning to assaile the French king in his campe, who hauing knowledge thereof dislodged with his armie earlie in the morning, and fled awaie (to his great dishonour) in all hast possible. The king of England with his people following in chase of the Frenchmen slue manie, and tooke a great number of prisoners, amongst whome was the French kings chefe treasurer. Also the Englishmen tooke manie wagons and sumpters laden with crossebowes, armour, plate, apparell, and the furniture of the French kings chapell. This chanced about 37 daies after his fleing in the night from Vernueil, of which two flights of the French king (in manner as ye haue heard) we find these verses written:

Gallia fugisti bis, & hoc sub rege Philippo, Nec sunt sub modio facta pudenda tuo. Vernolium sumit testem fuga prima, secunda Vindocinum, noctem prima, secunda diem. Nocte fugam primam rapuisti, man secundam, Prima nictus vitio, vq; secunda fuit.

France, twice thou fledst, while Philip reign'd, the world dooth know thy shame, For Vernueil witnesse beares of th' one, next Vandosme knowes the same. The first by night, the next by day, thy heart and force doo showe, That first through feare, and next by force, was wrought thine ouerthrowe.

[Sidenote: Geffrey de Rancon. The earle of Engolesme. The king of Nauars brother.] In this meane while certeine rebels in Guien, as the lord Geffrey de Rancin[14] or Rancon, and the earle of Engolesme with their complices, vpon confidence of the French kings assistance, sore disquieted the countrie. Howbeit, the sonne of the king of Nauarre, and brother to Berengaria the quene of England, entring into Guien with an armie, wasted the lands of both those rebels, till he was called home by reason of his fathers death which chanced about the same time. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.] Shortlie after Geffrey Rancin died, and king Richard comming into his countrie, wan the strong castell of Tailleburge by surrender, which apperteined to the same Geffrey with others, and then going against the other rebels, [Sidenote: Engolesme woone.] he wan the citie of Engolesme from him by force of assault. All which time the French king stirred not, by reason that there was some communication in hand for a truce to be taken betwixt him and king Richard, which by mediation of certeine bishops was shortlie after concluded, to endure for twelue moneths. [Sidenote: Polydor. Wil. Paruus.] The bishop of Elie was chefe commissioner for the king of England, and this truce was accorded about Lammas, and serued to little purpose, except to giue libertie to either prince to breath a little, [Sidenote: Polydor.] and in the meane time to prouide themselues of men, munition, ships & monie, that immediatlie after the terme was expired, they might with greater force returne to the field againe, for they had not onelie a like desire to follow the warres, but also vsed a like meane and practise to leuie monie.

[Sidenote: Great exactions.] For whereas they had alreadie made the temporaltie bare with often paiments, and calling them foorth to serue personallie in the warres, they thought best now to fetch a fleece from the spiritualtie and churchmen, considering also that they had bene by reason of their immunitie more gentlie dealt with, and not appointed to serue themselues in anie maner of wise. [Sidenote: The colour pretended in leuieng of monie.] To colour this exaction which they knew would be euill taken of manie, they bruted abroad, that they leuied this monie vpon purpose, to send it into the holie land, towards the paiment of the christian souldiers, which remained there vpon defense of those townes, which yet the Saracens had not conquered. King Richard therfore comming to Towrs in Touraine, required a great summe of monie of the cleargie in those parts, and the like request he made throughout all those his dominions, on that further side of the sea. King Philip for his part demanded likewise intollerable tithes and duties of all the churchmen in his territories, and those that had the gathering of that monie serued their owne turne, in dealing most streightlie with sillie prests, making them to paie what they thought good, though sometime beyond the bounds of equitie and reason.

[Sidenote: Rog. Houed. Inquisitions taken by a iurie of sundrie matters.] In September, the iustices itinerants made their circuits thorough euerie shire and countie of this realme, causing inquisitions to be taken by substantiall iuries of ples of the crowne both old and new, of recognisances, of escheats, of wards, of mariages, of all maner of offendors against the lawes and ordinances of the relme, and of all other transgressors, falsifiers, and murtherers of Jewes; of the pledges, goods, lands, debts, and writings of Jewes that were slaine, and of other circumstances touching that matter. Likewise of the accompts of shiriffes, as to vnderstand what had bene giuen towards the kings ransome, how much had bene receiued, and what remained behind to receiue. Also of the lands that belonged to erle John, and what goods he had, and what he held in demaine, in wards, escheats, and in gifts, and for what cause they were giuen. Furthermore, of his fautors and partakers, which had made fines with the king, and which not, with manie other articles touching the same earle. [Sidenote: Vsurers.] Also of vsurers, and of their goods being seized, of wines sold contrarie to the assise, of false measures, and of such as hauing receiued the crosse to go into the holie land, died before they set forward. Also of grand assises that were of an hundred shillings land or vnder, and of defaults, and of diuerse other things, the iurats were charged to inquire, and present the same.

The iustices also were appointed to cause the manours, farmes and lands which the king held in demaine, or by wards and escheats, to be surueied by a substantiall iurie, and to take order for the conuerting of them to such vse, as the king might be answered of the gaines rising by the same at the farmers hands. [Sidenote: Iewes.] Also, the Iewes were appointed to inroll all their debts, pledges, lands, houses, rents and possessions. [Sidenote: Iustices, shiriffes and other officers.] Moreouer, inquisition was taken of iustices, shiriffes, bailiffes, conestables, foresters and other officers belonging to the king, to vnderstand in what maner they had behaued themselues in taking and seizing of things into their hands, and of all such goods, gifts and promises had and receiued by occasion of leasure made of the lands of earle John and his fautors, and who receiued the same, [Sidenote: Hubert archbishop of Canturburie lord chefe iustice.] and what delaie was granted by commandement of Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, then lord chefe iustice.

In this meane time, whilest these inquisitions were thus taken in England, king Richard comming foorth of Poictou into Aniou, [Sidenote: Officers driuen to fine for their offices.] caused all the bailiffes and officers of that countrie, and also of Maine, to fine with him for their offices. [Sidenote: The king offended with the lord chauncellor.] After this, when he came downe into Normandie, he semed in shew to be offended with his chancellour the bishop of Elie, about concluding of the truce with the French king (where as ye haue heard he was cheefe commissioner) misliking greatlie all that was doone therein, and therefore he tooke the seale from him, and caused a new seale to be made, commanding to be proclaimed thorough all his dominions, that whatsoeuer had bene sealed with the old seale, should stand in no force, both for that his chancellor had wrought more vndiscreetlie than was conuenient; [Sidenote: A new seale.] and againe, bicause the same seale was lost, when Roger Malus Catulus his vicechancellour was drowned, who perished, among other by shipracke, nere to the Ile of Cypres, before the king arriued there, being as then on his iournie into the holie land. Therefore all men had commandement to come to this new seale, that they might haue their charters and writings confirmed.

[Sidenote: Matth. Paris. The king returneth into England. He granteth the English men licence to tournie.] Furthermore, whilest the truce yet lasted, king Richard sailed ouer into England, where he caused turnies to be exercised in diuerse places, for the better training vp of souldiers in feats of warre, that they might growe more skilfull and perfect in the same, when they should come to the triall of their forces, whereby he raised no small summes of monie for granting license to his subiects so to tournie. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed. Fines paid for licence to exercise turnements.] Euerie earle that would tournie, paid to him for his licence twentie marks, euerie baron ten marks, and euerie knight hauing lands, did giue foure marks, and those that had no lands two marks, to the great damnifieng of the people; hauing learned the common lesson, and receiued the ordinarie rule followed of all, and neglected of none; namelie, [Sidenote: Mal. Pal. in suo sap.] —— opus est nummis vel morte relictis, Vel sorte inuentis, vel quauis arte paratis, Quippe inopem mala multa pati contingit vbq;, Nec sine diuitijs fas cuiquam ducere vitam Foelicem, &c.

The charter of this grant was deliuered by the king vnto William earle of Salisburie, to haue the keping thereof: but Hubert Walter the archbishop of Canturburie, and lord chefe iustice, bade his brother Theobald Walter collector of the monie, for the scraping and raking togither whereof, in huge sums, he put the former shifts of extortion and exaction in practise.

The tenour of the charter concerning the turnements before remembred.

Richard by the grace of God king of England, duke of Normandie and Aquitaine, and earle of Aniou, to the reuerend father in Christ, Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, and primat of all England, sendeth greeting. Know ye that we haue granted turnaments to be kept in England in fiue steeds, to wit, betwixt Sarisburie and Wilton, betwixt Warwike and Kenelworth, betwixt Stanford and Warmeford, betwixt Brackley and Nixburgh, betwixt Blie & Tickhill, so that the peace of our land be not broken, nor yet our iustices authoritie diminished, nor any damage doone to our forrests. Prouided that what earle soeuer will turney there, shall giue to vs twentie markes, a baron ten marks, a knight that hath lands foure marks and he that hath no lands shall giue two marks.

Moreouer, no stranger shall be admitted to turney there, wherevpon we command you, that at the daie of the turnieng, ye haue there two clarkes, and two of our knights to receiue the oth of the earles and barons, which shall satisfie vs of the said summes of monie, before the turnieng begin, and that they suffer none to turnie, till (before) they haue made paiment, and haue caused to be entred how much & of whom they haue receiued: and ye shall take ten marks for this charter to our vse, whereof the earle of Salisburie, and the earle of Clare, and the earle of Warren are pledges. [Sidenote: Bishops towne.] Witnesse myselfe, at Ville Leuesche, the two and twentith of August.

Furthermore, ordinances were made and set foorth for the safe keeping of the peace, so that such as would turney, neither by the waie in comming or going, or whilest the turnieng lasted, should violentlie take any thing to serue their necessarie vses, without paieng therefore to the owner according to the woorth, nor should doo iniurie to any man in any manner of wise. But now to the other dooings of king Richard, [Sidenote: I thinke he came not ouer at all into England at this time, but rather sent his mind vnto the archbishop.] who made no long abode in England at this time, but shortlie returned into Normandie, bicause he heard that king Philip had an armie readie leuied. Wherefore meaning to buckle with him vpon occasion offered, he made the more hast, and being landed there, approched vnto the borders of the French dominions, incamping himselfe with his armie in the field, to wait for the time that the truce should be expired, least the enimie should in any exploit preuent him. In like manner king Philip hauing with him earle John king Richards brother, kept his souldiers and men of warre in a readines with him, to worke any feat that should be thought expedient assoone as the truce should end.

[Sidenote: 1195.] Whilest both these kings were thus bent to powre out their malice, and to ease their stomachs with dint of sword, [Sidenote: Messengers from the pope.] there came messengers from the pope, exhorting him vnto peace and quietnesse, but his exhortation little auailed. For they regarding it little or nothing, immediatlie as the truce was expired, got them abroad into the field, [Sidenote: Isoldune.] & king Richard drew towards Isoldune, a towne situat in the confines of Berrie, whither it was reported that the French king meant to come: and there staid for him a whole day togither. But the French king hearing that king Richard was there to looke for him, thought it best not to come there at all. Wherefore king Richard went the next daie vnto a castell called Brison, and tooke it vpon his first approch. Then went he to a towne called Nouencourt and perceiuing the same to be strong and well manned, tooke not in hand to assaile it till the third daie after his comming thither, at what time he so inclosed the same round about with diligent watch and ward, that a cat could not haue escaped out of the place, neither by daie nor night, but that she should haue bene espied. [Sidenote: Nouencourt yeldeth to K. Richard. Albermarle besieged. Matt. West. Polydor.] They within being put in feare herewith, yeelded vp the towne the daie next following, in which meane time the French king besieged Albemarle.

Herevpon king Richard, hauing left a garrison of souldiers in Nouencourt, came to raise the enimie from his siege, & setting vpon the Frenchmen, there began a sharpe fight: but the Englishmen being wearie with trauell of their passed iournie, and hauing rashlie entred into the battell, were not able to indure the Frenchmens violence, so that (not without great losse) they were constreined to retire with swift flight, or (to saie the truth) to run awaie a maine pase. The French king hauing thus chased his enimies, returned to assault Albemarle, woone the castell by force, and the towne by composition, permitting the garrison there to depart with all their armour. This doone, he ruinated the [Sidenote: Rog. Houed. The earle of Leicesters offer for his ransome.] castell flat to the ground. Robert earle of Leicester offered to the French king a thousand marks sterling for his ransome, and to quite claime to him and his heires for euer all the right which he had to the castell of Pascie, with the appurtenances, and to get a confirmation thereof for him both of the pope, and of the king of England: but for that the warre still lasted, the French king tooke a respite in answering this offer, neuerthelesse afterwards in the yeare next insuing, he tooke it, and so the earle was set at libertie.

Not long after this foresaid repulse, the king of England hauing refreshed his souldiers with some rest after their great trauell, went to Million, [Sidenote: Million won and rased.] and giuing assault to the towne wan it at the first brunt, and made it plaine with the earth. [Sidenote: A motion for peace.] Then was a motion made for peace betwixt the two kings, being now wearied with long wars: whereof when earle John was aduertised, who (as it should seme by some writers) hauing tarried with the French king till this present, began now to doubt least if any agrement were made, he might happilie be betraied of the French king by couenants that should passe betwixt them: he determined therefore with himselfe to commit his whole safetie to his naturall brother, and to no man else, perceiuing that the French king made not so great accompt of him after the losse of his castels in England, as he had doone before.

Herevpon comming to his brother king Richard, "he besought him to pardon his offense, and though he had not dealt brotherlie towards him, yet that he would brotherlie forgiue him his rebellious trespasse, adding furthermore, that whereas he had not heretofore beene thankefull for his manifold benefits which he had receiued at his hands, yet he was now most sorie therefore, and was willing to make amends: wherewith he acknowledged the safegard of his life to rest in him, for the which he was bound to giue him thanks, if he would grant thereto." The king mooued with his words, made this answer (as it is said) that he pardoned him inded, but yet wished that he might forget such iniuries as he had receiued at his hands, which he doubted least he should not easilie doo. [Sidenote: Earle John returneth to the king his brother, and is pardoned.] Herewith erle John being yet put in good hope of forgiuenesse, sware to be true euer after vnto him, and that he would endeuour himselfe to make amends for his misdeeds past, [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. R. Houed. Matth. Paris.] and so was shortlie after restored vnto his former degree, honour and estimation in all respects.

But by some writers it should appeare, that earle John, immediatlie vpon conclusion of the first truce, came from the French king, and submitted himselfe to his brother, and by mediation of the quene their mother was pardoned, receiued againe into fauour, and serued euer after against the [Sidenote: Rog. Houed.] French king verie dutifullie, seking by new atchiued enterprises brought about (to the contentation of his brother) to make a recompense for his former misdemeanor, reputing it meere madnesse to make means to further mischeefe; for —— stultum est hostem iritare potentem, Atq; malum maius tumidis sibi qurere verbis. [Sidenote: R. Houed.] But at what time soeuer he returned thus to his brother, this yeare (as Roger Houeden saith) he was restored to the earledoms of Mortaigne in Normandie, and Glocester in England, with the honour of Eie (the castels onelie excepted) and in recompense of the residue of the earledoms which he had before inioied, togither with certeine other lands, his brother king Richard gaue vnto him a yeerelie pension amounting to the summe of eight thousand pound of Aniouin monie. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed. Wil. Paruus. Matth. Paris. Polychron.] Now here to staie a while at matters chancing here about home, I will speake somewhat of the dooings of Leopold duke of Austrich, who as one nothing mooued with the pestilence and famine that oppressed his countrie in this season, but rather hauing his hart hardened, began to threaten the English hostages that they shuld loose their liues, if king Richard kept not the couenants which he had vndertaken to performe by a day appointed. [Sidenote: Baldwin de Betun.] Wherevpon Baldwin Betun one of the hostages was sent by common agrement of the residue vnto king Richard, to signifie to him their estate. King Richard willing to deliuer them out of further danger, sent with the same Baldwin his coosen, the sister of Arthur duke of Britaine, and the daughter of the emperour of Cypres, to be conueied vnto the said duke of Austrich, the one, namelie the sister of Arthur to be ioined in marriage with the dukes sonne, and the other to continue in the dukes hands to bestow at his pleasure.

[Sidenote: Duke Leopold catcheth a fall beside his horsse and dieth of the hurt.] But in the meane time, on saint Stephans day, duke Leopold chanced to haue a fall beside his horsse, and hurt his leg in such wise, that all the surgions in the countrie could not helpe him, wherevpon in extreame anguish he ended his life. And whereas before his death he required to be absolued of the sentence of excommunication pronounced against him by the pope (for apprehending of king Richard in his returning from his iournie made into the holie land) he was answered by the cleargie, that except he would receiue an oth to stand to the iudgement of the church for the iniurie doone to king Richard, and that vnlesse other of the Nobilitie would receiue the like oth with him if he chanced to die (whereby he might not fulfill that which the church herein should decre) that yet they should see the same performed, he might not otherwise be absolued.

Wherefore he tooke the oth, and the Nobles of his countrie with him, and therewithall released the English pledges, remitted the monie that yet remained behind of his portion aforesaid, and immediatlie therewith died. After his deceasse, bicause certeine peres of the countrie withstood the performance of the premisses, his bodie laie eight daies longer aboue ground than otherwise it should haue doone, for till such time as all the pledges were perfectlie released, it might not be buried. Also Baldwin de Betun approching neere to the confines of Austrich, when he heard that the duke was dead, returned with the two ladies vnto his souereigne lord king Richard. Thus (as ye haue heard) for feare of the censures of the church were the pledges restored, and the residue of the monie behind released.

All this was both pleasant and profitable for king Richards soules helth (as may be thought) bicause he tooke occasion therof to amend his owne former life, by considering how much he might be reprehended for his sundrie faults committed both against God and man. A maruellous matter to heare, how much fro that time forward he reformed his former trade of liuing into a better forme & order. [Sidenote: White moonks.] Moreouer, the emperour gaue to the Cisteaux moonks 3000 marks of siluer, parcell of king Richards ransome, to make siluer censers in euerie church throughout where they had any houses: but the abbats of the same order refused the gift, being a portion of so wrongfull and vngodlie a gaine. At which thing, when it came to the knowledge of K. Richard, he greatlie maruelled at the first, but after commended the abbats in their dooings, and cheeflie for shewing that they were void of the accustomed gredinesse of hauing, which most men supposed them to be much infected withall.

[Sidenote: Rog. Houed. Hugh Nouat bishop of Couentrie restored to his se.] King Richard this yeare pardoned Hugh Nouant bishop of Couentrie of all his wrath and displeasure conceiued toward him, and restored to him his bishoprike for fiue thousand marks of siluer. But Robert Nouant the same bishops brother died in the kings prison at Douer. [Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke.] Also whereas the archbishop of Yorke had offended king Richard, he pardoned him, and receiued him againe into fauour, with the kisse of peace. Wherevpon the archbishop waxed so proud, that vsing the king reprochfullie, he lost his archbishoprike, the rule of Yorkeshire which he had in gouernment as shiriffe, the fauour of his souereigne, and (which was the greatest losse of all) the loue of God. For [Sidenote: M. Pal. in suo sag.] Nemo superbus amat superos, nec amator ab illis, Vult humiles Deus ac mites, habitatq; libenter Mansuetos animos procul ambitione remotos, Inflatos ver ac ventosos deprimit idem, Nec patitur secum puro consistere olympo.

[Sidenote: Pope Celestine. The archbish. of Canturburie is made y^e popes legat.] Moreouer, through the kings request, pope Celestine this yeare made the archbishop of Canturburie legat of all England by his buls directed to him, bearing date at his palace in Rome called Lateran the fifteenth kalends of Aprill, in the fourth yeare of his papasie. Furthermore, the pope wrote to the English cleargie, giuing them to vnderstand that he had created the said archbishop of Canturburie his legat, commanding them so to accept him: [Sidenote: A trinitie of officers in vnitie of person.] by vertue of which letters, the archbishop Hubert being now both archbishop of Canturburie, legat of the apostolike se, and lord chefe iustice of England, appointed to hold a councell at Yorke, and therefore gaue knowledge by the abbat of Binham in Northfolke, and one maister Geruise, vnto the canons of Yorke, and to the archbishops officials of his purposed intention.

The said canons and officials well considering of the popes letters, which were deliuered vnto them by the messengers, signified for answer, that they would gladlie receiue him as legat of the apostolike se, but not as archbishop of Canturburie, nor as their primat. Herewith he came to Yorke vpon saint Barnabies daie being sundaie, and was receiued with procession. On the morrow after, he held a court of plees of the crowne, of assises, and such other matters touching the king. On the next day being Tuesday, he entred into the monasterie of saint Maries in Yorke, and deposed the abbat, bicause of his infirmitie of bodie, at the request of the moonks, but the abbat appealed to the popes consistorie. [Sidenote: A synod holden at Yorke.] Then he assembled the cleargie in the church of Saint Peter in Yorke, and there held a synod for reformation of things amisse in the church, and amendment of manners in the cleargie, so that diuerse decres were made, the which for brefenesse we omit to speake of in particular. This yeare also, the said archbishop Hubert caused all men throughout the realme of England to receiue an oth of obseruing the kings peace, and to sweare that they should not be robbers, nor abbettors of robbers, nor in any wise consenting vnto them, but should doo what in them might lie to apprehend all such offendors, and to discouer them to the kings officers to be apprehended, and to pursue them vpon hew and crie to the vttermost of their powers, and those that withdrew themselues from such pursuit, should be apprehended as partakers with the offendors.

[Sidenote: The emperor sendeth to the king.] About this time the emperour sent to king Richard, requiring him in no wise to conclude any peace with the French king, but rather to inuade his dominions, promising to aid him all that he might. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.] But king Richard, to vnderstand further of the emperours mind herein, [Sidenote: The bishop of Elie is sent to the emperour.] sent ouer his chancellour the bishop of Elie vnto him in ambassage. In the meane time the warre was still continued betwixt him and the French, by the which they were commonlie put to the worse, and king Richard inuading their borders, did much hurt in wasting the countries on each side. The French king was at one time so narrowlie chased, that as he would haue passed a bridge that laie ouer the water of Saine, he was in danger of drowning by the fall of the same vnder him, but yet at the length he escaped, and got to the further side.

[Sidenote: The 2 kings talke togither.] After this, the two kings came to a communication togither, in the which a motion was made, that Lewes the French king his sonne and heire should haue the sister of Arthur duke of Britaine in marriage, and that king Richard in consideration thereof should surrender vnto them and to their heires the townes of Gisors, Bademont, with the countrie of Veulquessine or Veuxine le Normant, Vernon, Iuerie and Pascie; and further should giue vnto them twentie thousand marks of siluer. On the other side it was mooued, that the French king should resigne vnto king Richard all that he could demand in the countie of Engeulesme, and should restore vnto him the counties of Albemarle and Augie, with the castell of Arkes, and all other castels which he had taken in Normandie, or in any partie during these last warres. But there was a respit taken for the full concluding and assuring of these conditions, till the octaues of All saints, that king Richard might vnderstand the emperours pleasure, without whose consent he might not conclude any thing concerning that matter, bicause he had sent such word vnto him by the lord chancellour, who at this time was attendant in his court.

In the meane time, the emperour being aduertised of the whole matter, and of the articles afore mentioned, gaue knowledge to king Richard by the bishop of Elie at his returning backe, that this forme of peace nothing liked him, but rather made directlie to his discontentment: the which least he might seme to saie without sufficient ground of reason, he alledged, that it should sound to king Richards dishonour, if he surrendred and gaue vp anie thing that he had not in possession. [Sidenote: The emperor dissuadeth the king from agreing to the peace.] And to encourage him to recouer those things which had beene taken from him, the emperour pardoned him of the seauentene thousand marks of siluer, which yet remained behind due to him for the kings ransome. Howsoeuer the matter passed, the two kings met not in the octaues of All saints, according to the appointment, although they were come, and approched verie nere to the place where they should haue communed togither: but through the dissimulation of the Frenchmen, they departed, without seeing one an other, and immediatlie began the warre as fiercelie as at anie time before.

[Sidenote: The warre is begun afresh.] The French king tooke the towne of Diep, which king Richard had latelie repared, and burned it, with the ships that harbored in the hauen: after this, commming to Isoldun, he wan the towne and besieged the castell. [Sidenote: The hast which king Richard made.] But king Richard aduertised thereof, came with quicke sped (making of thre daies iournie but one) and entred into the castell of Isoldun to defend the same against his aduersaries: and foorthwith there resorted such numbers of men vnto him, when they heard how he was besieged, that the French king doubting how to retire from thence in safetie, made suit first to haue licence to depart, and after when that would not be granted, he required at the leastwise to talke with the king of England about some agrement.

[Sidenote: The 2 kings againe talke togither of peace.] Wherevnto king Richard condescended, and so comming togither, they concluded vpon a truce to indure from that daie, being saturdaie next after the feast of saint Nicholas, vnto the feast of saint Hilarie next insuing, and then to met againe nere vnto Louiers with their councels, that they might grow by some reasonable way vnto a finall peace and concord. [Sidenote: 1196.] And according to this article, shortlie after the same feast of S. Hilarie, they met at Louiers, where finallie they were accorded to conclude a peace on these conditions, [Sidenote: The conditions of peace concluded betwixt the two kings. Matth. Paris. Matth. West.] that the French king should release to the king of England Isoldun, with the countrie about, woon by him sith the beginning of these wars; likewise, all the right which he had in Berrie, Auuergine, and Gascoigne, and the countie of Albemarle. On the other part, the king of England should resigne Gisors, and certeine other places, and namelie Veuxine or Veulquesine vnto the king of France.

[Sidenote: Matth. West. Matth. Paris.] Herevpon were suerties also bound for performance, and the forfeiture of fiftene thousand marks assigned to be paid by the partie that first brake the peace. Shortlie after, the French king repenting him selfe of the agreement, began to make a warre anew, so that king Richard seized into his hands all the goods and[15] possessions which belonged to the abbats of the order of the great monasterie of Clunie, and of saint Denise & la Charitie, which had become suertie for the French king in the summe of 1500 marks aforesaid. [Sidenote: Rog. Houed. The earle of Albemarle departed this life.] This yeare died William de Forz earle of Albemarle, in whose place succeded Baldwine de Betun by the kings gift, and married the countesse of Albermarle.

[Sidenote: Otho sonne to the duke of Saxonie.] There was a motion also made for a marriage betwixt the lord Otho, sonne to Henrie duke of Saxonie, king Richards nephue by his sister, and the ladie Margaret, daughter to the king of Scots, so as they should haue inioied the countries of Lothian, Northumberland, and the countie of Caerleill with the castels. [Sidenote: Lawnes.] For the conclusion of which marriage, the archbishop of Canturburie was sent about Christmas to commune with the king of Scots: but bicause the Scotish quene was then conceiued of child, hir husband (in hope that God would send him a sonne) refused to stand vnto the aboue mentioned couenants.

[Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. Ran. Higd. The abbat of Caen sent into England.] At this time king Richard sent the abbat of Caen (who was also the elect of Durham) into England, to take an accompts of those that had the receipts of the kings monie: for this abbat had informed the king, that his receiuers and officers here in the realme dealt not iustlie in making their accompts, [Sidenote: Fraudulent dealing in officers.] but both deceiued the king, and oppressed his people, in exacting more than was due, and concealing that which they ought to stand accomptable for. The king supposing his words to be true, or at least likelie so to be, and that in reforming such vntruth in his officers, it should be both profitable to him, and well liked of the people, sent this abbat ouer with commission, to be as it were his generall auditour.

Howbeit, Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, which was gouernour of the realme in causes both temporall and spirituall (by reason he had the kings authorise as his vicegerent, & therefore sufficientlie countenanced, & also the popes as his legat authorised) did somewhat stomach the matter, in that it should be thought he did suffer such abuses in the kings officers, and not reforme them. But he held him content and said little, sith the abbat shewed him the kings commission to doo that which he went about, although he brought it not to passe. For whereas he came ouer in lent, and gaue out commandements, that all such as had any thing to doo in receipt of the kings monie, should appeare before him after Easter, he tarried not to see Easter himselfe, but was called into another world by the stroke of death, there to render accompts for his owne acts here in this life committed.

[Sidenote: Fabian. Wil. Paruus. Matt. Paris. Ran. Higd. William Fitz Osbert.] At the same time there was another person in London called William with the long beard, (alis Fitz Osbert) which had likewise informed the king of certeine great oppressions and excessiue outrages vsed by rich men against the poore (namelie the worshipfull of the citie, the Maior and Aldermen) who in their hoistings, when any tallage was to be gathered, burdened the poore further than was thought reason, to ease themselues; [Sidenote: The foule disorder in the citizens of London.] wherevpon[16] the said William being a seditious person, and of a busie nature, ceassed not to make complaints. Now bicause the king gaue eare vnto him at the first, he tooke a boldnesse thereof, & drawing vnto him great routs of the poorer sort of people, would take vpon him to defend the causes of those that found themselues greeued with the heauie yoke of richmen and gentlemen. He was somewhat learned, and verie eloquent: he had also a verie good wit, but he applied it rather to set dissention betwixt the high estates and the low, than to anie other good purpose. [Sidenote: The vnnaturall ingratitude of Fitz Osbert.] He accused also his owne brother of treason, who in his youth had kept him to schoole, & beene verie good and beneficiall brother vnto him, bicause now he would not still mainteine him with monie to beare out his riottous port. Moreouer, he declared to the king, that by extortion and briberie of certeine men of great wealth, he lost manie forfeits and escheats.

Manie gentlemen of honour sore hated him for his presumptuous attempts to the hindering of their purposes: but he had such comfort of the king, that he little passed for their malice, but kept on his intent, till the king being aduertised of the assemblies which he made, commanded him to ceasse from such dooings, that the people might fall againe to their sciences and occupations, which they had for the more part left off, at the instigation of this William with the long beard, so named of the long heare of his beard, [Sidenote: Why he ware his long berd. Matth. Paris.] which he nourished of purpose to seeme the more graue and manlike, and also as it were in despite of them which counterfeited the Normans (that were for the most part shauen) and bicause he would resemble the ancient vsage of the English nation. [Sidenote: Fabian.] The kings commandement in restraint of the peoples resort vnto him, was well kept a while, but it was not long yer they began to follow him againe as they had doone before.

Then he tooke vpon him to make vnto them certeine collations or sermons, taking for his theme, Haurietis aquas in gaudio de fontibus saluatoris, that is to saie: [Sidenote: His oration to the people.] Ye shall draw in gladnesse waters out of the founteins of your sauiour. And hereto he added, "I am (said he) the sauiour of poore men; ye be the poore, and haue assaied the hard hands and heauie burdens of the rich: now draw ye therefore the healthfull waters of vnderstanding out of my wels and springs, and that with ioy. For the time of your visitation is come: I shall part waters from waters, by waters I vnderstand the people, and I shall part the people which are good and meke, from the people that are wicked and proud, and I shall disseuer the good and euill, euen as light is diuided from darknesse."

[Sidenote: Ger. Dor.] By these and such persuasions and means as he vsed, he had gotten two and fiftie thousand persons, readie to haue taken his part, as appeared after by a roll of their names found in his keping, besides diuerse instruments of iron to breake vp houses, and other things seruing to such like purposes. So that he brought the commoners into a great liking of him: but the rich and wealthie citizens stood in much feare, so that they kept their houses, in armes, in doubt to be robbed and murthred by him in the night season.

The archbishop of Canturburie (vnto whome the rule of the realme chefelie belonged) being aduertised hereof, sent for the greatest number of the citizens, and vsing them with gentle words, persuaded them to deliuer pledges, the better to assure him, that no such thing should chance, which was suspected of manie, though he was loth to conceiue any such opinion of them. They being ouercome with his courteous words, gaue vnto him pledges.

[Sidenote: He is called before the archbishop of Canturburie lord chefe iustice or president of the realme.] After this, when the foresaid William ceased not to make congregations of the people, at length the archbishop sent a commandement vnto him, that he should appeare before him and other of the councell, at a certeine prefixed daie, to answer to such things as might be laid to his charge. To be short, he did so at the time appointed, but with such a rout of the common people about him, that the archbishop durst not pronounce against him, but licenced him to depart for that time, giuing him soft and gentle words. Howbeit, certeine persons were then appointed by the said archbishop and other of the councell to watch him sometime, when he should haue no great companie about him, and then to apprehend him.

Amongst those that were thus commanded to attach him, were two burgesses of the citie, who hauing espied a conuenient time for the execution of their purpose, set vpon him to haue take him, but he getting an ax, defended himselfe manfullie: and in resisting slue one of them, [Sidenote: He fleth into the church of S. Marie Bow.] and after that fled into the church of S. Marie Bow, keping the same not as a place of sanctuarie, but as a fortresse: in somuch that by the help of such as resorted vnto him, he defended it against his aduersaries, till with fire and smoke they constreined him to come foorth, and all those that were there with him: [Sidenote: His concubine.] amongst them also was his concubine, who neuer left him for any danger that might betide him.

The people regarding the danger of their pledges, came not out to aid him, as it was much doubted they would haue doone. Wherefore being thus attached, he was brought foorth, and comming out of the church, the sonne of that burgesse whome he had slaine (as you haue heard) strake him verie sore into the bellie with a knife, in reuenge of his fathers death. After this, he was had to his arraignment before the archbishop, sitting within the towre, and being condemned, was from thence drawne with horsses to the place of execution called the Elmes, [Sidenote: He is executed.] and there hanged on a gibet, with nine of his adherents, which had defended the church against the kings power: [Sidenote: Wil. Paruus. Matth. Paris.] and yet for all this, the grudge ceassed not, but the common people raised a great slander vpon the archbishop, [Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie is euill spoke of for y^e death of William Fitz Osbert.] both for causing him to be taken out of the church, where he claimed priuilege of sanctuarie, and also for putting him to death, who was innocent (as they alledged) and not giltie of those crimes that were laid against him: who sought onelie the defense of poore people against extortioners, and such as were wrong dooers.

This rumor rose so fast, that at length (by bruting abroad, that certeine miracles should be wrought by a chaine, [Sidenote: An old whormonger, and a new saint.] wherein he was bound in time of his imprisonment) he was taken for a saint. The place also where he suffered, was visited by women, and other superstitious folks, as a plot of great holinesse, till at length the archbishop caused it to be watched, to the end that no such foolishnesse should be vsed there. In fine, the opinion which the people had thus fondlie conceiued of his vertue and innocencie, was by little and little remooued out of their heads, when his acts were more certeinelie published: as the sleaing of a man with his owne hands, and the vsing of his concubine within Bowe church, during the time of his being there. Also the archbishop accursed a prest, which had first brought vp the false report and fained fable of the miracle wrought by the chaine, whereby the occasion of idolatrie was first giuen, and might easilie haue bene continued, if the archbishop had not bene the wiser man, and by such means repressed the rumour. So that we are to note by this example the force of counterfeit holinesse and feigned harmelesnesse in hypocrits, —— qui pelle sub agni Vipereum celant virus morsq; luporum; Et stolidos ficta virtutis imagine fallunt.

But now to return vnto the dooings of king Richard in France. Ye haue heard how a peace was concluded (as some haue written) but the same continued not long: for the French king seming to repent himselfe of that he had doone (as is aforesaid) brake the peace, and raising a power, besieged Albemarle; at length wan it, and raced it downe to the ground, then king Richard gaue vnto him thre thousand marks of siluer for the ransome of his knights and yeomen, or demilances (as I may call them) that were taken in that fortresse. After this, the French king wan Nouencourt, and earle John tooke the castell of Gamages.

[Sidenote: The erledome of Poictou.] About the same time also king Richard gaue vnto his nephue Otho the earledome of Poictou. Which I haue thought good to note out of Roger Houeden, [Sidenote: John Bouchet his dout.] to remooue the doubt of Iohn Bouchet, who in the third part of his annales of Aquitaine, maruelleth at an old panchart or record which he had sene, by the tenour whereof it appeared, that this Otho intituled himselfe duke of Aquitaine and earle of Poictou, being in his castell of Monstereulbonin neere to Poictiers, in the yeare a thousand, one hundreth, ninetie nine, in presence of Geffrey de Lusignen, and others, and granted vnto a certeine person the office of cutting the monie in the mint of that towne, as by the same panchart it further appeareth.

The sight whereof brought the said Bouchet into a great perplexitie, considering that no chronicle which he had either seene, or heard of, made mention of any Otho that shuld be duke of Aquitaine, or erle of Poictou, either before that time, or after. Where againe it was euident to him, that queene Elianor the mother of king Richard, as then liuing, named hir selfe dutchesse of Aquitaine, and countesse of Poictou; & likewise king Richard intituled himselfe duke of Aquitaine, and earle of Poictou, euer after he had fianced the earle of Barcelons daughter, as by diuerse records both of the mother and the sonne he had sene perfect notice. At length yet he gesseth (and that trulie) that it should be this Otho, to whom the mother and sonne had assigned the dutchie of Aquitaine and countie of Poictou, for the maintenance of his estate, he holding the same till the yeare 1199, in the which he was made emperour by king Richards good helpe, as after shall be shewed more at large.

[Sidenote: Ranulph erle of Chester tooke his wife the dutchesse of Britaine prisoner.] About this time also as the countesse of Britaine, the mother of duke Arthur came into Normandie to haue spoken with king Richard, Ranulph earle of Chester hir husband meeting hir at Pountourson, tooke hir as prisoner, and shut hir vp within his castell at S. James de Beumeron: and when hir sonne Arthur could not find means to deliuer hir out of captiuitie, he ioined with the king of France, and made great hauocke in the lands of his vncle king Richard, wherevpon the king gathered a mightie armie, and inuading Britaine with great force, cruellie wasted and destroied the countrie.

[Sidenote: A dearth.] Here is also to be noted, that in this seuenth yeare of king Richard, a great dearth chanced through this realme of England, and in the coasts about the same. [Sidenote: The death of the earle of Salisburie.] Also about the same time died William earle of Salisburie, the sonne of earle Patrike, whose daughter and heire king Richard gaue in marriage, togither with the earledome of Salisburie, vnto his base brother, surnamed Long Espe.

[Sidenote: R. Houed. Matth. Paris.] It chanced moreouer about the same time, that earle John the kings brother, with certeine capteins of such hired souldiors as some call Brabanceni; others, the Routs; and the French histories name them Costereaux, or Coterels, went abroad to atchiue some enterprise against the bishop of Beauuois, and other Frenchmen, which had doone much hurt to king Richards subiects in those parties. The chefe leaders of those Routs or Costereaux, which went foorth with earle John, [Sidenote: Marchades & Lupescaro.] and serued vnder him at that time, were two Prouancois, Marchades & Lupescaro. These riding foorth into the countrie about Beauuois made hauocke in robbing and spoiling all afore them.

Anon as Philip the bishop of Beauuois, a man more giuen to the campe than to the church, had knowledge hereof, thinking them to be a met preie for him, with sir William de Merlow and his sonne, and a great number of other valiant men of warre, came foorth into the fields, and encountring with the enimies, fought verie stoutlie. [Sidenote: The bishop of Beauuois taken prisoner.] But yet in the end the bishop, the archdeacon, and all the chefe capteins were taken: the residue slaine and chased. After this, earle John and the foresaid capteins passed foorth, and wan the towne of Millie, and so returned.

Earle John and Marchades presented the two prelats with great triumph vnto K. Richard earlie in the morning, lieng yet in his bed; as those that were knowne to be his great enimies, saieng to him in French; "Rise Richard, rise, we haue gotten the great chantour of Beauuois, and a good quier man (as we take it) to answer him in the same note, and here we deliuer them vnto you to vse at your discretion." The king seing them, smiled, and was verie glad for the taking of this bishop, for that he had euer found him his great aduersarie: and therefore being thus taken fighting in the field with armour on his backe, thought he might be bold in temporall wise to chastise him: sith he (not regarding his calling) practised to molest him with temporall weapons: wherevpon he committed him to close prison all armed as he was.

It chanced soone after, that two of his chaplins came vnto the king to Rouen, where this bishop was deteined, beseeching the king of licence to attend vpon their maister now in captiuitie: vnto whome (as it is of some reported) the king made this answer; "I am content to make you iudges in the cause betwixt me and your maister, as for the euils which he hath either doone, either else gone about to doo vnto me, let the same be forgotten. This is true, that I being taken as I returned from my iournie made into the holie land, and deliuered into the emperours hands, was in respect of my kinglie state, vsed according therevnto verie frendlie and honourablie, till your maister comming thither (for what purpose he himselfe best knoweth) had long conference with the emperour. After which, I for my part in the next morning tasted the fruit of their ouernights talke, being then loden with as manie irons as a good asse might not verie easilie haue borne. Iudge you therefore, what maner of imprisonment your maister deserued at my hands, that procured such ease for me at the emperours hands."

The two chaplins had their mouths stopped with these words thus by the king vttered, and so departed their waies. The bishop being still deteined in prison, procured suit to be made to the pope for his deliuerance: but the pope, being truelie informed of the matter, and wiselie considering that the king had not taken the bishop preaching, but fighting, and kept him prisoner rather as a rough enimie, than as a peaceable prelat, would not be earnest with the king for his deliuerance, but rather reprooued the bishop, in that he had preferred secular warfare before the spirituall, and had taken vpon him the vse of a speare in sted of a crosier, an helmet in steed of a miter, an herbergeon in sted of a white rochet, a target for a stoale, and an iron sword in lieu of the spirituall sword: and therefore he refused to vse any commandement to king Richard for the setting of him at libertie. But yet he promised to doo what he could by waie of intreating that he might be released.

It is reported by some writers, that the pope at first, not vnderstanding the truth of the whole circumstance, should send to king Richard, commanding him by force of the canons of the church to deliuer his sons the bishop and archdeacon out of their captiuitie. To whom the king sent their armour with this message written in Latine, [Sidenote: Genes. 37.] "Vide an tunica filij tui sit an non," that is, "See whether these are the garments of thy sonnes or not:" alluding to the saieng of those that caried Josephs coate to Jacob. Which when the pope saw, he said: "Naie by S. Peter, it is neither the apparell of my sonnes, nor yet of my brethren: but rather they are the vestures of the children of Mars:" and so he left them still to be ransomed at the kings pleasure. The bishop thus seing no hope to be deliuered without some agrement had betwixt the two kings, became now through irkesomenesse of his bonds, an earnest mediatour for peace, whereas before he had beene an extreme stirrer vp of war. Such a schoolemaister is imprisonment, & plucker downe of loftie courages. But to proceed.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8.] About the same time the archbishop of Rouen put all the countrie of Normandie vnder sentence of interdiction, [Sidenote: Normandie interdicted by y^e archbishop of Rouen.] bicause king Richard had begun to fortifie a castell at Lisle Dandelie, vpon a pece of ground which the archbishop claimed to apperteine vnto his se. The matter was brought before the pope, who perceiuing the intent of king Richard was not otherwise grounded vpon any couetous purpose to defraud the church of hir right, but onelie to build a fortresse in such place as was most expedient for defense of the countrie about, to preserue it from inuasion of the enimies; he counselled the archbishop not to stand against the king in it, but to exchange with him for some other lands: which was doone, and the interdiction by the pope released. [Sidenote: The bishop of Elie departed this life.] The bishop of Elie lord chancellour, being sent about this businesse towards Rome, departed this life by the way at Poictiers, in Januarie.

But the bishops of Durham & Lisieux that were sent with him, passed forward, and comming to Rome, informed the pope of the matter, who tooke order with the bishops (as before is mentioned.) The king gaue to the church in Rouen in recompense, his milles which he had in Rouen, so that the said church should paie the almes of old time appointed to be giuen for the same. He gaue to the said church likewise the towne of Diepe, and the towne of Bussels, so that the church should likewise paie the almes assigned foorth of the same, being the summe of 372 pounds of Aniouine monie: also the manour of Louers, and the forrest of Alermound with the deere and the appurtenances. But now to other dooings.

About the same time, or not long before, whereas there had beene long contention betwixt the kings of England, and the earles of S. Giles for the earldome of Tholouse, [Sidenote: Rog. Houed. The king and the earle of Tholouse agred.] king Richard by way of aliance fell now at an appointment with the earle Raimond that held those lands; for whereas the countesse Constance wife to the said Raimond earle of Tholouse and aunt to king Philip was now departed this life, king Richard concluded a mariage betweene the said earle and his sister Joane quene of Sicile, sometime wife to William king of Sicile, so that being thus ioined in aliance with the said earle of Tholouse on the one side, [Sidenote: Matt. Paris. The earle of Flanders alied with K. Richard. Iacob. Meir. Les annales de France.] he procured a league also with Baldwine earle of Flanders on the other, vnto whom he gaue fiue thousand markes in reward, vpon condition, that he should couenant not to grow to any agrement with the French king without his consent. Likewise Reginold the earle of Bolongne, that was sonne to earle of Chateau Marline, alied himselfe with them against the French king, and so did Baldwine earle of Guines with diuerse other.

Thus King Richard by such aliance hauing his part greatlie strengthened, prepared himselfe to the warre more earnestlie than before, and tooke order with the earle of Flanders, that they should inuade the French dominions in two seuerall quarters both at one time, as the earle by Flanders, & he himselfe by Normandie, according to the appointment betwixt them deuised. [Sidenote: Iacob. Meir. Wil. Paruus. Towns won by the earle of Flanders.] The earle preparing an armie, first wan the towne of Dowaie, and then besieged saint Omers, and wan it after fiue weekes siege: wherevpon they of Aire yeelded to him; shortlie after he entred into Artois, & besieged the citie of Arras.

At the same time king Richard marching towards Gisors, wan in his waie the castell of Corselles, & destroied it; [Sidenote: Gisors besieged.] that doone, he came to Gisors, and besieged the towne, wasting all the countrie round about him where he came. The French king being thus troubled with the inuasion of his enimies in two seuerall places at one present time, sent certeine bands of his souldiors towards Arras to kepe the earle of Flanders plaie, whilest he himselfe went against king Richard: and comming vnto Gisors, found it streictlie besieged of the same king, so that he wist not well how to enter the towne. But yet at length faigning to giue battell to king Richard (who vpon desire to receiue it, came abroad into the field) the French king rushed foorth with all his whole force to make towards the towne, [Sidenote: The French king entreth into Gisors.] & so got into it, though not without great losse and damage of his people.

King Richard not meaning to breake vp his siege from before the towne, (notwithstanding the French king had entred it) staied a certeine time of purpose to win it, knowing the gaine to be the greater, and his name more famous, if he might atchiue his purpose, now that his aduersarie was within it, but when he saw it would not be, [Sidenote: K. Richard raiseth his siege.] he raised his siege, and departed towards Cleremont, spoiling all the countrie by his forrais as he went, so that he wan great pillage, wherewith his souldiers were loden and made verie rich.

[Sidenote: Hugh de Cheaumount taken prisoner.] It chanced, that in a skirmish Hugh de Chaumount was taken prisoner, one that was of the French kings priuie councell; and king Richard appointed him to the keping of Robert Ros, who charged one of his seruants named William de Spinie with the custodie of him. But the said Hugh corrupting his keper the foresaid William with rewards, (whereof it is said, [Sidenote: Ouid. in 3. Art. am. ep. 16.] —— acceptissima semper Munera sunt, author qu pretiosa facit) escaped out of the castell of Bonneuille, where he was within ward, to the great displeasure of king Richard, [Sidenote: Robert Rosse put to his fine for an escape.] who caused Robert Ros to paie for a fine, the summe of twelue hundred marks, which the prisoner should haue paied for his ransome: and further, commanded William de Spinie to be hanged for his disloiall dealing.

King Philip, after that the king of England was remooued from Gisors (as before ye haue heard) assembled a great host, and with banner displaied, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] entred into Normandie, and wasted the countrie from Newburge to Beaumont le Rogier, and that doone, returned into France, licencing his men to returne vnto their homes. [Sidenote: Nic. Treuet. The French kings request for a combat.] About the same time, he sent vnto king Richard, requiring him to appoint fiue champions, and he would appoint other fiue for his part, which might fight in lists, for triall of all matters in controuersie betwixt them, so to auoid the shedding of more giltlesse bloud. [Sidenote: K. Richards answer.] King Richard accepted the offer, with condition, that either king might be of the number, that is, the French king one of the fiue vpon the French part; & K. Richard one of the fiue vpon the English part. But this condition would not be granted. [Sidenote: 1197.] Herevpon when shortlie after it was signified to king Richard, that ships vsed to come out of England to saint Valerie with victuals, [Sidenote: Matth. Paris.] which were sold and conueied awaie vnto the French K and other his enimies, he rode to saint Valeries, and set the towne on fire, [Sidenote: Ships burnt, and mariners hanged.] and such ships of England as he found there he also burnt, and hanged the mariners by the necke, diuiding the graine and other victuals which were found in the same ships amongst his owne souldiors.

[Sidenote: Les annales de France.] About the same time he got the fauour of them of Champaigne and of the Britons, and William Crespine also was constreined to deliuer vnto him the castell of Auge, but the French king recouered it by siege, whilest king Richard entring into Aluergne wan diuerse castels there, to the number of ten out of king Philips hands. [Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.] In the meane time the earle of Flanders made sore war against the French king for his part, and training the same king within streits, so that he was almost inclosed on ech side, he constreined him to agre to such composition as pleased the same earle to appoint, but afterwards the French king refused to stand to the couenants of that agrement, and so the warre continued betwixt them as before.

[Sidenote: R. Houed. One yeare & 4 moneths saith Wil. Paruus.] At length king Richard and the French king concluded vpon an abstinence of warre to indure from the feast of S. Hilarie for one whole yere, purposing in the meane time to make a finall peace and agrement. In which season Baldwine earle of Flanders came into England to doo his deuotions vnto the shrine where Thomas the archbishop laie buried at Canturburie. [Sidenote: Griffin king of Wales departed this life.] The same yeare also somewhat before this time, Rise ap Griffin king of Wales departed this life, after whose death there fell discord betwixt his sonnes for the succession, till the archbishop Hubert went to the marshes of that countrie and made an agrement betwixt them. Not long after, Roger the brother of Robert earle of Leicester, elected bishop of saint Andrews in Scotland, receiued the order of presthood, and was consecrated bishop by the hands of the bishop of Aberdine.

[Sidenote: Weights and measures.] This yeare it was ordeined that measures of all manner of graine should conteine one quantitie throughout the realme, that is to saie, one resonable horsselode, and that the measures of wine and ale with all maner of liquors should be of one iust quantie according to the diuersitie of the liquor: also that weights should be of like rate throughout the relme, and that cloth should conteine two yards in breadth within the lists, of perfect goodnesse throughout, as well in the middest as by the sides, and that one manner of yard should be vsed through the relme. It was also ordeined that no merchants within the realme should hang any red or blacke clothes before their windowes, nor set vp any pentises or other thing whereby to darken the light from those that came to buy their cloth, so as they might be deceiued in choosing thereof.

Also it was enacted that there should be foure or six substantiall honest men chosen in euerie towne, and likewise in shires, with the head officers of cities and boroughes, which had a corporation, to see that the assises aforesaid were truelie kept, and that if anie were found to be offending in the premisses, to cause their bodies to be attached and commited to prison, and their goods to be seized to the kings vse: and if those that were chosen to haue regard thereto, were tried to be negligent, so that by others, and not by them any offenders chanced to be conuicted before the iustices, then should the regarders be put to their fines, for the negligent looking to their offices.

[Sidenote: 1198.] King Richard held his Christmasse this yeare at Roan, and Hubert the archbishop of Canturburie legat of the apostolike se, named lord chefe Justice of England, was about the same time in the marshes of Wales at Hereford, and there receiued into his hands the castels of Hereford, Bridgenorth and Ludlow, remoouing those that had the same in keping, and appointing others in their roomes. Afterwards comming by Couentrie, [Sidenote: Moonks placed againe in the church of Couentrie.] he placed the moonks againe in the cathedrall church of that citie, by commandement of pope Celestine, and chased out the secular canons, which the bishop Hugh Nouant had brought into the same church when he remooued the moonks.

[Sidenote: Messengers from the stats of Germanie.] In the Christmasse weke also there came messengers to Rouen from the archbishops of Cullen and Mentz, and from other states of the empire, which declared vnto king Richard, that all the princes of Germanie were appointed to assemble at Cullen, the two & twentith of Februarie, about the choosing of a new emperour, in place of the late deceassed Henrie: and therefore they commanded him by force of the oth and league in which he was bound to the emperour and empire, that all excuse of deniall or occasions to the contrarie ceasing and set apart, he should make his repaire vnto Cullen at the aforesaid day, to helpe them in choosing of some worthie personage that might and was able to haue the empire. King Richard doubting to put himselfe in danger, bicause he had not discharged all the debts due for his ransome, staied at home, but yet he sent diuerse noble men thither, and did so much in fauour of his nephue Otho, that by the helpe of the foresaid two archbishops of Cullen and Mentz, the same Otho was elected emperour. But of this matter more shall be said hereafter.

[Sidenote: Three hundred knights of men of armes to be found.] Moreouer, about the same time king Richard required by the archbishop of Canturburie his chefe iustice, an aid of 300 knights to be found by his subiects of England, to remaine with him in his seruice for one whole yeare, or else that they would giue him so much monie, as might serue to reteine that number after the rate of thre shillings a daie of English monie for euerie knight. [Sidenote: The bishop of Lincolne.] Whereas all other were contented to be contributors herein, onelie Hugh bishop of Lincolne refused, and spake sore against the archbishop that moued the matter. But how soeuer that request tooke place, king Richard (as we find) leuied this yeare a subsidie of fiue shillings of euerie hide of land within the realme, two commissioners, that is to say, one of the spiritualtie, & a knight of the temporaltie, being appointed as commissioners in euerie shire, with the assistance of the shiriffe, and others, to se the same assessed & rated after an hundred acres of land to the hide of land, according to the custome.

[Sidenote: The moonks of Christes church send to the pope, complaining of their archbishop.] The same yeare also the moonks of the house of the holie Trinitie, otherwise called Christes church in Canturburie, exhibited their complaint vnto pope Innocent, that their archbishop Hubert (contrarie to his order and dignitie) exercised the office of high iustice, and sate in iudgement of bloud, being so incumbred in temporall matters, that he could not haue time to discharge his office touching spirituall causes: [Sidenote: The pope sendeth to the king.] wherevpon the pope sent vnto king Richard, admonishing him not to suffer the said archbishop to be any longer troubled with temporall affaires, but to discharge him thereof, and not to admit any spirituall person from thencefoorth vnto any temporall administration.

He further prohibited by vertue of their obedience, all manner of prelats and men of the church, that they should not presume rashlie to take vpon them any maner of secular function or office. Whervpon the archbishop was discharged of his office of chefe iustice, and Geffrey Fitz Peter succeded in gouernement of the realme in his sted. Geruasius Dorobernensis saith, that the archbishop resigned that office of his owne accord, and that not till after his returne from the marshes of Wales, where he had ouerthrowne the Welshmen, and slaine fiue thousand of them. Which victorie other ascribe vnto Geffrey Fitz Peter, which Geffrey (as the said Dorobernensis saith) succeeded the archbishop in the office of lord cheefe iustice, but not vntill August, in the tenth yeare of the kings reigne.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.] In this yeare, immediatlie vpon the expiring of the truce which was taken till haruest might be ended, the warre betwixt the two kings of England & France began eftsoones to be pursued with like earnestnesse as before: wherevpon manie encounters chanced betwixt the parties, with taking of townes and fortresses, as commonlie in such cases it happeneth. Twise the French king was put to the worsse, once in September betwixt Gamages and Vernon, where he was driuen to saue himselfe by flight, loosing twentie knights, and threscore seruitors or yomen, which were taken, besides those that were slaine: and againe, in the same moneth on Michaelmasse euen betwixt Curseilles and Gisors, at what time he came to succour Curseilles, bringing with him 400 knights, besides seruitors, and a great multitude of commons. But the castell was woone before he could approch it.

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