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Chronicles of Border Warfare
by Alexander Scott Withers
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[314] When the remnant of the troops came within the walls of the Fort, Lieut. Michael, who had been early detached by Capt. Hartshorn to the flank of the enemy, was found to be missing, and was given up as lost. But while his friends were deploring his unfortunate fate, he and Lieut. Marks, who had been early taken prisoner, were seen rushing through the enemy, from opposite directions towards the Fort. They gained it safely, notwithstanding they were actively pursued, and many shots fired at them. Lieut. Marks had got off by knocking down the Indian who held him prisoner; and Lieut. Michael had lost all of his party, but three men. The entire loss of the Americans was twenty-three killed, and forty wounded.[9] The riflemen brought in ten scalps which were taken early in the action; beyond this the enemy's loss was never ascertained. Many of them were no doubt killed and wounded, as they advanced in solid columns up to the very muzzles of the guns, and were afterwards seen carrying off many of their warriors on pack horses.

At length Gen. Wayne put the army over which he had been given the command, in motion;[10] and upon its arrival at the confluence of the Au Glaize and the Miami of the Lakes, another effort was made for the attainment of peace, without the effusion of blood. Commissioners were sent forward to the Indians to effect this desirable object; who exhorted them to listen to their propositions for terminating the war, and no longer to be deluded by the counsels of white emissaries, who had not the power to afford them protection; but only sought to involve the frontier of the United States in a war, from which much evil, but no good could possibly result to either party. The savages however felt confident that success would again attend their arms, and deriving additional incentives to war from their proximity to the British fort, recently erected at the foot of the rapids, declined the overture for peace, and seemed ardently to desire the battle, which they knew must soon be fought.

The Indian army at this time, amounted to about two thousand warriors, and when reconnoitered on the 19th of August were found encamped in a thick bushy wood and near to the British Fort. The army of Gen. Wayne was equal in numbers to that of the enemy; and when on the morning of the 20th, it took up the line of march, the troops were so disposed as to avoid being surprised, and to come into action on the [315] shortest notice, and under the most favorable circumstances. A select battalion of mounted volunteers, commanded by Major Price, moving in advance of the main army, had proceeded but a few miles, when a fire so severe was aimed at it by the savages concealed, as usual, that it was forced to fall back. The enemy had chosen their ground with great judgment, taking a position behind the fallen timber,[11] which had been prostrated by a tornado, and in a woods so thick as to render it impracticable for the cavalry to act with effect. They were formed into three regular lines, much extended in front, within supporting distance of each other, and reaching about two miles; and their first effort was to turn the left flank of the American army.

Gen. Wayne ordered the first line of his army to advance with trailed arms, to rouse the enemy from their covert at the point of the bayonet, and when up to deliver a close and well directed fire, to be followed by a charge so brisk as not to allow them time to reload or form their lines. The second line was ordered to the support of the first; and Capt. Campbell at the head of the cavalry, and Gen. Scott at the head of the mounted volunteers were sent forward to turn the left and right wings of the enemy. All these complicated orders were promptly executed; but such was the impetuosity of the charge made by the first line of infantry, so completely and entirely was the enemy broken by it, and so rapid the pursuit, that only a small part of the second line and of the mounted volunteers were in time to participate in the action, notwithstanding the great exertions of their respective officers to co-operate in the engagement; and in less than one hour, the savages were driven more than two miles and within gunshot of the British Fort, by less than one half their numbers.

Gen. Wayne remained three days on the banks of the Miami, in front of the field of battle left to the full and quiet possession of his army, by the flight and dispersion of the savages. In this time, all the houses and cornfields, both above and below the British Fort, and among the rest, the houses and stores of Col. McKee,[12] an English trader of great influence among the Indians and which had been invariably exerted to prolong the war, were consumed by fire or otherwise entirely destroyed. On the 27th, the American army returned to its head quarters, laying waste the cornfields and villages on each side of the river for about fifty miles; and [316] this too in the most populous and best improved part of the Indian country.

The loss sustained by the American army, in obtaining this brilliant victory, over a savage enemy flushed with former successes, amounted to thirty-three killed and one hundred wounded:[13] that of the enemy was never ascertained. In his official account of the action, Gen. Wayne says, "The woods were strewed for a considerable distance, with the dead bodies of the Indians and their white auxiliaries;" and at a council held a few days after, when British agents endeavored to prevail on them to risk another engagement, they expressed a determination to "bury the bloody hatchet" saying, that they had just lost more than two hundred of their warriors.

Some events occurred during this engagement, which are deemed worthy of being recorded here, although not of general interest. While Capt. Campbell was engaged in turning the left-flank, of the enemy, three of them plunged into the river, and endeavored to escape the fury of the conflict, by swimming to the opposite shore. They were seen by two negroes, who were on the bank to which the Indians were aiming, and who concealed themselves behind a log for the purpose of intercepting them. When within shooting distance one of the negroes fired and killed one of the Indians. The other two took hold of him to drag him to shore, when one of them was killed, by the fire of the other negro. The remaining Indian, being now in shoal water, endeavored to draw both the dead to the bank; but before he could effect this, the negro who had first fired, had reloaded, and again discharging his gun, killed him also, and the three floated down the river.

Another circumstance is related, which shows the obstinacy with which the contest was maintained by individuals in both armies. A soldier and an Indian came in collision, the one having an unloaded gun,—the other a tomahawk. After the action was over, they were both found dead; the soldier with his bayonet in the body of the Indian,—and the Indian with his tomahawk in the head of the soldier.

Notwithstanding the signal victory, obtained by General Wayne over the Indians, yet did their hostility to the whites lead them to acts of occasional violence, and kept them for some time from acceding to the proposals for peace. In [317] consequence of this, their whole country was laid waste, and forts erected in the hearts of their settlements at once to starve and awe them into quiet. The desired effect was produced. Their crops being laid waste, their villages burned, fortresses erected in various parts of their country and kept well garrisoned, and a victorious army ready to bear down upon them at any instant, there was no alternative left them but to sue for peace. When the Shawanees made known their wish to bury the bloody hatchet, Gen. Wayne refused to treat singly with them, and declared that all the different tribes of the North Western Indians should be parties to any treaty which he should make. This required some time as they had been much dispersed after the defeat of the 20th of August, and the great devastation committed on their crops and provisions by the American army, had driven many to the woods, to procure a precarious subsistence by hunting. Still however, to such abject want and wretchedness were they reduced, that exertions were immediately made to collect them in general council; and as this was the work of some time, it was not effected until midsummer of 1795.

In this interval of time, there was but a solitary interruption, caused by savage aggression, to the general repose and quiet of North Western Virginia; and that interruption occurred in a settlement which had been exempt from invasion since the year 1782. In the summer of 1795, the trail of a large party of Indians was discovered on Leading creek, and proceeding directly towards the settlements on the head of the West Fork, those on Buchannon river, or in Tygart's Valley. In consequence of the uncertainty against which of them, the savages would direct their operations, intelligence of the discovery which had been made, was sent by express to all; and measures, to guard against the happening of any unpleasant result, were taken by all, save the inhabitants on Buchannon. They had so long been exempt from the murderous incursions of the savages, while other settlements not remote from them, were yearly deluged with blood, that a false security was engendered, in the issue, fatal to the lives and happiness of some of them, by causing them to neglect the use of such precautionary means, as would warn them of the near approach of danger, and ward it when it came.

Pursuing their usual avocations in despite of the warning which had been given them, on the day after the express had [318] sounded an alarm among them, as John Bozarth, sen. and his sons George and John were busied in drawing grain from the field to the barn, the agonizing shrieks of those at the house rent the air around them; and they hastened to ascertain, and if practicable avert the cause. The elasticity of youth enabled George to approach the house some few paces in advance of his father, but the practised eye of the old gentleman, first discovered an Indian, only a small distance from his son, and with his gun raised to fire upon him. With parental solicitude he exclaimed, "See George, an Indian is going to shoot you." George was then too near the savage, to think of escaping by flight. He looked at him steadily, and when he supposed the fatal aim was taken and the finger just pressing on the trigger, he fell, and the ball whistled by him. Not doubting but that the youth had fallen in death, the savage passed by him and pressed in pursuit of the father.

Mr. Bozarth had not attained to that age when the sinews become too much relaxed for active exertion, but was yet springy and agile, and was enabled to keep ahead of his pursuer. Despairing of overtaking him, by reason of his great speed, the savage hurled a tomahawk at his head. It passed harmless by; and the old gentleman got safely off.

When George Bozarth fell as the Indian fired, he lay still as if dead, and supposing the scalping knife would be next applied to his head, determined on seizing the savage by the legs as he would stoop over him, and endeavor to bring him to the ground; when he hoped to be able to gain the mastery over him. Seeing him pass on in pursuit of his father, he arose and took to flight also. On his way he overtook a younger brother, who had become alarmed, and was hobbling slowly away on a sore foot. George gave him every aid in his power to facilitate his flight, until he discovered that another of the savages was pressing close upon them. Knowing that if he remained with his brother, both must inevitably perish, he was reluctantly forced to leave him to his fate. Proceeding on, he came up with his father, who not doubting but he was killed when the savage fired at him, broke forth with the exclamation, "Why George, I thought you were dead," and manifested, even in that sorrowful moment, a joyful feeling at his mistake.

The Indians who were at the house, wrought their work of blood upon such as would have been impediments to their [319] retreat; and killing two or three smaller children, took Mrs. Bozarth and two boys prisoners. With these they made their way to their towns and arrived in time to surrender their captives to Gen. Wayne.

This was the last mischief done by the Indians in North Western Virginia. For twenty years the inhabitants of that section of the country, had suffered all the horrors of savage warfare, and all the woes which spring from the uncurbed indulgence of those barbarous and vindicitive passions, which bear sway in savage breasts. The treaty of Greenville, concluded on the 3d of August 1795, put a period to the war, and with it, to those acts of devastation and death which had so long spread dismay and gloom throughout the land.

FINIS. ——- [1] Drake, in Aboriginal Races of North America (15th ed.), p. 616, cites the Waggoner massacre as "the first exploit in which we find Tecumseh engaged." L. V. McWhorter sends me this interesting note, giving the local tradition regarding the affair: "John Waggoner lived on Jesse's Run, more than two miles above its junction with Hacker's Creek. While engaged in burning logs in his clearing, he was sitting upon a log, with a handspike lying across his lap. It was thought that Tecumseh mistook this tool for a gun, and was nervous. But three in number, the Indians had entered the district with some trepidation. Over Sunday, while the settlers were holding religious services in West's Fort, the savages lay in a neighboring ravine. The dogs of the settlement barked furiously at them, and ran toward their hiding place, trying to lead their masters; but the latter supposed that the animals had merely scented wolves, hence paid no attention to them. Tecumseh was but thirty paces from Waggoner when he fired, and it is singular that he missed, for the latter was a large man and in fair view. Waggoner sprang up and started for his cabin, a short distance only, but when about fifteen yards away saw an Indian chasing one of the children around the house. Waggoner was unarmed; his gun was in the house, but he feared to enter, so ran for help to the cabin of Hardman, a neighbor. But Hardman was out hunting, and there was no gun left there. The screams of his family were now plainly heard by Waggoner, and he was with difficulty restrained from rushing back to help them, unarmed. Jesse Hughes carried the news into the fort, and a rescue party at once set out. Mrs. Waggoner and her three youngest children had been carried across the ridge to where is now Rev. Mansfield McWhorter's farm, on McKenley's Run, and here they were tomahawked and scalped. Henry McWhorter helped to carry the bodies to the fort, but made no mention of their being 'mangled in the most barbarous and shocking manner.'"

The boy Peter, then eight years old, remained with the Indians for twenty years. The manner of his return, as related to me by Mr. McWhorter, was singular, and furnishes an interesting and instructive romance of the border. One Baker, one of John Waggoner's neighbors, went to Ohio to "squat," and on Paint Creek saw Peter with a band of Indians, recognizing him by the strong family resemblance. Baker at once wrote to the elder Waggoner, telling him of his discovery, and the latter soon visited the Paint Creek band, with a view to inducing his son to return home. But Peter was loth to go. He was united to a squaw, and by her had two children. In tears, she bitterly opposed his going. When finally he yielded to parental appeals, he promised her he would soon be back again. When the time for his return to the forest came, his relatives kept him under guard; when it had passed, he was afraid to return to his Indian relatives, having broken his word. Gradually he became reconciled in a measure to his new surroundings, but was ever melancholy, frequently lamenting that he had left his savage family. "Some time after his return to civilization," continues McWhorter, "an Indian woman, supposed to be his wife, passed through the Hacker Creek settlements, inquiring for Peter, and going on toward the East. She appeared to be demented, and sang snatches of savage songs. Peter never knew of her presence, nor would any one inform her of his whereabouts. He was reticent about his life among the Indians, and no details of that feature of his career became known to his white friends."

Tecumseh, who is said to have been born on Hacker's Creek, possibly at a village near the mouth of Jesse's Run, visited the white settlements there, after the peace, and told the whites of his experiences in connection with the Waggoner massacre.—R. G. T.

[2] It must be acknowledged that many of these militia forays against the Indians partook of the nature of buccaneering. The spoils were often considerable. Clark, in his Kaskaskia campaign (1778), captured so much booty, in property and slaves, that he declares his men were made "almost rich."—R. G. T.

[3] In the spring of 1792, Major Trueman, Colonel Hardin, and Mr. Freeman were dispatched from Fort Washington by different routes, to open peace negotiations, but they were murdered by the savages. Gen. Rufus Putnam, aided by Hekewelder, the Moravian, succeeded in binding the Wabash and Illinois Indians to keep the peace. Later, Benjamin Lincoln, Timothy Pickering, and Beverly Randolph were ordered by the president to go to the Maumee to conclude a general treaty which Indians had declared their willingness to enter into. But the commissioners were detained at Niagara by sham conferences with Gov. John Graves Simcoe, of Canada, until the middle of July, when the Indians sent them word that unless they would in advance "agree that the Ohio shall remain the boundary between us," the proposed "meeting would be altogether unnecessary." The commissioners declined to accept this ultimatum, and returned home. Meanwhile, General Wayne was prosecuting preparations for an active campaign against the hostiles.—R. G. T.

[4] On a plain near the old French-Indian-English trading village, called Logstown (just below the present Economy, Pa., on the north side of the Ohio, 18 miles below Pittsburg), Wayne's army lay encamped from November, 1792, to April 30, 1793. The army was fancifully called the "Legion of the United States," and the camp was known as Legionville. From here, Wayne proceeded to Cincinnati, and took up his headquarters in Fort Washington.—R. G. T.

[5] Fishing Creek enters the Ohio 128 miles below Pittsburgh. At its mouth is now the town of New Martinsville, W. Va.—R. G. T.

[6] This was an expedition made by Gen. James Wilkinson, second in command under Wayne, in December, 1793. He marched to the field from Fort Washington at the head of a thousand men, and left a garrison at the new fort.—R. G. T.

[7] McWhorter says that the capture of the Cozad boys took place at the mouth of Lanson Run, near Berlin, W. Va. The boy who was killed was but six years of age; crying for his mother, an Indian grasped him by the heels and cracked his head against a tree,—a favorite method of murdering white children, among Indian war parties. "Jacob yelled once, after starting with the Indians, but was knocked down by a gun in the hands of one of the savages. When he came to his senses, a squaw was dragging him up hill by one foot. He remained with the Indians for about two years, being adopted into a chief's family. He died in 1862, in his eighty-ninth year."—R. G. T.

[8] Thirtieth of June.—R. G. T.

[9] The white loss, in killed, was 22, including Major McMahon.—R. G. T.

[10] The force started August 8. Besides the regulars, were about 1,100 mounted Kentucky militia, under Gen. Charles Scott.—R. G. T.

[11] Hence the popular name of the engagement, "Battle of Fallen Timbers."—R. G. T.

[12] Alexander McKee, the renegade, of whom mention has frequently been made in foregoing pages.—R. G. T.

[13] Later authorities place the white loss at 107, killed and wounded.—R. G. T.



INDEX. Acosta, Father Joseph, on origin of Indians, 14.

Adair, James, History of American Indians, 17-23.

Adair, Maj., attacked by Indians, 413.

Albermarle county, Va., 54.

Alexander, Archibald, early settler, 52; in Sandy-creek voyage, 81.

Alexander, John, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81.

Alexandria, O., old Shawneetown at, 82, 92.

Alexandria, Va., 60, 181.

Alleghany county, Va., census (1830), 55.

Alleghany mountains, early Indians in, 44, 45, 47; crossed by English, 63-66.

Alleghany river, early Indians on, 45, 46, 73; discovered by Le Moyne, 64; French on, 65; Grant's defeat, 71; in Dunmore's war, 150; in Revolution, 301, 309.

Allen, ——, killed at Point Pleasant, 171.

Almon, J., Remembrancer, 355.

Amherst county, Va., militia of, 99.

Amherst, Jeffrey, orders Bouquet's expedition, 107.

Anderson, James, early settler, 126.

Appalachas, Indian village, attacked by Narvaez, 7.

Arbuckle, Matthew, in Dunmore's war, 165, 170, 175; at murder of Cornstalk, 211, 212, 216; commandant of Ft. Randolph, 209, 241.

Archaeology. See Mound-builders.

Archer, Betsy, daughter of Sampson, 52.

Archer, Sampson, early settler, 52, 89.

Arkansas river, Salling at, 48.

Armstrong, Capt., on Harmar's campaign, 394.

Ashcraft, Uriah, attacked by Indians, 397.

Ashly, Lieut., killed by Indians, 332.

Athol, Thomas, 93.

Au Glaize river, treaty of, 376; Wayne on, 424, 425.

Augusta county, Va., formed, 55, 57, 61, 151; early settlers in, 53; census (1830), 55, 56; militia of, 49, 52, 66, 68, 81, 90, 164, 166, 170, 209, 210; McDowell's fight, 52; ransom of Moores, 374; Preston's Register of Indian Depredations, 87; History of, 246.

Bailey, ——, in Dunmore's war, 169.

Bailey, Minter, 240.

Baker, ——, discovers Peter Waggoner, 410.

Baker, Henry, killed by Indians, 291, 292.

Baker, Joshua, murders Logan family, 125, 148-150.

Baker, William, explores Kentucky, 115.

Baker's bottom, massacre of Indians at, 134, 142, 148-150, 184.

Bald Eagle, killed by whites, 135, 136.

Barkley, Elihu, with Braddock, 66.

Barlow, Joel, agent of Scioto Co., 60.

Bartlett's run, 248.

Bath county, Va., census (1830), 55, 56.

Baxter's run, 247.

Bean, Capt., on Sandusky campaign, 328.

Beard, Samuel, early settler, 127.

Bear Grass river, early settlements on, 274; foray on, 384, 385.

Beaver, Delaware chief, 45.

Beaver river, Shingiss Old Town, 45; Moravians on, 314; Ft. McIntosh built, 237; treaty at Ft. McIntosh, 366.

Bedinger, George M., in Bowman's campaign, 271.

Bedford county, Pa., 190; in "Black boys" uprising, 112-114.

Bedford county, Va., 70; militia of, 164.

Bell, James, with Braddock, 66.

Berkeley county, W. Va., census (1830), 55, 56; militia of, 164.

Berkeley, Sir William, fosters western exploration, 64.

Berlin, W. Va., 290; foray near, 421.

Beverly, W. Va., origin of, 74.

Big Beaver river. See Beaver.

Big Bone creek, Clark at, 146.

Big Bone lick, 271.

Biggs, Benjamin, early settler, 125, 203; killed by Indians, 332.

Big Hockhocking river. See Hockhocking.

Big Kanawha river. See Great Kanawha.

Big Knives. See Long Knives.

Big lick, 162.

Big Miami river. See Miami.

Big Sandy river, in Shawnee campaign, 81-86.

Big Sewell mountain, origin of name, 57.

Bildercock, ——, militia officer, 227, 228.

Bingamon creek, forays on, 367, 369.

Bird, Henry, attacks American borderers, 254; beseiges Ft. Laurens, 262; invades Kentucky, 286, 297-300, 305.

Black Beard, Shawnee chief, 268.

Black boys, border regulators, 105, 106; attack Pennsylvania traders, 109-116.

Black Fish, Shawnee chief, 201, 202, 266, 268, 273.

Black Hoof, Shawnee chief, 268.

Bledsoe, Anthony, in Dunmore's war, 167.

Blevins, William, early settler, 59, 60.

Blue licks, 268; Boone's captivity, 265-267; battle of, 351-354, 388.

Blue ridge, 69, 83, 100; early tribes of, 44, 47; early explorations of, 64; Borden grant, 51; first settlements beyond, 50, 52, 55.

Bluestone river, 61; in Sandy creek voyage, 82.

Boiling Springs, Ky., represented in Transylvania legislature, 193.

Bolivar, O., 261.

Bonnett, John, killed by Indians, 377.

Boone county, N. Y., Delawares in, 136.

Boone, Daniel, on Holston, 59; first explores Kentucky, 142-144; second trip (1773), 144, 145, 147; in Dunmore's war, 152, 153, 190; founds Boonesborough, 190-197; captured by Indians, 265-267; in Chene's attack on Boonesborough, 268, 269; in Paint creek expedition, 267, 268; at battle of Blue licks, 351-353.

Boone, Mrs. Daniel, first white woman in Kentucky, 196, 197.

Boone, James, killed by Indians, 144, 145.

Boone, Squire, explores Kentucky, 143, 144.

Boonesborough, Ky., founded, 190-197; first attacked by Indians, 200, 202, 205; Bowman's arrival, 207, 208; during Boone's captivity, 265-267; Chene's attack on, 268, 270; during Revolution, 350, 351.

Booth's creek, origin of name, 122, 123; forays on, 247, 248, 290, 309, 343.

Booth, James, early settler, 122, 123; killed by Indians, 247.

Borden, Benjamin, Sr., land-grant, 50-54, 66; sketch, 51.

Borden, Benjamin, Jr., 52.

Boshears, William, scouting service, 227, 228.

Botetourt county, Va., 66, 70; census (1830), 55, 56; Holston settlement, 59; militia of, 81, 164, 165, 167, 209, 210.

Bouquet, Henry, campaign against Indians, 106-109, 173; treaty with Indians, 91, 141, 173, 179.

Bourbon county, Ky., 67, 115.

Bowman, James L., 79.

Bowman, John, campaign (1779), 190; early defense of Kentucky, 207, 208; Chillicothe expedition, 271-274; cited, 268; sketch, 271.

Boyd, John, killed by Indians, 222.

Bozarth, George, adventure with Indians, 429, 430.

Bozarth, John, Sr., attacked by Indians, 279, 429, 430.

Bozarth, John, Jr., adventure with Indians, 429, 430.

Bozarth, Mrs., adventures with Indians, 279, 280.

Braddock, Edward, campaign and defeat of, 65-69, 71, 72, 77, 105, 106, 143, 145, 147, 169.

Braddock, Pa., 68.

Braddock's road, history of, 77.

Brain, ——, killed by Indians, 240.

Brain, Benjamin, captured by Indians, 280, 281.

Brain, Isaac, captured by Indians, 280, 281.

Brain, James, killed by Indians, 280, 281.

Brant, Joseph, Indian chief, 254.

Braxton county, Va., Bulltown massacre, 136-138.

Breckenridge, Robert, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81.

Brenton, Capt., on Sandusky campaign, 328.

Bridger, ——, killed by Indians, 292.

Brinton, Maj., on Sandusky campaign, 328.

Brodhead, Daniel, expedition to Muskingum, 300-305, 309; receives news from Moravians, 315.

Brooke county, W. Va., census (1830), 55, 63; forays in, 380, 381.

Brooks, Thomas, scout, 266.

Brown, ——, in New-river foray, 96, 97.

Brown, ——, killed by Indians, 161.

Brown, Adam, Sr., imprisoned by Indians, 96, 97.

Brown, Adam, Jr., 96.

Brown, Coleman, killed by Indians, 156.

Brown, James, chases Indians, 246; attacked by Indians, 311.

Brown, John, early hunter, 121.

Brown, Samuel, captured by Indians, 96.

Brownsville, Pa. See Redstone.

Bryan, William, companion of Boone, 144.

Bryant, William, killed by Indians, 348.

Bryant station, Ky., threatened by Bird, 296; beseiged by Caldwell, 348-351, 353, 354.

Buchanan, John, diary of, 49.

Buckhannon river, early settlements on, 117-122, 127; Bulltown massacre, 136; in Dunmore's war, 151; Indian forays on, 151, 275, 282, 284, 288, 290, 318, 319, 340, 342, 343, 422, 428.

Buffalo creek, first settlement on, 125; Indian forays, 318, 374-376.

Buffalo gap, Mackey's settlement near, 50.

Buffington, Jonathan, captured by Indians, 311.

Buffington, Mrs., killed by Indians, 311.

Buford, ——, captain in Dunmore's war, 164, 165, 170, 171.

Bulger, Maj., killed at Blue licks, 353.

Bulgess, Adj., killed by Indians, 403.

Bull, Capt., killed by whites, 136-138.

Bullitt, Thomas, in Forbes's campaign, 71; surveys Connolly tract, 145, 146; sketch, 71, 72.

Bullock, Leonard Henley, of Transylvania Co., 191.

Bulltown, Va., massacre of Delawares near, 136-138.

Burd, James, at Redstone, 77-79.

Burning Spring, 82, 85.

Burns, James, killed by Indians, 245.

Bush, Adam, chases Indians, 397.

Bush, John, adventure with Indians, 341, 343; killed by Indians, 396.

Bush, Mrs. John, adventure with Indians, 396, 397.

Bushy run, Bouquet's fight on, 108.

Butler, Mann, Kentucky, 193.

Butler, Richard, treaty commissioner, 366, 388; in St. Clair's campaign, 401-403.

Butler, Robert, early settler, 126.

Butterfield, Consul W., Crawford's Expedition Against Sandusky, 328; History of the Girtys, 153, 178, 189, 224, 308, 347, 404; Washington-Irvine Correspondence, 262.

Cabell county, W. Va., census (1830), 55, 56.

Cahokia, Ill., founded by La Salle, 6; Indian mounds at, 40; captured by Clark, 253.

Caldwell, William, expedition against Kentucky, 348-354.

California, O., founded, 392.

Calf Pasture river, in Pontiac war, 97.

Callaway, Richard, at Watauga treaty, 192.

Cameron, Charles, at Point Pleasant, 174.

Cameron, Daniel, killed by Indians, 311.

Campbell, Arthur, militia officer, 268.

Campbell, Capt., on Wayne's campaign, 426, 427.

Campbell, George, border poet, 110, 111.

Campbell, John, at Point Pleasant, 174.

Campbell, William, settles on Holston, 59; at Point Pleasant, 174.

Camp Charlotte, Indian treaty at, 145, 173, 176-186, 190, 197.

Camp Union, in Dunmore's war, 164, 165, 167.

Canaan, Joseph, killed by Indians, 422.

Canestoga Indians, killed by Paxton boys, 104, 105.

Captina creek, in Dunmore's war, 134, 138, 148, 149, 153; in Revolution, 230.

Carder, William, attacked by Indians, 419, 420.

Carlisle, Pa., trial of Smith, 113-115; Scotch-Irish at, 143.

Carmichael's, Pa., founded, 123.

Carpenter, Benjamin, killed by Indians, 414.

Carpenter, Dr., captured by Indians, 96, 97.

Carpenter, Jeremiah, 414.

Carpenter, John, captured by Indians, 319.

Carpenter, Nicholas, adventure with Indians, 399, 400.

Carpenter, William, killed by Indians, 96, 97.

Carr's creek, massacre on, 172, 173.

Carver, ——, settles on Greenbrier, 57.

Carver, Jonathan, visits western Indians, 20, 21, 23, 24; on Indian creek, 38.

Casper's lick, 152.

Catawba Indians, early strength of, 46; attack Delawares, 47; fought by McDowell, 52; claim Kentucky, 142, 194.

Catawba river, early Indians on, 46; Patton's settlement, 51; forays on, 96, 98.

Catholics (Roman), missionary efforts of, 36; at Gallipolis, 60. See Jesuits.

Cayahoga river, Delawares on, 45.

Cayuga Indians, strength of, 46; in Dunmore's war, 155, 172.

Cedar creek, early settlement on, 52.

Champlain, Samuel de, founds Quebec, 4, 5.

Charleston, S. C., 49, 59.

Charlevoix, Father, on origin of Indians, 15, 16.

Cheat river, 63, 118; first settlements on, 75, 76, 126; massacre of Indians on, 135; Indian forays on, 240, 291, 310, 311.

Chene, Isidore, attacks Boonesborough, 268-270.

Cherokee Indians, early strength of, 46; capture Salling, 48, 49; Williamson among, 104; visit Gov. Glen, 59; in Sandy-creek voyage, 81, 82; opposition to Kentucky settlers, 142, 145; cession to Henderson, 192, 195; during Revolution, 347.

Chevrout, Joseph, relieves Carder, 420.

Chew, Colby, explores Kentucky, 81.

Chickamauga Indians, claim Kentucky, 142.

Chickasaw Indians, early strength, 46; claim Kentucky, 142; cession to Henderson, 195; in St. Clair's campaign, 403-405.

Childers, William, settles on Youghiogheny, 117, 118.

Chillicothe towns, Dyer's captivity, 87; in Dunmore's war, 176, 179, 182, 183, 187; Boone's captivity, 266, 267; Bowman's expedition against, 271-274; in Piqua expedition, 305, 307-309; Indian council at, 346, 347; in Harmar's campaign, 393, 394.

Chillicothe (Old), Renick captivity, 91; Hannah Dennis's escape, 91-93.

Chillicothe (New), Hannah Dennis's escape, 92.

Chippewa Indians, early strength, 46; fight Clark, 252; during Revolution, 347; at Ft. McIntosh treaty, 366, 388.

Chiyawee, Wyandot chief, 172.

Christian, William, in Cherokee campaign, 59; in New-river foray, 99; in Dunmore's war, 165, 167, 170, 171, 190; killed by Indians, 385.

Cincinnati, Indian relics found in, 42; Clark on site of, 306; genesis of, 390-393; in Harmar's campaign, 393-395; in St. Clair's campaign, 401, 405; in Wayne's campaign, 413, 419, 423.

Circleville, O., Indians mounds at, 41.

Clark, ——, on St. Clair's campaign, 402.

Clark, George, scout, 271.

Clark, George Rogers, on Indian mounds, 40; in Dunmore's war, 134, 164; arrival in Kentucky, 197, 200; in early defense of Kentucky, 207; founds Louisville, 146; Illinois campaign, 121, 123, 190, 252-255, 257-261, 270, 294, 295, 411; Piqua campaign, 305-309; Shawnee campaign, 354, 355; Wabash campaign, 386; treaty commissioner, 366, 388; in Spanish conspiracy, 130; sketch, 253, 254.

Clark, John, ambushed by Indians, 262.

Clarke, Col., Pennsylvania militia officer, 263, 264.

Clarksburg, W. Va., 275; founded, 127; in Dunmore's war, 151; during Revolution, 284, 310, 311, 341, 342, 345; miscellaneous forays near, 376, 381, 383, 397.

Clay, ——, killed by Indians, 166.

Clegg, ——, family captured by Indians, 398, 399.

Clendennin's settlement, Hannah Dennis at, 93; massacre at, 93-95; family captured by Indians, 172, 173.

Clinch river, first settlements on, 59, 60; Boone on, 145, 152; in Henderson's grant, 193; foray on, 374.

Coburn, Capt., chases Indians, 410, 411.

Coburn's creek, 248, 249.

Cochran, Nathaniel, captured by Indians, 247, 250, 251.

Cocke, William, at Watauga treaty, 192.

Cohunnewago Indians, strength of, 46.

Colden, C., Five Nations of New York, 194.

Coleman, Moses, killed by Indians, 285.

Columbia, O., founded, 391, 392.

Congo creek, 176.

Connecticut, relinquishes Western land claim, 389.

Connelly, ——, early settler, 126.

Connoly, Darby, killed by Indians, 234.

Connolly, John, agent of Dunmore, 74, 142, 145, 149; in Dunmore's war, 164, 179-181, 188; land claim at Louisville, 145, 146.

Conococheague valley, massacre in, 101, 105; a fur-trade centre, 109, 113.

Cooley, William, companion of Boone, 143.

Coomes, William, adventure with Indians, 201.

Coon, ——, daughter killed by Indians, 218, 219.

Coonce, Mark, French trader, 79.

Cooper, ——, killed by Indians, 311.

Coplin, Benjamin, kills an Indian, 344.

Corbly, John, attacked by Indiana, 345.

Corn island, Clark at, 253, 294.

Cornstalk, Shawnee chief, at Point Pleasant, 168, 170, 172, 173; at treaty of Camp Charlotte, 183-186; imprisoned at Ft. Randolph, 209, 215, 216; murder of, 173, 211-214, 235, 236, 241, 266; sketch of, 172, 173.

Cornwallis, Lord, surrender of, 347.

Coshocton, O., 153, 314.

Coshocton, Indian village, Brodhead's expedition against, 302-305, 309, 316.

Cottrial, Andrew, early settler, 127.

Cottrial, Samuel, early settler, 127; attacked by Indians, 284, 285.

Cowan, John, on Bullitt's survey, 146.

Coward, ——, adventure with Indians, 166.

Cowpasture river, 91.

Cox, Joseph, captured by Indians, 419.

Cozad, Jacob, Sr., sons killed by Indians, 420.

Cozad, Jacob, Jr., escapes from Indians, 420, 421.

Craig, Lieut., killed by Indians, 424.

Craig, James, adventure with Indians, 203.

Craig's creek, 90.

Crawford, ——, killed by Indians, 344.

Crawford, James, early settler, 123.

Crawford, John, killed by Indians, 331, 334, 336.

Crawford, William, in Dunmore's war, 164, 168, 179, 185, 220; Sandusky campaign of, 328-339; sketch, 334.

Crawford, William (nephew of foregoing), killed by Indians, 331.

Cresap, Michael, in Dunmore's war, 134, 149, 154, 164; accused by Logan, 184.

Cresap, Thomas, opens Braddock's road, 77.

Crooked creek, 169, 170.

Crooked run, Indian forays on, 282, 344.

Cross creek, 78.

Cross, Thomas, Sr., 91.

Crouch, James, wounded by Indians, 287.

Crouse, Peter, killed by Indians, 282.

Culpeper county, Va., 59; militia of, 66; in Dunmore's war, 159, 164.

Cumberland county, Pa., 143.

Cumberland Gap, Walden's trip, 60; Boone opens path, 143, 192.

Cumberland, Md., Ohio Co.'s post at, 77.

Cumberland river, Walden's trip, 60; explored by Smith, 115; Boone on, 152; in Henderson's purchase, 192, 193; foray on, 200.

Cundiff, ——, killed at Point Pleasant, 171.

Cunningham, Edward, fight with Indians, 238, 239, 367-370, 373.

Cunningham, Robert, early settler, 126.

Cunningham, Thomas, 218; family attacked by Indians, 367, 373.

Cunningham, Mrs. Thomas, captured by Indians, 367-373.

Curl, Jeremiah, attacked by Indians, 288, 289.

Curner, ——, on Mad-river campaign, 387.

Cusick, David, Ancient History of Six Nations, 18, 26, 40.

Cutright, Benjamin, early settler, 122.

Cutright, John, Sr., early settler, 122; murders Indians, 137; wounded by Indians, 290.

Cutright, John, Jr., 122.

Cutright, Peter, attacked by Indians, 288, 289.

Danville, Ky., origin of, 274; convention at, 115, 190.

Davis, ——, settles on Holston, 59.

Davis, Mrs., daughter of John Jackson, 121.

Davisson, ——, killed by Indians, 373.

Davisson, Daniel, early settler, 127.

Davisson, Josiah, brother of Nathaniel, 283.

Davisson, Nathaniel, killed by Indians, 283, 284.

Davisson, Obadiah, early settler, 127.

Decker, Thomas, early settler, 123; attacked by Indians, 77, 78.

Decker's creek, first settlement on, 77.

De Creve Coeurs, St. John, Lettres, 153.

De Hass, Wills, History of Indian Wars, 222.

De Huron, George, on origin of Indians, 15.

De Kalb, Baron, 86.

De Laet, John, on origin of Indians, 14.

Delaware Indians, on Upper Ohio, 45, 46; attacked by Catawbas, 47; in Decker's creek massacre, 77-79; Seybert massacre, 88, 89; New-river foray, 96-99; Bulltown massacre, 136-138; Pontiac's conspiracy, 136; claim Kentucky, 142; in Dunmore's war, 150, 172, 179; during Revolution, 219, 263, 301, 303, 314, 315, 320, 332, 333, 347; in Harmar's campaign, 393; Ft. McIntosh treaty, 366, 388; subsequent foray, 371; Wayne's campaign, 421.

Delaware river, massacre on, 101-104.

De Moraez, Emanuel, on origin of Indians, 14.

Denman, Matthias, founds Cincinnati, 390-392.

Dennis, Hannah, imprisoned by Indians, 89-93, 95.

Dennis, Joseph, killed by Indians, 89.

Denton, ——, assists Mrs. Cunningham, 372.

Denton, Mrs., settles in Kentucky, 197.

Deny, William, coroner of Bedford, 114.

De Peyster, Arent Schuyler, commandant at Detroit, 295, 317, 365.

De Soto, Ferdinand, discovers Mississippi, 7, 8.

Detroit, 91; Indian villages near, 46; under French domination, 72; Logan at, 155, 156; Connolly at, 181; Boone at, 266, 267; English headquarters during Revolution, 252, 254, 255, 257; English machinations at, 207, 231, 247, 286, 295, 299, 317, 320, 336, 337; arrival of peace news, 365.

De Villiers, defeats Washington, 74; destroys Redstone fort, 77.

Dickinson, John, in Dunmore's war. 170, 175.

Dillon, ——, killed at Point Pleasant, 171.

Dillon, Mrs., killed by Indians, 240.

Dinwiddie, Robert, governor of Virginia, 53, 65; authorizes Sandy-creek voyage, 81, 83, 84; Papers, 68, 86.

Dix, Webster, 119.

Dodd, Ensign, on Wayne's campaign, 424.

Doddridge, John, early settler, 125.

Doddridge, Joseph, Notes on the Settlements, 125, 126, 153, 183; MS. of, 221.

Donelson, Col., runs Indian boundary, 195.

Donnelly, Andrew, beseiged by Indians, 242-245; repulses them, 291.

Dorman, Timothy, captured by Indians, 340, 341; turns renegade, 341, 342.

Dougherty, Daniel, captured by Indians, 311, 312.

Dougherty, Mrs., killed by Indians, 311.

Doughty, Maj., builds Ft. Washington, 391.

Douglas, James, on Bullitt's survey, 146.

Dragging Canoe, Cherokee chief, 192.

Dragoo, Mrs., killed by Indians, 374, 375.

Drake, Lieut., on Wayne's campaign, 424.

Drake, Lieut.-col., on St. Clair's campaign, 402.

Drake, Samuel G., Aboriginal Races of North America, 409.

Draper, Lyman C., historical notes by, 40, 50-53, 57-60, 65, 66, 68, 71, 72, 75, 79, 81, 83, 85-88, 90, 96, 97, 99, 101, 104, 106-108, 115, 121, 123; interviews Salling's descendants, 48; on aboriginal claims to Kentucky, 193-195; cited, 183, 203, 254.

Drinnon, Thomas, attacked by Indians, 292, 293.

Drinnon, Lawrence, attacked by Indians, 291, 292.

Duke, Francis, killed by Indians, 359, 360.

Dunbar, Pa., settled by Gist, 74.

Dunkard bottom, settled, 126; massacre on, 240.

Dunkard creek, a war trail, 75: first settled on, 75; forays on, 249, 250, 279, 398, 399.

Dunkards, early settlements by, 75; massacre of, 76, 77.

Dunkin, John, militia officer, 207.

Dunlap, James, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81; killed by Indians, 87.

Dunlap creek, first settlement on, 77; foray on, 96.

Dunmore, Lord, 74; in Dunmore's war, 135-190, 197, 209, 220, 253, 385; opposes Henderson's purchase, 192.

Du Pratz, Le Page, History of Louisiana, 49.

Durrett, Reuben T., Centenary of Louisville, 294.

Dutch, introduce African slavery, 10; in New York, 48.

Dyer, James, imprisoned by Indians, 87, 88.

East Meadows, Braddock at, 67.

Eckarly family, early settlers, 126.

Eckarly, Thomas, Dunkard pioneer, 75; massacre of his brother, 76, 77.

Economy, Pa., 413.

Ecuyer, Simeon, under Bouquet. 107.

Edwards, David, killed by Indians, 252.

Edwards, William, Moravian missionary, 314, 317.

Elk creek, in Caldwell's invasion, 351; during Revolution, 284; foray on, 367.

Elk river, origin of name, 118, 119; first settlement on, 126, 127; Stroud massacre, 136, 137; in Dunmore's war, 166, 167, 175; foray on, 414.

Elk's Eye creek. See Muskingum.

Ellinipsico, Cornstalk's son, 172, 211-213.

Elliott, Matthew, in Dunmore's war, 182, 189; attacks Wheeling, 316, 317; encourages forays, 347, 388.

Ellis, Franklin, History of Fayette Co., 77.

English, territorial claims of, 1-5, 7; emigration to Virginia, 49; first occupation of the Ohio, 63; struggle for Forks of Ohio, 64-74; Braddock's campaign, 65-69; Forbes's campaign, 69-73; Bouquet's expedition, 106-109; Dunmore's war, 134-190; Bird's invasion, 294-300, 305, 336, 337; Caldwell's invasion, 348-354; second seige of Wheeling, 356, 357; encourage forays on American borderers, 147, 207-210, 215, 216, 224, 225, 231, 236, 252, 253, 260, 285, 286, 317, 388, 425-427.

Episcopalians, 50, 57.

Fairfax, Lord, land-grant of, 50, 51, 334; militia officer, 101.

Fairfield, Va., settled, 52.

Fallen Timbers, battle of, 425-428.

Falling Spring, Va., 86.

Falls of Ohio. See Louisville.

Fauquier county, Va., 145.

Fauquier, governor of Virginia, 86.

Fayette county, Pa., settled, 74, 123; militia from, 328.

Fayette county, W. Va., 57.

Fayetteville, N. C., 192.

Field, John, with Braddock, 66; adventure with Indians, 159-161; in Dunmore's war, 164, 166, 169, 171.

Files. See Foyle, Robert.

Files creek, first settlement on, 74.

Files family, massacre of, 126.

Filson, John, partner of Denman, 391; Boone's Narrative, 268.

Fincastle county, Va., 56, 220; Preston as surveyor, 140, 146; militia of, 167.

Findlay, John, explores Kentucky, 142-144.

Fink, ——, killed by Indians, 340.

Fink, John, killed by Indians, 318, 319.

Fink, Henry, early settler, 126; attacked by Indians, 288, 318, 319.

Fink's run, 122.

Fish creek, a war trail, 75, 399; Clark at, 134, 253; foray on, 399.

Fishing creek, foray on, 374; garrison on, 417.

Fitzpatrick, John, on Bullitt's survey. 146.

Fleming, William, in Dunmore's war, 164, 167-170, 174, 175.

Flesher, Henry, attacked by Indians, 366, 367.

Floyd, John, Kentucky surveyor, 152; Diary of, 196; builds fort at Louisville, 294; in Piqua campaign, 307.

Florida, discovered by Spanish, 7, 8.

Folebaum, George, killed by Indians, 362.

Folke, George, killed by Indians, 102, 103.

Fontaine, Maj., killed by Indians, 395.

Forbes, John, campaign against Ft. Du Quesne, 69-73, 77, 79, 108, 145, 190.

Fordyce, Capt., 72.

Foreman, William, defeated by Indians, 228-230, 356.

Fort Bedford, in "Black boys" uprising, 112-114.

Fort Bolling, during Revolution, 226.

Fort Boone, seat of Henderson colony, 153.

Fort Buckhannon, during Revolution, 313.

Fort Burd. See Redstone.

Fort Bush, 121.

Fort Casinoe, in Dunmore's war, 151.

Fort Coburn, during Revolution, 248.

Fort Crevecoeur, built by La Salle, 6; Salling at, 48.

Fort Cumberland, 71.

Fort Dickenson, massacre of children, 100.

Fort Dinwiddie, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81; in New-river foray, 97, 99; during Revolution, 291.

Fort Du Quesne, erected, 65; Braddock's expedition, 65-69; Forbes's campaign, 69-73; destroyed, 73. See Pittsburg.

Fort Fincastle. See Wheeling.

Fort Finney, built, 392; treaty of, 388.

Fort Frederick, 71.

Fort Frontenac, built by La Salle, 6; Salling at, 48.

Fort Gower, in Dunmore's war, 179, 182.

Fort Greenville. See Greenville, O.

Fort Hadden, during Revolution, 286.

Fort Hamilton, built by St. Clair, 401; in Wayne's campaign, 413.

Fort Henry. See Wheeling.

Fort Holliday, during Revolution, 226, 227.

Fort Jackson, in Dunmore's war, 151.

Fort Jefferson (Ky.), built by Clark, 254.

Fort Jefferson (O.), built by St. Clair, 401-403, 405; in Wayne's campaign, 413.

Fort Laurens, during Revolution, 256, 261-265.

Fort Le Boeuf, Washington at, 74, 77.

Fort Ligonier, in Forbes's campaign, 73.

Fort Littleton, in French and Indian war, 190.

Fort Loudon, in "Black boys" uprising, 110, 111.

Fort McIntosh, built, 237; during Revolution, 263, 265; treaty of, 366.

Fort Martin, during Revolution, 282.

Fort Massac, Clark at, 253.

Fort Miami, Indian villages near, 46.

Fort Necessity, Washington's defeat at, 69, 74, 77, 145.

Fort Nutter, in Dunmore's war, 151; during Revolution, 275, 341.

Fort Pitt. See Pittsburg.

Fort Pleasant, Eckarly at, 76.

Fort Powers, during Revolution, 247.

Fort Pricket, in Dunmore's war, 151; during Revolution, 240, 275, 279.

Fort Randolph. See Point Pleasant.

Fort Recovery, 401; built by Wilkinson, 419; in Wayne's campaign, 423, 424.

Fort Richards, during Revolution, 240, 241.

Fort Sackville. See Vincennes.

Fort St. Joseph, Indian villages near, 46; in Wayne's campaign, 413.

Fort Seybert, massacre at, 87-89.

Fort Shepherd, in Dunmore's war, 151.

Fort Stradler, during Revolution, 249, 250.

Fort Stanwix, treaty of, 70, 195.

Fort Washington. See Cincinnati.

Fort Wells, 381.

Fort West, during Revolution, 240, 241, 245, 246; forays against, 287-290, 410.

Fort Westfall, in Dunmore's war, 151; during Revolution, 343.

Fort Wilson, during Revolution, 343.

Fort Young, Hannah Dennis at, 93; in New-river foray, 96, 97.

Fox river, explored by French, 6.

Foyle, Robert, settles on Files's creek, 74; massacre of family, 75.

Franklin, Benjamin, 145.

Franklin county, Pa., 106.

Franklin, W. Va., 87.

Frederick county, Va., established, 55; census (1830), 55, 56; Borden manor, 51; militia of, 101, 164.

Freeman, ——, killed by Indians, 412.

Freeman, Mrs., killed by Indians, 245, 246.

Freeman's creek, forays on, 396, 419.

French in America, territorial claims, 5; early explorations, 4-6; occupy Upper Ohio, 45, 63, 64; ransom Salling, 48; conflict with Ohio Co., 64, 65, 74, 77, 123, 147; on Muskingum, 79: on Scioto, 82; Braddock's campaign, 65-69; Forbes's campaign, 69-73; French and Indian war, 143, 145, 156, 159, 190, 334; found Gallipolis, 60, 82; make peace with England, 106, 120; in attack on Boonesborough, 268-270; relations with Clark, 254.

French creek, Smith's expedition to, 106.

French lick, 193.

Friedensstadt, Pa., Moravian village, 314, 319.

Friend, Joseph, chases Indians, 311.

Frothingham, Lieut., killed by Indians, 395.

Fry, Col., in Braddock's army, 66.

Fullenwieder, Peter, defends Rice's fort, 362.

Fur trade, tribal barter, 34; at Winchester, 47; Borden's trade, 51; of Ohio Co., 64, 65, 67, 74, 77, 147; on Scioto, 82; French and English rivalry, 138, 139; Findlay's adventures, 143; of Dunkards, 76; Gibson's, 79; "Black-boys" trouble, 106, 109-116; Simpson's adventures, 118, 119; at Pringle's fort, 120; in Dunmore's war, 150; McKee's, 347; in W. Va., 361.

Furrenash, Charles, children killed by Indians, 313.

Gaddis, Thomas, on Sandusky campaign, 328.

Gage, Thomas, confers with Connolly, 181.

Gallatin, Albert, founds Geneva, W. Va., 117.

Gallipolis, founded by French, 60, 82, 84.

Game, pioneers as hunters, 131; on Greenbrier, 56, 57, 126; in Kentucky, 196, 198, 199, 206, 265, 266; in Valley of Virginia, 119-122; in Tygart's valley, 232, 234; in West Virginia, 280, 283, 367, 374, 375, 410, 411.

Garcia, Gregorio, on origin of Indians, 14.

Gates, Horatio, at Saratoga, 86.

Gatliff, Charles, fights Indians, 244.

Gauley river. 57; Stroud massacre, 136, 137.

Genet, Edmund Charles, commissions Clark, 254.

Geneva, W. Va., founded, 117.

George, Robert, attacks James Smith, 114.

George's creek, Pringle settlement, 117; murder of Bald Eagle, 136.

Georgia, early slavery in, 9, 10; in Tecumseh's conspiracy, 36.

Germans, at Gallipolis. 60.

Gibson, Col. John, at Fort Pitt, 78, 79; in Dunmore's war, 176, 184; expert swordsman, 207; commands Ft. Laurens, 256, 261-265.

Gibson, John, family captured by Indians, 287.

Giles county, Va., census (1830), 55, 56.

Gilmore, ——, killed by Indians, 211, 212.

Girty, George and James, renegades, 178; during Revolution, 295.

Girty, Simon, in Dunmore's war, 178, 179, 184, 189; not at Wheeling seige, 224, 225, 231; during Revolution, 254, 262, 273, 295, 308, 333, 334, 347, 350-353; subsequent forays, 372, 388; in St. Clair's defeat, 404.

Gist, Christopher, visits Shingiss, 45; trip down Ohio, 79; settles Fayette Co., Pa., 74, 77, 123.

Glass, ——, family attacked by Indians, 380, 381.

Glenn, ——, governor of South Carolina, 59.

Glum, Mrs., at seige of Wheeling, 225.

Gnadenhuetten, Moravian village, 314, 317; sacked by whites, 319, 321-327.

Gnatty creek, foray on, 382.

Goff, John, early settler, 126.

Goldsby, ——, killed at Point Pleasant, 171.

Gooch, Sir William, grants Borden manor, 50, 51.

Gordon, Capt, killed at Blue Licks, 353.

Goschocking. See Coshocton.

Graham, James, killed by Indians, 245.

Grand Portage, Carver at, 20.

Grand river. See Ottawa.

Grant, James, with Braddock, 66; defeated by Indians, 68-73; in "Blackboys" uprising, 110, 111.

Grave creek, Indian mounds on, 40; first settlement on, 125; in Dunmore's war, 134; in Foreman's defeat, 229, 230, 235, 356.

Grayson county, Va., census (1830), 55.

Great bridge, Va., defeat of Fordyce, 72.

Greathouse, Daniel, murders Logan's family, 125, 149.

Great Kanawha river, 60, 61; Salling on, 49; discovered by Wood, 64; in Sandycreek voyage, 82, 85; in Hannah Dennis's escape, 93; Squire Boone on, 143; in Dunmore's war, 145, 159-161, 164-167, 169-174, 178; in Hand's expedition, 209-211; during Revolution, 291-292; salines of, 265.

Great Meadows. Washington at, 77, 145.

Great Miami river. See Miami.

Great Sandy river, 60, 61; in New-river foray, 96.

Green, George, at seige of Wheeling, 356.

Green river, Henderson's grant on, 196; early surveys, 365; early settlements, 274.

Green, Thomas M., Spanish Conspiracy, 386.

Greenbrier county, W. Va., 53, 54, 57, 71, 91; census (1830), 55, 56; Shawnee attack (1755), 81; Clendennin massacre, 93-95; militia from, 210, 211; emigrants from, 286; forays into, 242-245, 291-293.

Greenbrier river, 61; explored, 126; origin of name, 49; Loyal Co.'s grant, 49; first settlements on, 56-59; Lewis on, 68; in Pontiac's war, 97.

Greenlee, Mary, enters land on Borden manor, 52, 53.

Greenville, O., Ft. Hamilton built, 401; treaty at, 420, 430.

Gregg, Mrs., attacked by Indians, 343.

Grenadier Squaw, in Dunmore's war, 176; at Ft. Randolph, 242; in Mad-river campaign, 388.

Grigsby; Charles, family killed by Indians, 217, 218.

Grim, John, 183.

Grollon, Father, on origin of Indians, 15, 16.

Grundy, Felix, 247.

Grundy, William, killed by Indians, 247.

Gunn, Catharine, imprisoned by Indians, 98.

Gwinnett, Button, killed by McIntosh, 237.

Hacker, John, settles on Buckhannon, 121, 122; daughter wounded by Indians, 378-380.

Hacker, Mrs., attacked by Indians, 245.

Hacker, William, early hunter, 121; murders Indians, 135, 137; attacked by Indians, 245.

Hacker's creek, Indian relics on, 42; origin of name, 121, 122; first settlement on, 127; in Dunmore's war, 151; Bulltown massacre, 136, 137; killing of Hughes and Lowther, 240, 241; Waggoner massacre, 408, 411; miscellaneous forays on, 275, 287-290, 367, 377, 382, 419, 420.

Hadden, ——, early settler, 126.

Hadden, John, 234.

Hagerstown, Md., 361.

Hagle, Michael, killed by Indians, 341.

Haldimand, Sir Frederick, English general-in-chief, 252, 261.

Half King, Wyandot chief, 230, 316.

Hall, Capt., murders Cornstalk, 211, 212.

Hall, James, Sketches of the West, 193.

Hall, Minor C., 287.

Hamilton, ——, adventure with Indians, 211, 212.

Hamilton, Capt., chases Indians. 245.

Hamilton, Henry, English lieutenant-governor, 207, 210; encourages Indian forays, 224, 225, 252, 266, 268, 269; attacks Clark, 253, 257, 258; captured by Clark, 254, 255, 259-261.

Hamilton, Miss, captured by Indians, 234.

Hammond, Philip, scouting adventure, 242, 243.

Hampden Sydney College, Va., 81.

Hampshire county, W. Va., census (1830), 56; militia from, 101, 230.

Hamtramck, J. F., on Harmar's campaign, 394; on St. Clair's campaign, 401.

Hancock, William, escapes from Indians, 267, 268.

Hand, Edward, commands Ft. Pitt. 209-211, 213, 214, 216, 219, 221, 230; MS. of, 221; sketch, 210.

Handsucker, ——, killed by Indians, 398, 399.

Hangard. See Redstone.

Hanover county, Va., 191.

Haptonstall, Abraham, on Bullitt's survey, 146.

Harbert, ——, killed by Indians, 233.

Hardin county, Ky., origin of name, 123.

Hardin, John, early Kentucky settler, 123; on Harmar's campaign, 394; killed by Indians, 412.

Hardman, ——, of Hacker's creek, 410.

Hardy county, W. Va., census (1830), 56.

Hargus, John, kills an Indian, 154, 155.

Harlan, Silas, in Bowman's campaign, 271.

Harland, Maj., killed at Blue Licks, 253.

Harmar, Josiah, at treaty of Ft. McIntosh, 366; occupies Ft. Washington, 391, 392; campaign of, 384, 393-395, 400, 408.

Harpold, Nicholas, kills Indians, 135.

Harrison, ——, attacked by Indians, 344.

Harrison, Benjamin, in Dunmore's war, 170; governor of Virginia, 366.

Harrison, Burr, rescued by Logan, 203.

Harrison county, W. Va., 373; census (1830), 56, 63; first sheriff of, 127; forays in, 217, 369.

Harrison, S. R., cited, 310.

Harrison, William, killed by Indians, 331, 334, 336.

Harrison, William H., defeats Tecumseh, 36.

Harrod, James, on Bullitt's survey, 146; founds Harrodsburg, 152, 190, 191; prominence as a pioneer, 197, 200; sketch, 190, 191.

Harrod, Samuel, explores Kentucky, 190.

Harrod, William, with Clark, 190; in Bowman's campaign, 271, 273.

Harrodsburg, Ky., founded, 146, 152, 190, 191, 197; represented in Transylvania legislature, 193; first attacked by Indians, 200-202, 205, 208; Clark's defense of, 253; settlers' council at, 271.

Hart, David, of Transylvania Co., 191.

Hart, Nathaniel, of Transylvania Co., 191-193.

Hart, Thomas, of Transylvania Co., 191.

Hartley, Cecil B., Life of Wetzel, 161.

Hartshorn, ——, ensign in Harmar's campaign, 394; captain with Wayne, 423, 424.

Haymond, John, chases Indians, 398.

Hayward, John, History of Tennessee, 60.

Hazard, Samuel, U. S. Register, 193.

Heavener, Nicholas, 121.

Heckewelder, John G., Moravian missionary, 97, 301, 302, 314, 315, 317; peace commissioner, 412; Narrative, 325; sketch, 301, 302.

Hedgman river, 55.

Hellen, Thomas, captured by Indians, 156, 157; killed by Indians, 161.

Helms, Leonard, holds Vincennes, 258, 260.

Henderson, Archibald, 193.

Henderson, Nathaniel, at Watauga treaty, 192.

Henderson, Richard, founds Transylvania, 153, 191-196; sketch, 191-193.

Henderson, Samuel, father of Richard, 191.

Henderson, Leonard, 193.

Hennepin, Father Louis, French explorer, 6.

Henry county, Va., 60.

Henry, Patrick, governor of Virginia, 173, 186, 220, 366.

Herbert, William, in Dunmore's war, 167, 175.

Hickenbotham, Capt., attacks Indians, 99.

Hickman, Adam, Jr., 127.

Hickman, Sotha, early settler, 127, 284.

Hill, Richard, attacked by Indians, 291.

Hinkstone, ——, captured by Indians, 297, 298, 305.

Hite, Isaac, on Bullitt's survey, 146.

Hockhocking river, in Dunmore's war, 168, 179, 182, 183; Indians raided on, 383.

Hockingport, O., founded, 179.

Hogan, Mrs., settles in Kentucky, 197.

Hogg, James, of Transylvania Co., 191.

Hogg, Peter, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81-85.

Hogg, William, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81.

Hoggin, ——, of St. Asaph's, 205.

Holden, Joseph, companion of Boone, 143.

Holder, John, in Bowman's campaign, 271.

Holder's station, Ky., during Caldwell's invasion, 349.

Hollis, John, Indian spy, 245.

Holmes, John, informs against James Smith, 114.

Holston, Stephen, settles on Holston, 59.

Holston river, 60; first settlements on, 58, 115; forays on, 158, 184.

Holston settlements, militia of, 165, 170, 268; Harrod at, 190; Boone at, 196; Logan at, 204-206; Mrs. Cunningham at, 372, 373.

Hornbeck, Benjamin, captured by Indians, 311.

Hornbeck, Mrs., killed by Indians, 311.

Horse Shoe bottom, settled, 126.

Horton, Joshua, explores Kentucky, 115.

Howard, John, companion of Salling, 49.

Hudson, William, killed by Indians, 203.

Hughes, Charles, chases Indians, 246.

Hughes, Elias, scouting service, 312; fights Indians, 345, 376, 377.

Hughes, Jesse, early hunter, 121; chases Indians, 246, 378, 379, 410; services at Ft. West, 288; scouting service, 312; escapes from Indians, 399, 400; daughter captured by Indians, 377-380; character, 137.

Hughes, Thomas, early settler, 121, 123; defense of borderers, 367; killed by Indians, 240, 241.

Hughey, Joseph, killed by Indians, 168.

Hull, Samuel, killed by Indians, 383.

Huron Indians, possible origin of, 16.

Husted, Gilbert, captured by Indians, 248.

Hutchins, Thomas, geographer, 46.

Iberville. Lemoyne d', finds Mississippi, 7.

Ice, John, killed by Indians, 374.

Illinois, early French in, 6, 7; Clark's expedition to, 146, 252-255, 257, 261.

Illinois Indians, claim Kentucky, 142; agree to keep peace, 412.

Ingles, Capt., on New-river campaign, 99.

Indian creek, foray on, 312, 313.

Indian Short creek, 380, 381, 415.

Indians, origin of, 12-27; beliefs, customs and traditions, 17-43; forest commerce, 34; prehistoric remains, 39-43; intimacy with French, 5, 64; relations with Spanish, 7-9; claims to Kentucky reviewed, 193-195; relations with first settlers, 129-133; Christian missions among, 106. See the several tribes.

Iroquois Indians, supposed origin of, 44; oppose French on Ohio, 64; at Easton treaty, 58; at Ft. Stanwix treaty, 70; claim Kentucky, 194, 195.

Irvine, William, releases Moravians, 317; Indian campaign of, 355.

Isaac's creek, 312.

Ivens, Sally, captured by Indians, 373, 374.

Jackson, ——, adventure with Indians, 289.

Jackson county, O., 175.

Jackson county, W. Va., 137.

Jackson, Edward, early settler, 121.

Jackson, George, early settler, 121; attacked by Indians, 313; defends Buckhannon, 342; chases Indians, 398.

Jackson, John, early settler, 121; attacked by Indians, 313.

Jackson, Ned J., 287.

Jackson's river, 57, 71, 81; Hannah Dennis on, 93; in Pontiac war, 97; forays on, 90, 96, 173.

James, Enoch, adventure with Indians, 218, 219.

James river, 61, 66, 86; Salling on, 48, 50; early settlements on, 52; McDowell's fight, 52; Borden's grant, 50-53; forays on, 89-91, 96.

Jefferson county, W.Va., census (1830), 56.

Jefferson, Thomas, on origin of Indians, 13, 14, 25, 26; on Indian mounds, 41; "improves" Logan's speech, 184; Notes on Virginia, 134.

Jesuits, early missions to Indians, 14, 15, 60, 64, 410, 411: Relations, 194.

Jew, ——, killed by Indians, 91.

Jew, Sally, imprisoned by Indians, 90.

Johnson, ——, thought to have been killed by James Smith, 113-115.

Johnson, Henry and John, escape from Indians, 415-417.

Johnson, Richard M., 348.

Johnson, Robert, arrives in Kentucky, 348.

Johnson, William, family massacred by Indians, 381, 382.

Johnson, Sir William, British Indian superintendent, 108, 136.

Johnston, William, of Transylvania, 191.

Joliet, Louis, discovers Mississippi, 5, 6.

Judah, Henry, kills Indians, 135.

Juggins, Elizabeth, adventure with Indians, 309, 310.

Juggins, John, killed by Indians, 290.

Juniata river, 112, 113.

Kanawha county, W. Va., census (1830), 55, 56.

Kaskaskia, Ill., 294; founded by La Salle, 6; Salling at, 48; Clark's capture of, 253-255, 257, 258, 260, 411.

Kate (negress), at seige of Wheeling, 356.

Keeney's knob, massacre at, 173.

Kekionga, Miami village, 393.

Kellar, Isaac, killed by Indians, 385.

Kelly, Tady, in Dunmore's war, 153.

Kelly, Walter, killed by Indians, 159-161.

Kennedy, John, wounded by Indians, 203.

Kenton, Simon, border scout, 161; in Dunmore's war, 164, 167; arrival in Kentucky, 197.

Kentucky, 66, 67, 75; Indian antiquities in, 43; exploration by Salling, 48, 49; by Bullitt, 71; by Walker, 81; by Smith, 115; by Findlay, 142, 143; by Boone, 142-145, 147, 152, 153, 190; by Stone, 190; Indian claims to, 193-195; Connolly's survey, 145, 146; first settlements in, 123, 197; early land jobbing, 196, 197; Harrodsburg founded, 146, 190; Indian opposition to first settlers, 140-142, 189, 190, 200-208; character of pioneers, 197-200; rapid increase of population, 274; Transylvania Co., 191-196; early missions, 106; Spanish conspiracy, 130; state convention, 106.

Kentucky river, Boone on, 152, 153; Harrod on, 190; Catawbas on, 194; in Henderson's purchase. 192, 193, 195, 196; forays on, 268, 269, 374.

Kercheval, Samuel, History of Valley of Virginia, 49, 87, 88.

Kersey, Lieut. [Kearsey, John], builds at Columbia. 390, 391.

Kettle, Richard, chases Indians, 311.

Killbuck, Delaware chief, 88.

Kimberlain, Jacob, escapes from Indians, 99.

King, Thomas, Iroquois chief, 58.

Kinnikinnick creek, 174, 176.

Kiskepila. See Little Eagle.

Kittanning, in Hand's expedition, 210.

Knight, John, captured by Indians, 332-335, 338.

Knoxville, Tenn., 60.

Kuhn, Abraham, Wyandot chief, 97.

Kuydendall, Capt., in Dunmore's war, 182.

Lackey, Thomas, warns settlers, 286.

Lake Cayuga, early Indians on, 46.

Lake Erie, Catawbas on, 47.

Lake Michigan, early French on, 6.

Lancaster, Pa., massacre of Canestogas, 104, 105; treaty of, 195.

Land claims, Loyal Co., 49, 58; Lord Fairfax, 50, 51; Borden manor, 50-53; Ohio Co., 64, 65, 67, 74, 77, 147; Pittsylvania, 145; Virginia military warrants, 145; Transylvania Co., 191-196; Connolly, 145, 146; early Kentucky jobbers, 196, 197; "tomahawk rights," 126; Indian attitude toward, 140, 141; commissioners killed by Indians, 311; post-Revolutionary military warrants, 365, 366; Ohio Co. of Associates, 389, 390; Scioto Co., 60; Miami purchase, 390-392.

Lane, Lalph, attempts western exploration, 64.

Langlade, Charles, at Braddock's defeat, 68.

L'Anguille, Miami village, 407.

La Salle, Chevalier, explorations of, 6, 7; at falls of Ohio, 64.

Lanson run, 421.

Laurel hills, 126; explored by Walden, 60; by Cresap, 77; by Boone, 192.

Lawless, Henry, explores Kentucky, 81.

Leading creek, 419; forays on, 311, 428.

Lederer, John, on Blue ridge, 64.

Lee. Arthur, treaty commissioner, 366, 388.

Lee county, Va., census (1830), 56.

Leet, Maj., on Sandusky campaign, 330.

Leffler, George, early settler, 125; defends Rice's fort, 362.

Leffler, Jacob, Jr., defends Rice's fort, 362.

Legget, George, lost in Indian foray, 399.

Le Moyne, Father, discovers Alleghany, 64.

Lewis, ——, escapes from Indians, 422.

Lewis, Andrew, 49, 50; explores Greenbrier, 57, 58; with Braddock, 66; in Forbes's campaign, 68-73; in Sandy-creek voyage, 81-83, 86; in Dunmore's war, 151, 164-168, 170, 174-176, 178-183, 190; Journal, 81, 82.

Lewis, Charles, with Braddock, 66; in Pontiac's war, 97; in Dunmore's war, 151, 159, 166-168; death, 168-171; Journal, 69.

Lewis county, W. Va., census (1830), 56, 63.

Lewis, John (1), father of Andrew, 53, 62; explores Greenbrier, 57, 58; with Braddock, 66; settles Augusta, 66; sketch, 49, 50.

Lewis, John (2), scalped by Indians, 102.

Lewis, John, Jr., with Braddock, 66.

Lewis, Margaret, wife of John (1), 53.

Lewis, Samuel, defends Greenbrier, 244, 245.

Lewis, Thomas, son of John (1), 50; with Braddock, 66.

Lewis, William, with Braddock, 66.

Lewisburgh, W. Va., founded, 164, 165, 244; massacre near, 172, 173.

Lexington, Ky., 271; founded, 52, 274; threatened by Bird, 296-298, 305; during Caldwell's invasion, 349, 351.

Licking river, Thompson's surveys, 146; early settlements on, 274; Boone's captivity, 265, 266; Bird's invasion, 295, 297, 298; in Piqua campaign, 305, 307; in Caldwell's invasion, 348; other Revolutionary happenings, 271, 352.

Lichtenau, Moravian village, 314.

Limestone creek, 348.

Lincoln, Benjamin, peace commissioner, 412.

Lineback, ——, Relation, 324.

Linn, John, in defense of Wheeling, 356, 358.

Linn, William, at Foreman's defeat, 229, 230.

Linsey, Joseph, settles on Youghiogheny, 117, 118.

Little Carpenter, a Cherokee, 192.

Little Eagle, Mingo chief, 78, 79.

Little Kenawha river, Bulltown massacre, 136-138; in Dunmore's war, 165, 179; during Revolution, 232, 284; miscellaneous forays on, 376, 397, 400, 411, 419.

Little Meadow creek, 166.

Little Meadows, 77.

Little Miami river, Shawnees on, 271; Boone on, 266; during Revolution, 273; Symmes's land-grant on, 390-392; in Harmar's campaign, 393; in St. Clair's campaign, 400-405.

Little Saluda river, Holston on, 59.

Little Sewell mountain, origin of name, 57.

Lochaber, treaty of, 195.

Lockard, Patrick, with Braddock, 66.

Lockport, O., 314.

Lockridge, ——, at Point Pleasant, 175.

Locust Grove, Ky., 254.

Logan, Ann, adventure with Indians, 203.

Logan, Benjamin, builds Logan's station, 197; in seige thereof, 200, 202-207; in Bowman's campaign, 271-273; in Piqua campaign, 306; at Blue Licks, 351-354; in Shawnee campaign, 355; in Miami campaign, 386-388; sketch, 204.

Logan county, O., 153.

Logan county, W. Va., census (1830), 56.

Logan, Mingo chief, massacre of family, 125, 134, 138, 142, 148-150, 184; attacks whites, 155-158; speech of, 184.

Logan's station, Ky., founded, 197; represented in Transylvania legislature, 193; attacked by Indians, 200, 202-208.

Logstown, old trading post, 413; Dyer's captivity, 87; treaty at, 195.

Long, ——, assists Mrs. Cunningham, 372.

"Long Knives," origin of term, 79, 80; use of, 183, 186, 207, 406.

Looney's creek, 89; Pringle settlement on, 118.

Losantiville, origin of name, 391, 392. See Cincinnati.

Loss creek, 218.

Lost creek, foray on, 383.

Louisa Company, settles Kentucky, 191.

Louisiana, founded, 7; French in, 64; Spanish in, 130.

Louisville, 271, 357; Iroquois defeat Shawnees, 194, 195; La Salle at, 64; Findlay at, 143; Boone at, 152; surveyed by Bullitt, 145; founded by Clark, 146, 253, 254; threatened by Bird, 294; in Clark's Wabash expedition, 386; Literary News-Letter, 193.

Love, Philip, in Dunmore's war, 170.

Lowdermilk, Will H., History of Cumberland, 77.

Lowther, Jonathan, killed by Indians, 241.

Lowther, Robert, early settler, 127.

Lowther, William, militia officer, 127, 128; chases Indians, 312, 313, 376, 377.

Loyal Company, land grant on Greenbrier, 49, 58.

Loyal Hanna river, in Forbes's campaign, 73; foray on, 108.

Ludlow, Israel, partner of Denman, 391.

Luttsell, John, of Transylvania Co., 191, 193.

Lynn, Jane, marries Hugh Paul and David Stuart, 53, 54.

Lynn, Margaret, wife of John Lewis, 49.

Lytle, William, on Mad-river campaign, 387, 388.

McBride, Capt., killed at Blue Licks, 353.

McClannahan, Robert, killed at Point Pleasant, 171.

McClelland, John, on Sandusky campaign, 328, 336.

McClelland's station, Ky., attacked by Indians, 200.

McClure, Mrs., captured by Indians, 385.

McCollum, John, in New-river foray, 99.

McCulloch, William, in Dunmore's war, 180.

McCullough family, early settlers, 125.

McCullough, Maj., at seige of Wheeling, 228.

McCullough, Miss, at seige of Wheeling, 356.

McDonald, Angus, Wapatomica expedition, 138, 153-155, 164, 165; in Dunmore's war, 220.

McDowell, Ephraim, early settler, 52.

McDowell, James, 52.

McDowell, John, early settler, 53; killed by Indians, 49, 51, 52, 66.

McDowell, Thomas, killed by Indians, 196.

McFeeters, Jeremiah, killed by Indians, 196.

McGary, Maj., of St. Asaph's, 205; at Blue Licks, 352; in Mad-river campaign, 388.

McGary, Mrs., settles in Kentucky, 197.

McGuire, Maj., wounds an Indian, 381.

McIntire, John, killed by Indians, 397, 398.

McIntosh, Lachlan, commandant at Pittsburgh, 210, 237, 300; expedition against Sandusky, 252, 255, 256, 261, 264, 265.

McIver, Hugh, killed by Indians, 292.

Mack, John, family massacred by Indians, 382.

McKee, Alexander, in Dunmore's war, 189; during Revolution, 254, 295, 347; ransoms Mrs. Cunningham, 372; encourages forays, 388; property destroyed by Wayne, 426.

McKee, Capt., commandant at Ft. Randolph, 241-243.

McKee, William, at Point Pleasant, 174.

McKenley's run, 410.

Mackey, John, early settler, 49, 50, 66.

Mackinaw, in Tecumseh's conspiracy, 36; Chippewa villages near, 46.

McKinley, John, killed by Indians, 333.

McKnight, Charles, Our Western Border, 373.

McLain, John, killed by Indians, 287.

McMahon, Maj., killed by Indians, 423.

McMahon's creek, 162.

McMechen, James, a Wheeling settler, 222, 228, 230.

McMurtry, Capt., killed by Indians, 395.

McNutt, John, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81, 85, 86; in Revolution, 86; Journal, 86.

McWhorter, Henry, early settler, 287, 288, 410.

McWhorter, J. M., 288.

McWhorter, L. V., cited, 119, 137, 278, 287, 340, 368-371, 376, 377, 409-411, 421.

McWhorter, Mansfield, 410.

Mad river, 124; Logan's campaign to, 386-388.

Mahoning creek, 210.

Manear, John, killed by Indians, 311.

Mann's lick, 152.

Marietta, O., the Scioto purchase, 60; settled by Ohio Co., 389, 390; cattle supply attacked, 399, 400.

Marion county, W. Va., 279.

Marks, Lieut., on Wayne's campaign, 424.

Marquette, Father James, discovers Mississippi, 5, 6.

Marshall, James, militia officer, 327, 328.

Martin, ——, settles on Greenbrier, 57.

Martin, ——, in seige of St. Asaph's, 204.

Martin, Gov., opposes Henderson's purchase, 192, 193.

Martin, Jesse, 123.

Martin, William, 123.

Martin's station, Ky., sacked by Bird, 296, 298; defended, 350.

Martinsville, Va., 60.

Maryland, emigrants from, 125.

Mason county, W. Va., census (1830), 56.

Mason, Samuel, at seige of Wheeling, 221-224, 228.

Massachusetts, relinquishes Western land claim, 389.

Massawomee Indians, in West Virginia, 44.

Matthew, John, early settler, 52.

Matthews, George, attacked by Indians, 90, 91; in Dunmore's war, 169, 170, 174.

Matthews, John, with Braddock, 66.

Matthews, Maj., 52.

Maumee Indians, 374.

Maumee river, Mrs. Cunningham on, 372; in Harmar's campaign, 393; in St. Clair's campaign, 401; peace commissioners sent to, 412; in Wayne's campaign, 424-426.

Maury, Thomas, killed by Indians, 91.

Maxwell, Audley, attacked by Indians, 90, 91.

Maxwell, William, attacked by Indians, 90, 91.

May, John, 385.

Maysville, Ky., 348.

Meadow river, 242.

Merrill, John, wounded by Indians, 405, 406.

Merrill, Mrs. John, adventure with Indians, 406.

Myers, R. C. V., Life of Wetzel, 161.

Miami Indians, early strength of, 46; Renick captivity, 91; operate against Clark, 252; in Harmar's campaign, 393-395; in St. Clair's campaign, 400-405: raided by Scott, 407, 408.

Miami river, Indians on, 46; in Renick captivity, 91; in Clark's campaign, 254; during Revolution, 295, 299, 355; arrival of peace news, 365; military land-claims on, 366; Logan's campaign on, 386; treaty of Ft. Finney, 388; Symmes's land-grant on, 390, 392; in Harmar's campaign, 393-395; in St. Clair's campaign, 400-405.

Michael, Lieut., on Wayne's campaign, 424.

Michillimackinac, 255. See Mackinaw.

Middle Island creek, foray on, 381, 398.

Miller, Jacob, killed by Indians (Delaware river), 102.

Miller, Jacob, killed by Indians (Ft. Coburn), 249.

Miller, Jacob, defends Ft. Rice, 361, 362.

Mills, Thomas, killed by Indians, 338, 339.

Minear, John, early settler, 126.

Mingo Bottom, Indian village at, 78; in Moravian expedition, 320; in Crawford's campaign, 328, 329.

Mingo Indians, on Upper Ohio, 45; Decker's-creek massacre, 77-79; New-river foray, 96-99; claim Kentucky, 142; massacre of Logan's family, 134, 138, 142, 148-150; Logan's forays, 155-158; Dunmore's war generally, 172, 179, 184, 185, 253; during Revolution, 219, 262, 308, 336, 347.

Mingo Junction, O. See Mingo Bottom.

Missions among Kentucky and Tennessee Indians, 106. See Catholics and Moravians.

Missasago Indians, in St. Clair's campaign, 404.

Mississippi river, 255; territorial claims in basin of, 5; French on, 5-7, 63; Spanish on, 7, 8, 130, 254; Salling on, 49; Holston on, 59; Chickasaws on, 195; in Tecumseh's conspiracy, 36; Cornstalk's knowledge of, 211.

Mitchell, John, 122.

Moffett, Capt., ambuscaded, 97.

Mohican Indians, in King Philip's war, 32, 33.

Moluntha, Shawnee chief, 268.

Monday, ——, killed by Indians, 293.

Monongahela river, 73-75; early Indians on, 45, 47; French on, 65; Braddock's defeat, 67-69, 72; Grant's defeat, 71; Gist's settlement, 74; Pringle settlement, 117, 118, 122; other early settlements, 77, 117. 123, 125, 190; in Dunmore's war, 135, 141, 146, 150, 151, 161; during Revolution, 221, 222, 237, 271, 309; militia from, 320; forays on, 381, 414, 419.

Monongalia county, W.Va., census (1830), 56, 63; during Revolution, 311; forays in, 344, 374, 398, 399.

Monroe county, W. Va., census (1830), 55, 56.

Montgomery, Col., companion of Clark, 254.

Montgomery county, Va., census (1830), 55, 56.

Montgomery, John, in Sandy-creek voyage, 81.

Monteur, ——, family massacred, 318.

Monticello, Va., 253.

Montour, John, Delaware chief, 179.

Mooney, James, adventure with Indians, 168; companion of Boone, 143.

Moore, ——, attacked by Indians, 385.

Moore, Andrew, early settler, 52; in Dunmore's war, 174.

Moore, James, Sr., killed by Indians, 373.

Moore, James, Jr., captured by Indians, 374.

Moore, Jane, burned by Indians, 374.

Moore, Mrs. John, burned by Indians, 373, 374.

Moore, Lieut., killed by Indians, 241.

Moore, Mary, captured by Indians, 374.

Moorefield, W. Va., founded, 124.

Moorehead, ——, Youghiogheny settler, 114.

Moravians, missionaries and Indians, 36, 412; give information to Hand, 219; visited by Brodhead, 301, 302; villages sacked by whites, 313-327, 340; historical sketch, 314.

Morgan county, W. Va., census (1830), 56.

Morgan, Daniel, 276.

Morgan, David, early settler, 123; adventure with Indians, 276-279.

Morgan, George, Indian agent, 219, 224.

Morgan, Greenwood S., 279.

Morgan, Levi, adventures with Indians, 375, 376, 417, 418.

Morgan, Sarah and Stephen, adventure with Indians, 276-279.

Morgan, William, early settler, 126; escapes from Indians, 240.

Morgantown, Pa., 75; founded, 123; foray near, 248, 249.

Morlin, Thomas, early peddler, 47, 48.

Morrow, William, in Dunmore's war, 169, 171.

Mound-building, by early Indians, 39-43.

Moundsville, W. Va., "big mound" at, 40; settled, 125, 230.

Mount Braddock. Pa., settled, 123.

Muddy creek, 123; first settled, 58; Clendennin massacre, 93-95; miscellaneous forays on, 159, 161, 172, 173, 293, 345.

Mulhollin, Polly. See Mary Greenlee.

Munsee Indians, on Susquehanna, 46; raided by Brodhead, 301; during Revolution, 347.

Munseka, Shawnee chief, 266.

Murphey, John, killed by Indians, 238.

Murphy, Samuel, 183.

Muscle shoals, 59.

Muskingum river, early Indians on, 46; Gist on, 79; Bouquet's expedition, 108; Indian atrocities on, 150, 396; Wapatomica campaign, 153-155; Moravian villages on, 219; during Revolution, 300-305, 314, 320, 328; land cession by Indians, 366; Ohio Co.'s grant, 389; Waterford founded, 392.

Nain Indians, threatened by Paxtons, 105.

Nanny's run, 127.

Natchez, Holston at, 59.

Narragansett Indians, war with Puritans, 31-33.

Narvaez, Pamphilio de, in Florida, 7.

Nashville, Tenn., 115.

Neal, Henry, killed by Indians, 411, 412.

Neal, James, slave stolen from, 400.

Neely, Alexander, companion of Boone, 143, 144.

Nelson, ——, early settler, 126.

Nelson county, Va., foray in, 405, 406.

Nelsonville, O., 183.

Nemacolin, Delaware Indian, 77.

Nemacolin's path. See Braddock's road

Nequetank Indians, threatened by Paxtons, 105.

Newcomerstown, O., 314.

New Englanders, on Greenbrier, 57.

New France. See French.

New Inverness, Ga., founded, 237.

New Martinsville, O., 417.

New Orleans, founded, 7; Spanish at, 130.

New Philadelphia, O., 261, 314.

Newport, Christopher, attempts western exploration, 64.

New river, first settlements on, 59; in Sandy-creek voyage, 82; Delaware and Mingo foray, 96-99. See Great Kanawha.

New Schoenbrunn, Moravian village, 314, 325, 326.

New York, Delawares in. 136; relinquishes Western land claim, 389.

Nicholas county, W. Va., 96; census (1830), 56.

Nicholson, ——, interpreter, 184.

Nicholson, Thomas, in Dunmore's campaign, 153.

North Bend, O., founded, 392.

North Branch, 63.

North Carolina, Cherokees in, 46; Boone in, 143, 144, 266; Henderson family in, 191-193; emigration from, 348, 384.

North river, early settlement on, 52.

Northwest Territory, early tribes in, 45; cession of land claims in, 131; ordinance of 1787, 389; St. Clair's arrival, 391, 392; first settlements in, 392, 393.

Norton, Thomas, Journal of Sandy-creek voyage, 81, 82.

Nutter, John, early settler, 127.

O'Brien, Adam, 414.

Ochiltree, Alexander, killed by Indians, 245.

Oghkwaga, Delaware village, 136.

Ogle, Joseph, at seige of Wheeling, 221-224, 228; in Foreman's defeat, 230.

Oglethorpe, James, attitude toward slavery, 10.

Ohio (state), Indian mounds in, 41, 42; first settlements in, 392, 393.

Ohio Company, relations with French, 45; open Ohio valley to settlement, 64, 65, 67, 74, 77, 147.

Ohio Company of Associates, settles Marietta, 389, 390.

Ohio county. W. Va., census (1830), 55, 56, 63; during Revolution, 311.

Ohio river, 36, 40, 55, 78, 115, 117, 121, 123, 125; early Indians on, 45-47; Salling on, 49; Holston on, 59; as a war trail, 75; first English occupation, 63, 64; French and English rivalry for, 64-74, 95; Decker captivity, 78, 79; in Sandy-creek voyage, 83-85; Renick captivity, 91; Hannah Dennis's escape, 92, 93; character of early settlers on, 130, 131; in Dunmore's war, 134, 138, 145, 146, 148, 149, 151-153, 156, 162-165, 167-175, 179, 183; in Henderson's purchase, 192, 193; Shawnees on, 194, 195, 209, 211, 216, 219; during Revolution, 219, 220, 227, 230, 254, 257, 264, 266, 267, 271, 273, 285, 286, 294, 295, 297-300, 305, 320, 335, 347, 355, 360, 363, 384, 389, 390, 399, 411, 415, 417; after Revolution, 367, 372, 374, 380, 381, 383; as a race boundary, 412.

Old Town creek, 168, 170, 172; Shawnee village at, 85.

Oneco, chief of Mohicans, 32.

Orange county, Va., 55; early settlement of, 55, 66.

Ordinance of 1787, 389.

Orme, Robert, with Braddock, 68.

Osage Indians, stature of, 29.

Ottawa Indians, early strength of, 46: during Revolution, 347; at Ft. McIntosh treaty, 366, 388.

Ottawa river, early French on, 5.

Ouisconsin river. See Wisconsin river.

Owens, James, killed by Indians, 247.

Owens, John, Sr., killed by Indians, 290.

Owens, John, Jr., attacked by Indians, 290, 343, 344.

Owens, Owen, attacked by Indians, 290.

Ox, Susan, captured by Indians, 161.

Pack, ——, trapper, 96.

Paint creek, Boone's expedition to, 267, 268; Shawnees on, 374; Waggoner on, 410.

Parsons, James, early settler, 126.

Parsons, Samuel H., treaty commissioner, 388.

Patterson, Robert, founds Lexington, Ky., 274; partner of Denman, 391; at battle of Blue Licks, 353.

Patton, Elizabeth, marries John Preston, 51.

Patton, James, early settler of Catawba, 51, 52, 68.

Patton, John W., 127.

Pattonsburgh, Va., 51.

Paul, Audley, son of Hugh, 53; at Ft. Redstone, 77, 78; in Sandy-creek voyage, 81, 83, 85; in James-river foray, 91; in New-river foray, 97-99; in Dunmore's war, 169.

Paul, Hugh, 53.

Paul, Polly, marries Gov. Matthews, 53.

Pauling, Henry, militia officer, 207.

Paull, James, at Redstone, 80.

Paxton boys, kill Canestoga Indians, 104, 105.

Paynter, Elias, killed by Indians, 341.

Pekillon, Delaware chief, 303, 304.

Pendleton county, W. Va., census (1830), 56; Seybert massacre, 87-89.

Penn, William, 124.

Pennsylvania, boundary dispute with Virginia, 74; Western settlements in, 74, 75, 123-125, 143; fur trade of, 101; Paxton boys, 104, 105; "Black-boys" uprising, 109-116; Findlay's adventures, 143; Records, 58; Archives, 323.

Pentecost, Dorsey, 323.

Peoria Indians, claim Kentucky, 142.

Perry, Thomas, killed by Indians, 89.

Perrysburgh, O., 372.

Peter, Captain, Indian chief, 135.

Petro, Leonard, captured by Indians, 232, 233.

Peyton, John L., History of Augusta county, 53, 246.

Philadelphia, 105, 109, 124.

Philip, chief of Narragansetts, 31, 32.

Phillips, Capt., ambuscaded, 97.

Phoebe's Falls, W. Va., settled, 52.

Pickaway plains, Indian treaty at, 183-186.

Pickering, Timothy, peace commissioner, 412.

Pike run, Indian foray on, 283.

Pindall, Rachel, chased by Indians, 344.

Pindall, Thomas, attacked by Indians, 344.

Piomingo, Chickasaw chief, 405.

Pipe, Delaware chief, 333.

Pipe, Wyandot chief, 316.

Pipe creek, massacre of Indians at, 134, 142, 148.

Piqua, Shawnee village, 273; Clark attacks, 305-309.

Pitman, ——, trapper, 96.

Pittsburg, 117, 120; French fort at, 45; treaties at, 66; Braddock's defeat, 68, 69, 106; in Forbes's campaign, 69-73, 77, 79, 80; Connolly at, 74; Dyer's escape, 87; in Bouquet's expedition, 107-109, 173; in Dunmore's war, 134, 141, 142, 145, 148, 150, 165, 167, 177-179, 181, 182; "Blackboys" uprising, 109; asked to aid Kentucky, 205; during Revolution, 220, 221, 224, 230, 254, 256, 262, 283, 318, 321-323, 335, 357, 362; arrival of peace news, 365; Hand's administration, 210, 211, 214, 216, 219; McIntosh's administration, 210, 237; warned by Moravians, 315, 317; Brodhead's expedition, 300, 301, 303, 304, 316.

Pittsylvania, proposed colony of, 145.

Pleasant creek, 118.

Pocahontas county, W. Va., census (1830), 56.

Poe, Adam, adventure with Indians, 362-364.

Poe, Andrew, adventure with Indians, 363, 364.

Point Pleasant, W. Va., battle of, 59, 60, 66, 143, 152, 165-178, 180, 182, 185-187, 189, 190, 208; Ft. Randolph at, 173, 291; surrender of Cornstalk at, 173, 209, 211-216; during Revolution, 237, 241-243.

Pointer, Dick, fights Indians, 243.

Pollens, Henry, fur trader, 109.

Pompey (negro), friend of Indians, 268.

Pontiac, uprising of, 73, 141, 172.

Poole, William F., on Clark's campaign, 254.

Port Washington, O., 301, 314.

Portsmouth, O., old Shawnee town at, 92.

Post, Charles F., Moravian missionary, 301.

Potomac river, 55; fur trade on, 77; Seybert massacre, 87-89.

Pottawattomie Indians, early strength of, 46; during Revolution, 347.

Powell, Richard, sons captured by Indians, 280, 281.

Powell's valley, 60; Walden in, 60; attack on Boones, 144, 145; Henderson's grant, 193.

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