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Chips from a German Workshop - Volume IV - Essays chiefly on the Science of Language
by Max Muller
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"In this he was too little mindful of the requirements of fair dealing; for he leaves any one who may take the trouble to turn to the 'Indische Studien,' and compare the version there given with that found among the 'Chips,' to infer that all the discordances he shall discover are attributable to Weber's incorrectness, whereas they are in fact mainly alterations which Mller has made in his own reprint; and the real inaccuracies are perfectly trivial in character and few in number—such printer's blunders as are rarely avoided by Germans who print English, or by English who print German. We should doubtless be doing Mller injustice if we maintained that he deliberately meant Weber to bear the odium of all the discrepancies which a comparer might find; but he is equally responsible for the result, if it is owing only to carelessness on his part."

What will the intelligent gentlemen of the jury say to this? Because I complained of such blunders as altars being "construed," instead of "constructed," "enlightoned" instead of "enlightened," "gratulate" instead of "congratulate," and similar inaccuracies, occurring in an unauthorized reprint of my article, therefore I really wanted to throw the odium of what I had myself written in the original article, and what was, as far as the language was concerned, perfectly correct, on Professor Weber. Can forensic ingenuity go further? If America possesses many such powerful pleaders, we wonder how life can be secure.

Having thus ascertained whence ill lacrum, I must now produce a small bottle at least of the tears themselves which Professor Whitney has shed over me, and over men far better than myself, all of which, he says, were never meant to be personal, and most of which have evidently been quite dried up in his memory.

I begin with Bopp. "Although his mode of working is wonderfully genial, his vision of great acuteness, and his instinct a generally trustworthy guide, he is liable to wander far from the safe track, and has done not a little labor over which a broad and heavy mantle of charity needs to be drawn" (I.208).

M. Renan and myself have "committed the very serious error of inverting the mutual relation of dialectic variety and uniformity of speech, thus turning topsy-turvy the whole history of linguistic development..... It may seem hardly worth while to spend any effort in refuting an opinion of which the falsity will have been made apparent by the exposition already given" (p.177).

In another place (p.284) M. Renan is told that his objection to the doctrine of a primitive Indo-European monosyllabism is noticed, not for any cogency which it possesses, but only on account of the respectability of M.Renan.

Lassen and Burnouf, who thought that the geographical reminiscences in the first chapter of the Vendidad had a historical foundation, are told that their "claim is baseless, and even preposterous" (p.201). Yet what Professor Whitney's knowledge of Zend must be, we may judge from what he says of Burnouf's literary productions. "It is well known," he says, "that the great French scholar produced two or three bulky volumes upon the Avesta." Iknow of one bulky volume only, "Commentaire sur la Yana," tome i., Paris, 1833, but that may be due to my lamentable ignorance.

"Professor Oppert simply exposes himself in the somewhat ridiculous attitude of one who knocks down, with gestures of awe and fright, atremendous man of straw of his own erecting (I.218). His erroneous assumptions will be received with most derisive incredulity (I.221); the incoherence and aimlessness of his reasonings (I.223); an ill-considered tirade, atissue of misrepresentations of linguistic science (I.237). He cannot impose upon us by his authority, nor attract us by his eloquence: his present essay is as heavy in style, as loose and vague in expression, unsound in argument, arrogant in tone" (I.238). The motive imputed to Professor Oppert in writing his Essay is that "he is a Jew, and wanted to stand up for the Shemites."

If Professor Oppert is put down as a Shemite, Dr. Bleek is sneered at as a German. "His work is written with much apparent profundity, one of a class, not quite unknown in Germany, in which a minimum of valuable truth is wrapped up in a maximum of sonating phraseology" (I.292). Poor Germany catches it again on page 315. "Even, or especially in Germany," we are told, "many an able and acute scholar seems minded to indemnify himself for dry and tedious grubbings among the roots and forms of Comparative Philology by the most airy ventures in the way of constructing Spanish castles of linguistic science."

In his last work Professor Whitney takes credit for having at last rescued the Science of Language from the incongruities and absurdities of European scholars.

Now on page 119 Professor Whitney very properly reproves another scholar, Professor Goldstcker, for having laughed at the German school of Vedic interpretation. "He emphasizes it," he says, "dwells upon it, reiterates it three or four times in a paragraph, as if there lay in the words themselves some potent argument. Any uninformed person would say, we are confident, that he was making an unworthy appeal to English prejudice against foreign men and foreign ways." Professor Whitney finishes up with charging Professor Goldstcker, who was himself a German—I beg my reader's pardon, but I am only quoting from a North American Review—with "fouling his own nest." Professor Whitney, Ibelieve, studied in a German university. Did he never hear of a 'cute little bird, who does to the nest in which he was reared, what he says Professor Goldstcker did to his own?

Chaire moi, Gldstukre, kai ein Aidao domoisin; Panta gar d toi tele, ta paroithen hupestn.

Haeckel is called a headlong Darwinian (I.293), Schleicher is infected with Darwinism (I.294), "he represents a false and hurtful tendency (I.298), he is blind to the plainest truths, and employs a mode of reasoning in which there is neither logic nor common sense (I.323). His essays are unsound, illogical, untrue; but there are still incautious sciolists by whom every error that has a great name attached to it is liable to be received as pure truth, and who are ever specially attracted by good hearty paradoxes" (I.330).

I add a few more references to the epitheta ornantia which I was charged with having invented. "Utter futility" (p.36); "meaningless and futile" (p.152); "headlong materialist" (p.153); "better humble and true (Whitney) than high-flown, pretentious, and false" (not-Whitney, p.434); "simply and solely nonsense" (I.255); "darkening of counsel by words without knowledge" (I.255); "rhetorical talk" (I.723); "flourish of trumpets, lamentable (not to say) ridiculous failure" (I.277).

What a contrast between the rattling discharges of these mitrailleuses at the beginning of the war, and the whining and whimpering assurance now made by the American professor, that he never in his life said anything personal or offensive!

WHY I OUGHT NOT TO HAVE ANSWERED.

Having taken the trouble of collecting these spent balls from the various battlefields of the American general, Ihope that even Professor Whitney will no longer charge me with having spoken without book. As long as he cited me before the tribunal of scholars only, Ishould have considered it an insult to them to suppose that they could not, if they liked, form their own judgment. For fifteen years have I kept my fire, till, like a Chinese juggler, Professor Whitney must have imagined he had nearly finished my outline on the wall with the knives so skillfully aimed to miss me. But when he dragged me before a tribunal where my name was hardly known, when he thought that by catching the aura popularis of Darwinism, he could discredit me in the eyes of the leaders of that powerful army, when he actually got possession of the pen of the son, fondly trusting it would carry with it the weight of the father, then I thought I owed it to myself, and to the cause of truth and its progress, to meet his reckless charges by clear rebutting evidence. Idid this in my "Answer to Mr. Darwin," and as I did it, Idid it thoroughly, leaving no single charge unanswered, however trifling. At the same time, while showing the unreasonableness of his denunciations, Icould not help pointing out some serious errors into which Professor Whitney had fallen. Some thrusts can only be parried by a-tempo thrusts.

Professor Whitney, like an experienced advocate, passes over in silence the most serious faults which I had pointed out in his "Lectures," and after he has attempted—with what success, let others judge—to clear himself from a few, he turns round, and thinks it best once for all to deny my competency to judge him. And why?

"I do not consider Professor Mller capable of judging me justly," he says. And why? "Because I have felt moved, on account of his extraordinary popularity and the exceptional importance attached to his utterances, to criticise him more frequently than anybody else."

Is not this the height of forensic ingenuity? Because A has criticised B, therefore B cannot criticise A justly. In that case A has indeed nothing to do but to criticise B C D to Z, and then no one in the world can criticise him justly. Ihave watched many controversies, Ihave observed many stratagems and bold movements to cover a retreat, but nothing to equal this. Professor Pott was very hard on Professor Curtius, but he did not screen himself by denying to his adversary the competency to criticise him in turn. What would Newman have said, if Kingsley had tried to shut him up with such a remark, aremark really worthy of one literary combatant only, the famous Pastor Goeze, the critic of Lessing?

What would even Professor Whitney think, if I were to say that, because I have criticised his "Lectures," he could not justly criticise my "Sanskrit Grammar?" He might not think it good taste to publish an advertisement to dissuade students in America from using my grammar; he might think it unworthy of himself and dishonorable to institute comparisons, the object of which would be too transparent in the eyes even of his best friends in Germany. Mr. Whitney has lived too long in Germany not to know the saying, Man merkt die Absicht und man wird verstimmt. But should I ever say that he was incompetent to criticise my "Sanskrit Grammar" justly? Certainly not. All that I might possibly venture to say is, that before Professor Whitney undertakes to criticise my own or any other Sanskrit grammar, he should look at 84 of my grammar, and practice that very simple rule, that if Visarga is preceded by a, and followed by a, the Visarga is dropt, a changed to o, and the initial vowel elided. If with this rule clearly impressed on his memory, he will look at his edition of the Atharva-Veda Prti{s}khya, I.33, then perhaps, instead of charging Hindu grammarians in his usual style with "opinions obviously and grossly incorrect and hardly worth quoting," he might discover that eke sp{ri}sh{t}am could only have been meant in the MSS. for eke 'sp{ri}sh{t}am, and that the proper translation was not that vowels are formed by contact, but that they are formed without contact. Instead of saying that none of the other Prti{s}khyas favors this opinion, he would find the same statement in the Rig-Veda Prti{s}khya, Stra 719, page cclxi of my edition, and he might perhaps say to himself, that before criticising Sanskrit grammars, it would be useful to learn at least the phonetic rules. Ihad pointed out this slip before, in the second edition of my "Sanskrit Grammar;" but, as to judge from an article of his on the accent, Professor Whitney has not seen that second edition (1870), which contains the Appendix on the accent in Sanskrit, Ibeg leave to call his attention to it again.

WHY I OUGHT TO BE GRATEFUL.

I am glad to say that we now come to a more amusing part of this controversy. After I had been told that because I was attacked first, therefore I was not able to criticise Professor Whitney's writings justly, Iam next told that I ought to be very grateful for having been attacked, nay, Iam told that, in my heart of hearts, Iam really very grateful indeed. Imust quote this passage in full:—

"During the last eight years I have repeatedly taken the opportunity accurately to examine and frankly to criticise the views of others and the arguments by which they were supported. Ihave done this more particularly against eminent and famous men whom the public has accustomed itself to regard as guides in matters referring to the Science of Language. What unknown and uncared for people say, is of no consequence whatever; but if Schleicher and Steinthal, Renan and Mller, teach what to me seems an error, and try to support it by proofs, then surely I am not only justified, but called upon to refute them, if I can. Among these students the last-named seems to be of different opinion. In his article, 'My Reply to Mr. Darwin,' published in the March number of the 'Deutsche Rundschau,' he thinks it necessary to read me a severe lecture on my presumption, although he also flatters me by the hint that my custom of criticising the most eminent men only is appreciated, and those whom I criticise feel honored by it."

I confess when I read this, I wished I had really paid such a pretty compliment to my kind critic, but looking through my article from beginning to end, I find no hint anywhere that could bear so favorable an interpretation, unless it is where I speak of "the noble army of his martyrs," and of the untranslated remark of Phocion, which he may have taken for a compliment. In saying that it was acknowledged to be an honor to be attacked by him, Professor Whitney was, no doubt, thinking of the words of Ovid, Summa petunt dextra fulmina missa Jovis, and I am not going in future to deny him the title of the Jovial and Olympian critic, nor should I suggest to him to read the line in Ovid immediately preceding the one quoted. Against one thing only I must protest. Though the last named, Iam surely not, as he boldly asserts, the only one of the four sommits struck by his Olympian thunderbolts, who have humbly declined too frequent a repetition of his celestial favors. Schleicher, no doubt, was safe, for alas, he is dead! But Steinthal surely has uttered rather Promethean protests against the Olympian,—

Oid' hoti trachus kai par' heauti to dikaion echn Zeus; all' empas malakognmn estai poth', hotan tauti rhaisthi;

and as to M. Renan, does his silence mean more than—

Emoi d' elasson Znos mden melei

I confess, then, frankly that, in my heart of hearts, I am not grateful for these cruel kindnesses, and if he says that the other Serene Highnesses have been less ungrateful than I am, Ifear this is again one of his over-confident assertions. My publishers in America may be grateful to him, for I am told that, owing to Professor Whitney's articles, much more interest in my works has been excited in America than I could ever have expected. But I cannot help thinking that by the line of action he has followed, he has done infinite harm to the science which we both have at heart. In order to account somehow or other for his promiscuous onslaughts, he now tells Mr. Darwin and his friends that in the Science of Language all is chaos. That is not so, unless Mr. Whitney is here using chaos in a purely subjective sense. There are differences of opinion, as there are in every living and progressive science, but even those who differ most widely, perfectly understand and respect each other, because they know that, from the days of Plato and Aristotle, men who start from different points, arrive at different conclusions, particularly when the highest problems in every science are under consideration. Ido not agree with Professor Steinthal, but I understand him; Ido not agree with Dr. Bleek, but I respect him; Idiffer most of all from Schleicher, but I think that an hour or two of private conversation, if it were possible still, would have brought us much nearer together. At all events, in reading any of their books, Ifeel interested, Ibreathe a new atmosphere, Iget new ideas, Ifeel animated and invigorated. Ihave now read nearly all that Professor Whitney has written on the Science of Language, and I have not found one single new fact, one single result of independent research, nay, not even one single new etymology, that I could have added to my Collectanea. If I am wrong, let it be proved. That language is an institution, that language is an instrument, that we learn our language from our mothers, as they learned it from their mothers and so on till we come to Adam and Eve, that language is meant for communication, all this surely had been argued out before, and with arguments, when necessary, as strong as any adduced by Professor Whitney.

Professor Whitney may not be aware of this, or have forgotten it; but a fertile writer like him ought at all events to have a good memory. In his reply, p.262, he tells us, for instance, as one of his latest discoveries, that in studying language, we ought to begin with modern languages, and that when we come to more ancient periods, we should always infer similar causes from similar effects, and never admit new forces or new processes, except when those which we know prove totally inefficient. In my own Lectures I had laid it down as one of the fundamental principles of the Science of Language that "what is real in modern formations must be admitted as possible in ancient formations, and that what has been found true on a small scale may be true on a larger scale." Ihad devoted considerable space to the elucidation of this principle, and what did Professor Whitney write at that time (1865)?

"The conclusion sounds almost like a bathos; we should have called these, not fundamental principles, but obvious considerations, which hardly required any illustration" (p.243).

Here is another instance of failure of memory. He assures us:—

"That he would never venture to charge anybody with being influenced in his literary labors by personal vanity and a desire of notoriety, except perhaps after giving a long string of proofs—nay, not even then" (p.274).

Yet it was he who said of (I. 131) the late Professor Goldstcker that—

"Mere denunciation of one's fellows and worship of Hindu predecessors do not make one a Vedic scholar,"

and that, after he had himself admitted that "no one would be found to question his (Professor Goldstcker's) immense learning, his minute accuracy, and the sincerity and intensity of his convictions."

By misunderstanding and sometimes, unless I am greatly mistaken, willfully closing his eyes to the real views of other scholars, Professor Whitney has created for himself a rich material for the display of his forensic talents. Like the poor Hindu grammarian, we are first made to say the opposite of what we said, and are then brow-beaten as holding opinions "obviously and grossly incorrect and hardly worth quoting." All this is clever, but is it right? Is it even wise?

Much of what I have here written sounds very harsh, I know; but what is one to do? Ihave that respect for language and for my friends, and, may I add, for myself, to avoid harsh and abusive words, as much as possible. Ido not believe in the German saying, Auf einen groben Klotz gehrt ein grober Keil. I have tried hard, throughout the whole of my literary career, and even in this "Defense," not to use the weapons that have been used against me during so many years of almost uninterrupted attacks. Much is allowed, however, in self-defense that would be blamable in an unprovoked attack, and if I have used here and there the cool steel, Itrust that clean wounds, inflicted by a sharp sword, will heal sooner than gashes made with rude stones and unpolished flints.

Professor Whitney might still, I feel convinced, do some very useful work, as the apostle of the Science of Language in America, if only, instead of dealing in general theories, he would apply himself to a critical study of scientific facts, and if he would not consider it his peculiar calling to attack the personal character of other scholars. If he must needs criticise, would it be quite impossible for him, even in his character of Censor, to believe that other scholars are as honest as himself, as independent, as outspoken, as devoted at all hazards to the cause of truth? Does he really believe in his haste that all men who differ from him, or who tell him that he has misapprehended their teaching, are humbugs, pharisees, or liars? Professor Steinthal was a great friend of his, does he imagine that his violent resentment was entirely unprovoked? Ihave had hundreds of reviews of my books, some written by men who knew more, some by men who knew less than myself. Both classes of reviews proved very useful, but, beyond correcting matters of fact, Inever felt called upon to answer, or to enter into personal recriminations with any one of my reviewers. We should not forget that, after all, reviews are written by men, and that there are often very tangible reasons why the same book is fiercely praised and fiercely abused. No doubt, every writer who believes in the truth of his opinions, wishes to see them accepted as widely as possible; but reviews have never been the most powerful engines for the propaganda of truth, and no one who has once known what it is to feel one's self face to face with Truth, would for one moment compare the applause of the many with the silent approval of the still small voice of conscience within. Why do we write? Chiefly, Ibelieve, because we think we have discovered facts unknown to others, or arrived at opinions opposed to those hitherto held. Knowing the effort one has made one's self in shaking off old opinions or accepting new facts, no student would expect that everybody else would at once follow his lead. Indeed, we wish to differ from certain authorities, we wish to be criticised by them; their opposition is far more important, far more useful, far more welcome to us, than their approval could ever be. It would be an impossible task were we to attempt to convert personally every writer who still differs from us. Besides, there is no wheat without bran, and nothing is more instructive than to watch how the millstones of public opinion slowly and noiselessly separate the one from the other. Ihave brought my harvest, such as it was, to the mill: Ido not cry out when I see it ground. From my peers I have received the highest rewards which a scholar can receive, rewards far, far above my deserts; the public at large has treated me no worse than others; and, if I have made some enemies, all I can say is, Ido not envy the man who in his passage through life has made none.

Even now, though I am sorry for what Professor Whitney has done, Iam not angry with him. He has great opportunities in America, but also great temptations. There is no part of the civilized world where a scholar might do more useful work than in America, by the bold and patient exploration of languages but little known, and rapidly disappearing. Professor Whitney may still do for the philology of his country what Dr. Bleek has done for the languages of Africa at the sacrifice of a lifelong expatriation, alas! Ihave just time to add, at the sacrifice of his life.

But I admit that America has also its temptations. There are but few scholars there who could or would check Professor Whitney, even in his wildest moods of asseveration, and by his command of a number of American papers, he can easily secure to himself a temporary triumph. Yet, Ibelieve, he would find a work, such as Bancroft's "On the Native Races of the Pacific States of North America," afar more useful contribution to our science, and a far more permanent monument of his life, than reviews and criticisms, however brilliant and popular.

It was because I thought Professor Whitney capable of rendering useful service to the Science of Language in America that I forbore so long, that I never for years noticed his intentional rudeness and arrogance, that I received him, when he called on me at Oxford, with perfect civility, that I assisted him when he wanted my help in procuring copies of MSS. at Oxford. Icould well afford to forget what had happened, and I tried for many years to give him credit for honorable, though mistaken, motives in making himself the mouthpiece of what he calls the company of collaborators.

In fact, if he had arraigned me again and again before a tribunal of competent judges, Ishould gladly have left my peers to decide between me and my American traducer. But when he cleverly changed the venue and brought his case before a tribunal where forensic skill was far more likely to carry the day than complicated evidence that could be appreciated by a special jury only, then, at last, Ihad to break through my reserve. It was not exactly cowardice that had kept me so long from encountering the most skillful of American swordsmen, but when the duel was forced upon me, Idetermined it should be fought out once for all.

I might have said much more; in fact, I had written much more than what I here publish in self-defense, but I wished to confine my reply as much as possible to bare facts. Professor Whitney has still to learn, it seems, that in a duel, whether military or literary, it is the bullets which hit, not the smoke, or the report, however loud. Ido not flatter myself that with regard to theories on the nature of language or the relation between language and thought there ever will be perfect unanimity among scholars, but as to my bullets or my facts, Ibelieve the case is different. Iclaim no infallibility, however, and would not accept the papal tiara among comparative philologists, even though it was offered me in such tempting terms by the hands of Professor Whitney. In order, therefore, to satisfy Mr. Darwin, Professor Haeckel, and others whose good opinion I highly value, because I know that they care for truth far more than for victory, Inow appeal to Professor Whitney to choose from among his best friends three who are Professores ordinarii in any university of England, France, Germany, or Italy, and by their verdict I promise to abide. Let them decide the following points as to simple matters of fact, the principal bones of contention between Professor Whitney and myself:—

1. Whether the Latin of the inscription on the Duilian Column represents the Latin as spoken in 263 B.C. (p.430);

2. Whether Ahura-Mazda can be rendered by "the mighty spirit" (p.430);

3. Whether sarvanman in Sanskrit means "name for everything" (p.430);

4. Whether Professor Whitney knew that the Phenician alphabet had by Roug and others been traced back to an Egyptian source (pp.430, 450, 468);

5. Whether Professor Whitney thought that the words light, alight, and delight could be traced to the same source (p.467);

6. Whether in the passages pointed out on p.434, Professor Whitney contradicts himself or not;

7. Whether he has been able to produce any passage from my writings to substantiate the charge that in my Lectures I was impelled by an overmastering fear lest man should lose his proud position in the creation (p.435);

8. Whether there are verbatim coincidences between my Lectures and those of Professor Whitney (pp.425, 470-474);

9. Whether I ever denied that language was made through the instrumentality of man (p.470);

10. Whether I had or had not fully explained under what restrictions the Science of Language might be treated as one of the physical sciences, and whether Professor Whitney has added any new restrictions (pp.422 seq., 475 seq.);

11. Whether Professor Whitney apprehended in what sense some of the greatest philosophers declared conceptual thought impossible without language (p.484);

12. Whether the grammatical blunder, with regard to the Sanskrit pari tasthushas as a nominative plur., was mine or his (p.490);

13. Whether I had not clearly defined the difference between hard and soft consonants long before Professor Whitney, and whether he has not misrepresented what I had written on the subject (p.490);

14. Whether in saying that the soft consonants can be intonated, Icould have meant that they may or may not be intonated (p.497);

15. Whether I invented the terms vivrasv{s}ghosh{h} and sa{m}vrandaghosh{h}, and whether they are to be found in no Sanskrit grammarian (p.498);

16. Whether I was right in saying that Professor Whitney had complained about myself and others not noticing his attacks, and whether his remarks on my chapter on Fir, Oak, and Beech required being noticed (p.500);

17. Whether I had invented the Epitheta ornantia applied by Professor Whitney to myself and other scholars, or whether they occur in his own writings (p.504);

18. Whether E. Burnouf has written two or three bulky volumes on the Avesta, or only one (p.515);

19. Whether Professor Whitney made a grammatical blunder in translating a passage of the Atharva-Veda Prti{s}khya, and on the strength of it charged the Hindu grammarian with holding opinions "obviously and grossly incorrect, and hardly worth quoting" (p.519);

20. Whether Professor Whitney has occasionally been forgetful (p.523).

Surely there are among Professor Whitney's personal friends scholars who could say Yes or No to any of these twenty questions, and whose verdict would be accepted, and not by scholars only, as beyond suspicion. Anyhow, Ican do no more for the sake of peace, and to put an end to the supposed state of chaos in the Science of Language, and I am willing to appear in person or by deputy before any such tribunal of competent judges.

I hope I have thus at last given Professor Whitney that satisfaction which he has claimed from me for so many years; and let me assure him that I part with him without any personal feeling of bitterness or hostility. Ihave grudged him no praise in former days, and whatever useful work we may receive from him in future, whether on the languages of India or of America, his books shall always receive at my hands the same justice as if they had been written by my best friend. Ihave never belonged to any company of collaborators, and never shall; but whosoever serves in the noble army for the conquest of truth, be he private or general, will always find in me a faithful friend, and, if need be, afearless defender. Igladly conclude with the words of old Fairfax (Bulk and Selvedge, 1674): "Ibelieve no man wishes with more earnestness than I do, that all men of learning and knowledge were men of kindness and sweetness, and that such as can outdo others would outlove them too; especially while self bewhispers us, that it stands us all in need to be forgiven as well as to forgive."

THE MUMBLES, NEAR SWANSEA, WALES,

September, 1875.

[Footnote 1: See a very remarkable article by Von Hartmann on Haeckel, in the Deutsche Rundschau. July, 1875.]

[Footnote 2: Etymologische Forschungen, 1871, p. 78, tnende, d.h. weiche.]

[Footnote 3: See p. 348.]

[Footnote 4: Lectures, vol. ii. p. 157.]

[Footnote 5: Having still that kind of faith left, that a man could not willfully say a thing which he knows to be untrue, Ilooked again at every passage where I have dwelt on the difference between soft and hard consonants, and I think I may have found the passage which Professor Whitney grasped at, when he thought that I knew nothing of the difference between voiced and voiceless letters, until he had enlightened me on the subject. Speaking of letters, not as things by themselves, but as acts, Isometimes speak of the process that produces the hard consonant first, and then go on to say that it can be voiced, and be made soft. Thus when speaking of s and z, Isay, the former is completely surd, the latter capable of intonation, and the same expression occurs again. Could Professor Whitney have thought that I meant to say that z was only capable of intonation, but was not necessarily intonated? Ibelieve he did, for it is with regard to s and z that, as I see, he says, "it is a marvel to find men like Max Mller, in his last lectures about language, who still cling to the old view that a z, for instance, differs from s primarily by inferior force of utterance." Now, Iadmit that my expression, "capable of intonation" might be misunderstood, and might have misled a mere tiro in these matters, who alighted on this passage, without reading anything before or after. But that a professor in an American university could have taken my words in that sense is to me, Iconfess, apuzzle, call it intellectual or moral, as you like.]

[Footnote 6: Indische Studien, x. 459.]

[Footnote 7: When I saw how M. Biot, the great astronomer, treated Professor Weber du haut en bas, because, in criticising Biot's opinion he had shown some ignorance of astronomy, Isaid, from a kind of fellow-feeling: "Weber's Essays are very creditable to the author, and hardly deserved the withering contempt with which they were treated by Biot. Idiffer from nearly all the conclusions at which Professor Weber arrives, but I admire his great diligence in collecting the necessary evidence." Upon this the American gentleman reads me the following lesson: First of all, Iam told that my statement involves a gross error of fact; Iought to have said, Weber's Essay, not Essays, because one of them, and the most important, was not published till after Biot's death. Iaccept the reproof, but I believe all whom it concerned knew what Essay I meant. But secondly, Iam told that the epithet withering is only used by Americans when they intend to imply that, in their opinion, the subject of the contempt is withered, or ought to be withered by it. This may be so in American, but I totally deny that it is so in English. "Withering contempt," in English, means, as far as I know, akind of silly and arrogant contempt, such, for instance, as Professor Whitney displays towards me and others, intended to annihilate us in the eyes of the public, but utterly harmless in its consequences. But let me ask the American critic what he meant when, speaking of Biot's treatment of Weber, he said, "Biot thought that Weber's opinions had been whiffed away by him as if unworthy of serious consideration." Does whiff away in America mean more or less than withering? What Professor Whitney should have objected to was the adverb hardly. I wish I had said vix, et ne vix quidem.]



INDEX.

[Transcriber's Note:

Note that, because of the author's transliteration system, many Sanskrit words in c and j will be alphabetized as k and g. All footnotes given as 164 or 165 should be read as 163, 164.

Spelling and capitalization of roots from the Colebrooke appendix has been regularized. The original forms, if different, are shown in [[double brackets]].]

Abbot of Cluny and Louis IX., iii. 179. Abdallah ibn Almokaffa, author of "Kalilah and Dimnah," iv. 151, 184. Abdorrhaman, iv. 155. Abelard, iii. 51. Aberdeen, Lord, iii. 378. Ablative in as, as infinitive, iv. 50. —— in d, iv. 225. —— in to{h}, as infinitive, iv. 55. Abo, in Finland, iii. 310. Abury, remains at, iii. 285. Accusative in am, as infinitive, iv. 50. —— in tum, as infinitive, iv. 55. —— with the infinitive, iv. 38. Achilles, medival stories of, iii. 9. "Acta Eruditorum," iii. 194. Adam of Bremen, iii. 119. Ad-venire = l'avenir, iv. 37. Adverb, the infinitive as an, iv. 31. —— epirrhma, iv. 30. Adverbs, previous to Aryan separation, iv. 135. —— Aryan, iv. 415. gyptus, iii. 249. neas, medival stories of, iii. 9. neas Sylvius, iii. 30. —— as Pope Pius II., iii. 63. "neid," by Heinrich von Veldecke, iii. 10. "sopus alter," iv. 161. Affixing languages, iv. 85. African languages, Koelle's sixty-seven, iii. 427. angell = anagari, iv. 91. Agglutinative languages, iv. 79, see Combining languages. [[Author's normal form is "combinatory".]] Agni, god of fire, iv. 47. Agricola, iii. 67. Agricola = Schnitter, iii. 29. Agricola, not agrum-cola, iv. 133. Agriculture of Bengal, iv. 369. Agriologists, iv. 453. Ahan, same as Daphne, iv. 148. Ahura-Mazda, name of, iv. 430. Ak, the root, iv. 28. Aksh-an, or ak-an, iv. 26. Ak-sh-i, eye, iv. 25. Alam, with infinitive, iv. 48. Alcuin, iii. 6. Alemannish, iii. 122. "Alexander," by Lamprecht, iii. 9. —— medival stories of, iii. 9. Alexander's conquest, brings Greek stories to India, iv. 149. Alexandria ad Caucasum, Buddhist priests sent to, iv. 244. Algebra with Arithmetic and Mensuration, from the Sanskrit of Brahmagupta and Bhskara, iv. 391. Ali, the son of Alshah Farsi, iv. 153. Alight, to, its etymology, iv. 467. All Souls' College, iii. 490. Alpha privativum, iv. 213. Alphabet, origin of the Phenician, iv. 450, 468. American, polysynthetic dialects, iv. 70. Amestris, wife of Xerxes, iii. 417. An, a suffix, iv. 33, 34. Ancient Germany, by Bethmann-Hollweg, iii. 412. And, Aryan words for, iv. 412. Andanemja, Gothic, to be accepted, iv. 94. Andrew Borde, on Cornwall, iii. 243. Andrian, Baron, iii. 396. Ane, dative in, iv. 34. Angarii or Angivarii, iii. 117. Angenehm, agreeable, to be accepted, iv. 94. Angle or angre, for ange, iii. 166. Anglevarii, iii. 117. Anglia or Angria, iii. 118. Anglii or Angrii, iii. 118. Anglo-Saxon, iii. 122. —— chair of, iv. 12, 13. —— MSS. collected, iv. 12. —— grammar, by March, iv. 447. Angrarii, tribe of, iii. 117. Angria or Anglia, iii. 118. Angrii or Anglii, iii. 118. Angrivarii, iii. 117. Angulus, the etymon of Anglia, iii. 118. Animals are automata, the hypothesis that, iv. 448. —— their mind, terra incognita, iv. 442. —— nearest to man, have very imperfect phonetic organs, iv. 440. —— have sensuous images, but no words, iv. 487. Anno, poem on, iii. 9. Annoyance, iii. 182. An-ti, those and he, iv. 113. Antiquary, the, iv. 335. "Anvri-Suhaili," by Husain ben Ali, iv. 159. Aparemphaton (rhma), iv. 30, 31. Arabian Algebra, likeness to Indian, iv. 391. Arabic, difficulty of, iv. 368. —— lectureship of, iv. 11. —— lectureship of, not aided by Henry VIII., iv. 12. —— lectureship of, supported by Archbishop Laud, iv. 12. —— MSS. collected by Laud, iv. 12. —— translation of fables, iv. 154. Archological survey of India, iv. 346. Aria, iii. 441. Arian, not Iranian, iii. 429. Aristotle, iv. 327. —— his knowledge of language, iv. 64. Arndt, iii. 402. Arnim, iii. 103. Arnold, iii. 39. —— Dr., iii. 362, 397. —— Matthew, iv. 505. Arnyia dialects, iv. 349. Arthur, stories of, iii. 9. Aryan family, iv. 16, 70, 71. Aryan language, seven periods of, iv. 118. —— first period, iv. 119. —— second period, iv. 124. —— third period, iv. 124. —— fourth period, iv. 129. —— fifth period, iv. 131. —— sixth period, iv. 135. —— seventh period, iv. 135. —— three strata only, iv. 136, 137. —— inflectional, iv. 80. —— no word for law in, iv. 220. Aryan nations, Benfey's protest against their Eastern origin, iv. 212. —— religions, three historical, iv. 240. —— skulls, iv. 211. —— suffixes, iv. 33. —— words for father, mother, brother, etc, iv. 401. seq. —— words found in Zend, and not in Sanskrit, iv. 235. Aryan and Semitic languages, common origin of, iv. 96. Aryans, Southern division of, iv. 212. As, root, to be, Aryan words for, iv. 414. Ascoli, on gutturals, iv. 61, 104. Ashburnham, Lord, his MSS. of the Credo, iii. 165. Ashley, Lord, and Bunsen, iii. 367. -asi for -anti, iv. 112. Asiatic literature, catalogue raisonn of, iv. 385. —— Researches, iv. 370. —— Society of Calcutta, iv. 14. —— Society of Calcutta, Colebrooke, President of, iv. 385. Asita's prophecy about Buddha, iv. 171. Aspirates, the, iv. 495. Ass, Aryan words for, iv. 408. Asti, with infinitive, iv. 48. Astor, Bunsen's pupil and friend, iii. 348, 485. Astori dialects of Shin, iv. 349. Astrological terms borrowed by Hindus from Greeks, iv. 367. Astronomical Society, Colebrooke, President of, iv. 391. Astronomy, antiquity of Hindu, iv. 387. A{s}vais = equis, iv. 84. A{s}vebhis = equobus, iv. 84. Athenian law of inheritance, prize essay by Bunsen, iii. 348. Attal Sarazin in Cornwall, iii. 307. Atterbom, Swedish poet, letters to Wilhelm Mller, iii. 105. Attic future, iv. 94 note. Attila, iii. 412. Aufrecht, Dr., iii. 417, 425, 443. Aug, O.H.G., iv. 26. aug, Auge, iv. 25. Augment, in Greek and Sanskrit, iv. 114. Augustenburg, Prince of, iii. 85, 88. Autbert, Bishop of Avranches, iii. 328. Avadhta, sect of the, iv. 257. Avenir, the future, ad-venire, iv. 38. Avesta, two or three bulky volumes on the, iv. 515. Avranches, Bishop of, on Barlaam and Josaphat, iv. 178. —— Bishop of, Autbert, iii. 328. Ayase, to go, iv. 36. Axmouth, iii. 289.

Bachmann, on the Negro skull, iii. 252. Bacon, Lord, iii. 217. —— on history of literature, iii. 3. —— observations on the disposition of men for philosophy and science, iv. 97. —— on Spinoza, iii. 218. —— his Metaphysique, iii. 223. —— his Physique, iii. 223. —— his inductive method, iii. 225. —— compared with Shakespeare, iii. 225. —— author of Shakespeare's plays, iii. 226. —— Macaulay on, iii. 227. Bactria, Buddhist priests sent to, iv. 244. Baldo, his translation of "Kalila and Dimnah," iv. 161. Bampton, iii. 293. Bancroft, "On the Native Races of America," iv. 526. Banks, Sir Joseph, iii. 256. Bannister, Dr., iii. 242. —— on Jews in Cornwall, iii. 313. Bntu family of language, iv. 70. Barahut, Buddhist remains at, iv. 346. Barbarossa, Frederick, iii. 51, 52. Barclay, Alexander, his translation of "Narrenschiff," iii. 72. Barlaam and Joasaph, iv. 168. Barlaam and Josaphat, iv. 177. —— changed into Christian saints, iv. 177. —— Laboulaye, Liebrecht, Beal, on, iv. 176, 177. —— Leo Allatius on, iv. 178. —— Billius and Bellarminus on, iv. 178. —— the Bishop of Avranches on, iv. 178. Barrington, Daines, iii. 256. Baruch, his share in Isaiah, iii. 481, 484. Barzuyeh, author of Pehlevi translation of fables, iv. 152, 184. basileu, vocative, iv. 233. Basilius and Gregorius Nazianzenus, quoted by author of "Barlaam and Josaphat," iv. 169. Bask language, iii. 429. Bask, derivative adjectives in, iv. 94. Basle, University of, iii. 63. Bathybios, iv. 457. Bavarian dialect, iii. 122. Bayard, iv. 90. Beal, on the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, iv. 176. Beamdun = Bampton, iii. 293. Bear, Aryan words for, iv. 410. beesthai = vayodhai, iv. 56. Beget, to, root, Jan, Aryan words for, iv. 415. Beheim, Michael, iii. 18. Beieinander, Das, in the development of language, iv. 33. Bekker, on the Digamma in Homer, iii. 420; iv. 225. Bellows, Mr., on acts of vandalism in Cornwall, iii. 279. Benares, iii. 406. Benedictine Monks, rule of, iii. 5. Benfey, Professor, iii. 446. —— his discovery of the old Syriac translation of the fables, iv. 181. —— his history of the Science of Language, iv. 325. —— his protest against the eastern origin of the Aryan nation, iv. 212. Bengal, agriculture of, iv. 370. —— Colebrooke, on the husbandry of, iv. 373. Bengali, plural in, iv. 74. Bentley, on the antiquity of Hindu astronomy, iv. 387. Berkeley, iii. 218. Bernard, derivation of the word, iv. 90. Bernays, iii. 415. Bernhard, bearminded, iv. 90. Berthold, Duke of Zhringen, iii. 13. Berthold, iii. 20. Besmah, Rajah of, Giriprasdasinha, iv. 335. Bethmann Hollweg, iii. 412, 443. Bhagin, sister, in Sanskrit, iv. 110 note. Bhagvat Geeta, i.e. Bhagavad-Gt, iv. 368. Bhaiami, maker or cutter out, iv. 342, 343. Bha{n}{d}arkar, Prof., iv. 335. Bhao Daji, Dr., iv. 334. Bhskara, Brahmagupta, ryabha{t}{t}a, iv. 392. bia, not connected with jyni, iv. 62. Bible, first complete translation in German, 1373, iii. 21. —— new translation by Bunsen, iii. 448. —— partly translated, iii. 20. Bibliotheca volante, 1677, iii. 194. Bibliothque Orientale, iii. 415. —— Universelle et Historique, iii. 194. Bickell, Professor, iv. 184. Bidpai, mentioned by Ali, iv. 153; see Pilpay. —— or Sendebar, iv. 158. Billius, on Barlaam and Josaphat, iv. 178. Birma, Buddhist priests sent to, iv. 244. Black, in the Schleswig-Hollstein ialect, iii. 130. Blackbird, iv. 503. Bleek, Dr., iii. 399; iv. 343, 522. —— Whitney on, iv. 515. Blid and blithe, iii. 130. Blood, as determining nationality, iii. 247. Boar, Aryan words for, iv. 410. Bodhisattva, corrupted to Youdasf and Youasaf, iv. 176. Bodmer, iii. 39. Bodener d. 1776, his letter on Cornish, iii. 246. Boeckh, on Comparative Grammar, iv. 209. Boehme, Jacob, iii. 39, 218. Boehtlingk versus Schott, iii. 429. Boehtlingk and Roth, Sanskrit Dictionary published by, iv. 511. Boetticher, Dr., iii. 416, 422, 433. (fragment of Livy). Bohin, Bengali, for sister, iv. 110 note. Boie, and the Hainbund, iii. 127. Boileau, iii. 197. Bologna, University of, iv. 11. Bombay, Parsis of, iv. 305. Bonaventure des Periers, his "Contes et Nouvelles," iv. 164. Bone, Aryan words for, iv. 405. Bonn, iii. 406. Book of Heroes, the Heldenbuch, iii. 69. —— edited by Caspar von der Roen, iii. 69. —— of Love, iii. 70. —— of Sindbad, iv. 106. Book-religions, iv. 301. Books of Moses, poetical translation of, iii. 9. Bopp, his Comparative Grammar, iv. 17, 319. —— Whitney on, iv. 515. Borde, Andrew, on Cornwall, iii. 243. Borghese, on Latin inscriptions, iii. 419. Botterell, Mr., on the Men-an-tol, iii. 279. Bottervogel, botterhahn, botterhex, butterfly, iii. 130. bou, vocative, iv. 233. Boucher de Perthes, iii. 283. Bow-wow, Pooh-pooh theories, iv. 469. Brace, Manual of Races, iii. 252. Brahma, as the Supreme Spirit, iv. 315. Brahma-Dharma, the, iv. 269. Brahma-Samaj, iv. 258, 259, 335. Brahma-Samaj, schism in, iv. 260, 269. —— of India, iv. 269 note. Brahman, the, and the rice, iv. 142. Brahmanism, its vitality, iv. 296, 308. Brahmans, their sacred cord, iv. 260. —— do not proselytize, iv. 242. —— sent to Benares to copy Vedas, iv. 357. Brandis, iii. 350, 352, 399, 438, 442. Breast, Aryan words for, iv. 406. Bremen Dictionary, Low German, iii. 123 note. Brentano, iii. 103. Brewster, iii. 420. Bribu, leader of the Rathakaras, iv. 307. Bride of Messina, Schiller's play, iii. 92, 97, 427. British Association at Oxford, 1847, iii. 372. Broad, Aryan words for, iv. 411. Broad degrees of heat, light, and sound, iv. 437. Brockhaus, Professor, iv. 351. Brossard, iv. 90. Brother, Aryan words for, iv. 402. Brown-Willy, iii. 292. Brvat, Zend, brow, iv. 236. Bruit, iii. 171. Bud Periodeutes, his translation of fables, iv. 181, 183. Buddha, iii. 486. —— life of, iv. 171. —— his four drives, iv. 172. —— identity with Josaphat, iv. 174, 180. —— his driver, iv. 175. —— his disciples, iv. 267. —— his interview with Mra, iv. 268. Buddhism, its history, iv. 242 seq. Buddhism, countries professing it, iv. 252. Buddhist fables, iv. 141. —— —— carried by Mongolians to Russia, iv. 149. —— Missionaries, sent to Cashmere, etc., iv. 243. Bhler, Dr., iv. 345. Brger, iii. 127. Bsen, in Dithmarsch, iii. 138. Buffon, his view of plants, iv. 222. Building of altars, iv. 330. Bundobel, for Bidpay, iv. 161. Bunsen, iv. 318. —— Sir R. Peel on, iii. 347. —— his prize essay on Athenian law of inheritance, iii. 348. —— his fellow students, iii. 348. —— his journey to Denmark, iii. 352. —— his copy of MSS. of Vluspa, iii. 352. —— his friendship with Niebuhr, iii. 129, 353. —— his marriage, iii. 357. —— his life at Rome, iii. 358. —— his Hymn- and Prayer-book, iii. 361, 413. —— his friends at Rome, iii. 362. —— his visit to England, iii. 362. —— made D.C.L. at Oxford, iii. 363. —— Prussian Envoy in England, iii. 370. —— leaves England, iii. 382. —— his "Hippolytus," iii. 382, 416. —— his "Signs of the Times," iii. 382. —— his "God in History," iii. 382, 473. —— his death, iii. 384. —— his Chinese studies, iii. 402. —— his recall, iii. 409. —— and Chateaubriand, iii. 411. —— at Heidelberg, iii. 439, 440. —— "Egypt's Place in History," iii. 469. —— Bible-work, iii. 452. —— letters to Max Mller, iii. 393. —— his views on German professors, iv. 204. —— his "Christianity and Mankind," iii. 382; iv. 320. —— Burhware, iii. 117. Burgess, Mr., iv. 335. Burnell, Dr., iv. 345. Burning of widows, iv. 303. Burnouf, Eugne, iv. 318, 515. Burns, poems of, iii. 126. Bursa, or Royal Exchange, iii. 234. Bushmen, their traditional literature, iv. 344. —— their language, iv. 344. But, buten, iii. 131. Butler's Analogy, iv. 287. By night, Aryan words for, iv. 404.

Cabale und Liebe, iii. 84. Cabul, Buddhist priests sent to, iv. 243. Cadaver, iv. 24. Cadmus, son of Libya, iii. 249. Csar, iii. 240. Csarius, Joh., iii. 64. Calcutta, city of Kali, iv. 251. —— its goddess, iv. 309. —— Colebrooke goes to, iv. 365. —— Colebrooke at, iv. 381. Caldwell, Dr., iv. 74 note. —— on Infinitive, iv. 60. Call, to, not from calare, iv. 104. Callaway, Remarks on the Zulu language, iv. 122. Cambridge, iii. 236. Camel, Aryan words for, iv. 408. Camelford, iii. 292. Campbell, Sir George, on the Hindu religion, iv. 297. Camphausen, iii. 443. Canterbury, iii. 117, 237. Cantware, people of Kent, iii. 117. Cant-ware-burh, iii. 117. Capperonier's edition of Joinville, iii. 161. Cap-so, iv. 94 note. Caput = Haubida, iv. 26. Cara clowse in cowse, iii. 321. Care, not from cura, iv. 104. Carew, on Cornish, iii. 244. Carlyle, iii. 54, 363, 397. Carlyle's Life of Schiller, iii. 76. Carnac in Brittany, iii. 268. Carriere, Professor, iv. 451. Carrosse, iv. 425. Case-terminations, traced back, iv. 131. Cashmere, Buddhist priests sent to, iv. 243. Caskets, story of the, in Merchant of Venice, iv. 170 note. Caspar von der Roen, iii. 69. Caste, iv. 374 note. —— Colebrooke on, iv. 376, 377. Castigare, iv. 217. Catalogue raisonn of Asiatic literature, iv. 385. Catalogues of MSS. still existing in India, iv. 345. Catechism of the Adi Brahma-Samj, iv. 275. Catrou, iii. 196. Causality, the idea of, iii. 220. Celibacy and Fellowships, iv. 9. Celtes, Meissel, iii. 29. Celtic influence in Cornwall, iii. 242. —— languages, iv. 3. —— most closely united with Latin (Newman, Schleicher), iv. 215. —— so-called monuments in the Dekhan, iii. 269. Celts and Germans, first distinguished by Csar, iii. 240. —— Druids among the, iii. 241. Cenail, iii. 301. Cerno, to distinguish, iv. 217. Ceylon, Buddhist priests sent to, iv. 244. Chaldaic lectureship, iv. 11. Chaldea, Nakshatras derived from, iv. 508. Chalmers, "Origin of Chinese," iv. 105. Chambers' collection, the, iii. 397. Champollion, iii. 362. —— discoveries of, iv. 2. Chandaka, or Sanna, Buddha's driver, iv. 175. Channing, iv. 313. Chaos, in the Science of Language, iv. 522. Charlemagne, iii. 5; iv. 155. —— stories of, iii. 9. Charles V. and Joinville's history, iii. 158. —— Rabelais' satire on, iv. 161. Chasot, iii. 200. —— his youth, iii. 201. —— his campaigns, iii. 206, 207. —— goes to France, iii. 209. —— his life at Lbeck, iii. 210. —— his last meeting with Frederic the Great, iii. 211. Chateaubriand, iii. 362. —— and Bunsen, iii. 411. Chemistry of language, iv. 449. Chepsted, iii. 234. Chief Rabbi in London, iv. 304. Childers, Mr., Essay on the Plural in Singhalese, iv. 74 note. China, Nakshatras supposed to be derived from, iv. 508. Chinese studies, Bunsen's, iii. 402. —— Professorships of, iv. 3. —— Grammar, iv. 76. —— full and empty words, iv. 77. —— dead and live words, iv. 77 note. —— belongs to the isolating languages, iv. 79. —— dialects of, iv. 102. —— words in Mongolian, iv. 105. chi-n = hi-ma, hiems, iv. 235. Chiwidden, iii. 299. Christian IX. and the Eider boundary, iii. 120. Christianity, countries professing, iv. 252. Christians of St. Thomas in India, iv. 184. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, iii. 9. Chroniclers, old, iii. 159. Chronology of the Indo-Germanic languages, by Prof. Curtius, iv. 118. Chrysorrhoas (St. John of Damascus), iv. 168. Cimbric Chersonese, the, iii. 116. Circumflex in the vocative of Zeus, iv. 210. —— in Sanskrit, iv. 233. Cistvaen or Kistvaen, iii. 266, 267. Clarendon, Lord, iii. 433. Classical reproduction of Sakuntala, by Sir W. Jones, iv. 323. Classification of skulls, iii. 248. —— of languages, iv. 70. —— applied to religions, iv. 241. Claudius, iii. 128. Clement V. and his proposals for founding Lectureships, iv. 11. Clemm, Die neusten Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Griechischen Composita, iv. 133 note. Cleversulzbach, village of, iii. 75. Cloud, Aryan words for, iv. 405. Clovis, his conversion, iv. 287. Cluere, to hear, iv. 218. nish, Zend, to snow, iv. 236. Coat cards, iii. 289. Cobden, death of his son, iii. 458. Codardo, coward, iv. 90. Code of Gentoo Laws, iv. 374. Coeurdoux, le Pre, iv. 14. Coincidences, iv. 472. Colebrooke, on the Vedas, iv. 350. —— Life of, iv. 359. —— started for India, iv. 364. —— arrived at Madras, iv. 364. —— goes to Calcutta, iv. 365. —— becomes Collector of Tribute in Tirhut, iv. 365. —— on Indian Weights and Measures, iv. 367. —— goes to Purneah, iv. 369. —— goes to Nattore, iv. 370. —— on the duties of Hindu Widows, iv. 372. —— on the Husbandry and Commerce of Bengal, iv. 373. —— goes to Mirzapur, iv. 374. —— translates Digest of Hindu and Mohammedan Laws, iv. 375. —— on Caste, iv. 376, 378. —— at Nagpur, iv. 380. —— his supplementary Digest of Laws, iv. 380. —— Essays on Sanskrit and Prakrit poetry, iv. 380. —— Essays on the Vedas, iv. 380. —— Essays on Indian Theogonies, iv. 380. —— Essays on Indian Plants, iv. 380. —— returns to Mirzapur, iv. 381. —— goes to Calcutta, iv. 381. —— member of the Court of Appeal, iv. 381. —— Professor of Sanskrit, iv. 381. —— attention to Comparative Philology, iv. 381. —— his Sanskrit Grammar, iv. 381. —— President of the Court of Appeal, iv. 385. —— President of the Asiatic Society, iv. 385. —— promoted to a Seat in Council, iv. 390. —— leaves India, iv. 390. —— the Legislator of India, iv. 390. —— President of the Astronomical Society, iv. 391. —— his translation of the Algebra of Brahmagupta and Bhskara, iv. 391. —— presents his Sanskrit MSS. to the East India Company, iv. 392. —— founds the Royal Asiatic Society, iv. 392. —— his treatises on Hindu philosophy, iv. 394. —— his death, iv. 395. —— testimony to Sir W. Jones, iv. 397. —— Comparative View of Sanskrit and other Languages, iv. 400. Colenso, Bishop, iii. 248. Cologne Choir, the, iii. 421. Colonial Office, reports on native races, iv. 339. Colonies and colonial governments, Oriental studies have a claim on, iv. 339. Color-blindness, iv. 444. Combination traced to juxta-position, iv. 111. Combinatory stage, iv. 116. Come-to-good, iii. 292. Commandments of Kabir, iv. 257. Common origin of the Aryan and Semitic languages, iv. 96. Comparative Jurisprudence, Bunsen and, iii. 348. Comparative Mythology, first glimmerings of, in 1793, iv. 371. Comparative Philology, chair of, iv. 13. —— Isolating period, iv. 18. —— Syncretistic period, iv. 17. —— Sanskrit the only sound foundation of, iv. 19. —— Colebrooke's attention to, iv. 381. Comparative spirit, the truly scientific spirit, iv. 327. Comparative Theology, first attempt at, iv. 170. Comparative view of Sanskrit and other languages by Colebrooke, iv. 400. Comparetti, on the book of Sindbad, iv. 166. Competition-wallah, iv. 90. Comte, iii. 475. Comte de Bretagne and Louis IX., iii. 180. Concepts, founded on the spontaneity of thought, iv. 447. "Conde Lucanor," by Don Juan Manuel, iv. 164. Congress of Oriental sts, the International, iv. 317. Constance, Council of, iii. 65. Constantine Lascaris, iii. 63. Constantine's vision, iv. 288. Constitution granted in Prussia, 1847, iii. 377. Controversial missions, small success of, iv. 316. Controversy on the authority of the traditional interpretation of the Vedas, iv. 386. Convention, language made by, iv. 73. Conway's "Sacred Anthology," iv. 329. Copper, iii. 256. Coptic roots, iii. 403. Coquina, Keghin, iii. 261. Cornelius, iii. 368. Cornish antiquities, iii. 238. —— language, iii. 239. —— language, loses ground, iii. 244. —— used for sermons till 1678, iii. 245. —— as spoken in 1707, iii. 245. —— as written, 1776, iii. 246. —— its vitality, iii. 247. —— a Celtic language, iii. 239. —— Antiquities: —— —— Mn Scrifa, iii. 271. —— —— Boscawen circle, iii. 272. —— —— Castle an Dinas, iii. 274. —— —— huts at Chysauster, iii. 275. —— —— Mincamber, the, iii. 277. —— —— injuries to, iii. 277, etc. —— —— Castallack Round, iii. 281. —— proverbs, iii. 254. —— Latin and English words in, iii. 256. —— Dictionary, iii. 256. —— Poems, "Mount Calvary," iii. 257. —— Plays, iii. 258. —— MSS. in the Bodleian, iii. 258. —— Guirrimears, iii. 259. —— books extant in, iii. 260. —— Latin words in, iii. 260. —— —— through French, iii. 261. —— Saxon words in, iii. 262. —— huts, iii. 275. Cornwall, its air of antiquity, iii. 238. —— Jews in, iii. 287. —— Jews' houses in, iii. 287. —— Saracens in, iii. 306. Corssen, his studies in Latin, iv. 18. Cosmas, an Italian monk, iv. 167. Cotswold Hills, the, iii. 305. Cottier, his translation of fables into French from Tuscan, iv. 159 note. Cotton, Bishop of Calcutta, iv. 258, 263. Couard, iv. 90. Council, Colebrooke promoted to a seat in, iv. 390. —— of P{t}aliputra, 246 B.C., iv. 243. Court of Appeal, Colebrooke member of, iv. 381. —— Colebrooke President of the, iv. 385. Cousin, Victor, iv. 394. Coward, iv. 90. Crab, Aryan words for, iv. 410. Credo, Lord Ashburnham's MS. of the, iii. 165. Creed of the Brahma Samj, iv. 260. Criard, a crier, iv. 90. Cribrum, iv. 217. Crimean War, the, iii. 381. Crimen, iv. 218. "Critique Philosophique," edited by Renouvier, iv. 420. Cromlechs, Roman coins in, iii. 264. —— the, iii. 264. Cromlh, or Cromlech, iii. 264. Crowther, Bishop, iii. 254. Crudus, crudelis, iv. 235. Crusaders, Persian and Arabic stories brought back by the, iv. 148. "Crusades, History of," by Guillaume, Archbishop of Tyre, iii. 159. —— interchange of eastern and western ideas during the, iv. 166. Crusta, iv. 235. taman, Zend = stoma, iv. 237. Cuckoo, Aryan words for, iv. 410. Cucumber, Aryan words for, iv. 410. Culina, iii. 261. Cunningham, General, iv. 346. Cupid and Sanskrit Dipuc, iv. 21. Cureton, Dr., and the Epistles of Ignatius, iii. 372. Curses, terrible effects produced by, iv. 432. Curthose, Robert, iii. 289. Curtius, E., iii. 457. —— Professor G., iv. 118. —— his Greek studies, iv. 18. —— on Lautverschiebung, iv. 101 note. —— on the Chronology of the Indo-Germanic Languages, iv. 111, 118. —— Pott on, iv. 518. —— Syndicus, iii. 201. Curtus, Robertus, iii. 289. Cvant, Zend, quantus, iv. 236. Cymric, iii. 239. Cyrus, religion of, iv. 249. Czartoryski, Prince, letter to, iv. 323.

D, of the ablative, iv. 225. -da, Zend, = oikon-de, iv. 236. Dabshelim, King, iv. 153. Dach, Simon, iii. 37. der, vocative, iv. 232. Daigs, dough, iv. 22. Daimonion, iv. 455. Daiti, Zend, dosis, ds, iv. 236. Dala, meaning of, iv. 74 note. —— Bengali, same as Dravidian ta{l}a or da{l}a, iv. 74 note. Dalberg, iii. 86, 87. Dalton, Colonel, "Ethnology of Bengal," iv. 346. Daltonism, iv. 444. D-mane, to give, iv. 33. Dmi, Zend, creation, themis, iv. 236. Damnare, iv. 104. Danes in Cornwall, iii. 274. —— negotiations with, iii. 400. Danis-mn, iii. 273. Danube, the, iii. 435. Daphne, same as Ahan, iv. 148. Dardistan, Dr. Leitner's labors in, iv. 348. Dardus, the, their customs, iv. 349. Darius, religion of, iv. 249. Darwin, Mr., my reply to, iv. 417. —— his belief in a personal Creator, iv. 459. Darwinism tested by the Science of Language, essay, by Schleicher, iv. 480. Dspati, gspati, dmpati, iv. 232. Dt vsnm, iv. 234. Dative in e, as infinitive, iv. 50. —— in ai, as infinitive, iv. 50. —— in se, as infinitive, iv. 51. —— in tvya, as infinitive, iv. 55. —— in ya, as infinitive, iv. 51. —— in yai, as infinitive, iv. 52. —— in aye, as infinitive, iv. 52. —— in taye, as infinitive, iv. 53. —— in tyai, as infinitive, iv. 53. —— in dhai and dhyai, as infinitive, iv. 55. —— in ase, Latin ere, as infinitive, iv. 53. —— in mane, Greek menai, as infinitive, iv. 53. —— in vane, as infinitive, iv. 54. —— in ane, as infinitive, iv. 54. —— in tave and tavai, iv. 55. Daughter, Aryan words for, iv. 420. Daughter-in-law, Aryan words for, iv. 403. Daughter's son, Aryan words for, iv. 402. Daunou, on the MS. of Joinville, iii. 162. D-vne, to give, iv. 34. David Sahid of Ispahan, his Livre des Lumires, iv. 159. Davy, Sir Humphrey, iii. 248. Dawns-mn or dancing stones, iii. 272. Day, Aryan words for, iv. 404. de, in oikonde, iv. 236. Dead and dying religions, iv. 249. Dead and live words (ss-ts and sing-ts) in Chinese, iv. 77 note. Deaf and dumb, iv. 446. Dean of St. Paul's Lectures, iv. 352. Debendranath Tagore, iv. 312. —— had the Vedas copied, iv. 357. Declensions in Old French, iii. 167, 170. Deha, body, iv. 23. Deh, wall, iv. 22. Deich, iv. 22. Deig-an, to knead, iv. 22. Dekhan, so-called Celtic or Druidical or Scythian monument in, iii. 269. Del governo dei regni, iv. 157. Delight, to, root T{RI}P, Aryan words for, iv. 415. [[Index t{r}ip, Colebrooke TRĬP]] Dmter, vocative, iv. 232. Demokritos, iv. 65. Demonstrative roots, iv. 121. Denmark, Bunsen's journey to, iii. 352. Der ez Zfern, Jacobite Cloister of, iv. 186. De Rieux, first editor of Joinville, iii. 160. Derivative roots, second period of Aryan Language, iv. 124. despota, vocative, iv. 232. Des Cartes, iii. 221. Dessau, W. Mller's life there, iii. 107. Determinatives, iv. 123. Deus, Greek Theos, iv. 210. Deutsch, E., iv. 191. Devadatta or Theudas, iv. 176. Devrient, iii. 427. Dharma, law, iv. 220. Dhava, man, iv. 229. Dhi, to twinkle or to shine, iv. 229. Dhrv-a{n}e, in order to hurt, iv. 34. Diadochi, reigns of the, iv. 149. diaktoros and diaktr, iv. 131. Dialectic growth, iv. 422. Dialects, Low and High German, iii. 121. —— English, iv. 68. —— Chinese, iv. 102. —— of the Mundas or the Koles, iv. 347. —— of languages and religions must be studied, iv. 301. Dialogus Creaturarum, the, iv. 163, 164 note. Dick-ard, a thick fellow, iv. 89. Dictionary, Ost-Friesian, iii. 123 note. —— Bremen, iii. 123 note. Dic-se, iv. 51. Die, to, root M{RI}, Aryan word for, iv. 415. [[Index Mrĭ, Colebrooke MRĬ]] Dieppe, Dipa, iii. 233. Dietmar von Eist, iii. 57. Dig, plural suffix, iv. 74 note. Digamma in Homer, Bekker on the, iv. 225. Digest of Hindu and Mohammedan laws, iv. 373, 374. Dih, the root, iv. 23. Dilli-vl, man of Delhi, iv. 90. Dinas, or castle, iii. 274. Dingdongism, iv. 452. Diodorus Siculus, on St. Michael's Mont, iii. 318. dios = divya, iv. 227. Dipa, for Dieppe, iii. 233. Dipuc, and Cupid, iv. 21. "Directorium Human Vit," iv. 158. Disciples of Buddha, iv. 267. "Discourses on Religion," Schleiermacher's, iii. 398. Discrimen, iv. 218. Dithmarschen, iii. 119. —— republic of, iii. 129. Divina Satira, iii. 68. Divine origin claimed for the Vedas, iv. 259. Div-y-s, divinus, iv. 94 note. Divys, iv. 227, 229. Dllinger, Dr., iv. 313. "Dogmatics," Schleiermacher's, iii. 398. doiwos or deiwos = deva, iv. 228. Dolichocephalic grammar, iv. 212. Dolly Pentreath, died 1778, iii. 245. Dol-mn or tolmn, iii. 271. Dominicans, iii. 20. —— and Realists, iii. 64. Dom in kingdom, iv. 75. Don Carlos, Schiller's, iii. 95. Doni, his Italian translation of fables, iv. 158. Doom, not from damnare, iv. 104. Ds, dtis, dosis, iv. 236. d-s, iv. 94. Double procession, question of the, iv. 313. Dough, iv. 22. dounai, iv. 34. Dover, iii. 237. Drake, Sir Francis, iii. 235. Dramas or mystery plays, in Cornish, iii. 258. Dravidian family, iv. 70. —— languages, iv. 347. Drink, to, root PA or PI, Aryan words for, iv. 414. [[Index pa, pi]] Dronk-ard, drunkard, iv. 89. Druidical, so-called monuments in the Dekhan, iii. 269. Druids, the, iii. 240. —— mentioned by Csar, iii. 240. —— among the Celts, iii. 241. —— mentioned by Pliny, iii. 241. Dry, Aryan words for, iv. 411. Du Cange, edition of Joinville, iii. 161. Due de Maine, iii. 195. Dsig, dizzy, iii. 131. Duhit, duhitram, iv. 232. Duilian column, the, iv. 430. Duke of Wurtemberg and Schiller's father, iii. 80, 81. Dun, iii. 293. Dun-bar-ton, iii. 306. Dutch language, iii. 122. Duties of a faithful Hindu widow, iv. 372. Dvarka Nth Tagore, iv. 357. —— his visit to Eugne Burnouf, iv. 357. Dyaus, Zeus, Jupiter, Zio, Tyr, iv. 210. Dyu-gat, going to the sky, iv. 133. Dyu-ksha, dwelling in the sky, iv. 133.

ea = vasav or vasavy, iv. 234. Ege, A.S., iv. 26. ean = vasnm, iv. 234. Ear, Aryan words for, iv. 406. Eastern Church, feast days of SS. Barlaam and Josaphat, iv. 177. Easter plays, iii. 18. East India Company, Directors of the, iv. 350. Eastphalia, iii. 117. Eastwick, iii. 402. Eat, to, root Ad, Aryan words for, iv. 414. [[Index Ad]] Eberhard, the great Duke of Wurtemberg, orders the German translation of fables, iv. 158. Eburhart, boar-minded, iv. 89. Eckhart, iii. 18, 487. Edda, the, iii. 56. Edkins, on Chinese dialects, iv. 105. Egalit, Duke of Orleans, iii. 156. Eginhard, iii. 159. Egin-hart, fierce-minded, iv. 89. eg, iv. 98. Egyptian forms, compared with Semitic and Iranian forms, iii. 411. "Egypt's Place in History," finished, iii. 473. Eight, Aryan words for, iv. 412. -ein, infinitive, iv. 34. einater, vocative, iv. 232. Elaine, legends about, iii. 328. Elbow, Aryan words for, iv. 407. Eleanor of Poitou, iii. 60. Elgin, Lord, iv. 345. Elizabeth, English spoken in Cornwall in her reign, iii. 243. Elkosh near Mossul, iv. 184. Emperors Tiberius and Sigismund, anecdotes of the, iv. 424. emphasis, iv. 31. Empirical knowledge of grammar, iv. 29. Empson, iii. 406. Empty word in Chinese (hiu-ts), iv. 77. -enai, infinitive, iv. 33. Engern, iii. 117. Engil-hart, angel-minded, iv. 89. Englaland, iii. 118. English, dialect of Low German, iii. 121. —— dialects, iv. 68. —— language, number of words in, iv. 68. —— and Latin words in Cornish, iii. 256. —— philosophy, iii. 220. —— universities, iv. 337. Engra, state of, iii. 118. eorga, rhez = Zend varez, iv. 237. Epic poetry, its importance, iii. 412. "Epistol Obscurorum Vivorum," the, iii. 67. Epitheta ornantia, iv. 421. Equinox, precession of the, iv. 508. Erdmann, iii. 399. Erezatana, Zend = argentinus, iv. 235. Esther, Queen, iii. 417, 418. Estre, to stand, to be, iii. 167. Ethelbert, his conversion, iv. 287. Ethnological Survey of India, iv. 346. Eton, iii. 236. Etruscan grammar, iv. 340. Etruscan-Tyrol, or Inca-Peruvian skull, iii. 252. eus, = vasus, iv. 234. Evolution, iv. 444. Evolutionism, iv. 444, 457. Ewald, iii. 444; iv. 104. Ewe, Aryan words for, iv. 409. Excluded middle, law of the, iv. 434. "Exemplario contra los engaos," iv. 158 note. Ex-im-i-us, to be taken out, iv. 94. Ex nihilo nihil fit, iv. 454. Ex Oriente Lux, iv. 325. Extracts, illustrating history of German literature, iii. 44.

F, its hieroglyphic prototype, iv. 450. Fables, migration of, iv. 139. —— La Fontaine's, iv. 139. —— sop's, iv. 139. —— of Phdrus and Horace, iv. 140. —— in Sanskrit, iv. 140. —— animal, iv. 140. —— Buddhist, iv. 141. —— the Pacatantra, iv. 141. —— the Hitopade{s}a, iv. 141. —— common Aryan, iv. 145. —— Arabic translation, iv. 155. —— Greek translation, iv. 156. —— Italian and Latin translation, iv. 157. —— Hebrew translation, iv. 158. —— German translation, iv. 158. —— Italian, by Firenzuola and Doni, iv. 159. —— Syriac translation of, found by Professor Benfey, iv. 181. _Fac-se_, iv. 51. _Facso_, iv. 94 _note_. Fade, preserving its _d_, iii. 167. Fallmerayer, on the Greek race, iii. 250. Families of languages, iv. 70. Father, Aryan words for, iv. 401. Father-in-law, Aryan words for, iv. 402. Fatuus, changed to fade, iii. 167. Feature, iv. 461. Fellowships, how to restore them to their original purpose, iv. 6. —— made into a career for life, iv. 9. —— prize, iv. 8. —— and celibacy, iv. 9. Fellows of Colleges, work for, iv. 5. Felton's "Lectures on Greece," iii. 250. Feminine bases in _, iv. 45. _Feram_, instead of ferem, iv. 93. _Ferem_, in the sense of a future, iv. 92. Fergusson, Mr., iv. 346. Ferre = fer-se, iv. 51. Festivals, regulated bv the sun, iii. 284. Festus and Agrippa and St. Paul, iv. 277. Fichte, iii. 42. Fick, on gutturals, iv. 61. _Fides_, trust, iv. 39. _Fdo_, I trust, iv. 39. _Fdus_, trusty, iv. 39. "Fiesco," Schiller's, iii. 84. _Figulus_, potter, iv. 22. _Figura_, shape, iv. 22. Final dental of _tad_, iv. 43. _Fingere_, iv. 22. Fir, Oak, Beech, iv. 500. _Firdaus_, iv. 23. Firenzuola, his Italian edition of fables, iv. 158. Fire, Aryan words for, iv. 404. Fire worshippers as disciples of Buddha, iv. 267. Fischer, Kuno, iii. 217. —— on Bacon, iii. 455. Five, Aryan words for, iv. 412. Flmsch, sulky, iii. 131. _Flchier_, fletcher, iv. 87. Fleming, Paul, iii. 37. _Fletcher_, flchier, iv. 87. Flimwolt, iii. 234. _Foedus_, a truce, iv. 39. Fool, Aryan words for, iv. 411. Foot, Aryan words for, iv. 406. Formal things once material, iv. 95. Formation of themes, iv. 128. Four, Aryan words for, iv. 412. Four drives of Buddha, the, iv. 172. Fourth period of the Aryan language, iv. 129. Fox and the Bear, stories of, iii. 7. —— old name for, iv. 88. Frasta, Zend pleistos, iv. 236. Franciscans, iii. 20. Franciscans and Nominalists, iii. 65. Franke, iii. 38. Frankfort, its message to Stratford-on-Avon, iii. 214. Frankish dialect, iii. 122. Frnksch, strange, iii. 131. Fratelmo, iv. 117. Fratri-cɨda, not fratrem-cɨda, iv. 133. Frauenlob, Heinrich, iii. 16. Frederick the Great, iii. 81, 201. —— at Rheinsberg, iii. 202. —— studies Wolff, iii. 203. —— his opinion of Wolff, iii. 204. Frederick I. of Prussia, iii. 32. Frederick II., 1215-50, iii. 14. Frederick William, the Great Elector, iii. 32. —— III., iii. 359. —— IV., iii. 359. —— —— and Niebuhr, iii. 129. Free towns of Germany, iii. 16. "Freidank's Bescheidenheit," iii. 15. French, ancient system of declension in, iii. 169. Friedrich I. Barbarossa, iii. 51, 52. Frisian dialect, the, iii. 122. Fritsche Closener's "Chronicle," iii. 17. Froissart, iii. 173. Frons, Zend brvat, iv. 236. Fronde's "Nemesis of Faith," iii. 374, 397. Fry, Mrs., and Bunsen, iii. 363, 370. Fulda, monastery of, iii. 6. Full words in Chinese (shi-ts), iv. 77, 119. _Fulvus_ (harit), red, iv. 100. Future, terminations of, iv. 93. —— so-called Attic, iv. 94 _note_.

G in Sanskrit, labialized and unlabialized, iv. 62. Gaelic, iii. 239. Gagern, Henry von, iii. 396, 400. Ga{n}a, plural suffix, iv. 74 note. Ga{n}e{s}a, god of success, iv. 251, 309. —— and Janus, iv. 21. Ganymedes and Ka{n}vamedhtithi, or Ka{n}vamesha, iv. 21. Gara{n}h, geras, iv. 236. "Gargantua," Rabelais', iv. 161. Garganus, Mount, iii. 332, 341. Jspati{h}, iv. 46 note. Jspatyam, iv. 46 note. Jti, plural suffix, iv. 74 note. Gaud-i-um, iv. 95. Gautama Sakyamuni, or Buddha, story of, iv. 179. Gautier d'Autrche, death of, iii. 152. Gȩ, Old Norse, cold, snow, iv. 236. Geibel, iii. 402. Geiler von Kaiserberg, iii. 67. Gelzer's Lectures, iii. 414. General expressions, in languages not highly developed, iv. 122. geniktatos (rhma), iv. 30. Genitive in as, as infinitive, iv. 50. —— to{h}, as infinitive, iv. 55. Gentoo, iv. 374 note. —— laws, code of, iv. 374. Geoffroy de Beaulieu, iii. 160. Geology of speech, iv. 449. Geometric Science, first impulse given to, iv. 330. Grard, a miser, iv. 89, 90. geras = gara{n}h, iv. 236. Gerhard, Paul, iii. 32. German history, first period of, iii. 41. —— second period of, iii. 41. German Institute for Science and Art, iii. 214. German most closely united with Celtic (Ebel, Lottner), iv. 214. —— literature, iii. 1. —— literature, Hillebrand's history of, iii. 414. —— literature, Villmar's history of, iii. 414. —— people and their princes, iii. 412. —— professor's life, Niebuhr and Bunsen's views of, iv. 204. —— Theology, the author of the, iii. 21. —— translation of fables, iv. 158. —— traveller in England, iii. 232. Germans and Celts, first distinguished by Csar, iii. 240. Ger-men, growing, iv. 100. Gerson, iii. 65. Gerundive participle in Sanskrit, iv. 95. Gesetz, meaning of, iv. 220. Gessner, iii. 40. "Gesta Romanorum," the, iii. 70. Ghsi Ds, the prophet, iv. 314. Jhilghiti dialect of Shin, iv. 349. Gh{ri}ta-pratka, iv. 229. Gibbon, on the Roman Religion of the second Century, iv. 310. Gignere, locative from gigno, iv. 36. Gilles Mallet, his inventory of the royal library, iii. 158. Gilvus, flavus, yellow, iv. 100. Giornale de' Letterati, iii. 194. Giriprasda-sinha, Rajah of Besmah, iv. 335. Jishe, jeshe, infinitive, iv. 51. Jvse, in order to live, iv. 36. Give, to, root DA, Aryan words for, iv. 414. [[Index Da]] Gj, Norw., nix autumni recens, iv. 236. Glacies, gelacies, iv. 235. Gladstone, iii. 364, 368, 416. Gleim, iii. 40. Glottology and Evolutionism, iv. 459. Gnaivod, iv. 45. Gn-s, the Vedic, iv. 45. Gnspati{h}, iv. 46 note. gnmn, iv. 32. Go, to, root I, Aryan words for, iv. 414. Go, to, root SRIP, Aryan words for, iv. 415. [[Index SRIP, Colebrooke SRĬP]] Goa, Buddhist priests sent to, iv. 244. Goat, Aryan words for, iv. 409. God, Aryan words for, iv. 404. God-hd, iv. 88. Godhead, iv. 75. "God in History," Bunsen's, iii. 382. Go-duh, cow-milking, iv. 81. Goethe, iii. 36-40, 82. —— idea of a World-literature, iii. 2. —— his influence, iii. 84. —— his friendship with Schiller, iii. 92. —— his "Hermann and Dorothea," iii. 93. —— as Schiller's rival, iii. 96. Goethe's house, iii. 214. Goeze, Pastor, the critic of Lessing, iv. 518. Goldstcker, Professor, iv. 344, 511. —— Whitney on, iv. 516, 524. Gonds, language of the, iv. 347. Gospels, harmony of the, iii. 6. Gothart, God-minded, iv. 89. Gothic language, iii. 122. Gottfried von Strassburg, iii. 10, 13. Gottsched, iii. 39. Go-vl, cowherd, iv. 90. Graduation, insensible, iv. 438. Grammar dolichocephalic, iv. 212. —— empirical knowledge of, iv. 29. —— rational knowledge of, iv. 29. —— Indian and Greek systems of, iv. 381. "Grammatica Celtica" of Zeuss, iv. 17. Grammatical blunders, iv. 488. Grand-daughter, Aryan words for, iv. 402. Granpr, Alix de, wife of Joinville, iii. 153. Grandson, Aryan words for, iv. 402. Grantbridge, Cambridge, iii. 236. Great, Aryan words for, iv. 411. Great Exhibition, the, iii. 410. Greaves, Professor of Arabic, iv. 12. Greece, Felton's lectures on, iii. 250. —— history of, iii. 249. Greek Algebra, iv. 391. —— The Augment in, iv. 114. —— form of the "Pot au Lait," iv. 156. —— most closely united with Sanskrit (Grassman, Sonne, Kern,) iv. 215. —— Oxford chair of, iv. 11. —— scholarship, revival of, iv. 361. —— songs, iii. 402. —— stories carried to India by Alexander's conquests, iv. 149. —— studies of Curtius in, iv. 17. Greek or Macedonian workmen in India, iv. 349. Greeks, admixture of blood in the, iii. 251. —— Professor Fallmerayer on, iii. 250. —— Manouses on, iii. 251. Green (Sk. hari), iv. 100. Greenway, Rev. C., iv. 342. Greenwich, time of Elizabeth, iii. 235. Gregory of Tours, iii. 159. Gregory von Heimburg, iii. 65. Grey, Sir George, iv. 343. "Griechen Lieder," W. Mller's, iii. 108. Griffith, Mr., iv. 335. Grimm, the brothers, iii. 113. —— Jacob, German Grammar, iii. 122. —— Jacob, iii. 74. —— his Teutonic studies, iv. 17. Grimm's Law, iv. 101 note. G{ri}{n}sh{n}i, iv. 52. Gryphius, Andreas, iii. 38. Guary miracles, iii. 259. "Gudrun," iii. 12. Guildhall, iii. 234. Guillaume, Archbishop of Tyre, his "History of the Crusades," iii. 159. Guillaume de Chartres, iii. 160. Guillaume de Nangis, iii. 159. Guirrimears, or Great plays, iii. 259. gunai, vocative, iv. 232. Gnther, iii. 40. Gustavus Adolphus, iii. 30. Gutturals, labialized and unlabialized, iv. 61. Gvl, cowherd, iv. 90.

H, Hieroglyphic prototype of, iv. 450. Hd, A.S. state, iv. 88. Haeckel, iv. 459. —— Whitney on, iv. 516. Hagedorn, iii. 40. Hagen, von der, iii. 113. hagios, holy, iv. 94. "Hainbund," the, iii. 127. Hair of the body, Aryan words for, iv. 409. —— of the head, Aryan words for, iv. 409. Halbsuter, poems of, iii. 17. Haller, iii. 40. Hampton Court, iii. 236. Hand, Aryan words for, iv. 405. Hansa league, iii. 16, 31. Hans Sachs, iii. 31. Hard, hardy, iv. 88. Hard and soft, iv. 490. Hardouin, iii. 196. —— discredits Joinville's history, iii. 189. Hari, green, iv. 100. Harit, fulvus, red, iv. 100. Harold Blatand, iii. 266. Harold Harfagr, iii. 266. Hart, strong, iv. 88. Hartmann, von, iv. 459. Hartmann, von Aue, iii. 10, 13. Harun al Raschid, iv. 155. Haubida, caput, iv. 26. Haug, iii. 491. Haupt, iii. 417. Hausschein, iii. 29. Havet, M., his translation of the Rede Lecture, iv. 63 note. Hayle-river, iii. 305. Head in Godhead, iv. 75. Heat, broad degrees of, iv. 437. Heben, heaven, iii. 131. hebdomos and hepta, iv. 230. Hebrew lectureship proposed, iv. 11. —— Oxford chair of, iv. 11. —— Pards, iv. 22. hdion and hdin, iv. 231. Hegel, iv. 446. Heidelberg, Bunsen settles at, iii. 440. Heine, Heinrich, iii. 402. Heinrich von Veldecke's neid, iii. 10. —— his description of festival at Mayence, iii. 12. Helfer, Frau von, on the Karens, iii. 435. Heliand, poem of, iii. 5, 122. Helmholtz, Professor, iv. 514. Helstone, iii. 292. Henley, iii. 236. Henry II. and Eleanor of Poitou, iii. 12. —— king of England, iii. 51. Henry III., iii. 152. —— his oppression of the Jews, iii. 307. Henry VIII., iii. 73. —— and the Oxford chairs of Greek and Hebrew, iv. 11. —— did nothing for Arabic, iv. 12. Henry the Lion, of Saxony, iii. 12. Hentzner, his travels, iii. 232. Herakleitos, iv. 65. Hrakles, vocative, iv. 232. Herba nicotiana, iii. 234. Herbelot's "Bibliothque Orientale," iii. 415. Herder, iii. 40. —— his influence, iii. 84. "Hermann and Dorothea," influence of Schiller on Goethe's, iii. 93. Hermann, Landgrave of Thuringia, iii. 13. Hermann, Gottfried, iv. 32, 209. Hessius, Eoban, iii. 29. Heynlin a Lapide, Johannes, iii. 66. High German, iii. 121. —— dialects, iii. 122. Hillebrand's "History of German Literature," iii. 414. Himil, A.S. vault, sky, iv. 236. Hindu astronomers, four ways of reckoning time among, iv. 367. —— astronomy, antiquity of, iv. 387. —— Bentley on, iv. 387. —— and Mohammedan Law, digest of, iv. 373. —— philosophy, Colebrooke's treatises on, iv. 394. —— schools of law, iv. 374. —— skulls, iii. 252. —— widow, Colebrooke on the duties of, iv. 372. Hindus, Lunar Zodiac of the, iv. 508. Hindustani or Moors, iv. 365. "Hippolytus," Bunsen's, iii. 382, 416. —— Taylor's article on, iii. 418. "Histoire des Ouvrages des Savants," iii. 194. Historical monuments should be under protection, iii. 270. —— religions, iv. 239. —— —— number of, iv. 239. "History of the Science of Language," Benfey's, iv. 325. —— of philosophy, study of the, iv. 444. Hitopade{s}a, the, iv. 141. —— fable of the Brhman and the rice, iv. 143. Hliumunt, and {s}romata, iv. 218. Hld, A.S. loud, iv. 219. Hoar rock in the wood, the, iii. 317. Hobbes' view of man, iv. 222. Hodgson, iii. 443. Hoftmannswaldau, iii. 38. Hog, Aryan words for, iv. 409. Hogarth, meaning of, iv. 89. Hohenfriedberg, battle of, iii. 213. Hohenstaufen dynasty, iii. 8. Holcet, the, iii. 119. Holed stones, iii. 270. Holtseten or Holsten, iii. 119. Hlty, Count, iii. 127. "Holy Graal," Wolfram's, iii. 54. Holzmann, iii. 446. Homer, digamma in, iv. 225. "Homerische Vorschule," by Wilhelm Mller, iii. 113. Homoousia, the, iv. 313. Hor, iv. 367. Horace's fables, iv. 140. Horse, Aryan words for, iv. 408. Hottentot language, iv. 344. Hour, hor, iv. 367. House, Aryan words for, iv. 407. Hrabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mayence, iii. 6. Hrm, rime, iv. 235. Hrosvitha, Latin plays of, iii. 7. Hruom, Old High German, iv. 218. Hckup, sigh, iii. 131. Huet, friend of La Fontaine, iv. 151. Hugihart, wise-minded, iv. 89. Hugo, iii. 64. Hugo von Montfort, iii. 17. Huir, or hoer, Cornish, iii. 263. Human beings without language, iv. 341. Human sacrifices in India, iv. 370. Humaniores, iv. 362. Humboldt, Alexander von, iii. 354. —— letter to Bunsen, iii. 446. Humboldt, Wilhelm von, iv. 446. Hume, iii. 218. Hundius, iii. 64. Hunnblaff, iii. 131. Hunt, Professor of Arabic, iv. 12. Husain ben Ali, his "Anvri Suhaili," iv. 159. Husbandry and commerce of Bengal, Colebrooke on the, iv. 373. Husband's brother, Aryan words for, iv. 403. Huschke on skulls, iii. 252. husmin and husmin, iv. 121. Huss, iii. 65. Hutten, his works, iii. 62. Huxley on skulls, iii. 253. Huxley, iv. 445, 446, 448. Hyde, Professor of Arabic, iv. 12. Hyder Ali and the missionary Schwarz, iv. 285. —— death of, iv. 365. Hymn- and Prayer-book by Bunsen, iii. 361, 413. Hymns, Latin ancient, iii. 5. Hypsibios, iv. 457.

Ice, names for, iv. 235, 236. Ii, Zend, ice, iv. 235, 236. Ictis, island of, iii. 318. Idealism and Realism, iii. 220. Idola, iii. 222. Idolatry and the Brahmos, iv. 270. Ignatius, Epistles of, iii. 372. Illustrations, importance of, iv. 474. Immaculate Conception, the, iii. 66. Incapsulating languages, iv. 85. In-cre-p-are, iv. 219. India, Colebrooke starts for, iv. 364. —— Colebrooke the legislator of, iv. 390. —— Mathematicians, dates of, iv. 392. —— Primitive languages in, iii. 422. —— snake-charmers, iv. 370. —— human sacrifices, iv. 370. Indian Algebra, like Arabian, not like Greek, iv. 391. —— Government, their readiness to help students, iv. 344. —— and Greek systems of grammar, iv. 382. —— Mirror, the, iv. 355. —— Museum in London, iv. 349. —— Plants, Colebrooke's Essay on, iv. 380. —— Theogonies, Colebrooke's Essay on, iv. 380. Indo-Chinese family, iv. 70. Indo-European migrations from the Upper Indus, towards Bactria, iii. 405. In-ed-i-a, iv. 95. Infallibility of traditional interpretation of Veda, iv. 386. Infinitive, the, iv. 30. —— as an adverb, iv. 31. —— in Greek, iv. 36. —— as substantive, iv. 37. —— in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, iv. 47. —— Dative in e, iv. 50. —— Dative in ai, iv. 50. —— Dative in ane, iv. 54. —— Dative in tave and tavai, iv. 55. —— Dative in ya, iv. 51. —— Dative in s-e, iv. 51. —— Dative in yai, iv. 52. —— Dative in aye, iv. 52. —— Dative in taye, iv. 53. —— Dative in tyai, iv. 53. —— Dative in ase, iv. 53. —— Dative in mane, iv. 54. —— Dative in vane, iv. 54. —— Accusative in am, iv. 50. —— Genitive in as, iv. 50. —— Ablative in as, iv. 50. —— Locative in i, iv. 50. —— Locative in sani, iv. 54. —— in um, om (u, o) in Oscan and Umbrian, iv. 50. —— in English, iv. 58. —— in Anglo-Saxon, iv. 58. —— in Bengali, iv. 59. —— in Dravidian Languages, iv. 60. Infinitives, iv. 31. Infixing or incapsulating languages, iv. 85. Inflectional languages, iv. 79. Inflectional stage, iv. 116. Inflection, the results of combination, iv. 111. Innoca from innocua, iv. 131. Innox from innoca, iv. 131. Insect, Aryan words for, iv. 410. Insensible graduation, iv. 437. Institutes of Calvin, iv. 287. Instrumental in tv, as infinitive, iv. 55. Intelligent, inter-ligent, inter-twining, iv. 327. International Congress of Orientalists, iv. 317. Inverted Fugue, an, iv. 470. Ionians, as Asiatics, iii. 457. Ipse, iv. 236. Iranian, iii. 429, 441. Isaiah, the last 27 chapters, iii. 484. Isis, iii. 289. Islm, the, iv. 245. Isolating languages, iv. 79. Isolating spirit in the science of language, iv. 18. Is-tud, Latin, iv. 43. "Italian Guest," by Thomasin von Zerclar, iii. 15. Italian sonnet, iii. 58. Italian translation of the "Stephanites and Ichnelates," iv. 157. "Itinerarium," the, of William of Worcester, iii. 324.

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