Chips From A German Workshop, Vol. V.
by F. Max Mueller
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Duhitar, a Sanskrit word for daughter, 17.

Dyaus, 121.

Edkins, Dr., quoted, 205.

Education, academic, 28; elementary, 23; scholastic, 24; in the beginning purely dogmatic, 22; compulsory, mark of a new era, 21; dangers of compulsory, 22.

Ellis, quoted, 111 sq.

Ellis, A. J., quoted, 155 sq.

Empedokles, quoted, 56, 65.

English, society, intolerance of, 7.

— universities described, 10; too little of academic freedom in, 40.

— names for the days of the week, 118.

— written in hieroglyphics, 17 sq.

— spelling, a national misfortune, 22.

— present number of speaking, 138; future number of speaking, 138.

Epicharmos, quoted, 55.

Esquimaux, tale among the, quoted, 83 sq.

Esthonian tale, quoted, 86 sq.

Examinations, good, to be rewarded by honor, 44; a means to ascertain how pupils have been taught, 43; strong feeling against, 42 sq.

Fergusson, Jas., quoted, 113 sq.

Figures, our, received from the Arabs, 20.

Forgeries in Sanskrit MSS., 109.

Freedom, address on, 1 sq.; of thought, meaning of, 3.

Freethinkers, a title of honor, 6.

French, names for the days of the week, 118; present number of speaking, 137; future number of speaking, 138.

Freyja, day of, 120.

Friday, 120.

Genus and Species, meaning of, 32 sq.

German names for the days of the week, 119.

— Middle-High, names for the days of the week, 119.

— Old-High, names for the days of the week, 119.

— present number of speaking, 138; future number of speaking, 138.

— Universities, how much time spent in lecturing in, 39.

Grammars, Latin and Greek, deficiencies of, 26.

Greek and Roman classics not read enough, 25.

Greek philosophy, its development chiefly due to the absence of an established religion and influential priesthood, 63; religion, national and traditional, 62.

Gutzlaff, quoted, 205.

Haekel, quoted, 182.

Hall, Newman, quoted, 154.

Helios, meaning of, 80.

Helmholtz, quoted, 7, 40.

Herakleitos, quoted, 58.

Heredity, meaning of, 14 sq.

Herodotus, quoted, 58.

Herschel, Sir John, quoted, 74 sq.

Herzen, quoted, 4.

Hillebrand, quoted, 9.

Hipparchus, a Greek astronomer, 19.

Hobbes, referred to, 3, 32.

Holwell, quoted, 102.

Homer, quoted, 71, 79; condemned by Plato, 59; his soul hanging in Hades on a tree, 58.

Hottentot fables quoted, 85 sq.

Huet, quoted, 99.

Indians of Nicaragua, quotation from a compendium of the theology of, 70.

Individualism, what? 4.

Individuality, principle of, suffering more now than before, 11.

Italian, present number of speaking, 137; future number of speaking, 138.

Jacolliott, quoted and criticised, 123 sq.

Japan converted to Buddhism, legend about, 213.

Jehovah, name of, found in Chinese literature, 131, 132.

Jones, Sir. W., quoted, 100, 101 sq., 107 sq.

— Eduard, quoted, 144 sq.

Josephus, quoted, 116 sq.

Jovis dies, 120.

Julien, St., quoted, 132.

Jupiter, the name, no mere accident, 90 sq.; the thunderer, 120.

Justin Martyr, quoted, 117.

Karman, meaning of, 15 sq.

Knowledge, dead, dangerous, 28.

Ku-fa-lan, works ascribed to him, 194.

Kukai, founder of a sect in Japan, 214.

Language and thought inseparable, 67; its influence on thought, 79.

Lapland, legend of, quoted, 88.

Latin names for the days of the week, 118.

Mars, the god of war, 121.

Meiklejohn, quoted, 147.

Mercurii dies, 119, 121.

Metrodorus, quoted, 56.

Mill, J. S., quoted, 1, 12, 21; his plea for liberty decried, 4, without reason, 5; his election to Parliament a triumph, 6.

Milligan, quoted, 76.

Montucci, quoted, 130.

Mosaic account of creation found among the Tahitians, 111.

Mueller's, M., rejoinder to Prof. Blackie, 91 sq.

Mythology, meaning of, 55, 64 sq., 66; interest of, in our days, 53; religion of the Greeks, 61; now as there was in time of Homer, 65; pervades the sphere of religion and of thought, 69; philosophy of, lecture on, 53 sq.

Names to be submitted to very careful snuffing, 37.

Nihilism, defined, 4; dangers of, 5.

Nirvana, definition of, 16.

Nominalism, higher, or Science of Language, 37.

Odin, 120, 121, 122.

Old-Norse names for the days of the week, 118.

Omniscience to be avoided, 47.

Oriental tongue, now spoken in Europe, 16 sq.

Over-examinations, complaints against, 46.

Paradise. See Sukhavati.

Phoibos, meaning of, 81; and Daphne, story of, 81 sq.

Phonetic alphabet, table of, 150; reading according to, 151 sq.

Pioneer (an Indian paper), quoted, 113.

Planets, their names, 118; used for the names of the days of the week, 116.

Plato, quoted, 59 sq., 79.

Population, table of supposed number of years required for doubling the, in different countries, 138.

Portuguese, number of speaking, 137.

Power and Responsibility of English Universities, 10.

Psyche, meaning of, 69, 72.

Public opinion, 11, 12.

Religions, division of, 62.

Remusat quoted, 131.

Russian, number of speaking, 138; society described, 4.

Sabbath mentioned by Roman and Greek writers, 117 sq.

Sanskrit names for the days of the week, 118.

— MSS., materials on which they were written, 206 sq.; searched for in China, 203 sq.; in Japan, 210; texts discovered in Japan, 181 sq.; translated by Chinese, 189 sq.

Saturni dies, 116 sq., 121.

Scandinavian mythology and Buddhism, connection between, 113 sq., 122.

Schools in England and on the Continent, shortcomings of, 25 sq.

Self-government, dangers of, 10.

Semiphonotopy, name for a style of spelling, 141; reading according to, 191 sq.

Sextus Empiricus, quoted, 58.

Snow, name for, 77.

Society, human, secret of, 13.

Sokrates, quoted, 56.

Sokratic method, 24.

Spanish, present number of speaking, 137; future number of speaking, 138.

Species and Genus, meaning of, 32 sq.

Spelling, reform of, 133 sq., 135 sq.; favorite subject with Roman scholars, 140.

Stahl, quoted, 69.

Sueton, quoted, 116.

Sukhavati-vyuha, a title of a Buddhist Sutra, 214; list of MSS. of, now extant, 216 sq.; translation of, 220 sq.

Sukhavati, or Paradise, described, 223 sq.

Sun, sign or name for, 75 sq., 78.

Sunrise, feelings at the, 74.

Swift, Dean, quoted, 134.

Table of the names of the days of the week in— Anglo-Saxon, 118. English, 118. French, 118. German, 119. — Middle-High, 119. — Old-High, 119. Latin, 118. Old Norse, 118. Sanskrit, 118.

Table of the names of the Planets, 118, 119.

Tacitus, quoted, 121.

Teachers to be natural examiners, 43.

Testament, the Old, accounts of, found in the literature of the Brahmans, 100, 106.

— Old and New, found in the Vedas., 123; borrowed from Brahmans and Buddhists, 101 sq.

Theology, on false analogies in comparative, 98 sq.

Thirlwall, Bishop, quoted, 143.

Thought and language inseparable, 67.

Thor, 120.

Thunar, 120.

Thursday, 120.

Tiu, 120.

Tocqueville, De, referred to, 12.

Trench, quoted, 169 sq.

Tylor, E. B., quoted, 70.

Uniformity, dangers of, 12 sq.

Universities, English and German, compared, 7 sq.; differences between, 9 sq.; guardians of freedom of thought, 28; mediaeval and modern, home of free thought, 51.

Vaksh, Sanskrit word for to grow, like the English to wax, 17.

Veneris dies, 120.

Vid, Sanskrit word for to know, like the English to wit, 17.

Virgil quoted, 71.

Vosisus, S. J., quoted, 99.

Week, names of the seven days of the, received from the names of the planets, 116.

Weeks and week-days, system of counting, first introduced in Egypt, 118.

Wilford, quoted, 106.

Wilson, quoted, 188.

Wodan, day of, 120, 121.

Wunsch or Wish, name of Wuotan, 121.

Wuotan, 120.

Xenophanes, on Homer and Hesiod, 57 sq.

Zeus Kronion, meaning of, 80, 121.

Ziu, 121.


1 Mill tells us that his Essay On Liberty was planned and written down in 1854. It was in mounting the steps of the Capitol in January, 1855, that the thought first arose of converting it into a volume, and it was not published till 1859. The author, who in his Autobiography speaks with exquisite modesty of all his literary performances, allows himself one single exception when speaking of his Essay On Liberty. "None of my writings," he says, "have been either so carefully composed or so sedulously corrected as this." Its final revision was to have been the work of the winter of 1858 to 1859, which he and his wife had arranged to pass in the South of Europe, a hope which was frustrated by his wife's death. "The Liberty," he writes, "is likely to survive longer than anything else that I have written (with the possible exception of the Logic), because the conjunction of her mind with mine has rendered it a kind of philosophic text-book of a single truth, which the changes progressively taking place in modern society tend to bring out into strong relief: the importance to man and society, of a large variety of character, and of giving full freedom to human nature to expand itself in innumerable and conflicting directions."

2 Herzen defined Nihilism as "the most perfect freedom from all settled concepts, from all inherited restraints and impediments which hamper the progress of the Occidental intellect with the historical drag tied to its foot."

3 Ueber die Akademische Freiheit der Deutschen Universitaeten, Rede beim Antritt des Rectorats an der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet in Berlin, am October 15, 1877, gehalten von Dr. H. Helmholtz.

4 Ueber eine Akademie der Deutschen Sprache, p. 34. Another keen observer of English life, Dr. K. Hillebrand, in an article in the October number of the Nineteenth Century, remarks: "Nowhere is there greater individual liberty than in England, and nowhere do people renounce it more readily of their own accord."

5 Spencer Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p. 391.

6 Spencer Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p. 39.

7 "As one generation dies and gives way to another, the heir of the consequences of all its virtues and all its vices, the exact result of preexistent causes, so each individual, in the long chain of life, inherits all, of good or evil, which all its predecessors have done or been, and takes up the struggle towards enlightenment precisely where they left it." Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 104.

8 Bunsen, Egypt, ii. pp. 77, 150.

9 Memoire sur l'Origine Egyptienne de l'Alphabet Phenicien, par E. de Rouge, Paris, 1874.

10 See Brandis, Das Muenzwesen.

11 "Is it not almost a self-evident axiom, that the State should require and compel the education, up to a certain standard, of every human being who is born its citizen? Yet who is there that is not afraid to recognize and assert this truth?" On Liberty, p. 188.

12 Times, January 25, 1879.

13 Sacred Books of the East, edited by M. M., vols. i. to ix.; Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1879 and 1880.

14 Computation or Logic, t. iii., viii., p. 36.

15 Lectures on Mr. Darwin's "Philosophy of Language," Fraser's Magazine, June, 1873, p. 26.

16 Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, vol. i. p. 121.

17 L. Noire, Paedagogisches Skizzenbuch, p. 157; "Todtes Wissen."

18 Mill On Liberty, p. 193.

19 Zeller, Ueber den wissenschaftlichen Unterricht bei den Griechen, 1878, p. 9.

20 Her. ii. 53, οὗτοι δέ εἰσι οἱ ποιήσαντες θεογονίην Ἕλλησι, καὶ τοῖσι θεοῖσι τὰς ἐπωνυμίας δόντες καὶ τιμάς τε καὶ τέχνας διελόντες, καὶ εἴδεα αὐτῶν σημήναντες.

21 Πάντα θεοῖς ἀνέθηκαν Ὀμηρός θ᾽ Ἠσίοδός τε ὅσσα παρ᾽ ἀνθρώποισι ὀνείδεα καὶ ψόγος ἐστίν. ὡς πλεῖστ᾽ ἐφθέγξαντο θεῶν ἀθεμίστια ἔργα, κλέπτειν μοιχεύειν τε καὶ ἀλλήλους ἀπατεύειν. Sext. Emp. adv. Math. 1289; ix. 193.

δοκέουσι θεοὺς γεγενῆσθαι τὴν σφετέρην τ᾽ αἴσθησιν ἔχειν φωνήν τε δέμας τε.— Ἀλλ᾽ εἴτοι χεῖράς γ᾽ εἶχον βόες ἠὲ λέοντες ἥ γράψαι χείρεσσι καὶ ἔργα τελεῖν ἄπερ ἄνδρες, καί κε θεῶν ἰδέας ἔγραφον καὶ σώματ᾽ ἐποίουν τοιαῦθ᾽ οἷόν περ καύτοὶ δέμας εἶχον ὁμοῖον, ἵπποι μέν θ᾽ ἵπποισι, βόες δέ τε βουσὶν ὁμοῖα. Clem. Alex. Strom. v. p. 601, c.

Ὥς φησιν Ξενοφάνης Αἰθιοπές τε μέλανας σιμούς τε, Θρᾷκες τε πυρῥοὺς καὶ γλαυκοὺς. Clem. Alex. Strom. vii. p. 711, B. Historia Philosophies, ed. Ritter et Preller, cap. iii.

22 Εἶς θεὸς ἔν τε θεοῖσι καὶ ἀνθρώποισι μέγιστος, οὔ τι δέμας θνητοῖσι ὁμοίιος οὐδὲ νόημα. Clem. Alex. Strom. v. p. 601, c.

23 See Introduction to the Science of Religion, p. 139.

24 Empedokles, Carmina, v. 411 (Fragm. Philos. Graec. vol. i. p. 12):—ὦ φίλοι, οἶδα μὲν οὖν ὅτ᾽ ἀληθείη παρὰ μύθοις οὓς ἐγὼ ἐξερέω; μάλα δ᾽ ἀργαλέη γὲ τέτυκται ἀνδράσι καὶ δύσζηλος ἐπὶ φρένα πίστιος ὁρμή.

25 Daily Life and Origin of the Tasmanians, by J. Bonwick, 1870, p. 143.

26 The word ψυχή is clearly connected in Greek with ψύχω, which meant originally blowing, and was used either in the sense of cooling by blowing, or breathing by blowing. In the former acceptation it produced ψύχος, coldness; ψυχρός, cold; ψυχάω, I cool; in the latter ψυχή, breath, then life, then soul. So far the purely Greek growth of words derived from ψύχω is clear. But ψύχω itself is difficult. It seems to point to a root spu, meaning to blow out, to spit; Lat. spuo, and spuma, foam; Goth, speivan; Gr. πτύω, supposed to stand for σπιύω. Hesychius mentions ψύττει = πτύει, ψυττόν = πτύελον. (Pott, Etym. Forsch. No. 355.) Curtius connects this root with Gr. φυ, in φῦσα, blowing, bellows, φυσάω, to blow, φυσιάω, to snort, ποι-φύσσω, to blow, and with Lat. spirare (i.e. spoisare). See E. B. Tylor, "The Religion of Savages," Fortnightly Review, 1866, p. 73.

Stahl, who rejected the division of life and mind adopted by Bacon, and returned to the Aristotelian doctrine, falls back on Plato's etymology of ψυχή as φυσέχη, from φύσιν ἔχειν or ὀχεῖν, Crat. 400 B. In a passage of his Theoria Medica Vera (Halae, 1708), pointed out to me by Dr. Rolleston, Stahl says: "Invenio in lexico graeco antiquiore post alios, et Budaeum imprimis, iterum iterumque reviso, nomenclaturam nimis quam fugitive allegatam; φυσέχη, poetice, pro ψυχή. Incidit animo suspicari, an non verum primum nomen animae antiquissimis Graecis fuerit hoc φυσέχη, quasi ἔχων τὸ φύειν, e cuius vocis pronunciatione deflectente, uti vere familiariter solet vocalium, inprimis sub accentibus, fugitiva enunciatione, sensim natum sit φυσ-χή φσυχή, denique ad faciliorem pronunciationem in locum φσυχή, ψυχή. Quam suspicionem fovere mihi videtur illud, quod vocabuli ψυχῆς, pro anima, nulla idonea analogia in lingua graeca occurrat; nam quae a ψύχω ducitur, cum verus huius et directus significatus notorie sit refrigero, indirectus autem magis, spiro, nihil certe haec ad animam puto." (P. 44.)

27 ἀνδροσδὲ ψυχὴ πάλιν ἐλθεῖν οὔτεν λειστὴ, οὔθ᾽ ἐλετὴ, ἐπεὶ ἄρ κεν ἀμείψεται ἔρκος ὀδόντων. Il. ix. 408.

28 διὰ δ᾽ ἔντερα χαλκὸς ἄφυσσεν δῃώσας; ψυχὴ δὲ κατ᾽ οὐταμένην ὠτειλὴν ἔσσυτ᾽ ἐπειγομέυη. Il. xiv. 517.

29 "Ter frustra compressa manu effugit imago, Par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno." Virg. AEn. ii. 792.

30 See E. B. Tylor, Fortnightly Review, 1866, p. 74.

31 Im-manis, originally "not small," came to mean enormous or monstrous. See Preller, Roemische Mythologie, p. 72 seq.

32 Unkulunkulu; or the Tradition of Creation as existing among the Amazulu and other Tribes of South Africa, by the Rev. J. Callaway, M. D. Natal, 1868. Part I. p. 91.

33 See J. Samuelson, Views of the Deity, Traditional and Scientific, p. 144. Williams & Norgate, 1871.

34 "It has already been implied that the Aborigines of Tasmania had acquired very limited powers of abstraction or generalization. They possessed no words representing abstract ideas; for each variety of gum-tree and wattle-tree, etc., etc., they had a name, but they had no equivalent for the expression, 'a tree;' neither could they express abstract qualities, such as hard, soft, warm, cold, long, short, round, etc.; for 'hard' they would say 'like a stone;' for 'tall' they would say 'long legs,' etc.; for 'round' they said 'like a ball,' 'like the moon,' and so on, usually suiting the action to the word, and confirming by some sign the meaning to be understood." Milligan, Vocabulary of the Dialects of some of the Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania, p. 34. Hobart Town, 1866.

35 If Signer Ascoli blames me for deriving Niobe with other names for snow from the root snu, instead of from the root snigh, this can only be due to an oversight. I am responsible for the derivation of Niobe, and for the admission of a secondary root snyu or nyu, and so far I may be either right or wrong. But Signer Ascoli ought to have known that the derivation of Gothic snaiv-s, Old High-German sneo, or sne, gen. snewe-s, Lithuanian snega-s, Slav, snjeg, Hib. sneachd, from the root snu, rests on the authority of Bopp (Glossarium, 1847, s. v. snu; see also Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, ii. p. 700). He ought likewise to have known that in 1852 Professor Schweizer-Siedler, in his review of Boetticher's Arica (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, i. p. 479), had pointed out that snigh may be considered as a secondary root by the side of snu and sna (cf. σμάω, σμήχω; ψάω, ψήχω; νάω, νήχω). The real relation of snu to snigh had been explained as early as 1842 by Benfey, Wurzellexicon, ii. p. 54; and Signor Ascoli was no doubt aware of what Professor Curtius had written on the relation of snigh to snu (Grundzuege der Greichischen Etymologie, p. 297). Signor Ascoli has certainly shown with greater minuteness than his predecessors that not only Zend snizh and Lithuanian snega-s, but likewise Gothic snaiv-s, Greek νίφει, Latin nix, niv-is, and ninguis, may be derived from snigh; but if from snigh, a secondary development of the root snu, we can arrive at νίφ-α and at νίβα, the other steps that lead on to Niobe will remain just the same.

36 At the end of the hymn the poet says:—

χαῖρε, ἄναξ, πρόφρων δὲ βίον θυμήρε᾽ ὄπαζε; ἐκ σέο δ᾽ ἀρξάμενος κλῄσω μερόπων γένος ἀνδρῶν ἡμιθέων, ὦν ἔργα θεοὶ θνητοῖσιν ἔδειξαν.

This would seem to imply that the poet looked upon Helios as a half-god, almost as a hero, who had once lived on earth.

37 Corssen, Ueber Steigerungsendungen, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, iii. p. 299.

38 See Selected Essays, vol. i. p. 399.

39 The Childhood of the World, by E. Clodd, p. 62.

40 Reynard the Fox in South Africa, or Hottentot Fables and Tales, by W. H. I. Bleek, 1864, p. 69. Dr. Theophilus Hahn, Die Sprache der Nama, 1870, p. 59. As a curious coincidence, it may be mentioned that in Sanskrit, too, the Moon is called sasaanka, i. e. "having the marks of a hare," the black marks in the moon being taken for the likeness of the hare. Another coincidence is that the Namaqua Hottentots will not touch hare's flesh (see Sir James E. Alexander's Expedition of Discovery into the Interior of Africa, vol. i. p. 269), because the hare deceived men, while the Jews abstain from it, because the hare is supposed to chew the cud (Lev. xi. 6).

A similar tradition on the meaning of death occurs among the Zulus, but as they do not know of the Moon as a deity, the message that men are not to die, or that they are to die, is sent there by Unkulunkulu, the ancestor of the human race, and thus the whole story loses its point. See Dr. Callaway, Unkulunkulu, p. 4; and Gray, Polynesian Mythology, pp. 16-58.

41 According to a letter just received from an Esthonian lady, aemmarik does mean the gloaming in the language of the common people of Esthonia. Bertram (Ilmatar, Dorpat, 1870, p. 265) remarks that Koit is the dawn, Koido taeht, the morning-star, also called eha taeht. Aemarik, the ordinary name for the dawn, is used as the name for the evening twilight, or the gloaming in the well-known story, published by Faehlmann (Verhandlungen der gelehrten Estnischen Gesellschaft zu Dorpat, vol. i.) In Finnish haemaera is twilight in general.

42 See Lectures on the Science of Religion, pp. 194, 200.

43 See my Lectures on the Science of Language (10th ed.), vol. ii. p 468.

44 See a most interesting essay, Le Petit Poucet (Tom Thumb), by Gaston Paris.

45 Selected Essays, vol. i. p. 478: "Here then we see that mythology does not always create its own heroes, but that it lays hold of real history, and coils itself round it so closely that it is difficult, nay, almost impossible, to separate the ivy from the oak, the lichen from the granite to which it clings. And here is a lesson which comparative mythologists ought not to neglect. They are naturally bent on explaining everything that can be explained; but they should bear in mind that there may be elements in every mythological riddle which resist etymological analysis, for the simple reason that their origin was not etymological, but historical."

46 Lectures on the Science of Language, vol. ii. p. 581.

47 Professor Blackie quotes Pausanias in support of this etymology. He says: "The account of Pausanias (viii. 25, 26), according to which the terrible impersonation of conscience, or the violated moral law, is derived from ἐρινύειν, an old Greek verb originally signifying to be angry, has sufficient probability, not to mention the obvious analogy of Ἀραί, another name sometimes given to the awful maids (σεμναί), from ἀρά, an imprecation." If Professor Blackie will refer to Pausanias himself, he will find that the Arcadians assigned a very different cause to the anger of Demeter, which is supposed to have led to the formation of her new name Erinys.

48 Asiatic Researches, i. p. 272; Life of Sir W. Jones, vol. ii. p. 240 seq.

49 Asiatic Researches, i. p. 221.

50 See Introduction to the Science of Religion, p. 48.

51 The Rev. W. W. Gill tells me that the Maori word for bone is iwi, but he suspects a foreign origin for the fable founded on it.

52 Tree and Serpent Worship, by James Fergusson. London, 1868. Very similar opinions had been advocated by Rajendralal Mitra, in a paper published in 1858 in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, "Buddhism and Odinism, illustrated by extracts from Professor Holmboe's Memoir on the Traces du Buddhisme en Norvege." How much mischief is done by opinions of this kind when they once find their way into the general public, and are supported by names which carry weight, may be seen by the following extracts from the Pioneer (July 30, 1878), a native paper published in India. Here we read that the views of Holmboe, Rajendralal Mitra, and Fergusson, as to a possible connection between Buddha and Wodan, between Buddhism and Wodenism, have been adopted and preached by an English bishop, in order to convince his hearers, who were chiefly Buddhists, that the religion of the gentle ascetic came originally, if not from the Northeast of Scotland, at all events from the Saxons. "Gotama Buddha," he maintained, "was a Saxon," coming from "a Saxon family which had penetrated into India." And again: "The most convincing proof to us Anglo-Indians lies in the fact that the Puranas named Varada and Matsy distinctly assert that the White Island in the West—meaning England—was known in India as Sacana, having been conquered at a very early period by the Sacas or Saks." After this the bishop takes courage, and says: "Let me call your attention to the Pali word Nibban, called in Sanskirt Nirvana. In the Anglo-Saxon you have the identical word—Nabban, meaning 'not to have,' or 'to be without a thing.' "

53 See Buddhaghosha's Parables, translated by Captain Rogers, with an Introduction containing Buddha's Dhammapada, translated from Pali, by M. M., 1870, p. 110, note.

54 Hare, "On the Names of the Days of the Week" (Philol. Museum, Nov. 1831); Ideler, Handbuch der Chronologie, p. 177; Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p. 111.

55 A writer in the Index objects to my representation of what Josephus said with regard to the observance of the seventh day in Greek and barbarian towns. He writes:—

WASHINGTON, Nov. 9, 1872.

"The article by Max Mueller in the Index of this week contains, I think, one error, caused doubtless by his taking a false translation of a passage from Josephus instead of the original. 'In fact,' says Professor Mueller, 'Josephus (Contra Apion. ii. 39) was able to say that there was no town, Greek or not Greek, where the custom of observing the seventh day had not spread.' Mr. Wm. B. Taylor, in a discussion of the Sabbath question with the Rev. Dr. Brown, of Philadelphia, in 1853 (Obligation of the Sabbath, p. 120), gives this rendering of the passage: 'Nor is there anywhere any city of the Greeks, nor a single barbarian nation, whither the institution of the Hebdomade (which we mark by resting) has not travelled;' then in a note Mr. Taylor gives the original Greek of part of the passage, and adds: 'Josephus does not say that the Greek and barbarian rested, but that we [the Jews] observe it by rest.'

"The corrected translation only adds strength to Max Mueller's position in regard to the very limited extent of Sabbath observance in ancient times; and Mr. Taylor brings very strong historical proof to maintain the assertion (p. 24) that 'throughout all history we discover no trace of a Sabbath among the nations of antiquity.' "

It seems to me that if we read the whole of Josephus's work, On the Antiquity of the Jews, we cannot fail to perceive that what Josephus wished to show towards the end of the second book was that other nations had copied or were trying to copy the Jewish customs. He says: Ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν τε διηνέχθησαν οἱ νόμοι καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἅπασιν ἀνθρώποις, ἀεὶ καὶ μᾶλλον αὐτῶν ζῆλον ἐμπεποιήκασι. He then says that the early Greek philosophers, though apparently original in their theoretic speculations, followed the Jewish laws with regard to practical and moral precepts. Then follows this sentence: Οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ πλήθεσιν ἤδη πολὺς ζῆλος γέγονεν ἐκ μακροῦ τῆς ἡμετέρας εὐσεβείας, οὐ δ᾽ ἔστιν οὐ πόλις Ἑλλήνων οὐδετισουν οὐδὲ βάρβαρος, οὐδὲ ἕν ἔθνος, ἔνθα μὴ τὸ τῆς ἑβδομάδος, ἥν ἀργοῦμεν ἡμεῖς, ἔθος οὐ διαπεφοιτηκε, καὶ αἱ νηστεῖαι καὶ λύχνων ἀνακαύσεις καὶ πολλὰ τῶν εἰς βρῶσιν ἡμῖν οὐ νενομισμένων παρατετήρηται. Μιμεῖσθαι δὲ πειρῶνται καὶ τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἡμῶν ὁμόνοιαν, κ.τ.λ. Standing where it stands, the sentence about the ἑβδομάς can only mean that "there is no town of Greeks nor of barbarians, nor one single people, where the custom of the seventh day, on which we rest, has not spread, and where fastings, and lighting of lamps, and much of what is forbidden to us with regard to food are not observed. They try to imitate our mutual concord also, etc." Hebdomas, which originally meant the week, is here clearly used in the sense of the seventh day, and though Josephus may exaggerate, what he says is certainty "that there was no town, Greek or not Greek, where the custom of observing the seventh day had not spread."

56 Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p. 118, note.

57 In Singalese Wednesday is Bada, in Tamil Budau. See Kennet, in Indian Antiquary, 1874, p. 90; D'Alwis, Journal of Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1870, p. 17.

58 Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p. 276.

59 Ibid. p. 151.

60 Ibid. p. 120.

61 Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, pp. 137-148.

62 Ibid. p. 126. Oski in Icelandic, the god Wish, one of the names of the highest god.

63 Tacit. Hist. iv. 64: "Communibus Diis et praecipuo Deorum Marti grates agimus."

64 Grimm, l. c. p. 148.

65 P. 125. "Pour quiconque s'est occupe d'etudes philologiques, Jehova derive de Zeus est facile a admettre."

66 Stanislas Julien, Le Livre de la Voie et de la Vertu. Paris, 1842, p. iv.

67 Montucci, De studiis sinicis. Berolini, 1808.

68 See W. E. A. Axon's "The Future of the English Language," the "Almanach de Gotha," and De Candolle's "Histoire des Sciences," 1873.

69 The pronoun it woz speld in eight diferent wayz bei Tyndale th[p]s, hyt, hytt, hit, hitt, it, itt, yt, ytt. Another author speld tongue in the folowing wayz: tung, tong, tunge, tonge, tounge. The w[p]rd head woz vario[p]sli speld hed, heede, hede, hefode. The spelingz obay, survay, pray, vail, vain, ar often uzed for obey, survey, prey, veil, vein.

70 Popular Education—A Revision of English Spelling a National Necessity. By E. Jones, B.A. London, 1875.

71 "Rig-Veda-Pratisakhya, Das aelteste Lehrbuch der Vedischen Phonetik, Sanskrit Text, mit Uebersetzung und Anmerkungen, herausgegeben," von F. Max Mueller, Leipzig, 1869.

72 Beal, Travels of Buddhist Pilgrims, Introd. p. xxi.; Chinese Repository, vol. x. No. 3, March, 1841.

73 See an account of the Introduction of Buddhism into China, in Journal Asiatique, 1856, August, p. 105. Recherches sur l'origine des ordres religieux dans l'empire chinois, par Bazin.

74 Stan. Julien, Pelerins Bouddhistes, vol. i. p. 296.

75 Dr. Edkins in his Notices of Buddhism in China (which unfortunately are not paged) says that Indians arrived at the capital of China in Shensi in 217 B. C. to propagate their religion.

76 Dr. Edkins, l. c., states that Kang-khien, on his return from the country of the Getae, informed the Emperor Wu-ti that he had seen articles of traffic from Shindo. The commentator adds that the name is pronounced Kando and Tindo, and that it is the country of the barbarians called Buddha (sic).

77 Kabul or Ko-fu is, in the Eastern Han annals, called a state of the Yueeh-ki.

78 Generally identified with the Getae, but without sufficient proof.

79 Translated by Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio.

80 The golden color or suvarnavarnata is one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha, recognized both in the Southern and Northern schools (Burnouf, Lotus, 579).

81 This name is written in various ways, Ka-shio-ma-to-giya, Ka-shio-ma-to, Shio-ma-to, Ka-to, Ma-to. In the Fan-i-ming-i-tsi (vol. iii. fol. 4 a), it is said "that K. was a native of Central India, and a Brahman by caste. Having been invited by the Chinese envoy, Tsai-yin, he came to China, saw the Emperor, and died in Lo-yang, the capital." Of Ku-fa-lan it is said (l. c. vol. iii. fol. 4) that he was a native of Central India, well versed in Vinaya. When invited to go to China, the King would not let him depart. He left secretly, and arrived in China after Kasyapa. They translated the Sutra in forty-two sections together. After Kasyapa died, Ku-fa-lan translated five Sutras.

82 See Vasala-sutta (in Nipata-sutta), v. 22.

83 Fa is the Buddhist equivalent for friar.

84 Mr. B. Nanjio informs me that both in China and Japan Buddhist priests adopt either Ku, the last character of Tien-ku, India, or Shih, the first character of Shih-kia—i. e. Sakya—as their surname.

85 L. Feer, Sutra en 42 articles, p. xxvii. Le Dhammapada par F. Hu, suivi du Sutra en 42 articles, par Leon Feer, 1878, p. xxiv.

86 In Beal's Catalogue this name is spelt An-shi-ko, An-shi-kao, and Ngan-shai-ko.

87 His translations occur in Beal's Catalogue, pp. 31, 35, 37, 38, 40 (bis), 41 (bis), 42 (bis), 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51 (ter), 52 (bis), 54, 70, 88, 95 (bis). In the K'ai-yuen-lu it is stated that he translated 99 works in 115 fascicles.

88 Wu, comprising Keh-kiang and other parts, with its capital in what is now Su-kau, was the southern one of the Three Kingdoms. Sun-khuean was its first sovereign.

89 The northern of the Three Kingdoms, with its capital latterly in Lo-yang.

90 See Beal, Catalogue, p. 5.

91 This name, Ku-fa-hu, is generally re-translated as Dharmaraksha. Ku is the second character in Tien-ku, the name of India, and this character was used as their surname by many Indian priests while living in China. In that case their Sanskrit names were mostly translated into two Chinese characters: as Fa, (law = dharma), hu (protection = raksha).—B. N.

92 According to Mr. Beal (Fahian, p. xxiii.), this Ku-fa-hu, with the help of other Shamans, translated no less than 165 texts, and among them the Lalita-vistara (Pou-yao-king), the Nirvana Sutra, and the Suvarna-prabhasa-Sutra (265-308). The K'ai-yuen-lu assigns to him 275 works, in 354 fascicles.

93 Edkins, l. c. Beal, Catalogue, p. 17; 14.

94 Edkins, l. c.

95 The Yaos subdued the Fus, and ruled as the dynasty of the After Khin.

96 See p. 208. He is sometimes called Balasan, or, according to Edkins, Palat'sanga, Baddala, or Dabadara. In the Fan-i-ming-i-tsi (vol. iii. fol. 6) the following account of Buddhabhadra is given: "Buddhabhadra met Kumaragiva in China, and whenever the latter found any doubts, the former was always asked for an explanation. In the fourteenth year of I-hsi (418 A. D.) Buddhabhadra translated the Fa-yan-king in sixty volumes." This Sutra is the Ta-fang-kwang-fo-fa-yan-king, Buddhavatamsaka-vai-pulya-sutra (Beal's Catalogue, p. 9). This translation was brought to Japan in 736.

97 The Sang-ki-liu, rules of priesthood; i. e. the Vinaya of the Mahasanghika school.

98 I call him Dharmaraksha II., in order to prevent a confusion which has been produced by identifying two Shamans who lived at a distance of nearly 200 years—the one 250 A. D., the other 420 A. D. The first is called Ku-fa-hu, which can be rendered Dharmaraksha; the second is called Fa-fang (law-prosperity), but, if transliterated, he is best known by the names T'on-mo-la-tsin, T'an-mo-tsin, or Dharmalatsin. He was a native of Central India, and arrived in China in the first year of the period Hiouen-shi of the Tsue-khu family of the Northern Liang, 414 A. D. He was the contemporary of Ki-mang, whom Mr. Beal places about 250 A. D., in order to make him a contemporary of Dharmaraksha I.

99 Mung-sun died 432, and was succeeded by his heir, who lost his kingdom in 439. Yao-khang's kingdom, however, was destroyed by the Eastern Tsin, at the time of his second successor, 417, not by Mung-sun.

100 It is said in the tenth year of the period Hung-shi of Yao-khang (better hsing), the copy arrived at Khang-an. But this cannot be, if Ki-mang went to India in 419. There must be something wrong in these dates.

101 The four Nikayas or Agamas; cf. Vinayapitaka, vol. i. p. xl.

102 Sariputrabhidharma-sastra; cf. Beal, Catalogue, p. 80.

103 Beal, Catalogue, p. 36.

104 Edkins, l. c.

105 Ibid.

106 Beal, Catalogue, p. 77; on p. 20 a translation of the Lankavatara is mentioned.

107 See Athenaeum, August 7, 1880; and infra, p. 370.

108 A long list of Sanskrit texts translated into Chinese may be found in the Journal Asiatique, 1849, p. 353 seq., s. t. "Concordance Sinico-Samskrite d'un nombre considerable de titres d'ouvrages Bouddhiques, recueillie dans un Catalogue Chinois de l'an 1306, par M. Stanislas Julien."

109 Csoma Koeroesi, As. Res. vol. xx. p. 418. Journal Asiatique, 1849, p. 356.

110 Cf. Beal, Catalogue, p. 66.

111 The modern paper in Nepal is said to date from 500 years ago (Hodgson, Essays).

112 M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 516.

113 Burnell, South Indian Palaeography, 2d ed. p. 84 seq.

114 See Sacred Books of the East, vol. i., Upanishads, Introduction, p. lxxviii.

115 Dr. Buehler (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay, 1877, p. 29) has the following interesting remarks: "The Bhurga MSS. are written on specially-prepared thin sheets of the inner bark of the Himalayan birch (Boetula Bhojpatr. Wallich), and invariably in Sarada characters. The lines run always parallel to the narrow side of the leaf, and the MSS. present, therefore, the appearance of European books, not of Indian MSS., which owe their form to an imitation of the Talapatras. The Himalaya seems to contain an inexhaustible supply of birch bark, which in Kasmir and other hill countries is used both instead of paper by the shopkeepers in the bazaars, and for lining the roofs of houses in order to make them water-tight. It is also exported to India, where in many places it is likewise used for wrapping up parcels, and plays an important part in the manufacture of the flexible pipe-stems used by huka smokers. To give an idea of the quantities which are brought into Srinagar, I may mention that on one single day I counted fourteen large barges with birch bark on the river.... The use of birch bark for literary purposes is attested by the earliest classical Sanskrit writers. Kalidasa mentions it in his dramas and epics; Sustuta, Varahamihira (circa 500-550 A. D.) know it likewise. As is the case with nearly all old customs, the use of birch bark for writing still survives in India, though the fact is little known. Mantras, which are worn as amulets, are written on pieces of Bhurga with ashtau gandbah, a mixture of eight odoriferous substances—e. g. camphor, sandal, tumeric—which vary according to the deity to which the writing is dedicated. The custom prevails in Bengal as well as in Gujarat. Birch-bark MSS. occur in Orissa. The Petersburg Dictionary refers to a passage in the Kathaka, the redaction of the Yajurveda formerly current in Kasmir, where the word Bhurga occurs, though it is not clear if it is mentioned there too as material for writing on. The Kasmirian Pandits assert, and apparently with good reason, that in Kasmir all books were written on bhurgapattras from the earliest times until after the conquest of the Valley by Akbar, about 200-250 years ago. Akbar introduced the manufacture of paper, and thus created an industry for which Kasmir is now famous in India."

116 Dr. Burnell, Indian Antiquary, 1880, p. 234, shows that Konkanapura is Konkanahlli in the Mysore territory.

117 Beal's Travels of Buddhist Pilgrims, Introd. p. xlvi.

118 Peterins Buuddhistes, vol. i. p. 158.

119 Fausboell, Dasaratha-jataka, p. 25.

120 See, also, Albiruni, as quoted by Reinaud, Memoir sur l'Inde, p. 305.

121 See Letter to the Times, "On the Religions of Japan," Oct. 20, 1880.

122 "Le Bouddhisme dans l'extreme Orient," Revue Scientifique, Decembre, 1879.

123 Journal Asiatique, 1871, p. 386 seq.

124 Five of these translations were introduced into Japan; the others seem to have been lost in China. The translations are spoken of as "the five in existence and the seven missing."

125 See p. 192.

126 See p. 192.

127 The MSS. vary between Sukhavati and Sukhavati.

128 See, also, Lotus de la bonne Loi, p. 267.

129 Journal of the R. A. S. 1856, p. 319.

130 I owe this information to the kindness of M. Leon Feer at Paris.

131 See Journal Asiatique, 3d series, vol. iii. p. 316; vol. iv. p. 296-298.

132 J. R. A. S. 1866, p. 136.

133 J. R. A. S. 1866, p. 136.

134 Beal, Catalogue, p. 23. J. R. A. S. 1856, p. 319. Beal, Catalogue, p. 77, mentions also an Amitabha-sutra-upadesa-sastra, by Vasubandhu, translated by Bodhiruki (Wou-liang-sheu-king-yeou-po-ti-she). There is an Amitabha-sutra, translated by Chi-hien of the Wu period—i. e. 222-280 A. D.—mentioned in Mr. Beal's Catalogue of the Buddhist Tripitaka, p. 6. The next Sutra, which he calls the Sutra of measureless years, is no doubt the Amitayus-sutra, Amitayus being another name for Amitabha (Fu-shwo-wou-liang-sheu-king, p. 6). See, also, Catalogue, pp. 99, 102. Dr. Edkins also, in his Notices of Buddhism in China, speaks of a translation of "the Sutra of boundless age," by Fa-t'ian-pun, a native of Magadha, who was assisted in his translation by a native of China familiar with Sanskrit, about 1000 A. D.

135 Sravasti, capital of the Northern Kosalas, residence of King Prasenagit. It was in ruins when visited by Fa-hian (init. V. Saec.); not far from the modern Fizabad. Cf. Burnouf, Introduction, p. 22.

136 Sardha, with, the Pali saddhim. Did not the frequent mention of 1,200 and a half (i. e. 1,250), 1,300 and a half (i. e. 1,350), persons accompanying Buddha arise from a misunderstanding of sardha, meaning originally "with a half"?

137 Abhignanabhignataih. The Japanese text reads abhignatabhagnataihi. e. abhignatabhignataih. If this were known to be the correct reading, we should translate it by "known by known people," notus a viris notisi. e. well-known, famous. Abhignata in the sense of known, famous, occurs in Lalita-Vistara, p. 25, and the Chinese translators adopted that meaning here. Again, if we preferred the reading abhignanabhignataih, this, too, would admit of an intelligible rendering—viz. known or distinguished by the marks or characteristics, the good qualities, that ought to belong to a Bhikshu. But the technical meaning is "possessed of a knowledge of the five abhignas." It would be better in that case to write abhignatabhignanaih, but no MSS. seem to support that reading. The five abhignas or abhignanas which an Arhat ought to possess are the divine sight, the divine hearing, the knowledge of the thoughts of others, the remembrance of former existences, and magic power. See Burnouf, Lotus, Appendice, No. xiv. The larger text of the Sukhavativyuha has abhignanabhignaih, and afterwards abhignatabhignaih. The position of the participle as the uttara-pada in such compounds as abhignanabhignataih is common in Buddhist Sanskrit. Mr. Bendall has called my attention to the Pali abhinnata-abhinnata (Vinaya-pitaka, ed. Oldenberg, vol. i. p. 43), which favors the Chinese acceptation of the term.

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