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Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol 1 - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook
by The Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D.
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Canutus of the two that furthest was from hope ... Cries, "Noble Edmund hold! Let us the land divide." ... and all aloud do cry, "Courageous kings, divide! 'Twere pity such should die." Drayton, Polyolbion, xii. (1613).

CANUTE'S BIRD, the knot, a corruption of "Knut," the Cinclus bellonii, of which king Canute was extremely fond.

The knot, that called was Canutus' bird of old, Of that great king of Danes, his name that still doth hold, His appetite to please ... from Denmark hither brought. Drayton, Polyolbion, xxv. (1622).

CANYNGE (Sir William) is represented in the Rowley Romance as a rich, God-fearing merchant, devoting much money to the Church, and much to literature. He was, in fact, a Maecenas of princely hospitality, living in the Red House. The priest Rowley was his "Horace."—Chatterton (1752-1770).

CAP (Charles), uncle of Mabel Dunham in Cooper's Pathfinder (1849). He is a sea-captain who insists in sailing a vessel upon the great northern lakes as he would upon the Atlantic, but, despite his pragmatic self-conceit, is nonplussed by the Thousand Islands.

"And you expect me, a stranger on your lake, to find this place without chart, course, distance, latitude, longitude, or soundings? Allow me to ask if you think a mariner runs by his nose, like one of Pathfinder's hounds?"

Having by a series of blunders consequent upon this course, brought schooners and crew to the edge of destruction, he shows heart by regretting that his niece is on board, and philosophy with professional pride by the conclusion:—

"We must take the bad with the good in every v'y'ge, and the only serious objection that an old sea-captain can with propriety make to such an event, is that it should happen on this bit of d—d fresh water."

CAPABILITY BROWN, Launcelot Brown, the English landscape gardener (1715-1783).

CAP'ANEUS (3 syl.) a man of gigantic stature, enormous strength, and headlong valor. He was impious to the gods, but faithful to his friends. Capaneus was one of the seven heroes who marched against Thebes (1 syl.), and was struck dead by a thunderbolt for declaring that not Jupiter himself should prevent his scaling the city walls.

CAPITAN, a boastful, swaggering coward, in several French farces and comedies prior to the time of Moliere.

CAPONSAC'CHI (Guiseppe), the young priest under whose protection Pompilia fled from her husband to Rome. The husband and his friends said the elopement was criminal; but Pompilia, Caponsacchi, and their friends maintained that the young canon simply acted the part of a chivalrous protector of a young woman who was married at fifteen, and who fled from a brutal husband who ill-treated her.—R. Browning, The Ring and the Book.

CAPSTERN (Captain), captain of an East

Indiaman, at Madras.—Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter (time, George II.).

CAPTAIN, Manuel Comnenus of Trebizond (1120, 1143-1180).

Captain of Kent. So Jack Cade called himself (died 1450).

The Great Captain (el Gran Capitano), Gonzalvo di Cordova (1453-1515).

The People's Captain (el Capitano del Popolo), Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-).

Captain (A Copper), a poor captain, whose swans are all geese, his jewellry paste, his guineas counters, his achievements tongue-doughtiness, and his whole man Brummagem. See Copper Captain.

Captain (The Black), lieutenant-colonel Dennis Davidoff of the Russian army. In the French invasion he was called by the French Le Capitaine Noir.

CAPTAIN LOYS [Lo.is]. Louise Labe was so called, because in early life she embraced the profession of arms, and gave repeated proofs of great valor. She was also called La Belle Cordiere. Louise Labe was a poetess, and has left several sonnets full of passion, and some good elegies (1526-1566).

CAPTAIN! MY CAPTAIN! fallen leader apostrophized by Walt Whitman in his lines upon the death of President Lincoln (1865).

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells! Rise up! for you the flag is flung, for you the bugle trills; For you bouquets and ribboned wreaths, for you the shores a-crowding; For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning.

Here, Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head! It is some dream that on the deck You've fallen cold and dead.

CAPTAIN RIGHT, a fictitious commander, the ideal of the rights due to Ireland. In the last century the peasants of Ireland were sworn to captain Right, as chartists were sworn to their articles of demand called their charter. Shakespeare would have furnished them with a good motto, "Use every man after his desert, and who shall 'scape whipping?" (Hamlet, act ii. sc. 2).

CAPTAIN ROCK, a fictitious name assumed by the leader of certain Irish insurgents in 1822, etc. All notices, summonses, and so on, were signed by this name.

CAP'ULET, head of a noble house of Verona, in feudal enmity with the house of Mon'tague (3 syl). Lord Capulet is a jovial, testy old man, self-willed, prejudiced, and tyrannical.

Lady Capulet, wife of lord Capulet and mother of Juliet.—Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (1598).

CAPYS, a blind old seer, who prophesied to Romulus the military triumphs of Rome from its foundation to the destruction of Carthage.

In the hall-gate sat Capys, Capys the sightless seer; From head to foot he trembled As Romulus drew near. And up stood stiff his thin white hair, And his blind eyes flashed fire.

Lord Macaulay, Lays of Ancient Rome ("The Prophecy of Capys," xi.).

CAR'ABAS (Le marquis de), an hypothetical title to express a fossilized old aristocrat, who supposed the whole world made for his behoof. The "king owes his throne to him;" he can "trace his pedigree to Pepin;" his youngest son is "sure of a mitre;" he is too noble "to pay taxes;" the very priests share their tithes with him; the country was made for his "hunting-ground;" and, therefore, as Beranger says:

Chapeau bas! chapeau bas! Gloire au marquis de Carabas!

The name occurs in Perrault's tale of Puss in Boots, but it is Beranger's song (1816) which has given the word its present meaning.

CARACCI OF FRANCE, Jean Jouvenet, who was paralyzed on the right side, and painted with his left hand (1647-1707).

CARACTACUS OR CARADOC, king of the Silures (Monmouthshire, etc.). For nine years he withstood the Roman arms, but being defeated by Ostorius Scapula the Roman general, he escaped to Brigantia (Yorkshire, etc.) to crave the aid of Carthismandua (or Cartimandua), a Roman matron married to Venutius, chief of those parts. Carthismandua betrayed him to the Romans, A.D. 47.—Richard of Cirencester, Ancient State of Britain, i. 6, 23.

Caradoc was led captive to Rome, A.D. 51, and, struck with the grandeur of that city, exclaimed, "Is it possible that a people so wealthy and luxurious can envy me a humble cottage in Britain?" Claudius the emperor was so charmed with his manly spirit and bearing that he released him and craved his friendship.

Drayton says that Caradoc went to Rome with body naked, hair to the waist, girt with a chain of steel, and his "manly breast enchased with sundry shapes of beasts. Both his wife and children were captives, and walked with him."—Polyolbion, viii. (1612).

CARACUL (i.e. Caraeatta), son and successor of Severus the Roman emperor. In A.D. 210 he made an expedition against the Caledonians, but was defeated by Fingal. Aurelius Antoninus was called "Caracalla" because he adopted the Gaulish caracalla in preference to the Roman toga.—Ossian, Comala.

The Caracul of Fingal is no other than Caracalla, who (as the son of Severus) the emperor of Rome ... was not without reason called "The Son of the King of the World." This was A.D. 210.—Dissertation on the Era of Ossian.

CARACULIAM'BO, the hypothetical giant of the island of Malindra'ma, whom don Quixote imagines he may one day conquer and make to kneel at the foot of his imaginary lady-love.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, I.i.1 (1605).

CAR'ADOC OR CRADOCK, a knight of the Round Table. He was husband of the only lady in the queen's train who could wear "the mantle of matrimonial fidelity." This mantle fitted only chaste and virtuous wives; thus, when queen Guenever tried it on—

One while it was too long, another while too short, And wrinkled on her shoulders in most unseemly sort.

Percy, Reliques ("Boy and the Mantle," III. iii. 18).

Sir Caradoc and the Boar's Head. The boy who brought the test mantle of fidelity to king Arthur's court drew a wand three times across a boar's head, and said, "There's never a cuckold who can carve that head of brawn." Knight after knight made the attempt, but only sir Cradock could carve the brawn.

Sir Cradock and the Drinking-horn. The boy furthermore brought forth a drinking-horn, and said, "No cuckold can drink from that horn without spilling the liquor." Only Cradock succeeded, and "he wan the golden can."—Percy, Reliques ("Boy and the Mantle," III. iii. 18).

CARADOC OF MEN'WYGENT, the younger bard of Gwenwyn prince of Powys-land. The elder bard of the prince was Cadwallon.—Sir W. Scott, The Betrothed (time, Henry II.).

CARATACH OR CARACTACUS, a British king brought captive before the emperor Claudius in A.D. 52. He had been betrayed by Cartimandua. Claudius set him at liberty.

And Beaumont's pilfered Caratach affords A tragedy complete except in words. Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809).

(Byron alludes to the "spectacle" of Caractacus produced by Thomas Sheridan at Drury Lane Theatre. It was Beaumont's tragedy of Bonduca, minus the dialogue.)

Digges [1720-1786] was the very absolute "Caratach." The solid bulk of his frame, his action, his voice, all marked him with identity. Boaden, Life of Siddons.

CARATHIS, mother of the caliph Vathek. She was a Greek, and induced her son to study necromancy, held in abhorrence by all good Mussulmans. When her son threatened to put to death every one who attempted without success to read the inscription of certain sabres, Carathis wisely said, "Content yourself, my son, with commanding their beards to be burnt. Beards are less essential to a state than men." She was ultimately carried by an afrit to the abyss of Eblis, in punishment of her many crimes.—W. Beckford, Vathek (1784).

CARAUSIUS, the first British emperor (237-294). His full name was Marcus Aurelius Valerius Carausius, and as emperor of Britain he was accepted by Diocletian and Maximian; but after a vigorous reign of seven years he was assassinated by Allectus, who succeeded him as "emperor of Britain."—See Gibbon, Decline and Fall, etc., ii. 13.

CARDAN (Jerome) of Pavia (1501-1576), a great mathematician and astrologer. He professed to have a demon or familiar spirit, who revealed to him the secrets of nature.

CARDEN (Grace), lovely girl with whom Henry Little (an artisan) and Frederick Coventry, gentleman, are enamored. Beguiled by Coventry into a belief that Little is dead, she consents to the marriage ceremony with his rival. Little reappears on the wedding-day, and she refuses to live with her husband. The marriage is eventually set aside, and Grace Carden espouses Henry Little.—Charles Reade, Put Yourself in His Place.

CARDENIO of Andalusia, of opulent parents, fell in love with Lucinda, a lady of equal family and fortune, to whom he was formally engaged. Don Fernando his friend, however, prevailed on Lucinda's father, by artifice, to break off the engagement and promise Lucinda to himself, "contrary to her wish, and in violation of every principle of honor." This drove Cardenio mad, and he haunted the Sierra Morena or Brown Mountain for about six months, as a maniac with lucid intervals. On the wedding-day Lucinda swooned, and a letter informed the bridegroom that she was married to Cardenio. Next day she privately left her father's house and took refuge in a convent; but being abducted by don Fernando, she was carried to an inn, where Fernando found Dorothea his wife, and Cardenio the husband of Lucinda. All parties were now reconciled, and the two gentlemen paired respectively with their proper wives.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. iv. (1605).

CARE, described as a blacksmith, who "worked all night and day." His bellows, says Spenser, are Pensiveness and Sighs.—Faery Queen, iv. 5 (1596).

CARE'LESS, one of the boon companions of Charles Surface.—Sheridan, School for Scandal (1777).

Care'less (Colonel), an officer of high spirits and mirthful temper, who seeks to win Ruth (the daughter of sir Basil Thoroughgood) for his wife.—T. Knight, The Honest Thieves.

This farce is a mere rechauffe of The Committee, by the hon. sir R. Howard. The names "colonel Careless" and "Ruth" are the same, but "Ruth" says her proper Christian name is "Anne."

Careless, in The Committee, was the part for which Joseph Ashbury (1638-1720) was celebrated.—Chetwood, History of the Stage.

(The Committee, recast by T. Knight, is called The Honest Thieves.)

Careless (Ned), makes love to lady Pliant.—W. Congreve, The Double Dealer (1700).

CARELESS HUSBAND (The), a comedy by Colley Cibber (1704). The "careless husband" is sir Charles Easy, who has amours with different persons, but is so careless that he leaves his love-letters about, and even forgets to lock the door when he has made a liaison, so that his wife knows all; yet so sweet is her temper, and under such entire control, that she never reproaches him, nor shows the slightest indication of jealousy. Her confidence so wins upon her husband that he confesses to her his faults, and reforms entirely the evil of his ways.

CAREME (Jean de), chef de cuisine of Leo X. This was a name given him by the pope for an admirable soupe maigre which he invented for Lent. A descendant of Jean was chef to the prince regent, at a salary of L1000 per annum, but he left this situation because the prince had only a menage bourgeois, and entered the service of baron Rothschild at Paris (1784-1833).

CAREY, innocent-faced rich young dude in Ellen Olney Kirk's novel, A Daughter of Eve (1889).

Carey (Patrick), the poet brother of lord Falkland, introduced by sir W. Scott in Woodstock (time, Commonwealth).

CAR'GILL (The Rev. Josiah), minister of St. Ronan's Well, tutor of the hon. Augustus Bidmore (2 syl.), and the suitor of Miss Augusta Bidmore, his pupil's sister.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

CARI'NO, father of Zeno'cia, the chaste troth-plight wife of Arnoldo (the lady dishonorably pursued by the governor count Clodio).—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Custom of the Country (1647).

CAR'KER (James), manager in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant. Carker was a man of forty, of a florid complexion, with very glistening white teeth, which showed conspicuously when he spoke. His smile was like "the snarl of a cat." He was the Alas'tor of the house of Dombey, for he not only brought the firm to bankruptcy, but he seduced Alice Marwood (cousin of Edith, Dombey's second wife), and also induced Edith to elope with him. Edith left the wretch at Dijon, and Carker, returning to England, was run over by a railway train and killed.

John Carker, the elder brother, a junior clerk in the same firm. He twice robbed it and was forgiven.

Harriet Carker, a gentle, beautiful young woman, who married Mr. Morfin, one of the employes in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant. When her elder brother John fell into disgrace by robbing his employer, Harriet left the house of her brother James (the manager) to live with and cheer her disgraced brother John.—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

CARLETON (Captain), an officer in the Guards.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

CARLISLE (Frederick Howard, earl of), uncle and guardian of lord Byron (1748-1826). His tragedies are The Father's Revenge and Bellamere.

The paralytic puling of Carlisle... Lord, rhymester, petit-maitre, pamphleteer. Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809).

CARLOS, elder son of don Antonio, and the favorite of his paternal uncle Lewis. Carlos is a great bookworm, but when he falls in love with Angelina he throws off his diffidence and becomes bold, resolute, and manly. His younger brother is Clodio, a mere coxcomb.—C. Cibber, Love Makes a Man (1694).

Carlos (under the assumed name of the marquis D'Antas) married Ogarita, but as the marriage was effected under a false name it was not binding, and Ogarita left Carlos to marry Horace de Brienne. Carlos was a great villain: he murdered a man to steal from him the plans of some Californian mines. Then embarking in the Urania, he induced the crew to rebel in order to obtain mastery of the ship. "Gold was the object of his desire, and gold he obtained." Ultimately, his villainies being discovered, he was given up to the hands of justice.—E. Stirling, The Orphan of the Frozen Sea (1856).

Carlos (Don), son of Philip II. of Portugal; deformed in person, violent and vindictive in disposition. Don Carlos was to have married Elizabeth of France, but his father supplanted him. Subsequently he expected to marry the arch-duchess Anne, daughter of the emperor Maximilian, but her father opposed the match. In 1564 Philip II. settled the succession on Rodolph and Ernest, his nephews, declaring Carlos incapable. This drove Carlos into treason, and he joined the Netherlands in a war against his father. He was apprehended and condemned to death, but was killed in prison. This has furnished the subject of several tragedies: i.e., Otway's Don Carlos (1672), in English; those of J.G. de Campistron (1683) and M.J. de Chenier (1789) in French; J.C.F. Schiller (1798) in German; Alfieri in Italian, about the same time.

Car'los (Don), the friend of don Alonzo, and the betrothed husband of Leono'ra, whom he resigns to Alonzo out of friendship. After marriage, Zanga induces Alonzo to believe that Leonora and don Carlos entertain a criminal love for each other, whereupon Alonzo, out of jealousy, has Carlos put to death, and Leonora kills herself.—Edward Young, The Revenge (1721).

Carlos (Don), husband of donna Victoria. He gave the deeds of his wife's estate to donna Laura, a courtesan, and Victoria, in order to recover them, assumed the disguise of a man, took the name of Florio, and made love to her. Having secured a footing, Florio introduced Gaspar as the wealthy uncle of Victoria, and Gaspar told Laura the deeds in her hand were utterly worthless. Laura in a fit of temper tore them to atoms, and thus Carlos recovered the estate and was rescued from impending ruin.—Mrs. Cowley, A Bold Stroke for a Husband (1782).

CARLTON (Admiral George), George IV., author of The Voyage of—in search of Loyalty, a poetic epistle (1820).

CARMEN, the fisherman's wife who, in Lufcadio Hearn's story Chita, adopts the baby dragged by her husband from the surf, and takes it to her heart in place of the child she has lost (1889).

Carmen (Eschelle), beautiful, ambitious, and intriguing New York society girl.—Charles Dudley Warner, A Little Journey in the World (1889).

CARMILHAN, the "phantom ship." The captain of this ship swore he would double the Cape, whether God willed it or not, for which impious vow he was doomed to abide forever and ever captain in the same vessel, which always appears near the Cape, but never doubles it. The kobold of the phantom ship is named Klaboterman, a kobold who helps sailors at their work, but beats those who are idle. When a vessel is doomed the kobold appears smoking a short pipe, dressed in yellow, and wearing a night-cap.

CARO, the Flesh or "natural man" personified. Phineas Fletcher says "this dam of sin" is a hag of loathsome shape, arrayed in steel, polished externally, but rusty within. On her shield is the device of a mermaid, with the motto, "Hear, Gaze, and Die."—The Purple Island, vii. (1633).

CAROLINE, queen-consort of George II., introduced by sir W. Scott in The Heart of Midlothian. Jeanie Deans has an interview with her in the gardens at Richmond, and her majesty promises to intercede with the king for Effie Deans's pardon.

CAROS OR CARAUSIUS, a Roman captain, native of Belgic Gaul. The emperor Maximian employed Caros to defend the coast of Gaul against the Franks and Saxons. He acquired great wealth and power, but fearing to excite the jealousy of Maximian, he sailed for Britain, where (in A.D. 287) he caused himself to be proclaimed emperor. Caros resisted all attempts of the Romans to dislodge him, so that they ultimately acknowledged his independence. He repaired Agricola's wall to obstruct the incursions of the Caledonians, and while he was employed on this work was attacked by a party commanded by Oscar, son of Ossian and grandson of Fingal. "The warriors of Caros fled, and Oscar remained like a rock left by the ebbing sea."—Ossian, The War of Caros.

CARPATH'IAN WIZARD (The), Proteus (2 syl.), who lived in the island of Car'pathos, in the Archipelago. He was a wizard, who could change his form at will. Being the sea-god's shepherd, he carried a crook.

[By] the Carpathian wizard's book [crook]. Milton, Comus, 872 (1634).

CARPET (Prince Housain's), a magic carpet, to all appearances quite worthless, but it would transport any one who sat on it to any part of the world in a moment. This carpet is sometimes called "the magic carpet of Tangu," because it came from Tangu, in Persia.—Arabian Nights ("Prince Ahmed").

Carpet (Solomon's). Solomon had a green silk carpet, on which his throne was set. This carpet was large enough for all his court to stand on; human beings stood on the right side of the throne, and spirits on the left. When Solomon wished to travel he told the wind where to set him down, and the carpet with all its contents rose into the air and alighted at the proper place. In hot weather the birds of the air, with outspread wings, formed a canopy over the whole party.—Sale, Koran, xxvii. (notes).

CARPIL'LONA (Princess), the daughter of Subli'mus king of the Peaceable Islands. Sublimus, being dethroned by a usurper, was with his wife, child, and a foundling boy thrown into a dungeon, and kept there for three years. The four captives then contrived to escape; but the rope which held the basket in which Carpillona was let down snapped asunder, and she fell into the lake. Sublimus and the other two lived in retirement as a shepherd family, and Carpillona, being rescued by a fisherman, was brought up by him as his daughter. When the "Humpbacked" Prince dethroned the usurper of the Peaceable Islands, Carpillona was one of the captives, and the "Humpbacked" Prince wanted to make her his wife; but she fled in disguise, and came to the cottage home of Sublimus, where she fell in love with his foster-son, who proved to be half-brother of the "Humpbacked" Prince. Ultimately, Carpillona married the foundling, and each succeeded to a kingdom.—Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("Princess Carpillona," 1682).

CAR'PIO (Bernardo del), natural son of don Sancho, and dona Ximena, surnamed "The Chaste." It was Bernardo del Carpio who slew Roland at Roncesvalles (4 syl.). In Spanish romance he is a very conspicuous figure.

CARRAS'CO (Samson), son of Bartholomew Carrasco. He is a licentiate of much natural humor, who flatters don Quixote, and persuades him to undertake a second tour.

CARRIER (Martha), a Salem goodwife, tried and executed for witchcraft. To Rev. Cotton Mather's narrative of her crimes and punishment is appended this memorandum:

This rampant hag, Martha Carrier, was the person of whom the confessions of the witches, and of her own children among the rest, agreed that the devil had promised her she should be Queen of Hell.—Cotton Mather, The Wonders of the Invisible World (1693).

CARRIL, the gray-headed, son of Kinfe'na bard of Cuthullin, general of the Irish tribes.—Ossian, Fingal.

CARRLLLO (Fray) was never to be found in his own cell, according to a famous Spanish epigram.

Like Fray Carillo, the only place in which one cannot find him Is his own cell.

Longfellow, The Spanish Student, i. 5.

CAR'ROL, deputy usher at Kenilworth Castle.—Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

CAR'STONE (Richard), cousin of Ada Clare, both being wards in Chancery interested in the great suit of "Jarndyce v. Jarndyce." Richard Carstone is a "handsome youth, about nineteen, of ingenuous face, and with a most engaging laugh." He marries his cousin Ada, and lives in hope that the suit will soon terminate and make him rich. In the meantime he tries to make two ends meet, first by the profession of medicine, then by that of law, then by the army; but the rolling stone gathers no moss, and the poor fellow dies of the sickness of hope deferred.—C. Dickens, Bleak House (1853).

CARTAPH'ILUS, the Wandering Jew of Jewish story. Tradition says he was doorkeeper of the judgment-hall, in the service of Pontius Pilate, and, as he led our Lord from the judgment-hall, struck Him, saying "Get on! Faster, Jesus!" Whereupon the Man of Sorrows replied, "I am going fast, Cartaphilus; but tarry thou till I come again." After the crucifixion, Cartaphilus was baptized by the same Anani'as who baptized Paul, and received the name of Joseph. At the close of every century he falls into a trance, and wakes up after a time a young man about thirty years of age.—Book of the Chronicles of the Abbey of St. Allans.

(This "book" was copied and continued by Matthew Paris, and contains the earliest account of the Wandering Jew, A.D. 1228. In 1242 Philip Mouskes, afterwards bishop of Tournay, wrote the "rhymed chronicle.")

CARTER (Mrs. Deborah), housekeeper to Surplus the lawyer.—J. M. Morton, A Regular Fix.

CAR'THAGE (2 syl.). When Dido came to Africa she bought of the natives "as much land as could be encompassed with a bull's hide." The agreement being made, Dido cut the hide into thongs, so as to enclose a space sufficiently large for a citadel, which she called Bursa "the hide." (Greek, bursa, "a bull's hide.")

The following is a similar story in Russian history:—The Yakutsks granted to the Russian explorers as much land as they could encompass with a cow's hide; but the Russians, cutting the hide into strips, obtained land enough for the town and fort which they called Yakutsk.

CARTHAGE OF THE NORTH. Luebeck was so called when it was the head of the Hanseatic League.

CAR'THON, son of Cless'ammor and Moina, was born while Clessammor was in flight, and his mother died in childbirth. When he was three years old, Comhal (Fingal's father) took and burnt Balclutha (a town belonging to the Britons, on the Clyde), but Carthon was carried away safely by his nurse. When grown to man's estate, Carthon resolved to revenge this attack on Balclutha, and accordingly invaded Morven, the kingdom of Fingal. After overthrowing two of Fingal's heroes, Carthon was slain by his own father, who knew him not; but when Clessammor learnt that it was his own son whom he had slain, he mourned for him three days, and on the fourth he died.—Ossian, Carthon.

CAR'TON (Sydney), a friend of Charles Darnay, whom he personally resembled. Sydney Carton loved Lucie Manette, but knowing of her attachment to Darnay, never attempted to win her. Her friendship, however, called out his good qualities, and he nobly died instead of his friend.—C. Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities (1859).

CARTOUCHE, an eighteenth century highwayman. He is the French Dick Turpin.

CA'RUS (Slow), in Garth's Dispensary, is Dr. Tyson (1649-1708).

CARYATI'DES (5 syl.), or CARYA'TES (4 syl.), female figures in Greek costume, used in architecture to support entablatures Ca'rya, in Arcadia, sided with the Persians when they invaded Greece, so after the battle of Thermop'ylae, the victorious Greeks destroyed the city, slew the men, and made the women slaves, Praxit'eles, to perpetuate the disgrace, employed figures of Caryan women with Persian men, for architectural columns.

CAS'CA, a blunt-witted Roman, and one of the conspirators who assassinated Julius Caesar. He is called "Honest Casca," meaning plain-spoken.—Shakespeare, Julius Caesar (1607).

CASCH'CASCH, a hideous genius, "hunch-backed, lame, and blind of one eye; with six horns on his head, and both his hands and feet hooked." The fairy Maimou'ne (3 syl.) summoned him to decide which was the more beautiful, "the prince Camaral'zaman or the princess Badou'ra," but he was unable to determine the knotty point.—Arabian Nights ("Camaralzaman and Badoura").

CASEL'LA, a musician and friend of the poet Dante, introduced in his Purgatory, ii. On arriving at purgatory, the poet sees a vessel freighted with souls come to be purged of their sins and made fit for paradise; among them he recognizes his friend Casella, whom he "woos to sing;" whereupon Casella repeats with enchanting sweetness the words of [Dante's] second canzone.

Dante shall give Fame leave to set thee higher Than his Casella, whom he wooed to sing, Met in the milder shades of purgatory.

Milton, Sonnet, xiii. (To H. Lawes).

CASEY, landlord of the tavern on "Red Hoss Mountain" in Eugene Field's poem Casey's Table d'Hote.

He drifted for a fortune to the undeveloped West, And he come to Eed Hoss Mountain when the little camp was new, When the money flowed like likker, an' the folks wuz brave an' true, And, havin' been a stewart on a Mississippi boat, He opened up a caffy, 'nd he run a tabble dote.

(1889.)

CAS'PAR, master of the horse to the baron of Arnheim. Mentioned in Donnerhugel's narrative.—Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.).

Cas'par, a man who sold himself to Za'miel the Black Huntsman. The night before the expiration of his life-lease, he bargained for a respite of three years, on condition of bringing Max into the power of the fiend. On the day appointed for the prize-shooting, Max aimed at a dove but killed Caspar, and Zamiel carried off his victim to "his own place."—Weber's opera, Der Freischuete (1822).

CASS (Godfrey), young farmer in Silas Marner, by George Eliot. Father of the heroine.

CASSAN'DRA, daughter of Priam, gifted with the power of prophecy; but Apollo, whom she had offended, cursed her with the ban "that no one should ever believe her predictions."—Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida (1602).

CASSEL (Count), an empty-headed, heart less, conceited puppy, who pays court to Amelia Wildenhaim, but is too insufferable to be endured. He tells her he "learnt delicacy in Italy, hauteur in Spain, enterprise in France, prudence in Russia, sincerity in England, and love in the wilds of America," for civilized nations have long since substituted intrigue for love.—Inchbald, Lovers' Vows (1800), altered from Kotzebue.

CASSI, the inhabitants of Hertfordshire or Cassio.—Caesar, Commentaries.

CASSIB'ELLAUN or CASSIB'ELAN (probably "Caswallon"), brother and successor of Lud. He was king of Britain when Julius Caesar invaded the island. Geoffrey of Monmouth says, in his British History, that Cassibellaun routed Caesar, and drove him back to Gaul (bk. iv. 3, 5). In Caesar's second invasion, the British again vanquished him (ch. 7), and "sacrificed to their gods as a thank-offering 40,000 cows, 100,000 sheep, 30,000 wild beasts, and fowls without number" (ch. 8). Androg'eus (4 syl.) "duke of Trinovantum," with 5000 men, having joined the Roman forces, Cassibellaun was worsted, and agreed "to pay 3000 pounds of silver yearly in tribute to Rome." Seven years after this Cassibellaun died and was buried at York.

In Shakespeare's Cymbeline the name is called "Cassibelan."

Polyaenus of Macedon tells us that Caesar had a huge elephant armed with scales of iron, with a tower on its back, filled with archers and slingers. When this beast entered the sea, Cassivelaunus and the Britons, who had never seen an elephant, were terrified, and their horses fled in affright, so that the Romans were able to land without molestation.—Drayton, Polyolbion, viii.

There the hive of Roman liars worship a gluttonous emperor-idiot. Such is Rome ... hear it, spirit of Cassivelaun.

Tennyson, Boadicea.

CAS'SILANE (3 syl.), general of Candy and father of Annophel.—Laws of Candy (1647).

CASSIM, brother of Ali Baba, a Persian. He married an heiress and soon became one of the richest merchants of the place. When he discovered that his brother had made himself rich by hoards from the robbers' cave, Cassim took ten mules charged with panniers to carry away part of the same booty. "Open Sesame!" he cried, and the door opened. He filled his sacks, but forgot the magic word. "Open Barley!" he cried, but the door remained closed. Presently the robber band returned, and cut him down with their sabres. They then hacked the carcass into four parts, placed them near the door, and left the cave. Ali Baba carried off the body and had it decently interred.—Arabian Nights ("Ali Baba, or the Forty Thieves").

CAS'SIO (Michael), a Florentine, lieutenant in the Venetian army under the command of Othello. Simple minded but not strong-minded, and therefore easily led by others who possessed greater power of will. Being overcome with wine, he engaged in a street-brawl, for which he was suspended by Othello, but Desdemona pleaded for his restoration. Iago made capital of this intercession to rouse the jealousy of the Moor. Cassio's "almost" wife was Bianca, his mistress.—Shakespeare, Othello (1611).

"Cassio" is brave, benevolent, and honest, ruined only by his want of stubbornness to resist an insidious invitation.—Dr. Johnson.

CASSIODO'RUS (Marcus Aurelius), a great statesman and learned writer of the sixth century, who died at the age of one hundred, in A.D. 562. He filled many high offices under Theod'oric, but ended his days in a convent.

Listen awhile to a learned prelection On Marcus Aurelius Cassiodorus. Longfellow, The Golden Legend.

CASSIOPEIA, wife of Ce'pheus (2 syl.) king of Ethiopia, and mother of Androm'eda. She boasted herself to be fairer than the sea-nymphs, and Neptune, to punish her, sent a huge sea-serpent to ravage her husband's kingdom. At death she was made a constellation, consisting of thirteen stars, the largest of which form a "chair" or imperfect W.

... had you been Sphered up with Cassiopeia. Tennyson, The Princess, iv.

CASSIUS, instigator of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar, and friend of Brutus.—Shakespeare, Julius Ccesar (1607).

Brutus. The last of all the Romans, fare thee well! It is impossible that ever Rome Should breed thy fellow. Friends, I owe more tears To this dead man than you shall see me pay. I shall find time, Cassius, I shall find time. Act. v. sc. 3.

Charles Mayne Young trod the boards with freedom. His countenance was equally well adapted for the expression of pathos or of pride; thus in such parts as "Hamlet," "Beverley," "The Stranger," "Pierre," "Zanga," and "Cassius," he looked the men he represented.—Rev. J. Young, Life of G. M. Young.

"Hamlet" (Shakespeare); "Beverley" (The Gamester, Moore); "The Stranger" (B. Thompson); "Pierre" (Venice Preserved, Otway); "Zanga" (Revenge, Young).

CASSY, a colored woman, mistress of Legree, in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Disgusted with her master and with her life, she befriends another woman, even more helpless than herself, and by stratagem and force of will contrives her escape (1852).

CASTAGNETTE (Captain), a hero whose stomach was replaced by a leather one made by Desgenettes [Da'.ge.net'], but his career was soon ended by a bomb-shell, which blew him into atoms,—Manuel, A French Extravaganza.

CASTA'LIO, son of lord Acasto, and Polydore's twin-brother. Both the brothers loved their father's ward, Monim'ia "the orphan." The love of Polydore was dishonorable love, but Castalio loved her truly and married her in private. On the bridal night Polydore by treachery took his brother's place, and next day, when Monimia discovered the deceit which had been practised on her, and Polydore heard that Monimia was really married to his brother, the bride poisoned herself, the adulterer ran upon his brother's sword, and the husband stabbed himself.—Otway, The Orphan (1680).

CASTA'RA, the lady addressed by Wm. Habington in his poems. She was Lucy Herbert (daughter of Wm. Herbert, first lord Powis), and became his wife. (Latin, casta, "chaste.")

If then, Castara, I in heaven nor move, Nor earth, nor hell, where am I but in love? W. Habington, To Castara (died 1654).

The poetry of Habington shows that he possessed ... a real passion for a lady of birth and virtue, the "Castara" whom he afterwards married.—Hallam.

CAS'TLEWOOD (Beatrix), the heroine of Esmond, a novel by Thackeray, the "finest picture of splendid lustrous physical beauty ever given to the world."

CAS'TOR (Steph'anos), the wrestler.—Sir W. Scott, Count Robert of Paris (time, Rufus).

Castor, of classic fable, is the son of Jupiter and Leda, and twin-brother of Pollux. The brothers were so attached to each other that Jupiter set them among the stars, where they form the constellation Gemini ("the twins"). Castor and Pollux are called the Dios'curi or "sons of Dios," i.e. Jove.

CAS'TRIOT (George), called by the Turks "Scanderbeg" (1404-1467). George Castriot was son of an Albanian prince, delivered as a hostage to Amurath II. He won such favor from the sultan that he was put in command of 5000 men, but abandoned the Turks in the battle of Mora'va (1443).

This is the first dark blot On thy name, George Castriot.

Longfellow, The Wayside Inn (an interlude).

CASTRUC'CIO CASTRACA'NI'S SWORD.

When Victor Emmanuel II went to Tuscany, the path from Lucca to Pistoia was strewed with roses. At Pistoia the orphan heirs of Pucci'ni met him, bearing a sword, and said, "This is the sword of Castruccio Castracani, the great Italian soldier, and head of the Ghibelines in the fourteenth century. It was committed to our ward and keeping till some patriot should arise to deliver Italy and make it free." Victor Emmanuel, seizing the hilt, exclaimed, "Questa e per me!" ("This is for me.")—E. B. Browning, The Sword of Castruccio Castracani.

CAS'YAPA. The father of the immortals, who dwells in the mountain called Hemacu'ta or Himakoot, under the Tree of Life, is called "Casyapa." Southey, Curse of Kehama. Canto vi. (1809).

CATEUCLA'NI, called Catieuchla'ni by Ptolemy, and Cassii by Richard of Cirencester. They occupied Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and Hertfordshire. Drayton refers to them in his Polyolbion, xvi.

CATGUT (Dr.), a caricature of Dr. Arne in The Commissary, by Sam. Foote (1765).

CATH'ARINE, queen-consort of Charles II; introduced by sir W. Scott in Peveril of the Peak. (See CATHERINE, and also under the letter K.)

Cath'arine (St.) of Alexandria (fourth century), patron saint of girls and virgins generally. Her real name was Dorothea; but St. Jerome says she was called Catharine from the Syriac word Kethar or Kathar, "a crown," because she won the triple crown of martyrdom, virginity, and wisdom. She was put to death on a wheel, November 25, which is her fete day.

To braid St. Catharine's hair means "to live a virgin."

Thou art too fair to be left to braid St. Catharine's tresses.

Longfellow, Evangeline (1848).

CATH'BA, son of Torman, beloved by Morna, daughter of Cormac king of Ireland. He was killed out of jealousy by Ducho'mar, and when Duchomar told Morna and asked her to marry him she replied, "Thou art dark to me, Duchomar; cruel is thine arm to Morna. Give me that sword, my foe;" and when he gave it, she "pierced his manly breast," and he died.

Cathba, young son of Torman, thou art of the love of Morna. Thou art a sunbeam in the day of the gloomy storm.—Ossian, Fingal, i.

CATH'ERINE, wife of Mathis, in The Polish Jew, by J. R. Ware.

Catherine, the somewhat uninteresting heroine of Washington Square, by Henry James, a commonplace creature made more commonplace by the dull routine of wealthy respectability (1880).

Catherine (The countess), usually called "The Countess," falls in love with Huon, a serf, her secretary and tutor. Her pride revolts at the match, but her love is masterful. When the duke her father is told of it, he insists on Huon's marrying Catherine, a freed serf, on pain of death. Huon refuses to do so till the countess herself entreats him to comply. He then rushes to the wars, where he greatly distinguishes himself, is created prince, and learns that his bride is not Catherine the quondam serf, but Catherine the duke's daughter.—S. Knowles, Love (1840).

CATH'ERINE OF NEWPORT, the wife of Julian Avenel (2 syl.).—Sir W. Scott, The Monastery (time, Elizabeth). (See CATHARINE, and under K.)

CATH'LEEN, one of the attendants on Flora M'Ivor.—Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, Greorge II.).

CATH'LIN OF CLU'THA, daughter of Cathmol. Duth-Carmor of Cluba had slain Cathmol in battle, and carried off Cathlin by force, but she contrived to make her escape and craved aid of Fingal. Ossian and Oscar were selected to espouse her cause, and when they reached Rathcol (where Duth-Carmor lived), Ossian resigned the command of the battle to his son Oscar. Oscar and Duth-Carmor met in combat, and the latter fell. The victor carried the mail and helmet of Duth-Carmor to Cathlin, and Cathlin said, "Take the mail and place it high in Selma's hall, that you may remember the helpless in a distant land."—Ossian, Cathlin of Clutha.

CATH'MOR, younger brother of Cair'bar ("lord of Atha"), but totally unlike him. Cairbar was treacherous and malignant; Cathmor high-minded and hospitable. Cairbar murdered Cormac king of Ireland, and having inveigled Oscar (son of Ossian) to a feast, vamped up a quarrel, in which both fell. Cathmor scorned such treachery. Cathmore is the second hero of the poem called Tem'ora, and falls by the hand of Fingal (bk. viii.).

Cathmor, the friend of strangers, the brother of red-haired Cairbar. Their souls were not the same. The light of heaven was in the bosom of Cathmor. His towers rose on the banks of Atha; seven paths led to his halls; seven chiefs stood on the paths and called strangers to the feast. But Cathmor dwelt in the wood, to shun the voice of praise.—Ossian, Temora, i.

CATH'OLIC (The). Alfonso I. of Asturias, called by Gregory III. His Catholic Majesty (693, 739-757).

Ferdinand II. of Ar'agon, husband of Isabella. Also called Ruse, "the wily" (1452, 1474-1516).

Isabella wife of Ferdinand II. of Aragon, so called for her zeal in establishing the Inquisition (1450, 1474-1504).

CATHOLIC MAJESTY (Catholica Majestad), the special title of the kings of Spain. It was first given to king Recared (590) in the third Council of Toledo, for his zeal in rooting out the "Arian heresy."

Cui a Deo aeternum meritum nisi vero Catholico Recaredo regi? Cui a Deo aeterna corona nisi vero orthodoxo Recaredo regi?—Gregor. Mag., 127 and 128.

But it was not then settled as a fixed title to the kings of Spain. In 1500 Alexander VI. gave the title to Ferdinand V. king of Aragon and Castile, and from that time it became annexed to the Spanish crown.

Ab Alexandro pontifice Ferdinandus "Catholici" cognomentum accepit in posteros cum regno transfusum stabili possessione. Honorum titulos principibus dividere pontincibus Romanis datur.—Mariana, De Rebus Hesp., xxvi. 12; see also vii. 4.

CA'THOS, cousin of Madelon, brought up by her uncle Gor'gibus, a plain citizen in the middle rank of life. These two silly girls have had their heads turned by novels, and thinking their names commonplace, Cathos calls herself Aminta, and her cousin adopts the name of Polix'ena. Two gentlemen wish to marry them, but the girls consider their manners too unaffected and easy to be "good style," so the gentlemen send their valets to represent the "marquis of Mascarille" and the "viscount of Jodelet." The girls are delighted with these "distinguished noblemen;" but when the game has gone far enough, the masters enter, and lay bare the trick. The girls are taught a useful lesson, without being involved in any fatal ill consequences.—Moliere, Les Precieuses Ridicules (1659).

CATHUL'LA, king of Inistore (the Orkneys) and brother of Coma'la (q.v.). Fingal, on coming in sight of the palace, observed a beacon-flame on its top as signal of distress, for Frothal king of Sora had besieged it. Fingal attacked Frothal, engaged him in single combat, defeated him, and made him prisoner.—Ossian, Carrick-Thura.

CAT'ILINE (3 syl.), a Roman patrician, who headed a conspiracy to overthrow the Government, and obtain for himself and his followers all places of power and trust. The conspiracy was discovered by Cicero. Catiline escaped and put himself at the head of his army, but fell in the battle after fighting with desperate daring (B.C. 62). Ben Jonson wrote a tragedy called Catiline (1611), and Voltaire, in his Rome Sauvee, has introduced the conspiracy and death of Catiline (1752).

CA'TO, the hero and title of a tragedy by J. Addison (1713). Disgusted with Caesar, Cato retired to U'tica (in Africa), where he had a small republic and mimic senate; but Caesar resolved to reduce Utica as he had done the rest of Africa, and Cato, finding resistance hopeless, fell on his own sword.

Tho' stern and awful to the foes of Rome, He is all goodness, Lucia, always mild, Compassionate, and gentle to his friends; Filled with domestic tenderness. Act v. 1.

When Barton Booth [1713] first appeared as "Cato," Bolingbroke called him into his box and gave him fifty guineas for defending the cause of liberty so well against a perpetual dictator.—Life of Addison.

He is a Cato, a man of simple habits, severe morals, strict justice, and blunt speech, but of undoubted integrity and patriotism, like the Roman censor of that name, the grandfather of the Cato of Utica, who resembled him in character and manners.

CATO AND HORTENS'IUS. Cato of Utica's second wife was Martia daughter of Philip. He allowed her to live with his friend Hortensius, and after the death of Hortensius took her back again.

[Sultans] don't agree at all with the wise Roman, Heroic, stoic Cato, the sententious, Who lent his lady to his friend Hortensius.

Byron, Don Juan, vi. 7 (1821).

CATUL'LUS. Lord Byron calls Thomas Moore the "British Catullus," referring to a volume of amatory poems published in 1808, under the pseudonym of "Thomas Little."

'Tis Little! young Catullus of his day, As sweet but as immoral as his lay.

Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809).

The Oriental Catullus, Saadi or Sadi, a Persian poet. He married a rich merchant's daughter, but the marriage was an unhappy one. His chief works are The Gulistan (or "garden of roses") and The Bostan (or "garden of fruits") (1176-1291).

CAU'DLE (Mrs. Margaret), a curtain lecturer, who between eleven o'clock at night and seven the next morning delivered for thirty years a curtain lecture to her husband Job Caudle, generally a most gentle listener; if he replied she pronounced him insufferably rude, and if he did not he was insufferably sulky.—Douglas Jerrold, Punch ("The Caudle Papers").

CAU'LINE (Sir), a knight who served the wine to the king of Ireland. He fell in love with Christabelle (3 syl.), the king's-daughter, and she became his troth-plight wife, without her father's knowledge. When the king knew of it, he banished sir Cauline (2 syl.). After a time the Soldain asked the lady in marriage, but sir Cauline challenged his rival and slew him. He himself, however, died of the wounds he had received, and the lady Christabelle, out of grief, "burst her gentle hearte in twayne."—Percy's Reliques, I. i. 4.

CAU'RUS, the stormy west-north-west wind; called in Greek Argestes.

The ground by piercing Caurus seared.

Thomson, Castle of Indolence, ii. (1748).

CAUSTIC, of the Despatch newspaper, was the signature of Mr. Serle.

Christopher Caustic, the pseudonym of Thomas Green Fessenden, author of Terrible Tractoration, a Hudibrastic poem (1771-1837).

Caustic (Colonel), a fine gentleman of the last century, very severe on the degeneracy of the present race.—Henry Mackenzie, in The Lounger.

CA'VA, or Florida, daughter of St. Julian. It was the violation of Cava by Roderick that brought about the war between the Goths and the Moors, in which Roderick was slain (A.D. 711).

CAVALIER (The). Eon de Beaumont, called by the French Le Chevalier d'Eon (1728-1810). Charles Breydel, the Flemish landscape painter (1677-1744). Francisco Cairo, the historian, called El Chavaliere del Cairo (1598-1674). Jean le Clerc, Le Chevalier (1587-1633). J. Bapt. Marini, the Italian poet, called Il Cavaliere (1569-1625). Andrew Michael Ramsay (1686-1743).

James Francis Edward Stuart, the

"Old Pretender," was styled Le Chevalier de St. George (1688-1765). Charles Edward, the "Young Pretender," was styled The Bonnie Chevalier or The Young Cavalier (1720-1788).

CAVALL', "king Arthur's hound of deepest mouth."—Tennyson, Idylls of the King ("Enid").

CAV'ENDISH, author of Principles of Whist, and numerous guide-books on games, as Bezique, Piquet, Ecarte, Billiards, etc. Henry Jones, editor of "Pastimes" in The Field and The Queen newspapers (1831-).

CAX'ON (Old Jacob), hairdresser of Jonathan Oldbuck ("the antiquary") of Monkbarns.

Jenny Caxon, a milliner; daughter of Old Jacob.—Sir W. Scott, The Antiquary (time, George III.).

CAXTON (Pisistratus), Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton, baron Lytton, author of My Novel (1853); What will He do with it? (1859); Caxtoniania (1863); The Boatman (1864).

CECIL, the hero of a novel so called by Mrs. Gore (1790-1861).

CECIL DREEME, alias Clara Denman. The young woman assumes a man's dress and character, and sustains it so well as to deceive those dearest to her. She is kidnapped and in danger of death, and her rescuers discover the truth.—Theodore Winthrop, Cecil Dreeme (1861).

CECILIA, belle of the village in which H. W. Longfellow's Kavanagh is the clergyman. She wins his affections easily, unconsciously becoming the rival of her dearest friend (1872).

Cecilia (St.), the patroness of musicians and "inventor of the organ." The legend says that an angel fell in love with Cecilia for her musical skill, and nightly brought her roses from paradise. Her husband saw the angel visitant, who gave to both a crown of martyrdom.

Thou seem'st to me like the angel That brought the immortal roses To St. Cecilia's bridal chamber.

Longfellow, The Golden Legend.

CE'DRIC, a thane of Rotherwood, and surnamed "the Saxon."—Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.).

CEL'ADON AND AME'LIA, lovers of matchless beauty, and most devoted to each other. Being overtaken by a thunderstorm, Amelia became alarmed, but Celadon, folding his arm about her, said, "'Tis safety to be near thee, sure;" but while he spoke, Amelia was struck by lightning and fell dead in his arms.—Thomson, The Seasons ("Summer," 1727).

CELE'NO OR CELSAE'NO, chief of the harpies.

There on a craggy stone Celeno hung, and made his direful moan. Giles Fletcher, Christ's Triumph [on Earth] (1610).

CE'LIA, daughter of Frederick the usurping duke, and cousin of Ros'alind, daughter of the banished duke. When Rosalind was driven from her uncle's court, Celia determined to go with her to the forest of Arden to seek out the banished duke, and for security's sake Rosalind dressed in boy's clothes and called herself "Gan'ymede," while Celia dressed as a peasant girl and called herself "Aliena." When they reached Arden they lodged for a time in a shepherd's hut, and Oliver de Boys was sent to tell them that his brother Orlando was hurt and could not come to the hut as usual. Oliver and Celia fell in love with each other, and their wedding-day was fixed. Ganymede resumed the dress of Bosalind, and the two brothers married at the same time.—Shakespeare, As You Like It (1598).

Ce'lia, a girl of sixteen, in Whitehead's comedy of The School for Lovers. It was written expressly for Mrs. Cibber, daughter of Dr. Arne.

Mrs. Cibber was at the time more than fifty years old, but the uncommon symmetry and exact proportion in her form, with her singular vivacity, enabled her to represent the character of "Celia" with all the juvenile appearance marked by the author.—Percy, Anecdotes.

Ce'lia, a poetical name for any lady-love: as "Would you know my Celia's charms ...?" Not unfrequently Streph'on is the wooer when Celia is the wooed. Thomas Carew calls his "sweet sweeting" Celia; her real name is not known.

Ce'lia (Dame), mother of Faith, Hope, and Charity. She lived in the hospice called Holiness. (Celia is from the Latin, coelum, "heaven.")—Spenser, Faery Queen, i. 10 (1590).

CELIA SHAW, a gentle-hearted mountain girl who, learning that her father and his clan intend to "clean out" a family fifteen miles up the mountain, steals out on a snowy night and makes her way to their hut to warn them of their danger. She takes cold on the fearful journey, and dies of consumption.—Charles Egbert Craddock, In the Tennessee Mountains (1884).

CELIMENE (3syl.), a coquette courted by Alceste (2 syl.) the "misanthrope" (a really good man, both upright and manly, but blunt in behavior, rude in speech, and unconventional). Alceste wants Celimene to forsake society and live with him in seclusion; this she refuses to do, and he replies, as you cannot find, "tout en moi, comme moi tout en vous, allez, je vous refuse." He then proposes to her cousin Eliante (3 syl.), but Eliante tells him she is already engaged to his friend Philinte (2 syl), and so the play ends.—Moliere, Le Misanthrope (1666).

"Celimene" in Moliere's Les Precieuses Ridicules is a mere dummy. She is brought on the stage occasionally towards the end of the play, but never utters one word, and seems a supernumerary of no importance at all.

CELIN'DA, the victim of count Fathom's seduction.—Smollett, Count Fathom (1754).

CEL'LIDE (2 syl.), beloved by Valentine and his son Francisco. The lady naturally prefers the younger man.—Beaumont and Fletcher, Mons. Thomas (1619).

CELTIC HOMER (The), Ossian, said to be of the third century.

If Ossian lived at the introduction of Christianity, as by all appearances he did, his epoch will be the latter end of the third and beginning of the fourth century.

The "Caracul" of Fingal, who is no other than Caracalla (son of Seve'rus emperor of Rome), and the battle fought against Caros or Carausius ... fix the epoch of Fingal to the third century, and Irish historians place his death in the year 283. Ossian was Fingal's son.—Era of Ossian.

CENCI. Francesco Cenci was a most profligate Roman noble, who had four sons and one daughter, all of whom he treated with abominable cruelty. It is said that he assassinated his two elder sons and debauched his daughter Beatrice. Beatrice and her two surviving brothers, with Lucretia (their mother), conspired against Francesco and accomplished his death, but all except the youngest brother perished on the scaffold, September 11, 1501.

It has been doubted whether the famous portrait in the Barberini palace at Rome is really of Beatrice Cenci, and even whether Guido Eeni was the painter.

Percy B. Shelley wrote a tragedy called The Cenci (1819).

CENIMAG'NI, the inhabitants of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge.—Caesar, Commentaries.

CENTAUR (The Blue), a human form from the waist upwards, and a goat covered with blue shag from the waist downwards. Like the Ogri, he fed on human flesh.

"Shepherds," said he, "I am the Blue Centaur. If you will give me every third year a young child, I promise to bring a hundred of my kinsmen and drive the Ogri away." ... He [the Blue Centaur] used to appear on the top of a rock, with his club in one hand ... and with a terrible voice cry out to the shepherds, "Leave me my prey, and be off with you!"—Comtesse d'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("Princess Carpillona," 1682).

CEN'TURY WHITE, John White, the nonconformist lawyer. So called from his chief work, entitled The First Century of Scandalous, Malignant Priests, etc. (1590-1645).

CE'PHAL (Greek, Kephale), the Head personified, the "acropolis" of The Purple Island, fully described in canto v. of that poem, by Phineas Fletcher (1633).

CEPH'ALUS (in Greek, Kephalos). One day, overcome with heat, Cephalus threw himself on the grass, and cried aloud, "Come, gentle Aura, and this heat allay!" The words were told to his young wife Procris, who, supposing Aura to be some rival, became furiously jealous. Resolved to discover her rival, she stole next day to a covert, and soon saw her husband come and throw himself on the bank, crying aloud, "Come, gentle Zephyr; come, Aura, come, this heat allay!" Her mistake was evident, and she was abont to throw herself into the arms of her husband, when the young man, aroused by the rustling, shot an arrow into the covert, supposing some wild beast was about to spring on him. Procris was shot, told her tale, and died.—Ovid, Art of Love, iii.

(Cephalus loves Procris, i.e. "the sun kisses the dew." Procris is killed by Cephalus, i.e. "the dew is destroyed by the rays of the sun.")

CERAS'TES (3 syl.), the horned snake. (Greek, keras, "a horn.") Milton uses the word in Paradise Lost, x. 525 (1665).

CERBERUS, a dog with three heads, which keeps guard in hell. Dante places it in the third circle.

Cerberus, cruel monster, fierce and strange, Through his wide threefold throat barks as a dog ... His eyes glare crimson, black his unctuous beard, His belly large, and clawed the hands with which He tears the spirits, flays them, and their limbs Piecemeal disparts.

Dante, Hell, vi. (1300, Cary's translation).

CER'DON, the boldest of the rabble leaders in the encounter with Hu'dibras at the bear-baiting. The original of this character was Hewson, a one-eyed cobbler and preacher, who was also a colonel in the Rump army.—S. Butler, Hudibras, i. 2 (1663).

CERES (2 syl.), the Fruits of Harvest personified. In classic mythology Ceres means "Mother Earth," the protectress of fruits.

Ceres, the planet, is so called because it was discovered from the observatory of Palermo, and Ceres is the tutelar goddess of Sicily.

CER'IMON, a physician of Ephesus, who restored to animation Thaisa, the wife of Per'icles, prince of Tyre, supposed to be dead.—Shakespeare, Pericles Prince of Tyre (1608).

CHAB'OT (Philippe de), admiral of France, governor of Bourgoyne and Normandy under Francois I. Montmorency and the cardinal de Lorraine, out of jealousy, accused him of malversation. His faithful servant Allegre was put to the rack to force evidence against the accused, and Chabot was sent to prison because he was unable to pay the fine levied upon him. His innocence, however, was established by the confession of his enemies, and he was released; but disgrace had made so deep an impression on his mind that he sickened and died. This is the subject of a tragedy entitled The Tragedy of Philip Chabot, etc., by George Chapman and James Shirley.

CHAD'BAND (The Rev. Mr.), type of a canting hypocrite "in the ministry." He calls himself "a vessel," is much admired by his dupes, and pretends to despise the "carnal world," but nevertheless loves dearly its "good things," and is most self-indulgent.—C. Dickens, Bleak House (1853).

CHAFFINGTON (Mr. Percy), M.P., a stockbroker.—T. M. Morton, If I had a Thousand a Year.

CHALBROTH, the giant, the root of the race of giants, including Polypheme (3 syl.), Goliath, the Titans, Fierabras, Gargantua, and closing with Pantag'ruel. He was born in the year known for its "week of three Thursdays."—Rabelais, Pantagruel, ii. (1533).

CHAL'YBES (3 syl.), a people on the south shore of the Black Sea, who occupied themselves in the working of iron.

On the left hand dwell The iron-workers called the Chalybes, Of whom beware. E. B. Browning, Prometheus Bound (1850).

CHAM, the pseudonym of comte Amedee de Noe, a peer of France, a great wit, and the political caricaturist of Charivari (the French Punch). The count was one of the founders of the French Republic in 1875. As Cham or Ham was the second son and scapegrace of Noah, so Amedee was the second son and scapegrace of the comte de Noe [Noah].

CHAM OF LITERATURE, (The Great), a nickname given to Dr. Samuel Johnson by Smollett in a letter to John Wilkes (1709-1784).

CHAM OF TARTARY, a corruption of Chan or Khan, i.e. "lord or prince," as Hoccota Chan. "Ulu Chan" means "great lord," "ulu" being equal to the Latin magnus, and "chan" to dominus or imperator. Sometimes the word is joined to the name, as Chan-balu, Cara-chan, etc. The Turks have also had their "Sultan Murad chan bin Sultan Selim chan," i.e. Sultan Murad prince, son of Sultan Selim prince.—Selden, Titles of Honor, vi. 66 (1672).

CHAM'BERLAIN (Matthew), a tapster, the successor of Old Roger Raine (1 syl.).—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

CHAMONT, brother of Monimia "the orphan," and the troth-plight husband of Seri'na (daughter of lord Acasto). He is a soldier, so proud and susceptible that he is forever taking offence, and setting himself up as censor or champion. He fancies his sister Monim'ia has lost her honor, and calls her to task, but finds he is mistaken. He fancies her guardian, old Acasto, has not been sufficiently watchful over her, and draws upon him in his anger, but sees his folly just in time to prevent mischief. He fancies Castalio, his sister's husband, has ill-treated her, and threatens to kill him, but his suspicions are again altogether erroneous. In fact, his presence in the house was like that of a madman with fire-brands in a stack-yard.—Otway, The Orphan (1680).

There are characters in which he [C. M. Young] is unrivalled and almost perfect. His "Pierre" [Venice Preserved, Otway] is more soldierly than Kemble's; his "Chamont" is full of brotherly pride, noble impetuosity, and heroic scorn.—New Monthly Magazine (1822).

CHAMPAGNE (Henry earl of), a crusader.—Sir W. Scott, The Talisman (time, Richard I.).

CHAM'PERNEL', a lame old gentleman, the husband of Lami'ra, and son-in-law of judge Vertaigne (2 sy).—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Little French Lawyer (1647).

CHAMPION OF THE VIRGIN. St. Cyril of Alexandria is so called from his defence of the "Incarnation" or doctrine of the "hypostatic union," in the long and stormy dispute with Nesto'rius bishop of Constantinople.

CHAMPNEYS (Sir Geoffry), a fossilized old country gentleman, who believes in "blue blood" and the "British peerage." Father of Talbot, and neighbor of Perkyn Middlewick, a retired butterman. The sons of these two magnates are fast friends, but are turned adrift by their fathers for marrying in opposition to their wishes. When reduced to abject poverty, the old men go to visit their sons, relent, and all ends happily.

Miss Champneys, sir Geoffry's sister, proud and aristocratic, but quite willing to sacrifice both on the altar of Mr. Perkyn Middlewick, the butterman, if the wealthy plebeian would make her his wife and allow her to spend his money.—H. J. Byron, Our Boys (1875).

Talbot Champneys, a swell with few brains and no energy. His name, which is his passport into society, will not find him salt in the battle of life. He marries Mary Melrose, a girl without a penny, but his father wants him to marry Violet the heiress.

CHAN'TICLEER (3 syl.), the cock, in the beast-epic of Reynard the Fox (1498), and also in "The Nonne Preste's Tale," told in The Canterbury Tales, by Chaucer (1388).

CHAON'IAN BIRD (The), the dove; so called because doves delivered the oracles of Dodona or Chaon'ia.

But the mild swallow none with, toils infest, And none the soft Chaonian bird molest. Ovid, Art of Love, ii.

CHAONIAN FOOD, acorns, so called from the oak trees of Dodona, which gave out the oracles by means of bells hung among the branches. Beech mast is so called also, because beech trees abounded in the forest of Dodona.

CHARALOIS, son of the marshal of Burgundy. When he was twenty-eight years old his father died in prison at Dijon, for debts contracted by him for the service of the State in the wars. According to the law which then prevailed in France, the body of the marshal was seized by his creditors, and refused burial. The son of Charalois redeemed his father's body by his own, which was shut up in prison in lieu of the marshal's.—Philip Massinger, The Fatal Dowry (1632).

(It will be remembered that Milti'ades, the Athenian general, died in prison for debt, and the creditors claimed the body, which they would not suffer to be buried till his son Cimon gave up himself as a hostage.)

CHAR'EGITE (3 syl.). The Charegite assassin, in the disguise of a Turkish marabout or enthusiast, comes and dances before the tent of Richard Coeur de Lion, and suddenly darting forward, is about to stab the king, when a Nubian seizes his arm, and the king kills the assassin on the spot.—Sir W. Scott, The Talisman (time, Richard I.).

CHARICLE'IA, the fiancee of Theag'enes, in the Greek romance called The Loves of Theagenes and Charicleia, by Heliodo'ros bishop of Trikka (fourth century).

CHARI'NO, father of Angelina. Charino wishes Angelina to marry Clodio, a young coxcomb; but the lady prefers his elder brother Carlos, a young bookworm. Love changes the character of the diffident Carlos, and Charino at last accepts him for his son-in-law. Charino is a testy, obstinate old man, who wants to rule the whole world in his own way.—C. Cibber, Love Makes the Man (1694).

CHAR'LEMAGNE AND HIS PALADINS. This series of romances is of French origin, as the Arthurion is Welsh or British. It began with the legendary chronicle in verse, called Historia de Vita Carola Magni et Rolandi, erroneously attributed to Turpin archbishop of Rheims (a contemporary of Charlemagne), but probably written two or three hundred years later. The chief of the series are Huon of Bordeaux, Guerin de Monglave, Gaylen Rhetore (in which Charlemagne and his paladins proceed in mufti to the Holy Land), Miles and Ames, Jairdain de Blaves, Doolin de Mayence, Ogier le Danais, and Maugis the Enchanter.

Charlemagne and the Ring. Pasquier says that Charles le Grand fell in love with a peasant girl [Agatha], in whose society he seemed bewitched, insomuch that all matters of state were neglected by him; but the girl died, to the great joy of all. What, however, was the astonishment of the court to find that the king seemed no less bewitched with the dead body than he had been with the living, and spent all day and night with it, even when its smell was quite offensive. Archbishop Turpin felt convinced there was sorcery in this strange infatuation, and on examining the body, found a ring under the tongue, which he removed. Charlemagne now lost all regard for the dead body; but followed Turpin, with whom, he seemed infatuated. The archbishop now bethought him of the ring, which he threw into a pool at Aix, where Charlemagne built a palace and monastery, and no spot in the world had such attractions for him as Aix-la-Chapelle, where "the ring" was buried.—Recherches de la France, vi. 33.

Charlemagne and Years of Plenty. According to German legend, Charlemagne appears in seasons of plenty. He crosses the Rhine on a golden bridge, and blesses both corn-fields and vineyards.

Thou standest, like imperial Charlemagne, Upon thy bridge of gold.

Longfellow, Autumn.

Charlemagne not dead. According to legend, Charlemagne was crowned and armed in Odenberg (Hesse) or Untersberg, near Saltzburg, till the time of antichrist, when he will wake up and deliver Christendom. (See BARBAROSSA.)

Charlemagne's Nine Wives: (1) Hamiltrude, a poor Frenchwoman, who bore him several children. (2) Desidera'ta, who was divorced. (3) Hildegarde. (4) Fastrade, daughter of count Rodolph the Saxon. (5) Luitgarde the German. The last three died before him. (6) Maltegarde. (7) Gersuinde the Saxon. (8) Regina. (9) Adalinda.

Charlemagne's Stature. We are told that Charlemagne was "eight feet high," and so strong that he could "straighten with his hands alone three horseshoes at once." His diet and his dress were both as simple as possible.

Charlemagne's Sword, La Joyeuse.

CHARLEMAGNE OF SERVIA, Stephen Dushan.

CHARLES "the Bold," duke of Burgundy, introduced by sir W. Scott in two novels, viz., Quentin Durward and Anne of Geierstein. The latter novel contains an account of the battle of Nancy, where Charles was slain.

Charles prince of Wales (called "Babie Charles"), son of James I., introduced by sir W. Scott in The Fortunes of Nigel.

Charles "the Good," earl of Flanders. In 1127 he passed a law that whoever married a serf should become a serf: thus if a prince married a serf, the prince would become a serf. This absurd law caused his death, and the death of the best blood in Bruges.—S. Knowles, The Provost of Bruges (1836).

CHARLES II. of England, introduced by sir W. Scott in two novels, viz., Peveril of the Peak and Woodstock. In this latter he appears first as a gipsy woman, and afterwards under the name of Louis Kerneguy (Albert Lee's page).

CHARLES IX. of France. Instigated by his mother, Catherine de Medici, he set on foot the massacre of St. Bartholomew (1550-1574).

CHARLES XII. of Sweden. "Determined to brave the seasons, as he had done his enemies, Charles XII. ventured to make long marches during the cold of the memorable winter of 1709. In one of these marches two thousand of his men died from the cold."

(Planche has an historical drama, in two acts, called Charles XII.; and the Life of Charles XII., by Voltaire, is considered to be one of the best written historical works in the French language.)

CHARLES EDWARD [STUART], called "The Chevalier Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender," introduced by sir W. Scott in Redgauntlet (time, George III.), first as "father Bonaventure," and afterwards as "Pretender to the British crown." He is again introduced in Waverley (time, George II.).

CHARLES EMMANUEL, son of Victor Amade'us (4 syl.) king of Sardinia. In 1730 his father abdicated, but somewhat later wanted his son to restore the crown again. This he refused to do; and when Victor plotted against him, D'Orme'a was sent to arrest the old man, and he died. Charles was brave, patient, single-minded, and truthful.—R. Browning, King Victor and King Charles, etc.

CHARLES KNOLLYS, an English bridegroom, who falls into a crevasse on his wedding-trip, and is found by his wife in the ice, still young and beautiful in his icy shroud, forty-five years later.—J. S. of Dale (Frederic Jesup Stimson), Mrs. Knollys (1888).

CHARLEY, plu. Charlies, an old watchman or "night guardian," before the introduction of the police force by sir Robert Peel, in 1829. So called from Charles I., who extended and improved the police system.

CHARLEY KEENE, merry little doctor in The Grandissimes, in love with the beautiful Creole girl Clotilde (1880).

CHARLIE, alias "Injin Charlie," alias "Old Charlie," a "dark white man" in Belles Demoiselles' Plantation, by George W. Cable. "Sunk in the bliss of deep ignorance, shrewd, deaf, and by repute, at least, unmerciful" (1879).

CHARIOT, a messenger from Liege to Louis XI—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

CHARLOTTE, the faithful sweetheart of young Wilmot, supposed to have perished at sea.—Geo. Lillo, Fatal Curiosity (1736).

Charlotte, the dumb girl, in love with Leander; but her father, sir Jasper, wants her to marry Mr. Dapper. In order to avoid this hateful alliance, Charlotte pretends to be dumb, and only answers, "Han, hi, han, hon." The "mock doctor" employs Leander as his apothecary, and the young lady is soon cured by "pills matrimoniac." In Moliere's Le Medecin Malgre Lui Charlotte is called "Lucinde." The jokes in act ii. 6 are verbally copied from the French.—H. Fielding, The Mock Doctor.

Charlotte, daughter of sir John Lambert, in The Hypocrite, by Is. Bickerstaff (1768); in love with Darnley. She is a giddy girl, fond of tormenting Darnley; but being promised in marriage to Dr. Cantwell, who is fifty-nine, and whom she utterly detests, she becomes somewhat sobered down, and promises Darnley to become his loving wife. Her constant exclamation is "Lud!"

In Moliere's comedy of Tartuffe Charlotte is called "Mariane," and Darnley is "Valere."

Charlotte, the pert maid-servant of the countess Wintersen. Her father was "state coachman." Charlotte is jealous of Mrs. Haller, and behaves rudely to her (see act ii. 3).—Benjamin Thompson, The Stranger (1797).

Charlotte, servant to Sowerberry. A dishonest, rough servant-girl, who ill-treats Oliver Twist, and robs her master.—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist (1837).

Charlotte, a fugitive slave whose hairbreadth escapes are narrated in J. T. Trowbridge's story of Neighbor Jackwood (1857).

Charlotte (Lady), the servant of a lady so called. She assumes the airs with the name and address of her mistress. The servants of her own and other households address her as "Your ladyship," or "lady Charlotte;" but though so mighty grand, she is "noted for a plaguy pair of thick legs."—Rev. James Townley, High Life Below Stairs (1759).

CHARLOTTE CORDAY, devoted patriot of the French Revolution. Believing Marat to be the worst enemy of France, she stabbed him in the bath; was arrested and guillotined.

CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH, whose surname was Phelan, afterwards Tonna, author of numerous books for children, tales, etc. (1825-1862).

CHARLOTTE GOODCHILD, a merchant's orphan daughter of large fortune. She is pestered by many lovers, and her guardian gives out that she has lost all her money by the bankruptcy of his house. On this all her suitors but one depart, and that one is sir Callaghan O'Brallaghan, who declares he loves her now as an equal, and one whom he can serve, but before he loved her "with fear and trembling, like a man that loves to be a soldier, yet is afraid of a gun."—C. Macklin, Love-a-la-mode (1779).

CHARLOTTE TEMPLE, the daughter of an English gentleman, whose seduction by an officer in the British army, her sad life and lonely death, are the elements of a novel bearing her name, written by "Mrs. Rowson." Charlotte Temple is buried in Trinity church-yard, New York.

CHAR'MIAN, a kind-hearted, simple-minded attendant on Cleopatra. After the queen's death, she applied one of the asps to her own arm, and when the, Roman soldiers entered the room, fell down dead.—Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra (1608).

CHAR'TERIS (Sir Patrick), of Kinfauns, provost of Perth.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

CHARTIST CLERGYMAN (The), Rev. Charles Kingsley (1809-1877).

CHARYLLIS, in Spenser's pastoral Colin Clout's Come Home Again, is lady Compton. Her name was Anne, and she was the fifth of the six daughters of sir John Spenser of Althorpe, Lancaster, of the noble houses of Spenser and Marlborough. Edmund Spenser dedicated to her his satirical fable called Mother Hubbard's Tale (1591). She was thrice married; her first husband was lord Monteagle, and her third was Robert lord Buckhurst (son of the poet Sackville), who succeeded his father in 1608 as earl of Dorset.

No less praiseworthy are the sisters three, The honor of the noble family

Of which I meanest boast myself to be,... Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis: Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three, The next to her is bountiful Charyllis.

Colin Clout's Come Home Again (1594).

CHASTE (The), Alfonso II. of Asturias and Leon (758, 791-835 abdicated, died 842).

CHATOOKEE, an Indian bird, that never drinks at a stream, but catches the raindrops in falling.—Account of the Baptist Missionaries, ii. 309.

Less pure than these is that strange Indian bird, Who never dips in earthly streams her bill, But, when the sound of coming showers is heard, Looks up, and from the clouds receives her fill.

Southey, Curse of Kehama, xxi. 6 (1809).

CHAT'TANACH (M'Gillie), chief of the clan Chattan.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

CHAT'TERLEY (Rev. Simon), "the man of religion" at the Spa, one of the managing committee.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

CHAUBERT (Mons.), Master Chaffinch's cook.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, George II.).

CHAUCER OF FRANCE, Clement Marot (1484-1544).

CHAU'NUS, Arrogance personified in The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). "Fondly himself with praising he dispraised." Fully described in canto viii. (Greek, chaunos, "vain".)

CHEAT'LY (2 syl.), a lewd, impudent debauchee of Alsatia (Whitefriars). He dares not leave the "refuge" by reason of debt; but in the precincts he fleeces young heirs of entail, helps them to money, and becomes bound for them.—Shadwell, Squire of Alsatia (1688).

CHE'BAR, the tutelar angel of Mary, sister of Martha and Lazarus of Bethany.—Klopstock, The Messiah, xii. (1771).

Ched'eraza'de (5 syl.), mother of Hem'junah and wife of Zebene'zer, sultan of Cassimir. Her daughter having run away to prevent a forced marriage with the prince of Georgia, whom she had never seen, the sultana pined away and died.—Sir C. Morell [J. Ridley], Tales of the Genii ("Princess of Cassimir," tale vii., 1751).

CHEDER'LES (3 syl.), a Moslem hero, who, like St. George, saved a virgin exposed to the tender mercies of a huge dragon. He also drank of the waters of immortality, and lives to render aid in war to any who invoke it.

When Chederles conies To aid the Moslem on his deathless horse, ... as [if] he had newly quaffed The hidden waters of eternal youth. Southey, Joan of Arc, vi. 302, etc. (1837).

CHEENEY (Frank), an outspoken bachelor. He marries Kate Tyson.—Wybert Reeve, Parted.

CHEERLY' (Mrs.), daughter of colonel Woodley. After being married three years, she was left a widow, young, handsome, rich, lively, and gay. She came to London, and was seen in the opera by Frank Heartall, an open-hearted, impulsive young merchant, who fell in love with her, and followed her to her lodging. Ferret, the villain of the story, misinterpreted all the kind actions of Frank, attributing his gifts to hush-money; but his character was amply vindicated, and "the soldier's daughter" became his blooming wife.—Cherry, The Soldier's Daughter (1804).

Miss O'Neill, at the age of nineteen, made her debut at the Theatre Royal, Crow Street, in 1811, as "The Widow Cheerly."—W. Donaldson.

CHEERYBLE BROTHERS (The), brother Ned and brother Charles, the incarnations of all that is warm-hearted, generous, benevolent, and kind. They were once homeless boys running about the streets barefooted, and when they grew to be wealthy London merchants were ever ready to stretch forth a helping hand to those struggling against the buffets of fortune.

Frank Cheeryble, nephew of the brothers Cheeryble. He married Kate Nickleby.—C. Dickens, Nicholas Nickleby (1838).

CHEESE (Dr.), an English translation of the Latin Dr. Caseus, that is, Dr. John Chase, a noted quack, who was born in the reign of Charles II., and died in that of queen Anne.

CHEMISTRY (The Father of, Arnaud do Villeneuve (1238-1314)).

CHE'MOS (ch = k), god of the Moabites; also called Baal-Pe'oer; the Pria'pus or idol of turpitude and obscenity. Solomon built a temple to this obscene idol "in the hill that is before Jerusalem" (1 Kings xi. 7). In the hierarchy of hell Milton gives Chemos the fourth rank: (1) Satan, (2) Beelzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) Chemos.

Next Chemos, the obscene dread of Moab's sons, Peoer his other name.

Paradise Lost, 406, 412 (1665).

CHENEY, a mighty hunter in the northern woods, whose story is told in The Adirondack, by Joel Tyler Headley (1849).

CHERONE'AN (The) or THE CHERONE'AN SAGE (ch = k), Plutarch, who was born at Chaerone'a, in Boeo'tia (A.D. 46-120).

This praise, O Cheronean sage, is thine. Beattie, Minstrel (1773).

CHER'RY, the lively daughter of Boniface, landlord of the inn at Lichfield.—Geo.

Farquhar, The Beaux' Stratagem (1705). (See CHERY.)

Cherry (Andrew), comic actor and dramatist (1762-1812), author of The Soldier's Daughter. All for Fame, Two Strings to Your Bow. The Village, Spanish Dollars, etc. He was specially noted for his excellent wigs.

Shall sapient managers new scenes produce From Cherry, Skeffington, and Mother Goose? Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809).

Mother Goose is a pantomime by C. Dibdin.

CHER'UBIM (Don), the "bachelor of Salamanca," who is placed in a vast number of different situations of life, and made to associate with all classes of society, that the author may sprinkle his satire and wit in every direction.—Lesage, The Bachelor of Salamanca (1737).

CHER'Y, the son of Brunetta (who was the wife of a king's brother), married his cousin Fairstar, daughter of the king. He obtained for his cousin the three wonderful things: The dancing water, which had the power of imparting beauty; the singing apple, which had the power of imparting wit; and the little green bird, which had the power of telling secrets.—Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("The Princess Fairstar," 1682).

CHES'TER (Sir John), a plausible, foppish villain, the sworn enemy of Geoffrey Haredale, by whom he is killed in a duel. Sir John is the father of Hugh, the gigantic servant at the Maypole inn.

Edward Chester, son of sir John, and the lover of Emma Haredale.—C. Dickens, Barnaby Rudge (1841).

CHESTERFIELD (Charles), a young man of genius, the hero and title of a novel by Mrs. Trollope (1841). The object of this novel is to satirize the state of literature in England, and to hold up to censure authors, editors, and publishers as profligate, selfish, and corrupt.

CHESTERTON (Paul), nephew to Mr. Percy Chaffington, stock-broker and M.P.—T.M. Morton, If I had a Thousand a Year (1764-1838).

CHEVALIER D'INDUSTRIE, a man who lives by his wits and calls himself a "gentleman."

Denicheur de fauvettes, chevalier de l'ordre de l'industrie, qui va chercher quelque bon nid, quelque femme qui lui fasse sa fortune.—Gongam ou L'Homme Prodigieux (1713).

CHEVALIER MALFET (Le), so sir Launcelot calls himself after he was cured of his madness. The meaning of the phrase is "The knight who has done ill," or "The knight who has trespassed."—Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, iii. 20 (1470).

CHEVERIL (Hans), the ward of Mordent, just come of age. Impulsive, generous, hot-blooded. He resolves to be a rake, but scorns to be a villain. However, he accidentally meets with Joanna "the deserted daughter," and falls in love with her. He rescues her from the clutches of Mrs. Enfield the crimp, and marries her.—Holcroft, The Deserted Daughter (altered into The Steward).

The part that placed me [Walter Lacy] in the position of a light comedian was "Cheveril," in The Steward, altered from Holcroft's Deserted Daughter.—W. Lacy, Letter to W.C. Russell.

CHIBIA'BOS, the Harmony of Nature personified; a musician, the friend of Hiawatha, and ruler in the land of spirits. When he played on his pipe, the "brooks ceased to murmur, the wood-birds to sing, the squirrel to chatter, and the rabbit sat upright to look and listen." He was drowned in Lake Superior by the breaking of the ice.

Most beloved by Hiawatha Was the gentle Chibiabos; He the best of all musicians, He the sweetest of all singers.

Longfellow, Hiawatha, vi. and xv.

Chibiabos, venerable chief in The Myth of Hiaiwatha and Other Oral Legends of North American Indians, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1856).

CHICANEAU (She'.ka.no'), a litigious tradesman in Les Plaideurs, by Racine, (1668).

CHICH'I-VACHE (3 syl.), a monster that fed only on good women. The word means the "sorry cow." It was all skin and bone, because its food was so extremely scarce. (See BYCORN.)

O noble wyves, full of heigh prudence, Let noon humilitie your tonges nayle., Lest Chichi-Vache you swalwe in her entraile.

Chaucer, Canterbury Tales ("Clerk's Tale," 1388).

CHICK (Mr.), brother-in-law of Mr. Dombey; a stout gentleman, with a tendency to whistle and hum airs at inopportune moments. Mr. Chick is somewhat henpecked; but in the matrimonial squalls, though apparently beaten, he not unfrequently rises up the superior and gets his own way.

Louisa Chick, Mr. Dombey's married sister. She is of a snappish temper, but dresses in the most juvenile style, and is persuaded that anything can be accomplished if persons will only "make an effort."—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

CHICKEN (The), Michael Angelo Taylor, barrister, so called because in his maiden speech, 1785, he said, "I deliver this opinion with great deference, being but a chicken in the profession of the law."

Chicken (The Game), a low fellow, to be heard of at the bar of the Black Badger. Mr. Toots selects this man as his instructor in fencing, betting, and self-defence. The Chicken has short hair, a low forehead, a broken nose, and "a considerable tract of bare and sterile country behind each ear."—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

CHICKENS AND THE AUGURS. When the augurs told Publius Claudius Pulcher, the Roman consul, who was about to engage the Carthaginian fleet, that the sacred chickens would not eat, he replied, "Then toss them into the sea, that they may drink."

CHICK'ENSTALKER (Mrs.), a stout, bonny, kind-hearted woman, who keeps a general shop. Toby Veck, in his dream, imagines her married to Tugby, the porter of sir Joseph Bowley.—C. Dickens, The Chimes (1844).

CHICK'WEED (Conkey, i.e. Nosey), the man who robbed himself. He was a licensed victualler on the point of failing, and gave out that he had been robbed of 327 guineas "by a tall man with a black patch over his eye." He was much pitied, and numerous subscriptions were made on his behalf. A detective was sent to examine into the "robbery," and Chickweed would cry out, "There he is!" and run after the "hypothetical thief" for a considerable distance, and then lose sight of him. This occurred over and over again, and at last the detective said to him, "I've found out who done this here robbery." "Have you?" said Chickweed. "Yes," said Spyers, "you done it yourself." And so he had.—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist, xxxi. (1837).

CHIF'FINCH (Master Thomas), alias Will Smith, a friend of Richard Ganlesse (2 syl.). The private emissary of Charles II. He was employed by the duke of Buckingham to carry off Alice Bridgenorth to Whitehall, but the captive escaped and married Julian Peveril.

Kate Chiffinch, mistress of Thomas Chiffinch.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

CHIGNON [Shin.yong], the French valet of Miss Alscrip "the heiress." A silly, affected, typical French valet-de-chambre.—General Burgoyne, The Heiress (1718).

CHI'LAX, a merry old soldier, lieutenant to general Memnon, in Paphos.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Mad Lover (1617).

CHILD (The), Bettina, daughter of Maximiliane Brentano. So called from the title of her book, Goethe's Correspondence with a Child.

CHILD OF NATURE (The), a play by Mrs. Inchbald. Amantis was the "child of Nature." She was the daughter of Alberto, banished "by an unjust sentence," and during his exile he left his daughter under the charge of the marquis Almanza. Amantis was brought up in total ignorance of the world and the passion-principles which sway it, but felt grateful to her guardian, and soon discovered that what she called "gratitude" the world calls "love." Her father returned home rich, his sentence cancelled and his innocence allowed, just in time to give his daughter in marriage to his friend Almanza.

CHILDE HAROLD, a man sated with the world, who roams from place to place, to kill time and escape from himself. The "childe" is, in fact, lord Byron himself, who was only twenty-two when he began the poem, which was completed in seven years. In canto i. the "childe" visits Portugal and Spain (1809); in canto ii. Turkey in Europe (1810); in canto iii. Belgium and Switzerland (1816); and in canto iv. Venice, Rome, and Florence (1817).

("Childe" is a title of honor, about tantamount to "lord," as childe Waters, childe Rolande, childe Tristram, childe Arthur, childe Childers, etc.)

CHIL'DERS (E.W.B.), one of the riders in Sleary's circus, noted for his vaulting and reckless riding in the character of the "Wild Huntsman of the Prairies." This compound of groom and actor marries Josephine, Sleary's daughter.

Kidderminster Childers, son of the above, known in the profession as "Cupid." He is a diminutive boy, with an old face and facetious manner wholly beyond his years.—C. Dickens, Hard Times (1854).

CHILDREN (The Henneberg). It is said that the countess of Henneberg railed at a beggar for having twins, and the beggar, turning on the countess, who was forty-two years old, said, "May you have as many children as there are days in a year," and sure enough, on Good Friday, 1276, the countess brought forth 365 at one birth; all the males were christened John, and all the females Elizabeth. They were buried at a village near La Hague, and the jug is still shown in which they were baptized.

CHILDREN IN THE WOOD, the little son (three years old) and younger daughter (Jane) left by a Norfolk gentleman on his death-bed to the care of his deceased wife's brother. The boy was to have L300 a year on coming of age, and the girl L500 as a wedding portion; but if the children died in their minority the money was to go to the uncle. The uncle, in order to secure the property, hired two ruffians to murder the children, but one of them relented and killed his companion; then, instead of murdering the babes, he left them in Wayland Wood, where they gathered blackberries, but died at night with cold and terror. All things went ill with the uncle, who perished in gaol, and the ruffian, after a lapse of seven years, confessed the whole villainy.—Percy, Reliques, III. ii. 18.

CHILDREN OF THE MIST, one of the branches of the MacGregors, a wild race of Scotch Highlanders, who had a skirmish with the soldiers in pursuit of Dalgetty and M'Eagh among the rocks (ch. 14).—Sir W. Scott, Legend of Montrose (time, Charles I.).

CHILLIP (Dr.), a physician who attended Mrs. Copperfield at the birth of David.

He was the meekest of his set, the mildest of little men.—C. Dickens, David Copperfield, i. (1849).

CHILLON' (Prisoner of) Francois de Bonnivard, of Lunes, the Genevese patriot (1496-1571) who opposed the enterprises of Charles III. (the duke-bishop of Savoy) against the independence of Geneva, and was cast by him into the prison of Chillon, where he was confined for six years. Lord Byron makes him one of six brothers, two of whom died on the battle-field; one was burnt at the stake, and three were imprisoned at Chillon. Two of the prisoners died, but Francois was set at liberty by the people of Berne.—Byron, Prisoner of Chillon (1816).

CHIMENE (La Belle) or Xime'na, daughter of count Lozano de Gormaz, wife of the Cid. After the Cid's death she defended Valentia from the Moors with great bravery, but without success. Corneille and Guihem de Cantro have introduced her in their tragedies, but the role they represent her to have taken is wholly imaginary.

CHINAMAN (John), a man of China.

CHINDASUIN'THO (4 syl.), king of Spain, father of Theod'ofred, and grandfather of Roderick last of the Gothic kings.—Southey, Roderick, etc. (1814).

CHINESE PHILOSOPHER (A). Oliver Goldsmith, in the Citizen of the World, calls his book "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher residing in London to his Friends in the East" (1759).

CHINGACHGOOK, the Indian chief, called in French Le Gros Serpent. Fenimore Cooper has introduced this chief into four of his novels, The Last of the Mohicans. The Pathfinder. The Deerslayer, and The Pioneer.

CHINTZ (Mary), Miss Bloomfield's maid, the bespoken of Jem Miller.—C. Selby, The Unfinished Gentleman.

CHI'OS (The Man of), Homer, who lived at Chios [Ki'.os]. At least Chios was one of the seven cities which laid claim to the bard, according to the Latin hexameter verse:

Smyrna, Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athenae.—Varro.

CHIRN'SIDE (Luckie), poulterer at Wolf's Hope village.—Sir W. Scott, Bride of Lammermoor (time, William III.).

CHI'RON, a centaur, renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine, music, gymnastics, and prophecy. He numbered among his pupils Achilles, Peleus, Diomede, and indeed all the most noted heroes of Grecian story. Jupiter took him to heaven, and made him the constellation Sagittarius.

... as Chiron erst had done To that proud bane of Troy, her god-resembling son [Achilles]. Drayton, Polyolbion, v. (1612).

CHIRRUP (Betsey), the housekeeper of Mr. Sowerberry, the misanthrope.—W. Brough, A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock.

CHITA, the child orphaned by the fearful tragedy detailed in Lufcadio Hearn's Chita: A Memory of Last Island. The little one is dragged from her dead mother's neck while she has still the strength to cry out "Maman! maman!" and borne through the surf by the fisherman Felix, to the arms of his wife. Brought up as the child of the humble pair, she never suspects that the stranger who, years after, dies of yellow fever brought from New Orleans to Felix's hut is her father (1888).

CHITLING (Tom), one of the associates of Fagin the Jew. Tom Chitling was always most deferential to the "Artful Dodger."—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist (1837).

CHIVALRY (The Flower of), William Douglas, lord of Liddesdale (fourteenth century).

CHLO'E [Klo'.e], the shepherdess beloved by Daphnis, in the pastoral romance called Daphnis and Chloe, by Longus. St. Pierre's tale of Paul and Virginia is based on this pastoral.

Chloe or rather Cloe. So Prior calls Mrs. Centlivre (1661-1723).

Chloe (Aunt), the faithful wife of Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe's famous book Uncle Tom's Cabin. She hires herself out to a pastry-cook to help redeem her husband after he is "sold South." Her exhortation, "Think o' your marcies, chillen! think o' your marcies!" is sincere, yet when Tom quotes, "Pray for them that despitefully use you," she sobs out, "Lor'! it's too tough! I can't pray for 'em!" (1852.)

Chloe (Aunt), "a homeless widow, of excellent Vermont intentions and high ideals in cup-cake, summoned to that most difficult of human tasks, the training of another woman's child.... She held it to be the first business of any woman who undertook the management of a literary family like her brother's to attend properly to its digestion."—Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, The Story of Avis (1877).

CHLO'RIS, the ancient Greek name of Flora.

Around your haunts The laughing Chloris with profusest hand Throws wide her blooms and odors. Akenside, Hymn to the Naiads.

CHOE'REAS (ch = k), the lover of Callirrhoe, in the Greek romance called The Loves of Choereas and Callirrhoe, by Char'iton (eighth century).

CHOKE (General), a lank North American gentleman, "one of the most remarkable men in the country." He was editor of The Watertoast Gazette, and a member of "The Eden Land Corporation." It was general Choke who induced Martin Chuzzlewit to stake his all in the egregious Eden swindle.—C. Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit (1844).

CHOLMONDELEY [Chum'.ly], of Vale Royal, a friend of sir Geoffrey Peveril.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

CHOPPARD (Pierre), one of the gang of thieves, called "The Ugly Mug." When asked a disagreeable question, he always answered, "I'll ask my wife, my memory's so slippery."—Edward Stirling, The Courier of Lyons (1852).

CHRIEMHIL'DA. (See under K.)

CHRISOM CHILD (A), a child that dies within a month of its birth. So called because it is buried in the white cloth anointed with chrism (oil and balm) worn at its baptism.

"He's in Arthur's [Abraham's] bosom, if ever man went to Arthur's bosom. 'A made a finer end, and went away, an it had been any christom [chrisom] child. 'A parted just ... at turning o' the tide." (Quickly's description of the death of Falstaff.)—Shakespeare, Henry V. act ii. sc. 3 (1599).

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