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Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol 1 - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook
by The Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D.
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BRIT'OMART, the representative of chastity. She was the daughter and heiress of king Ryence of Wales, and her legend forms the third book of the Faery Queen. One day, looking into Venus's looking-glass, given by Merlin to her father, she saw therein sir Artegal, and fell in love with him. Her nurse Glauce (2 syl.) tried by charms "to undo her love," but love that is in gentle heart begun no idle charm can remove. Finding her "charms" ineffectual, she took her to Merlin's cave in Caermarthen, and the magician told her she would be the mother of a line of kings (the Tudors), and after twice 400 years one of her offspring, "a royal virgin," would shake the power of Spain. Glauce now suggested that they should start in quest of sir Artegal, and Britomart donned the armor of An'gela (queen of the Angles), which she found in her father's armory, and taking a magic spear which "nothing could resist," she sallied forth. Her adventures allegorize the triumph of chastity over impurity: Thus in Castle Joyous, Malacasta (lust), not knowing her sex, tried to seduce her, "but she flees youthful lust, which wars against the soul." She next overthrew Marinel, son of Cym'oent. Then made her appearance as the Squire of Dames. Her last achievement was the deliverance of Am'oret (wifely love) from the enchanter Busirane. Her marriage is deferred to bk. v. 6, when she tilted with sir Artegal, who "shares away the ventail of her helmet with his sword," and was about to strike again when he became so amazed at her beauty that he thought she must be a goddess. She bade the knight remove his helmet, at once recognized him, consented "to be his love, and to take him for her lord."—Spenser, Faery Queen, iii. (1590).

She charmed at once and tamed the heart, Incomparable Britomart.

Sir W. Scott.

BRITON (Colonel), a Scotch officer, who sees donna Isabella jump from a window in order to escape from a marriage she dislikes. The colonel catches her, and takes her to the house of donna Violante, her friend. Here he calls upon her, but don Felix, the lover of Violante, supposing Violante to be the object of his visits, becomes jealous, till at the end the mystery is cleared up, and a double marriage is the result.—Mrs. Centlivre, The Wonder (1714).

BROB'DINGNAG, a country of enormous giants, to whom Gulliver was a tiny dwarf. They were as tall "as an ordinary church steeple," and all their surroundings were in proportion.

Yon high church steeple, yon gawky stag. Your husband must come from Brobdingnag. Kane O'Hara, Midas.

BROCK (Adam), in Charles XII., an historical drama by J. E. Planche.

BROKEN-GIRTH-FLOW (Laird of), one of the Jacobite conspirators in The Black Dwarf, a novel by sir W. Scott (time, Anne).

BROKER OF THE EMPIRE (The). Darius, son of Hystaspes, was so called by the Persians from his great care of the financial condition of his empire.

BROMIA, wife of Sosia (slave of Amphitryon), in the service of Alcmena. A nagging termagant, who keeps her husband in petticoat subjection. She is not one of the characters in Moliere's comedy of Amphitryon.—Dryden, Amphitryon (1690).

BROMTON'S CHRONICLE (time, Edward III.), that is, "The Chronicle of John Bromton" printed among the Decem Scriptores, under the titles of "Chronicon Johannis Bromton," and "Joralanensis Historia a Johanne Bromton," abbot of Jerevaux, in Yorkshire. It commences with the conversion of the Saxons by St. Augustin, and closes with the death of Richard I. in 1199. Selden has proved that the chronicle was not written by Bromton, but was merely brought to the abbey while he was abbot.

BRONTES (2 syl.), one of the Cyclops, hence a blacksmith generally. Called Bronteus (2 syl.), by Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 5 (1596).

Not with such weight, to frame the forky brand, The ponderous hammer falls from Brontes' hand. Jerusalem Delivered, xx. (Hool's translation).

BRONZELY (2 syl.), a mere rake, whose vanity was to be thought "a general seducer."—Mrs. Inchbald, Wives as they Were, and Maids as they Are (1797).

BRONZOMARTE (3 syl.), the sorrel steed of sir Launcelot Greaves. The word means a "mettlesome sorrel."—Smollett, Sir Launcelot Greaves (1756).

BROOK (Master), the name assumed by Ford when sir John Falstaff makes love to his wife. Sir John, not knowing him, confides to him every item of his amour, and tells him how cleverly he has duped Ford by being carried out in a buck-basket before his very face.—Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor (1601).

BROOKE (Dorothea), calm, queenly heroine of Middlemarch, by George Eliot.

BROO'KER, the man who stole the son of Ralph Nickleby out of revenge, called him "Smike," and put him to school at Dotheboy's Hall, Yorkshire.—C. Dickens, Nicholas Nickleby (1838).

BROOKS OF SHEFFIELD, name by which Murdstone alludes to David Copperfield in novel of that name.

BROTHER JON'ATHAN. When Washington was in want of ammunition, he called a council of officers; but no practical suggestion being offered, he said, "We must consult brother Jonathan," meaning his excellency Jonathan Trumbull, the elder governor of the state of Connecticut. This was done, and the difficulty surmounted. "To consult brother Jonathan" then became a set phrase, and "Brother Jonathan" became the "John Bull" of the United States.—J. R. Bartlett, Dictionary of Americanisms.

BROTHER SAM, the brother of lord Dundreary, the hero of a comedy based on a German drama, by John Oxenford, with additions and alterations by E. A. Sothern and T. B. Buckstone.—Supplied by T. B. Buckstone, Esq.

BROWDIE (John), a brawny, big-made Yorkshire corn-factor, bluff, brusque, honest, and kind-hearted. He befriends poor Smike, and is much, attached to Nicholas Nickleby. John Browdie marries Matilda Price, a miller's daughter.—C. Dickens, Nicholas Nickleby (1838).

BROWN (Hablot) illustrated some of Dickens's novels and took the pseudonym of "Phiz" (1812-).

Brown (Jonathan), landlord of the Black Bear at Darlington. Here Frank Osbaldistone meets Rob Roy at dinner.—Sir W. Scott, Rob Roy (time, George I.).

Brown (Mrs.), the widow of the brother-in-law of the Hon. Mrs. Skewton. She had one daughter, Alice Marwood, who was first cousin to Edith (Mr. Dombey's second wife). Mrs. Brown lived in great poverty, her only known vocation being to "strip children of their clothes, which she sold or pawned."—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

Brown (Mrs.), a "Mrs. John Bull," with all the practical sense, kind-heartedness, absence of conventionality, and the prejudices of a well-to-do but half-educated Englishwoman of the middle shop class. She passes her opinions on all current events, and travels about, taking with her all her prejudices, and despising everything which is not English.—Arthur Sketchley [Rev. George Rose].

Brown (Tom), hero of Tom Brown's School-Days and Tom Brown at Oxford, by Thomas Hughes.

Brown (Vanbeest), lieutenant of Dirk Hatteraick.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George II.).

BROWN, JONES, AND ROBINSON, three Englishmen who travel together. Their adventures, by Richard Doyle, were published in Punch. In them is held up to ridicule the gaucherie, the contracted notions, the vulgarity, the conceit, and the general snobbism of the middle-class English abroad.

BROWN OF CALAVERAS, a dissipated blackleg and ne'er-do-weel, whose handsome wife, arriving unexpectedly from the East, retrieves his fortune and risks his honor by falling in love with another man, a brother-gambler.—Bret Harte, Brown of Calaveras (1871).

BROWN THE YOUNGER (Thomas), the nom de plume of Thomas Moore in The Two-Penny Post-Bag, a series of witty and very popular satires on the prince regent (afterwards George IV.), his ministers, and his boon companions. Also in The Fudge Family in Paris, and in The Fudges in England (1835).

BROWNE (General), pays a visit to lord Woodville. His bedroom for the night is the "tapestried chamber," where he sees the apparition of "the lady in the sacque," and next morning relates his adventure.—Sir W. Scott, The Tapestried Chamber (time, George III.).

BROWNLOW, a most benevolent old gentleman, who rescues Oliver Twist from his vile associates. He refuses to believe in Oliver's guilt of theft, although appearances were certainly against him, and he even takes the boy into his service.—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist (1837).

BROWNS. To astonish the Browns, to do or say something regardless of the annoyance it may cause, or the shock it may give to Mrs. Grundy. Anne Boleyn had a whole clan of Browns, or "country cousins," who were welcomed at court in the reign of Elizabeth. The queen, however, was quick to see what was gauche, and did not scruple to reprove them for uncourtly manners. Her plainness of speech used quite to "astonish the Browns."

BROXMOUTH (John), a neighbor of Happer the miller.—Sir W. Scott, The Monastery (time, Elizabeth).

BRUCE (Mr. Robert), mate on a bark trading between Liverpool and St. John's, N.B., sees a man writing in the captain's cabin, a stranger who disappears after pencilling certain lines on the slate. These prove a providential warning by which the vessel escapes certain destruction. The story is told by Robert Dale Owen in Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World, and vouched for as authentic (1860).

Bruce (The), an epic poem by John Barbour (1320-1395).

BRUEL, the name of the goose in the tale of Reynard the Fox. The word means the "Little roarer" (1498).

BRUIN, the name of the bear, in the beast-epic called Reynard the Fox. Hence a bear in general.

The word means "the brown one" (1498).

Bruin, one of the leaders arrayed against Hudibras. He is meant for one Talgol, a Newgate butcher, who obtained a captain's commission for valor at Naseby. He marched next to Orsin [Joshua Gosling, landlord of the bear-gardens at Southwark].—S. Butler, Hudibras, i. 3.

Bruin (Mrs. and Mr.), daughter and son-in-law to sir Jacob Jollup. Mr. Bruin is a huge bear of a fellow, and rules his wife with scant courtesy.—S. Foote, The Mayor of Garratt (1763).

BRULGRUD'DERY (Dennis), landlord of the Red Cow, on Muckslush Heath. He calls himself "an Irish gintleman bred and born." He was "brought up to the church," i.e. to be a church beadle, but lost his place for snoring at sermon-time. He is a sot, with a very kind heart, and is honest in great matters, although in business he will palm off an old cock for a young capon.

Mrs. Brulgruddery, wife of Dennis, and widow of Mr. Skinnygauge, former landlord of the Red Cow. Unprincipled, self-willed, ill-tempered, and over-reaching. Money is the only thing that moves her, and when she has taken a bribe she will whittle down the service to the finest point.—G. Colman, jun., John Bull (1805).

BRUN'CHEVAL "the Bold," a paynim knight, who tilted with sir Satyrane, and both were thrown to the ground together at the first encounter.—Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 4 (1596).

BRUNEL'O, a deformed dwarf, who at the siege of Albracca stole Sacripan'te's charger from between his legs without his knowing it. He also stole Angelica's magic ring, by means of which he released Roge'ro from the castle in which he was imprisoned. Ariosto says that Agramant gave the dwarf a ring which had the power of resisting magic.—Bojardo, Orlando Innamorato (1495); and Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

"I," says Sancho, "slept so soundly upon Dapple, that the thief had time enough to clap four stakes under the four corners of my pannel and to lead away the beast from under my legs without waking me."—Cervantes, Don Quixote, II. i. 4 (1615).

BRUNETTA, mother of Chery (who married his cousin Fairstar).—Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("Princess Fairstar," 1682).

Brunetta, the rival beauty of Phyllis. On one occasion Phyllis procured a most marvellous fabric of gold brocade in order to eclipse her rival, but Brunetta arrayed her train-bearer in a dress of the same material and cut in the same fashion. Phyllis was so mortified that she went home and died.—The Spectator.

BRUNHILD, queen of Issland, who made a vow that none should win her who could not surpass her in three trials of skill and strength: (1) hurling a spear; (2) throwing a stone; and (3) jumping. Guenther king of Burgundy undertook the three contests, and by the aid of Siegfried succeeded in winning the martial queen. First, hurling a spear that three men could scarcely lift: the queen hurled it towards Guenther, but Siegfried, in his invisible cloak, reversed its direction, causing it to strike the queen and knock her down. Next, throwing a stone so huge that twelve brawny men were employed to carry it: Brunhild lifted it on high, flung it twelve fathoms, and jumped beyond it. Again Siegfried helped his friend to throw it further, and in leaping beyond the stone. The queen, being fairly beaten, exclaimed to her liegemen, "I am no longer your queen and mistress; henceforth are ye the liegemen of Guenther" (lied vii.). After marriage Brunhild was so obstreperous that the king again applied to Siegfried, who succeeded in depriving her of her ring and girdle, after which she became a very submissive wife.—The Niebelungen Lied.

BRUNO (Bishop), bishop of Herbipolitanum. Sailing one day on the Danube with Henry III. emperor of Germany, they came to Ben Strudel ("the devouring-gulf"), near Grinon Castle, in Austria. Here the voice of a spirit clamored aloud, "Ho! ho! Bishop Bruno, whither art thou travelling? But go thy ways, bishop Bruno, for thou shalt travel with me tonight." At night, while feasting with the emperor, a rafter fell on his head and killed him. Southey has a ballad called Bishop Bruno, but it deviates from the original legend given by Heywood in several particulars: It makes bishop Bruno hear the voice first on his way to the emperor, who had invited him to dinner; next, at the beginning of dinner; and thirdly, when the guests had well feasted. At the last warning an ice-cold hand touched him, and Bruno fell dead in the banquet hall.

BRUSH, the impertinent English valet of lord Ogleby. If his lordship calls he never hears unless he chooses; if his bell rings he never answers it till it suits his pleasure. He helps himself freely to all his master's things, and makes love to all the pretty chambermaids he comes into contact with.—Colman and Garrick, The Clandestine Marriage (1766).

BRUTE (1 syl.), the first king of Britain (in mythical history). He was the son of AEneas Silvius (grandson of Ascanius and great-grandson of AEneas of Troy). Brute called London (the capital of his adopted country) Troynovant (New Troy). The legend is this: An oracle declared that Brute should be the death of both his parents; his mother died in child-birth, and at the age of fifteen Brute shot his father accidentally in a deer-hunt. Being driven from Alba Longa, he collected a band of old Trojans and landed at Totness, in Devonshire. His wife was Innogen, daughter of Pandra'sus king of Greece. His tale is told at length in the Chronicles of Geoffrey of Monmouth, in the first song of Drayton's Polyolbion, and in Spenser's Faery Queen, ii.

Brute (Sir John), a coarse, surly, ill-mannered brute, whose delight was to "provoke" his young wife, who he tells us "is a young lady, a fine lady, a witty lady, and a virtuous lady, but yet I hate her." In a drunken frolic he intercepts a tailor taking home a new dress to lady Brute; he insists on arraying himself therein, is arrested for a street row, and taken before the justice of the peace. Being asked his name, he gives it as "lady John Brute," and is dismissed.

Lady Brute, wife of sir John. She is subjected to divers indignities, and insulted morn, noon, and night by her surly, drunken husband. Lady Brute intrigues with Constant, a former lover; but her intrigues are more mischievous than vicious.—Vanbrugh, The Provoked Wife (1697).

BRUTE GREEN-SHIELD, the successor of Ebranc king of Britain. The mythical line is: (1) Brute, great-great-grandson of AEneas; (2) Locrin, his son; (3) Guendolen, the widow of Locrin; (4) Ebranc; (5) Brute Green-Shield. Then follow in order Leil, Hudibras, Bladud, Leir [Shakespeare's "Lear"], etc.

... of her courageous kings, Brute Green-Shield, to whose name we providence impute Divinely to revive the land's first conqueror, Brute. Drayton, Polyolbion, viii. (1612).

BRUTUS (Lucius Junius), first consul of Rome, who condemned his own two sons to death for joining a conspiracy to restore Tarquin to the throne, from which he had been banished. This subject has been dramatized by N. Lee (1679) and John H. Payne, under the title of Brutus, or the Fall of Tarquin (1820). Alfieri has an Italian tragedy on the same subject. In French we have the tragedies of Arnault (1792) and Ponsard (1843). (See LUCRETIA.)

The elder Kean on one occasion consented to appear at the Glasgow theatre for his son's benefit. The play chosen was Payne's Brutus, in which the father took the part of "Brutus" and Charles Kean that of "Titus." The audience sat suffused in tears during the pathetic interview, till "Brutus" falls on the neck of "Titus," exclaiming in a burst of agony, "Embrace thy wretched father!" when the whole house broke forth into peals of approbation. Edmund Kean then whispered in his son's ear, "Charlie, we are doing the trick."—W. C. Russell, Representative Actors, p. 476.

Junius Brutus. So James Lynch Fitz-Stephen has been called, because (like the first consul of Rome) he condemned his own son to death for murder, and to prevent a rescue caused him to be executed from the window of his own house in Galway (1493).

The Spanish Brutus, Alfonso Perez de Gruzman, governor of Tarifa in 1293. Here he was besieged by the infant don Juan, who had revolted against his brother, king Sancho IV., and having Guzman's son in his power threatened to kill him unless Tarifa was given up to him. Guzman replied, "Sooner than be guilty of such treason I will lend Juan a dagger to slay my son;" and so saying tossed his dagger over the wall. Sad to say, Juan took the dagger, and assassinated the young man there and then (1258-1309).

Brutus (Marcus), said to be the son of Julius Caesar by Servilia.

Brutus' bastard hand Stabb'd Julius Caesar. Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI. act iv. sc. 1 (1591).

This Brutus is introduced by Shakespeare in his tragedy of Julius Caesar, and the poet endows him with every quality of a true patriot. He loved Caesar much, but he loved Rome more.

Brutus. Et tu, Brute. Shakespeare, on the authority of Suetonius, puts these words into the mouth of Caesar when Brutus stabbed him. Shakespeare's drama was written in 1607, and probably he had seen The True Tragedy of Richard duke of York (1600), where these words occur; but even before that date H. Stephens had said:

Jule Cesar, quand il vit que Brutus aussi estoit de ceux qui luy tirient des coups d'espee, luy dit, Kai sy tecnon? c'est a dire.... Et toy mon fils, en es tu aussi.—Deux Dial. du Noveau Lang. Franc (1583).

BRUTUS AND CICERO. Cicero says: [Latin: "Caesare interfecto, statim, cruentum alte extollens M. Brutus pugionem Ciceronem nominatim exclamavit, atque ei recuperatam libertatem est gratulatus."]—Philipp. ii. 12.

When Brutus rose, Refulgent from the stroke of Caesar's fate,... [he] called aloud On Tully's name, and shook his crimson steel, And bade the "father of his country" hail.

Akenside, Pleasures of Imagination, i.

BRY'DONE (Elspeth), or Glendinning, widow of Simon Glendinning, of the Tower of Glendearg.—Sir W. Scott, The Monastery (time, Elizabeth).

BUBAS'TIS, the Dian'a of Egyptian mythology. She was the daughter of Isis and sister of Horus.

BUBENBURG (Sir Adrian de), a veteran knight of Berne.—Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.).

BUCCA, goblin of the wind in Celtic mythology, and supposed by the ancient inhabitants of Cornwall to foretell shipwreck.

BUCEN'TAUR, the Venetian state galley used by the doge when he went "to wed the Adriatic." In classic mythology the bucentaur was half man and half ox.

BUCEPH'ALOS ("bull-headed"), the name of Alexander's horse, which cost L3500. It knelt down when Alexander mounted, and was thirty years old at its death. Alexander built a city called Bucephala in its memory.

The Persian Bucephalos, Shibdiz, the famous charger of Chosroes Parviz.

BUCK CHEEVER, mountaineer and "moonshiner" in Charles Egbert Craddock's In the Stranger People's Country.

He had been a brave soldier, although the flavor of bushwhacking clung to his war record; he was a fast friend and a generous foe; what one hand got by hook or by crook—chiefly, it is to be feared, by crook—the other made haste to give away (1890).

BUCK FANSHAWE, a popular Californian in the days when Lynch Law was in vogue in mining districts. He dies, and his partner seeks a clergyman to arrange for the funeral, which "the fellows" have determined shall be the finest ever held in the region. The divine questions in his professional vein and the miner answers in his, each sorely puzzled to interpret the meaning of his companion.

"Was he a—ah—peaceable man?"

"Peaceable! he jest would have peace, ef he had to lick every darned galoot in the valley to git it."—Mark Twain, Buck Fanshawe's Funeral, (1872).

BUCK GRANGERFORD, a spirited son of the Grangerford clan, who pays with his life for fealty to family and feud.—Mark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens], Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885).

BUCK'ET (Mr.), a shrewd detective officer who cleverly discovers that Hortense, the French maid-servant of lady Dedlock, was the murderer of Mr. Tulkinghorn, and not lady Dedlock, who was charged with the deed by Hortense.—C. Dickens, Bleak House (1853).

BUCKINGHAM (George Villiers, duke of). There were two dukes of this name, father and son, both notorious for their profligacy and political unscrupulousness. The first (1592-1628) was the favorite of James I., nicknamed "Steenie" by that monarch from his personal beauty, "Steenie" being a pet corruption of Stephen, whose face at martyrdom was "as the face of an angel." He was assassinated by Fenton. Sir Walter Scott introduces him in The Fortunes of Nigel, and his son in Peveril of the Peak. The son (1627-1688) also appears under the name of "Zimri" (q.v.) in Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel. He was the author of The Rehearsal, a drama upon which Sheridan founded his Critic, and of other works, but is principally remembered as the profligate favorite of Charles II. He was a member of the famous "CABAL" (q.v.), and closed a career of great splendor and wickedness in the most abject poverty.

Buckingham (Henry de Stafford, duke of) was a favorite of Richard III. and a participator in his crimes, but revolted against him, and was beheaded in 1483. This is the duke that Sackville met in the realms of Pluto, and whose "complaynt" is given in the prologue to A Mirrour for Magistraytes (1587). He also appears in Shakespeare's Richard III. His son in Henry VIII.

Buckingham (Mary duchess of), introduced by sir W. Scott in Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

BUCKLAW (The laird of), afterwards laird of Girnington. His name was Frank Hayston. Lucy Ashton plights her troth to Edgar master of Ravenswood, and they exchange love-tokens at the Mermaid's Fountain; but her father, sir William Ashton, from pecuniary views, promises her in marriage to the laird of Bucklaw, and as she signs the articles Edgar suddenly appears at the castle. They return to each other their love-tokens, and Lucy is married to the laird; but on the wedding night the bridegroom is found dangerously wounded in the bridal chamber, and the bride hidden in the chimney-corner insane. Lucy dies in convulsions, but Bucklaw recovers and goes abroad.—Sir W. Scott, The Bride of Lammermoor (time, William III.).

BUCKTHORNE, a conspicuous figure in Tales of a Traveller, by Washington Irving. He is gentleman student, dancing buffoon, lover, poet, and author by turns, and nothing long unless it be a royally good fellow (1824).

BUFFOON (The Pulpit). Hugh Peters is so called by Dugdale (1599-1660).

BUG JARGAL, a negro, passionately in love with a white woman, but tempering the wildest passion with the deepest respect.—Victor Hugo, Bug Jargal (a novel).

BULBUL, an Oriental name for a nightingale. When, in The Princess (by Tennyson), the prince, disguised as a woman, enters with his two friends (similarly disguised) into the college to which no man was admitted, he sings; and the princess, suspecting the fraud, says to him, "Not for thee, O bulbul, any rose of Gulistan shall burst her veil," i.e., "O singer, do not suppose that any woman will be taken in by such a flimsy deceit." The bulbul loved the rose, and Gulistan means the "garden of roses." The prince was the bulbul, the college was Gulistan, and the princess the rose sought.—Tennyson, The Princess, iv.

BULBUL-HE'ZAR, the talking bird, which was joined in singing by all the song-birds in the neighborhood. (See TALKING BIRD.)—Arabian Nights ("The Two Sisters," the last story).

BULIS, mother of Egyp'ius of Thessaly. Egypius entertained a criminal love for Timandra, the mother of Neoph'ron, and Neophron was guilty of a similar passion for Bulis. Jupiter changed Egypius and Neophron into vultures, Bulis into a duck, and Timandra into a sparrow-hawk.—Classic Mythology.

BULL (John), the English nation personified, and hence any typical Englishman.

Mrs. Bull, queen Anne, "very apt to be choleric." On hearing that Philip Baboon (Philippe duc d'Anjou) was to succeed to lord Strutt's estates (i.e. the Spanish throne), she said to John Bull:

"You sot, you loiter about ale-houses and taverns, spend your time at billiards, ninepins, or puppet-shows, never minding me nor my numerous family. Don't you hear how lord Strutt [the king of Spain] has bespoke his liveries at Lewis Baboon's shop [France]?... Fie upon it! Up, man!... I'll sell my shift before I'll be so used."—Chap. iv.

John Bull's Mother, the Church of England.

John Bull's Sister Peg, the Scotch, in love with Jack (Calvin).

John had a sister, a poor girl that had been reared ... on oatmeal and water ... and lodged in a garret exposed to the north wind.... However, this usage ... gave her a hardy constitution.... Peg had, indeed, some odd humors and comical antipathies,... she would faint at the sound of an organ, and yet dance and frisk at the noise of a bagpipe.—Dr. Arbuthnot, History of John Bull, ii. 2 (1712).

BULLAMY, porter of the "Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Insurance Company." An imposing personage, whose dignity resided chiefly in the great expanse of his red waistcoat. Respectability and well-to-doedness were expressed in that garment.—C. Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit (1844).

BULLCALF (Peter), of the Green, who was pricked for a recruit in the army of sir John Falstaff. He promised Bardolph "four Harry ten-shillings in French crowns" if he would stand his friend, and when sir John was informed thereof, he said to Bullcalf, "I will have none of you." Justice Shallow remonstrated, but Falstaff exclaimed, "Will you tell me, master Shallow, how to choose a man? Care I for the limb, the thews, the stature?... Give me the spirit, master Shallow."—Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV. act iii. sc. 2 (1598).

BULL-DOGS, the two servants of a university proctor, who follow him in his rounds to assist him in apprehending students who are violating the university statutes, such as appearing in the streets after dinner without cap and gown, etc.

BULLET-HEAD (The Great), George Cadoudal, leader of the Chouans (1769-1804).

BULLSEGG (Mr.), laird of Killancureit, a friend of the baron of Bradwardine.—Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, George II.).

BULMER (Valentine), titular earl of Etherington, married to Clara Mowbray.

Mrs. Ann Bulmer, mother of Valentine, married to the earl of Etherington during the life-time of his countess; hence his wife in bigamy.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

BUMBLE, beadle of the workhouse where Oliver Twist was born and brought up. A stout, consequential, hard-hearted, fussy official, with mighty ideas of his own importance. This character has given to the language the word bumbledom, the officious arrogance and bumptious conceit of a parish authority or petty dignitary. After marriage the high-and-mighty beadle was sadly henpecked and reduced to a Jerry Sneak.—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist (1837).

BUM'KINET, a shepherd. He proposes to Grub'binol that they should repair to a certain hut and sing "Gillian of Croydon," "Patient Grissel," "Cast away Care," "Over the Hills," and so on; but being told that Blouzelinda was dead, he sings a dirge, and Grubbinol joins him.

Thus wailed the louts in melancholy strain, Till bonny Susan sped across the plain; They seized the lass in apron clean arrayed, And to the ale-house forced the willing maid; In ale and kisses they forgot their cares, And Susan Blouzelinda's loss repairs.

Gay, Pastoral, v. (1714).

(An imitation of Virgil's Ecl. v. "Daphnis.")

BUMPER (Sir Harry), a convivial friend of Charles Surface. He sings the popular song, beginning—

Here's to the maiden of bashful fifteen, Here's to the widow of fifty, etc.

Sheridan, School for Scandal (1777).

BUMPPO (Natty), the Leather Stocking of Cooper's Pioneers; Hawk-Eye of The Last of the Mohicans; the Deer Slayer and the Pathfinder of the novels of those names; and the trapper of The Prairie, in which his death is recorded. A white man who has lived so long with Indians as to surpass them in skill and cunning, retains native nobility of character, and in his countenance "an open honesty and total absence of guile" that inspires trust.

BUNCE (Jack), alias Frederick Altamont, a ci-devant actor, one of the crew of the pirate vessel.—Sir W. Scott, The Pirate (time, William III.).

BUNCH (Mother), an alewife, mentioned by Dekker in his drama called Satiromastix (1602). In 1604 was published Pasquil's Jests, mixed with Mother Bunch's Merriments.

There is a series of "Fairy Tales" called Mother Bunch's Fairy Tales.

Bunch (Mother), the supposed possessor of a "cabinet broken open" and revealing "rare secrets of Art and Nature," such as love-spells (1760).

BUN'CLE, messenger to the earl of Douglas.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

Bun'cle (John), a prodigious hand at matrimony, divinity, a song, and a glass. He married seven wives, and lost all in the flower of their age. For two or three days after the death of a wife he was inconsolable, but soon became resigned to his loss, which he repaired by marrying again.—Thos. Amory, The Life, etc., of John Buncle, Esq.

BUNDLE, the gardener, father of Wilelmi'na and friend of Tom Tug the waterman. He is a plain, honest man, but greatly in awe of his wife, who nags him from morning till night.

Mrs. Bundle, a vulgar Mrs. Malaprop, and a termagant. "Everything must be her way or there's no getting any peace." She greatly frequents the minor theatres, and acquires notions of sentimental romance.

BUN'GAY (Friar), one of the friars in a comedy by Robert Green, entitled Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Both the friars are conjurors, and the piece concludes with one of their pupils being carried off to the infernal regions on the back of one of friar Bacon's demons (1591).

Bungay, publisher in History of Pendennis, by W.M. Thackeray.

BUNGEY (Friar), personification of the charlatan of science in the fifteenth century.

In The Last of the Barons, by lord Lytton, friar Bungey is an historical character, and is said to have "raised mists and vapors," which befriended Edward IV, at the battle of Barnet.

BUNS'BY (Captain John or Jade), owner of the Cautious Clara. Captain Cuttle considered him "a philosopher, and quite an oracle." Captain Bunsby had one "stationary and one revolving eye," a very red face, and was extremely taciturn. The captain was entrapped by Mrs. MacStinger (the termagant landlady of his friend captain Cuttle) into marrying her.—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

BUNTING, the pied piper of Ham'elin. He was so called from his dress.

BUR (John), the servant of Job Thornberry, the brazier of Penzance. Brusque in his manners, but most devotedly attached to his master, by whom he was taken from the workhouse. John Bur kept his master's "books" for twenty-two years with the utmost fidelity.—G.R. Colman, Jun., John Bull (1805).

BUR'BON (i.e. Henri IV. of France). He is betrothed to Fordelis (France), who has been enticed from him by Grantorto (rebellion). Being assailed on all sides by a rabble rout, Fordelis is carried off by "hell-rake hounds." The rabble batter Burbon's shield (protestantism), and compel him to throw it away. Sir Artegal (right or justice) rescues the "recreant knight" from the mob, but blames him for his unknightly folly in throwing away his shield (of faith). Talus (the executive) beats off the hellhounds, gets possession of the lady, and though she flouts Burbon, he catches her up upon his steed and rides off with her.—Spenser, Faery Queen, v. 2 (1596).

BURCHELL (Mr.), alias sir William Thornhill, about thirty years of age. When Dr. Primrose, the vicar of Wakefield, loses L1400, Mr. Burchell presents himself as a broken-down gentleman, and the doctor offers him his purse. He turns his back on the two flash ladies who talked of their high-life doings, and cried "Fudge!" after all their boastings and remarks. Mr. Burchell twice rescues Sophia Primrose, and ultimately marries her.—Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield (1765).

BURGUNDY (Charles the Bold, duke of) introduced by sir W. Scott in Quentin Durward and in Anne of Geierstein. The latter novel contains the duke's defeat at Nancy, and his death (time, Edward IV.).

BURIDAN'S ASS. A man of indecision is so called from the hypothetical ass of Buridan, the Greek sophist. Buridan maintained that "if an ass could be placed between two hay-stacks in such a way that its choice was evenly balanced between them, it would starve to death, for there would be no motive why he should choose the one and reject the other."

BURLEIGH (William Cecil, lord), lord treasurer to queen Elizabeth (1520-1598), introduced by sir W. Scott in his historical novel called Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

He is one the principal characters in The Earl of Essex, a tragedy by Henry Jones (1745).

Burleigh (Lord), a parliamentary leader in The Legend of Montrose, a novel by sir W. Scott (time, Charles I.).

A lord Burleigh shake of the head, a great deal meant by a look or movement, though little or nothing is said. Puff, in his tragedy of the "Spanish Armada," introduces lord Burleigh, "who has the affairs of the whole nation in his head, and has no time to talk;" but his lordship comes on the stage and shakes his head, by which he means far more than words could utter. Puff says:

Why, by that shake of the head he gave you to understand that even though they had more justice in their cause and wisdom in their measures, yet, if there was not a greater spirit shown on the part of the people, the country would at last fall a sacrifice to the hostile ambition of the Spanish monarchy.

Sneer. Did he mean all that by shaking his head?

Puff. Every word of it.—Sheridan, The Critic, ii. 1 (1779).

The original "lord Burleigh" was Irish Moody (1728-1813).—Cornhill Magazine (1867).

BURLESQUE POETRY (Father of), Hippo'nax of Ephesus (sixth century B.C.).

BURLONG, a giant whose legs sir Try'amour cut off.—Romance of Sir Tryamour.

BURNBILL, Henry de Londres, archbishop of Dublin and lord justice of Ireland, in the reign of Henry III. It is said that he fraudulently burnt all the "bills" or instruments by which the tenants of the archbishopric held their estates.

BURNS OF FRANCE (The), Jasmin, a barber of Gascony. Louis Philippe presented to him a gold watch and chain, and the duke of Orleans an emerald ring.

BUR'RIS, an honest lord, favorite of the great-duke of Muscovia.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Loyal Subject (1618).

BURROUGHS (George), a Salem citizen whose trial for witchcraft is recorded by Rev. Cotton Mather. The counts are many, and in the opinion of the court are proven, George Burroughs being condemned to die. In the story of his crimes set down by Dr. Mather, the climax would seem to be a paper handed by the accused to the jury, "wherein he goes to evince 'That there neither are, nor ever were, witches that, having made a compact with the devil, can send a devil to torment other people at a distance.'"

"When he came to die, he utterly denied the fact whereof he had been convicted."—Cotton Mather, The Wonders of the Invisible World (1693).

BU'SIRANE (3 syl.), an enchanter who bound Am'oret by the waist to a brazen pillar, and, piercing her with a dart, wrote magic characters with the dropping blood, "all for to make her love him." When Brit'omart approached, the enchanter started up, and, running to Amoret, was about to plunge a knife into her heart; but Britomart intercepted the blow, overpowered the enchanter, compelled him to "reverse his charms," and then bound him fast with his own chain.—Spenser, Faery Queen, iii. 11, 12 (1590).

BUSI'RIS, king of Egypt, was told by a foreigner that the long drought of nine years would cease when the gods of the country were mollified by human sacrifice. "So be it," said the king, and ordered the man himself to be offered as the victim.—Herod, ii. 59-61.

'Tis said that Egypt for nine years was dry; Nor Nile did floods nor heaven did rain supply.

A foreigner at length informed the king That slaughtered guests would kindly moisture bring. The king replied, "On thee the lot shall fall; Be thou, my guest, the sacrifice for all."

Ovid, Art of Love, i.

Busi'ris, supposed by Milton to be the Pharaoh drowned in the Red Sea.

Hath vexed the Red Sea coast, whose waves o'erthrew Busiris and his Memphian chivalry.

Milton, Paradise Lost, i. 306 (1665).

BUS'NE (2 syl.). So the gipsies call all who do not belong to their race.

The gold of the Busne; give me her gold. Longfellow, The Spanish Student.

BUSQUEUE (Lord), plaintiff in the great Pantagruelian lawsuit known as "lord Busqueue v. lord Suckfist," in which the parties concerned pleaded for themselves. Lord Busqueue stated his grievance and spoke so learnedly and at such length, that no one understood one word about the matter; then lord Suckfist replied, and the bench declared "We have not understood one iota of the defence." Pantag'ruel, however, gave judgment, and as both plaintiff and defendant considered he had got the verdict, both were fully satisfied, "a thing without parallel in all the annals of the court."—Rabelais, Pantagruel, ii. (1533).

BUSY BODY (The), a comedy by Mrs. Centlivre (1709). Sir Francis Gripe (guardian of Miranda, an heiress, and father of Charles), a man sixty-five years old, wishes to marry his ward for the sake of her money, but Miranda loves and is beloved by sir George Airy, a man of twenty-four. She pretends to love "Gardy," and dupes him into yielding up her money, and giving his consent to her marriage with "the man of her choice," believing himself to be the person. Charles is in love with Isabinda, daughter of sir Jealous Traffick, who has made up his mind that she shall marry a Spaniard named don Diego Babinetto, expected to arrive forthwith. Charles dresses in a Spanish costume, passes himself off as the expected don, and is married to the lady of his choice; so both the old men are duped, and all the young people wed according to their wishes.

BUTCHER (The), Achmet pasha, who struck off the heads of seven of his wives at once. He defended Acre against Napoleon I.

John ninth lord Clifford, called "The Black Clifford" (died 1461).

Oliver de Clisson, constable of France (1320-1407).

Butcher (The Bloody), the duke of Cumberland, second son of Gleorge II.; so called for his great barbarities in suppressing the rebellion of Charles Edward, the young pretender (1726-1765).

BUTCHER OF ENGLAND, John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, a man of great learning and a patron of learning (died 1470).

On one occasion in the reign of Edward IV. he ordered Clapham (a squire to lord Warwick) and nineteen others, all gentlemen, to be impaled.—Stow, Warkworth Chronicle ("Cont. Croyl.")

Yet so barbarous was the age, that this same learned man impaled forty Lancastrian prisoners at Southampton, put to death the infant children of the Irish chief Desmond, and acquired the nickname of "The Butcher of England."—Old and New London, ii. 21.

BUTLER (Reuben), a presbyterian minister, married to Jeanie Deans.

Benjamin Butler, father of Reuben.

Stephen Butler, generally called "Bible Butler," grandfather of Reuben and father of Benjamin.

Widow Judith Butler, Reuben's grandmother and Stephen's wife.

Euphemia or Femie Butler, Reuben's daughter.

David and Reuben Butler, Reuben's sons.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

Butler (The Rev. Mr.), military chaplain at Madras.—Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter (time, George II.).

BUTTERCUP (John), a milkman.—W. Brough, A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock.

Buttercup (Little), Bumboat woman, who in her youth, took to baby-farming, and "mixed those babies up," i.e. Ralph Rackstraw and the Captain of the Pinafore.—W.S. Gilbert, Pinafore (1877).

BUXOMA, a shepherdess with whom Cuddy is in love.

My Brown Buxoma is the featest maid That e'er at wake delightsome gambol played ... And neither lamb, nor kid, nor calf, nor Tray, Dance like Buxoma on the first of May. Gay, Pastoral, i. (1714).

BUZFUZ (Sergeant), the pleader retained by Dodson and Fogg for the plaintiff in the celebrated case of "Bardell v. Pickwick." Sergeant Buzfuz is a driving, chaffing, masculine bar orator, who proved that Mr. Pickwick's note about "chops and tomato sauce" was a declaration of love; and that his reminder "not to forget the warming-pan" was only a flimsy cover to express the ardor of his affection. Of course the defendant was found guilty by the enlightened jury. (His junior was Skimpin.)—C. Dickens, The Pickwick Papers (1836).

BUZ'ZARD (The), in The Hind and the Panther, by Dryden (pt. iii.), is meant for Dr. Gilbert Burnet, whose figure was lusty (1643-1715).

BYCORN, a fat cow, so fat that its sides were nigh to bursting, but this is no wonder, for its food was "good and enduring husbands," of which there is good store, (See CHICHI-VACHE.)

BYRON (Miss Harriet), a beautiful and accomplished woman of high rank, devotedly attached to sir Charles Grandison, whom ultimately she marries.—Richardson, Sir Charles Grandison (1753).

Byron (The Polish), Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855).

Byron (The Russian), Alexander Sergeivitch Puschkin (1799-1837).

BYRON AND MARY. The Mary of Byron's song is Miss Chaworth. Both Miss Chaworth and lord Byron were wards of Mr. White. Miss Chaworth married John Musters, and lord Byron married Miss Anna Isabella Milbanke: both were equally unhappy.

I have a passion for the name of "Mary," For once it was a magic name to me. Byron, Don Juan, v. 4 (1820).

BYRON AND TERESA GUICCIOLI. This lady was the wife of count Guiccioli, an old man, but very rich. Moore says that Byron "never loved but once, till he loved Teresa."

BYRON AND THE EDINBURGH REVIEW. It was Jeffrey and not Brougham who wrote the article which provoked the poet's reply.



(in Notes and Queries), the Right Hon. John Wilson Croker.

CACAFO'GO, a rich, drunken usurer, stumpy and fat, choleric, a coward, and a bully. He fancies money will buy everything and every one.—Beaumont and Fletcher, Rule a Wife and Have a Wife (1640).

CACUR'GUS, the fool or domestic jester of Misog'onus. Cacurgus is a rustic simpleton and cunning mischief-maker.—Thomas Rychardes, Misogonus (the third English comedy, 1560).

CA'CUS, a giant who lived in a cave on mount Av'entine (3 syl.). When Hercules came to Italy with the oxen which he had taken from Ger'yon of Spain, Cacus stole part of the herd, but dragged the animals by their tails into his cave, that it might be supposed they had come out of it.

If he falls into slips, it is equally clear they were introduced by him on purpose to confuse like Caeus, the traces of his retreat.—Encyc. Brit. Art. "Romance."

CAD, a low-born, vulgar fellow. A cadie in Scotland was a carrier of a sedan-chair.

All Edinburgh men and boys know that when sedan-chairs were discontinued, the old cadies sank into ruinous poverty, and became synonymous with roughs. The word was brought to London by James Hannay, who frequently used it.—M. Pringle.

M. Pringle assures us that the word came from Turkey.

CADE (Jack), Irish insurgent in reign of Henry VII. Assuming the name of Mortimer, he led a company of rebels from Kent, defeated the king's army, and entered London. His short-lived triumph was ended by his death at Lewes. He appears in Henry VI. by Shakespeare.

CADENUS (3 syl.) dean Swift. The word is simply de-ca-nus ("a dean"), with the first two syllables transposed (ca-de-nus). Vanessa is Miss Esther Vanhomrigh, a young lady who fell in love with Swift, and proposed marriage. The dean's reply is given in the poem entitled Cadenus and Vanessa [i.e. Van-Esther].

CADUCEUS meant generally a herald's staff; as an emblem of a peaceful errand it was made of a branch of olive-wood with the twigs, which, later, were transformed to serpents. In this form it is associated with Mercury, the herald and messenger of the gods—that "beautiful golden rod with which he both puts men to sleep and wakens them from slumber." Homer, Odyssey, xxiv.

CADURCI, the people of Aquitania.

CADWAL. Arviragus, son of Cymbeline, was so called while he lived in the woods with Belarius, who called himself Morgan, and whom Cadwal supposed to be his father.—Shakespeare, Cymbeline (1605).

CADWALLADER, called by Bede (1 syl.) Elidwalda, son of Cadwalla king of Wales. Being compelled by pestilence and famine to leave Britain, he went to Armorica. After the plague ceased he went to Rome, where, in 689, he was baptized, and received the name of Peter, but died very soon afterwards.

Cadwallader that drave [sailed] to the Armoric shore. Drayton, Polyolbion, ix. (1612).

Cadwallader, the misanthrope in Smollett's Peregrine Pickle (1751).

Cadwallader (Mrs.), character in Middle-march, by George Eliot.

CADWALL'ON, son of the blinded Cyne'tha. Both father and son accompanied prince Madoc to North America in the twelfth century.—Southey, Madoc (1805).

Cadwal'lon, the favorite bard of prince Gwenwyn. He entered the service of sir Hugo de Lacy, disguised, under the assumed name of Renault Vidal.—Sir W. Scott, The Betrothed (time, Henry II.).

CAE'CIAS, the north-west wind. Argestes is the north-east, and Bo'reas the full north.

Boreas and Caecias and Argestes loud ...rend the woods, and seas upturn.

Milton, Paradise Lost, x. 699, etc. (1665).

CAELESTI'NA, the bride of sir Walter Terill. The king commanded sir Walter to bring his bride to court on the night of her marriage. Her father, to save her honor, gave her a mixture supposed to be poison, but in reality it was only a sleeping draught. In due time the bride recovered, to the amusement of the king and delight of her husband.—Th. Dekker, Satiromastix (1602).

CAE'NEUS [Se.nuce] was born of the female sex, and was originally called Caenis. Vain of her beauty, she rejected all lovers, but was one day surprised by Neptune, who offered her violence, changed her sex, converted her name to Ceneus, and gave her (or rather him) the gift of being invulnerable. In the wars of the Lap'ithae, Ceneus offended Jupiter, and was overwhelmed under a pile of wood, but came forth converted into a yellow bird. AEneas found Ceneus in the infernal regions restored to the feminine sex. The order is inverted by sir John Davies:

And how was Caeneus made at first a man, And then a woman, then a man again. Orchestra, etc. (1615).

CAESAR (Caius Julius).

Somewhere I've read, but where I forget, he could dictate Seven letters at once, at the same time writing his memoirs.... Better be first, he said, in a little Iberian village Than be second in Rome; and I think he was right when he said it. Twice was he married before he was twenty, and many times after; Battles five hundred he fought, and a thousand cities he conquered; But was finally stabbed by his friend the orator Brutus. Longfellow, Courtship of Miles Standish, ii.

Longfellow refers to Pliny, vii. 25, where he says that Caesar "could employ, at one and the same time, his ears to listen, his eyes to read, his hand to write, and his tongue to dictate." He is said to have conquered three hundred nations; to have taken eight hundred cities, to have slain in battle a million men, and to have defeated three millions. (See below, CAESAR'S WARS.)

Caesar and his Fortune. Plutarch says that Caesar told the captain of the vessel in which he sailed that no harm could come to his ship, for that he had "Caesar and his fortune with him."

Now am I like that proud insulting ship, Which Caesar and his fortune bare at once. Shakespeare, 1 Henry VI. act i. sc. 2 (1589).

Caesar saves his Commentaries. Once, when Julius Caesar was in danger of being upset into the sea by the overloading of a boat, he swam to the nearest ship, with his book of Commentaries in his hand.—Suetonius.

Caesar's Death. Both Chaucer and Shakespeare say that Julius Caesar was killed in the capitol. Thus Polonius says to Hamlet, "I did enact Julius Caesar; I was killed i' the capitol" (Hamlet, act iii. sc. 2). And Chaucer says:

This Julius to the capitole wente ... And in the capitole anon him hente This false Brutus, and his other soon, And sticked him with bodekins anon.

Canterbury Tales ("The Monk's Tale," 1388).

Plutarch expressly tells us he was killed in Pompey's Porch or Piazza; and in Julius Caesar Shakespeare says he fell "e'en at the base of Pompey's statue" (act iii. sc. 2).

Caesar's Famous Despatch, "Veni, vidi, vici," written to the senate to announce his overthrow of Pharnaces king of Pontus. This "hop, skip, and a jump" was, however, the work of three days.

Caesar's Wars. The carnage occasioned by the wars of Caesar is usually estimated at a million fighting men. He won 320 triumphs, and fought 500 battles. See above, CAESAR (Caius Julius).

What millions died that Caesar might be great!

Campbell. The Pleasures of Hope, ii. (1799).

Caesar, the Mephistoph'eles of Byron's unfinished drama called The Deformed Transformed. This Caesar changes Arnold (the hunchback) into the form of Achilles, and assumes himself the deformity and ugliness which Arnold casts off. The drama being incomplete, all that can be said is that Caesar, in cynicism, effrontery, and snarling bitterness of spirit, is the exact counterpart of his prototype, Mephistopheles (1821).

Caesar (Don), an old man of sixty-three, the father of Olivia. In order to induce his daughter to marry, he makes love to Marcella, a girl of sixteen.—Mrs. Cowley, A Bold Stroke for a Husband (1782).

CAEL, a Highlander of the western coast of Scotland. These Cael had colonized, in very remote times, the northern parts of Ireland, as the Fir-bolg or Belgae of Britain had colonized the southern parts. The two colonies had each a separate king. When Crothar was king of the Fir-bolg (or "lord of Atha"), he carried off Conla'ma, daughter of the king of Ulster (i.e. "chief of the Cael"), and a general war ensued between the two races. The Cael, being reduced to the last extremity, sent to Trathal (Fingal's grandfather) for help, and Trathal sent over Con'ar, who was chosen "king of the Cael" immediately he landed in Ulster; and having reduced the Fir-bolg to submission, he assumed the title of "king of Ireland." The Fir-bolg, though conquered, often rose in rebellion, and made many efforts to expel the race of Conar, but never succeeded in so doing.—Ossian.

CAGES FOR MEN. Alexander the Great had the philosopher Callisthenes chained for seven months in an iron cage, for refusing to pay him divine honors.

Catherine II. of Eussia kept her perruquier for more than three years in an iron cage in her bed-chamber, to prevent his telling people that she wore a wig.—Mons. de Masson, Memoires Secrets sur la Russie.

Edward I. confined the countess of Buchan in an iron cage, for placing the crown of Scotland on the head of Bruce. This cage was erected on one of the towers of Berwick Castle, where the countess was exposed to the rigor of the elements and the gaze of passers-by. One of the sisters of Bruce was similarly dealt with.

Louis XI. confined cardinal Balue (grand-almoner of France) for ten years in an iron cage in the castle of Loches [Losh].

Tamerlane enclosed the sultan Bajazet in an iron cage, and made of him a public show. So says D'Herbelot.

An iron cage was made by Timour's command, composed on every side of iron gratings, through which the captive sultan [Bajazet] could be seen in any direction. He travelled in this den slung between two horses.—Leunclavius.

CAGLIOSTRO (Count de), the assumed name of Joseph Balsamo (1743-1795).

CAIN AND ABEL are called in the Koran "Kabil and Habil." The tradition is that Cain was commanded to marry Abel's sister, and Abel to marry Cain's, but Cain demurred because his own sister was the more beautiful, and so the matter was referred to God, and God answered "No" by rejecting Cain's sacrifice.

The Mohammedans also say that Cain carried about with him the dead body of Abel till he saw a raven scratch a hole in the ground to bury a dead bird. The hint was taken, and Abel was buried under ground.—Sale's Koran, v. (notes).

CAIRBAR, son of Borbar-Duthul, "lord of Atha" (Connaught), the most potent of the race of the Fir-bolg. He rose in rebellion against Cormac "king of Ireland," murdered him (Temora, i.), and usurped the throne; but Fingal (who was distantly related to Cormac) went to Ireland with an army, to restore the ancient dynasty. Cairbar invited Oscar (Fingal's grandson) to a feast, and Oscar accepted the invitation, but Cairbar having provoked a quarrel with his guest, the two fought, and both were slain.

"Thy heart is a rock. Thy thoughts are dark and bloody. Thou art the brother of Cathmor ... but my soul is not like thine, thou feeble hand in fight. The light of my bosom is stained by thy deeds."—Ossian, Temora, i.

CAIRBRE (2 syl.), sometimes called Cairbar, third king of Ireland, of the Caledonian line. (There was also a Cairbar, "lord of Atha," a Fir-bolg, quite a different person.)

The Caledonian line ran thus: (1) Conar, first "king of Ireland;" (2) Cormac I., his son; (3) Cairbre, his son; (4) Artho, his son; (5) Cormac II., his son; (6) Ferad-Artho, his cousin.—Ossian.

CAIUS (2 syl.), the assumed name of the earl of Kent when he attended on king Lear, after Goneril and Regan refused to entertain their aged father with his suite.—Shakespeare, King Lear (1605).

Caius (Dr.), a French physician, whose servants are Rugby and Mrs. Quickly.—Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor (1601).

The clipped English of Dr. Cains.—Macau lay.

CALANDRINO, a character in the Decameron, whose "misfortunes have made all Europe merry for four centuries."—Boccaccio, Decameron, viii. 9 (1350).

CALANTHA, princess of Sparta, loved by Ithocles. Ithocles induces his sister, Penthea, to break the matter to the princess. This she does; the princess is won to requite his love, and the king consents to the union. During a grand court ceremony Calantha is informed of the sudden death of her father, another announces to her that Penthea had starved herself to death from hatred to Bassanes, and a third follows to tell her that Ithocles, her betrothed husband, has been murdered. Calantha bates no jot of the ceremony, but continues the dance even to the bitter end. The coronation ensues, but scarcely is the ceremony over than she can support the strain no longer, and, broken-hearted, she falls dead.—John Ford, The Broken Heart (1633).

CALAN'THE (3 syl.), the betrothed wife of Pyth'ias the Syracusian.—J. Banim, Damon and Pythias (1825).

CAL'CULATOR (The). Alfragan the Arabian astronomer was so called (died A.D. 820). Jedediah Buxton, of Elmeton, in Derbyshire, was also called "The Calculator" (1705-1775). George Bidder, Zerah Colburn, and a girl named Heywood (whose father was a Mile End weaver) all exhibited their calculating powers in public.

Pascal, in 1642, made a calculating machine, which was improved by Leibnitz. C. Babbage also invented a calculating machine (1790-1871).

CAL'DERON (Don Pedro), a Spanish poet born at Madrid (1600-1681). At the age of fifty-two he became an ecclesiastic, and composed religious poetry only. Altogether he wrote about 1000 dramatic pieces.

Her memory was a mine. She knew by heart All Cal'deron and greater part of Lope. Byron, Don Juan, i. 11 (1819).

"Lope," that is Lope de Vega, the Spanish poet (1562-1635).

CALEB, the enchantress who carried off St. George in infancy.

Ca'leb, in Dryden's satire of Absalom and Achitophel, is meant for lord Grey of Wark, in Northumberland, an adherent of the duke of Monmouth.

And, therefore, in the name of dulness be The well-hung Balaam and cold Caleb free. Part i.

"Balaam" is the earl of Huntingdon.

CA'LED, commander-in-chief of the Arabs in the siege of Damascus. He is brave, fierce, and revengeful. War is his delight. When Pho'cyas, the Syrian, deserts Eu'menes, Caled asks him to point out the governor's tent; he refuses; they fight, and Caled falls.—John Hughes, Siege of Damascus (1720).

CALEDONIANS, Gauls from France who colonized south Britain, whence they journeyed to Inverness and Ross. The word is compounded of two Celtic words, Cael ("Gaul" or "Celt") and don or dun ("a hill"), so that Cael-don means "Celts of the highlands."

The Highlanders to this day call themselves "Cael" and their language "Caelic" or "Gaelic" and their country "Caeldock" which the Romans softened into Caledonia.—Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian.

CALENDERS, a class of Mohammedans who abandoned father and mother, wife and children, relations and possessions, to wander through the world as religious devotees, living on the bounty of those whom they made their dupes.—D'Herbelot, Supplement, 204.

He diverted himself with the multitude of calenders, santons, and dervises, who had travelled from the heart of India, and halted on their way with the emir.—W. Beckford, Vathek (1786).

The Three Calenders, three royal princes, disguised as begging dervishes, each of whom had lost his right eye. Their adventures form three tales in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments.

Tale of the First Calender. No names are given. This calender was the son of a king, and nephew of another king. While on a visit to his uncle his father died, and the vizier usurped the throne. When the prince returned, he was seized, and the usurper pulled out his right eye. The uncle died, and the usurping vizier made himself master of this kingdom also. So the hapless young prince assumed the garb of a calender, wandered to Baghdad, and being received into the house of "the three sisters," told his tale in the hearing of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid.—The Arabian Nights.

Tale of the Second Calender. No names given. This calender, like the first, was the son of a king. On his way to India he was attacked by robbers, and though he contrived to escape, he lost all his effects. In his flight he came to a large city, where he encountered a tailor, who gave him food and lodging. In order to earn a living, he turned woodman for the nonce, and accidentally discovered an underground palace, in which lived a beautiful lady, confined there by an evil genius. With a view of liberating her, he kicked down the talisman, when the genius appeared, killed the lady, and turned the prince into an ape. As an ape he was taken on board ship, and transported to a large commercial city, where his penmanship recommended him to the sultan, who made him his vizier. The sultan's daughter undertook to disenchant him and restore him to his proper form; but to accomplish this she had to fight with the malignant genius. She succeeded in killing the genius, and restoring the enchanted prince; but received such severe injuries in the struggle that she died, and a spark of fire which flew into the right eye of the prince destroyed it. The sultan was so heart-broken at the death of his only child, that he insisted on the prince quitting the kingdom without delay. So he assumed the garb of a calender, and being received into the hospitable house of "the three sisters," told his tale in the hearing of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid.—The Arabian Nights.

Tale of the Third Calender. This tale is given under the word AGIB.

* * * * *

"I am called Agib," he says, "and am the son of a king whose name was Cassib."—Arabian Nights.

CALEPINE (Sir), the knight attached to Serena (canto 3). Seeing a bear carrying off a child, he attacked it, and squeezed it to death, then committed the babe to the care of Matilde, wife of sir Bruin. As Matilde had no child of her own, she adopted it (canto 4).—Spenser, Faery Queen, vi. (1596).

Upton says, "the child" in this incident is meant for M'Mahon, of Ireland, and that "Mac Mahon" means the "son of a bear." He furthermore says that the M'Mahons were descended from the Fitz-Ursulas, a noble English family.

CALES (2 syl.). So gipsies call themselves.

Beltran Cruzado, count of the Cales. Longfellow, The Spanish Student.

CALF-SKIN. Fools and jesters used to wear a calf-skin coat buttoned down the back, and hence Faulconbridge says insolently to the arch-duke of Austria, who had acted very basely towards Richard Lion-heart:

Thou wear a lion's hide! doff it for shame, And hang a calf-skin on those recreant limbs. Shakespeare, King John, act ii. sc. I (1596).

CALIANAX, a humorous old lord, father of Aspatia, the troth-plight wife of Amintor. It is the death of Aspatia which gives name to the drama.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Maid's Tragedy (1610).

CALIBAN, a savage, deformed slave of Prospero (the rightful duke of Milan and father of Miranda). Caliban is the "freckled whelp" of the witch Sycorax. Mrs. Shelley's "Frankenstein" is a sort of Caliban.—Shakespeare, The Tempest (1609).

"Caliban" ... is all earth ... he has the dawnings of understanding without reason or the moral sense ... this advance to the intellectual faculties without the moral sense is marked by the appearance of vice.—Coleridge.

CALIBURN, same as Excalibur, the famous sword of king Arthur.

Onward Arthur paced, with hand On Caliburn's resistless brand. Sir W. Scott, Bridal of Triermain (1813).

Arthur ... drew out his Caliburn, and ... rushed forward with great fury into the thickest of the enemy's ranks ... nor did he give over the fury of his assault till he had, with his Caliburn, killed 470 men.—Geoffrey, British History, ix. 4 (1142).

CALIDORE (Sir), the type of courtesy, and the hero of the sixth book of Spenser's Faery Queen. The model of this character was sir Philip Sidney. Sir Calidore (3 syl.) starts in quest of the Blatant Beast, which had escaped from sir Artegal (bk. v. 12). He first compels the lady Briana to discontinue her discourteous toll of "the locks of ladies and the beards of knights" (canto 1). Sir Calidore falls in love with Pastorella, a shepherdess, dresses like a shepherd, and assists his lady-love in keeping sheep. Pastorella being taken captive by brigands, sir Calidore rescues her, and leaves her at Belgard Castle to be taken care of, while he goes in quest of the Blatant Beast. He finds the monster after a time, by the havoc it had made with religious houses, and after an obstinate fight succeeds in muzzling it, and dragging it in chains after him, but it got loose again, as it did before (canto 12).—Spenser, Faery Queen, vi. (1596).

Sir Gawain was the "Calidore" of the Round Table.—Southey.

"Pastorella" is Frances Walsingham (daughter of sir Francis), whom sir Philip Sidney married. After the death of sir Philip she married the earl of Essex. The "Blatant Beast" is what we now call "Mrs. Grundy."

CALIGORANT, an Egyptian giant and cannibal, who used to entrap travellers with an invisible net. It was the very same net that Vulcan made to catch Mars and Venus with. Mercury stole it for the purpose of entrapping Chloris, and left it in the temple of Anubis, whence it was stolen by Caligorant. One day Astolpho, by a blast of his magic horn, so frightened the giant that he got entangled in his own net, and being made captive was despoiled of it.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

CALINO, a famous French utterer of bulls.

CALIPOLIS, in The Battle of Alcazar, a drama by George Peele (1582). Pistol says to Mistress Quickly:

"Then feed and be fat, my fair Calipolis."— Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV. act ii. sc 4 (1598).

CALIS (The princess), sister of Astorax, king of Paphos, in love with Polydore, brother of general Memnon, but loved greatly by Siphax.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Mad Lover (1617).

CALISTA, the fierce and haughty daughter of Sciolto (3 syl.), a proud Genoese nobleman. She yielded to the seduction of Lothario, but engaged to marry Altamont, a young lord who loved her dearly. On the wedding-day a letter was picked up which proved her guilt, and she was subsequently seen by Altamont conversing with Lothario. A duel ensued, in which Lothario fell; in a street row Sciolto received his death-wound, and Calista stabbed herself. The character of "Calista" was one of the parts of Mrs. Siddons, and also of Miss Brunton.—N. Rowe, The Fair Penitent (1703).

Richardson has given a purity and sanctity to the sorrows of his "Clarissa" which leave "Calista" immeasurably behind.—R. Chambers, English Literature, i. 590.

Twelve years after Norris's death, Mrs. Barry was acting the character of "Calista." In the last act, where "Calista" lays her hand upon a skull, she [Mrs. Barry] was suddenly seized with a shuddering, and fainted. Next day she asked whence the skull had been obtained, and was told it was "the skull of Mr. Norris, an actor." This Norris was her former husband, and so great was the shock that she died within six weeks.—Oxberry.

CALIS'TO AND AR'CAS. Calisto, an Arcadian nymph, was changed into a she-bear. Her son Arcas, supposing the bear to be an ordinary beast, was about to shoot it, when Jupiter metamorphosed him into a he-bear. Both were taken to heaven by Jupiter, and became the constellations Ursa Minor and Ursa Major.

CALL'AGHAN O'BRALL'AGHAN (Sir), "a wild Irish soldier in the Prussian army. His military humor makes one fancy he was not only born in a siege, but that Bellona had been his nurse, Mars his schoolmaster, and the Furies his playfellows" (act i. 1). He is the successful suitor of Charlotte Goodchild.—C. Macklin, Love a la mode (1779).

CALLET, a fille publique. Brantome says a calle or calotte is "a cap," hence the phrase, Plattes comme des calles. Ben Jonson, in his Magnetick Lady, speaks of "wearing the callet, the politic hood."

Des filles du peuple et de la campagne s'appellant calles, a cause de la "cale" qui leur servait de coiffure.—Francisque Michel.

En sa tete avoit un gros bonnet blanc, qui l'on appelle une calle, et nous autres appelons calotte, ou bonnette blanche de lagne, nouee ou bridee par dessous le menton.—Brantome, Vies des Dames Illustres.

A beggar in his drink Could not have laid such terms upon his callet.

Shakespeare, Othello, act iv. sc. 2 (1611).

CALLIM'ACHUS (The Italian), Filippo Buonaccorsi (1437-1496).

CALLIR'RHOE (4 syl.), the lady-love of Chae'reas, in a Greek romance entitled The Loves of Choreas and Callirrhoe, by Char'iton (eighth century).

CALLIS'THENES (4 syl.), a philosopher who accompanied Alexander the Great on his Oriental expedition. He refused to pay Alexander divine honors, for which he was accused of treason, and being mutilated, was chained in a cage for seven months like a wild beast. Lysimachus put an end to his tortures by poison.

Oh let me roll in Macedonian rays, Or, like Callisthenes, be caged for life, Rather than shine in fashions of the East. N. Lee, Alexander the Great, iv. I (1678).

CAL'MAR, son of Matha, lord of Lara (in Connaught). He is represented as presumptuous, rash, and overbearing, but gallant and generous. The very opposite of the temperate Connal, who advises caution and forethought. Calmar hurries Cuthullin into action, which ends in defeat. Connal comforts the general in his distress.—Ossian, Fingal, i.

CAL'THON, brother of Col'mar, sons of Rathmor chief of Clutha (the Clyde). The father was murdered in his halls by Dunthalmo lord of Teutha (the Tweed), and the two boys were brought up by the murderer in his own house, and accompanied him in his wars. As they grew in years Dunthalmo fancied he perceived in their looks a something which excited his suspicions, so he shut them up in two separate dark caves on the banks of the Tweed. Colmal, daughter of Dunthalmo, dressed as a young warrior, liberated Calthon, and fled with him to Morven, to crave aid in behalf of the captive Colmar. Accordingly, Fingal sent his son Ossian with 300 men to effect his liberation. When Dunthalmo heard of the approach of this army, he put Colmar to death. Calthon, mourning for his brother, was captured, and bound to an oak; but at daybreak Ossian slew Dunthalmo, cut the thongs of Calthon, gave him to Colmal, and they lived happily in the halls of Teutha.—Ossian, Calthon and Colmal.

CALYDON (Prince of), Meleager, famed for killing the Calydonian boar.—Apollod. i. 8. (See MELEAGER.)

As did the fatal brand Althaea burn'd, Unto the prince's heart of Calydon. Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI. act i. sc. 1 (1591).

Calydon, a town of Aetolia, founded by Calydon. In Arthurian romance Calydon is a forest in the north of our island. Probably it is what Richard of Cirencester calls the "Caledonian Wood," westward of the Varar or Murray Frith.

CALYDONIAN HUNT. Artemis, to punish Oeneus [E.nuce] king of Calydon, in Aetolia, for neglect, sent a monster boar to ravage his vineyards. His son Meleager collected together a large company to hunt it. The boar being killed, a dispute arose respecting the head, and this led to a war between the Curetes and Calydonians.

A similar tale is told of Theseus (2 syl.), who vanquished and killed the gigantic sow which ravaged the territory of Krommyon, near Corinth. (See KROMMYONIAN SOW.)

CALYPSO, in Telemaque, a prose-epic by Fenelon, is meant for Mde. de Montespan. In mythology she was queen of the island Ogygia, on which Ulysses was wrecked, and where he was detained for seven years.

She essayed after his departure to bring his son Telemachus under her spell. The lad, seeking the world through for his father, was preserved from the arts of the temptress by Mentor—Minerva in disguise.

CALYPSO'S ISLE, Ogygia, a mythical island "in the navel of the sea." Some consider it to be Gozo, near Malta. Ogygia (not the island) is Boeotia, in Greece.

CAMACHO, "richest of men," makes grand preparations for his wedding with Quiteria, "fairest of women," but as the bridal party are on their way, Basilius cheats him of his bride, by pretending to kill himself. As it is supposed that Basilius is dying, Quiteria is married to him as a mere matter of form, to soothe his last moments; but when the service is over, up jumps Basilius, and shows that his "mortal wounds" are a mere pretense.—Cervantes, an episode in Don Quixote, II. ii. 4 (1615).

CAMANCHES (3 syl.), or COMANCHES, an Indian tribe of Texas (United States).

It is a caravan, whitening the desert where dwell the Camanches. Longfellow, To the Driving Cloud.

CAMARALZAMAN, prince of "the Island of the Children of Khaledan, situate in the open sea, some twenty days' sail from the coast of Persia." He was the only child of Schahzaman and Fatima, king and queen of the island. He was very averse to marriage; but one night, by fairy influence, being shown Badoura, only child of the king of China, he fell in love with her and exchanged rings. Next day both inquired what had become of the other, and the question was deemed so ridiculous that each was thought to be mad. At length Marzavan (foster-brother of the princess) solved the mystery. He induced the prince Camaralzaman to go to China, where he was recognized by the princess and married her. (The name means "the moon of the period.")—Arabian Nights ("Camaralzaman and Badoura").

CAMBALLO, the second son of Cambuscan king of Tartary, brother of Algarsife (3 syl.) and Canace (3 syl.). He fought with two knights who asked the lady Canace to wife, the terms being that none should have her till he had succeeded in worsting Camballo in combat. Chaucer does not give us the sequel of this tale, but Spenser says that three brothers, named Priamond, Diamond, and Triamond were suitors, and that Triamond won her. The mother of these three (all born at one birth) was Agape, who dwelt in Faery-land (bk. iv. 2).

Spenser makes Cambina (daughter of Agape) the lady-love of Camballo. Camballo is also called Camballus and Cambel.

Camballo's Ring, given him by his sister Canace, "had power to stanch all wounds that mortally did bleed."

Well mote ye wonder how that noble knight, After he had so often wounded been, Could stand on foot now to renew the fight ... All was thro' virtue of the ring he wore; The which not only did not from him let One drop of blood to fall, but did restore His weakened powers, and his dulled spirits whet. Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 2 (1596).

CAMBEL, called by Chaucer Camballo, brother of Canace (3 syl.). He challenged Every suitor to his sister's hand, and overthrew them all except Triamond. The match between Cambel and Triamond was so evenly balanced, that both would have been killed had not Cambina interfered. (See next art.)—Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 3 (1596).

CAMBINA, daughter of the fairy Agape (3 syl.). She had been trained in magic by her mother, and when Camballo, son of Cambuscan, had slain two of her brothers and was engaged in deadly combat with the third (named Triamond), she appeared in the lists in her chariot drawn by two lions, and brought with her a cup of nepenthe, which had the power of converting hate to love, of producing oblivion of sorrow, and of inspiring the mind with celestial joy. Cambina touched the combatants with her wand and paralyzed them, then giving them the cup to drink, dissolved their animosity, assuaged their pains, and filled them with gladness. The end was that Camballo made Cambina his wife, and Triamond married Canace.—Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 3 (1596).

CAMBUSCAN, king of Sarra, in the land of Tartary; the model of all royal virtues.

At Sarra, in the lond of Tartarie, Ther dwelt a king that werreied Russie, Through which ther died many a doughty man: This noble king was cleped Cambuscan Which in his time was of so great renoun That ther n' as no wher in no regioun, So excellent a lord in alle thing:

* * * * * This noble king, this Tartre Cambuscan Hadde two sones by Elfeta his wif, Of which the eldest sone highte Algarsif That other was ycleped Camballo.

* * * * * A doughter had this worthy king also That youngest was and highte Canace. Chaucer, The Squire's Tale.

Milton, in the Penseroso, alludes to the fact that the Squire's Tale was not finished:

Or call up him that left half told The story of Cambuscan bold.

CAMBYSES (3 syl.), a pompous, ranting character in Preston's tragedy of that name,

I must speak in passion, and I will do it in king Cambyses' vein.—Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV. act ii. sc. 4 (1597).

CAMBYSES AND SMERDIS. Cambyses king of Persia killed his brother Smerdis from the wild suspicion of a madman, and it is only charity to think that he was really non compos mentis.

Behold Cambises and his fatal daye ... While he his brother Mergus cast to slaye, A dreadful thing, his wittes were him bereft. T. Sackville, A Mirrour for Magistraytes ("The Complaynt," 1587).

CAMDEO, the god of love in Hindu mythology.

CAMILLA, the virgin queen of the Volscians, famous for her fleetness of foot. She aided Turnus against AEneas.

Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain, Flies o'er th' unbending corn, or skims along the main. Pope.

Camilla, wife of Anselmo of Florence. Anselmo, in order to rejoice in her incorruptible fidelity, induced his friend Lothario to try to corrupt her. This he did, and Camilla was not trial-proof, but fell. Anselmo for a time was kept in the dark, but at the end Camilla eloped with Lothario. Anselmo died of grief, Lothario was slain in battle, and Camilla died in a convent.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. iv. 5, 6 ("Fatal Curiosity," 1605).

Camilla, English girl, heroine of Miss Burney's novel of same name.

Camilla, the heroine of Signor Monaldini's Niece, by Mary Agnes Tincker, a story of modern Rome (1879).

CAMILLE (2 syl.), in Corneille's tragedy of Les Horaces (1639). When her brother meets her and bids her congratulate him for his victory over the three Curiatii, she gives utterance to her grief for the death of her lover. Horace says, "What! can you prefer a man to the interests of Rome?" Whereupon Camille denounces Rome, and concludes with these words: "Oh, that it were my lot!" When Mdlle. Rachel first appeared in the character of "Camille," she took Paris by storm (1838).

Voir le dernier Romain a son dernier soupir, Moi seule en etre cause, et mourir de plaisir.

Whitehead has dramatized the subject and called it The Roman Father (1741).

Camille, one of the Parisian demi-monde. She meets and loves Armand Duval. Camille is besought by Duval pere to leave her lover, whose prospects are ruined by the liaison. She quits him, returns to her former life, and dies of consumption in the arms of her lover, who has just found her after a long search.—A. Dumas, La Dame aux Camelias.

CAMILLO, a lord in the Sicilian court, and a very good man. Being commanded by king Leontes to poison Polixenes, instead of doing so he gave him warning, and fled with him to Bohemia. When Polixenes ordered his son Florizel to abandon Perdita, Camillo persuaded the young lovers to seek refuge in Sicily, and induced Leontes, the king thereof, to protect them. As soon as Polixenes discovered that Perdita was Leontes' daughter, he readily consented to the union which before he had forbidden.—Shakespeare, The Winter's Tale (1604).

CAMIOLA, "the maid of honor," a lady of great wealth, noble spirit, and great beauty. She loved Bertoldo (brother of Roberto king of the two Sicilies), and when Bertoldo was taken prisoner at Sienna, paid his ransom. Bertoldo before his release was taken before Aurelia the duchess of Sienna. Aurelia fell in love with him, and proposed marriage, an offer which Bertoldo accepted. The betrothed then went to Palermo to be introduced to the king, when Camiola exposed the conduct of the base young prince. Roberto was disgusted at his brother, Aurelia rejected him with scorn, and Camiola retired to a nunnery.—Massinger, The Maid of Honor (1637).

CAMPASPE (3 syl.), mistress of Alexander. He gave her up to Apelles, who had fallen in love with her while painting her likeness.—Pliny, Hist. xxxv. 10.

John Lyly produced, in 1583, a drama entitled Cupid and Campaspe, in which is the well-known lyric:

Cupid and my Campaspe played At cards for kisses: Cupid paid.

CAMPBELL (Captain), called "Green Colin Campbell," or Barcaldine (3 syl.).—Sir W. Scott, The Highland Widow (time, George II.).

Campbell (General), called "Black Colin Campbell," in the king's service. He suffers the papist conspirators to depart unpunished.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.).

Campbell (Sir Duncan), knight of Ardenvohr, in the marquis of Argyll's army. He was sent as ambassador to the earl of Montrose.

Lady Mary Campbell, sir Duncan's wife.

Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchenbreck, an officer in the army of the marquis of Argyll.

Murdoch Campbell, a name assumed by the marquis of Argyll. Disguised as a servant, he visited Dalgetty and M'Eagh in the dungeon, but the prisoners overmastered him, bound him fast, locked him in the dungeon, and escaped.—Sir W. Scott, Legend of Montrose (time, Charles I.).

Campbell (The lady Mary), daughter of the duke of Argyll.

The lady Caroline Campbell, sister of lady Mary.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

CAMPEADOR [Kam.pay.dor], the Cid, who was called Mio Cid el Campeador ("my lord the champion"). "Cid" is a corruption of said ("lord").

CAMPO-BASSO (The count of), an officer in the duke of Burgundy's army, introduced by sir W. Scott in two novels, Quentin Durward and Anne of Geierstein, both laid in the time of Edward IV.

CANACE (3 syl.), daughter of Cambuscan, and the paragon of women. Chaucer left the tale half told, but Spenser makes a crowd of suitors woo her. Her brother Cambel or Camballo resolved that none should win his sister who did not first overthrow him in fight. At length Triamond sought her hand, and was so nearly matched in fight with Camballo, that both would have been killed, if Cambina, daughter of the fairy Agape (3 syl.), had not interfered. Cambina gave the wounded combatants nepenthe, which had the power of converting enmity to love; so the combatants ceased from fight, Camballo took the fair Cambina to wife, and Triamond married Canace.—Chaucer, Squire's Tale; Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 3 (1596).

Canace's Mirror, a mirror which told the inspectors if the persons on whom they set their affections would prove true or false.

Canace's Ring. The king of Araby and Ind sent Canace, daughter of Cambuscan (king of Sarra, in Tartary), a ring which enabled her to understand the language of birds, and to know the medical virtues of all herbs.—Chaucer, Canterbury Tales ("The Squire's Tale," 1388).

CANDACE, negro cook in The Minister's Wooing, by Harriet Beecher Stowe. She reverences Dr. Hopkins, but is slow to admit his dogma of Imputed Sin in Consequence of Adam's Transgression (1859).

CANDAULES (3 syl.), king of Lydia, who exposed the charms of his wife to Gyges. The queen was so indignant that she employed Gyges to murder her husband. She then married the assassin, who became king of Lydia, and reigned twenty-eight years (B.C. 716-688).

CANDAYA (The kingdom of), situate between the great Trapobana and the South Sea, a couple of leagues beyond cape Comorin.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, II. iii. 4 (1615).

CANDIDE (2 syl.), the hero of Voltaire's novel of the same name. He believes that "all things are for the best in the best of all possible worlds."

Voltaire says "No." He tells you that Candide Found life most tolerable after meals. Byron, Don Juan, v. 31 (1820).

CANDOUR (Mrs.), the beau-ideal of female backbiters.—Sheridan, The School for Scandal (1777).

CANIDIA, a Neapolitan, beloved by the poet Horace. When she deserted him, he held her up to contempt as an old sorceress who could by charms unsphere the moon.—Horace, Epodes, v. and xvii.

Such a charm were right Canidian. Mrs. Browning, Hector in the Garden, iv.

CANMORE or GREAT-HEAD, Malcolm III. of Scotland (1057-1093).—Sir W. Scott, Tales of a Grandfather, i. 4.

CANNING (George), statesman (1770-1827). Charles Lamb calls him:

St. Stephen's fool, the zany of debate. Sonnet in "The Champion."

CANOPOS, Menelaeos's pilot, killed in the return voyage from Troy by the bite of a serpent. The town Canoepos (Latin, Canopus) was built on the site where the pilot was buried.

CANTAB, a member of the University of Cambridge. The word is a contraction of the Latin Cantabrigia.

CANTACUZENE (4 syl.), a noble Greek family, which has furnished two emperors of Constantinople, and several princes of Moldavia and Wallachia. The family still survives.

We mean to show that the Cantacuzenes are not the only princely family in the world.—D'Israeli, Lothaire.

There are other members of the Cantacuzene family besides myself.—Ditto.

Cantacuzene (Michael), the grand sewer of Alexius Comnenus, emperor of Greece.—Sir W. Scott, Count Robert of Paris. (time, Rufus).

CANTERBURY TALES. Eighteen tales told by a company of pilgrims going to visit the shrine of "St. Thomas a Becket" at Canterbury. The party first assembled at the Tabard, an inn in Southwark, and there agreed to tell one tale each both going and returning, and the person who told the best tale was to be treated by the rest to a supper at the Tabard on the homeward journey. The party consisted of twenty-nine pilgrims, so that the whole budget of tales should have been fifty-eight, but only eighteen of the number were told, not one being on the homeward route. The chief of these tales are: "The Knight's Tale" (Palamon and Arcite, 2 syl.); "The Man of Law's Tale" (Custance, 2 syl.); "The Wife of Bath's Tale" (A Knight); "The Clerk's Tale" (Grisildis); "The Squire's Tale" (Cambuscan, incomplete); "The Franklin's Tale" (Dor'igen and Arvir'agus); "The Prioress's Tale" (Hugh of Lincoln); "The Priest's Tale" (Chanticleer and Partelite); "The Second Nun's Tale" (St. Cecil'ia); "The Doctor's Tale" (Virginia); "The Miller's Tale" (John the Carpenter and Alison); and "The Merchant's Tale" (January and May) (1388).

CANTON, the Swiss valet of lord Ogleby. He has to skim the morning papers and serve out the cream of them to his lordship at breakfast, "with good emphasis and good discretion." He laughs at all his master's jokes, flatters him to the top of his bent, and speaks of him as a mere chicken compared to himself, though his lordship is seventy and Canton about fifty. Lord Ogleby calls him his "cephalic snuff, and no bad medicine against megrims, vertigoes, and profound thinkings."—Colman and Garrick, The Clandestine Marriage (1766).

CAN'TRIPS (Mrs.), a quondam friend of Nanty Ewart, the smuggler-captain.

Jessie Cantrips, her daughter.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.).

CANT'WELL (Dr.), the hypocrite, the English representative of Moliere's Tartuffe. He makes religious cant the instrument of gain, luxurious living, and sensual indulgence. His overreaching and dishonorable conduct towards lady Lambert and her daughter gets thoroughly exposed, and at last he is arrested as a swindler.—I. Bicker staff, The Hypocrite (1768).

Dr. Cantwell ... the meek and saintly hypocrite.

L. Hunt.

CANUTE' or CNUT and EDMUND IRONSIDE. William of Malmesbury says: When Canute and Edmund were ready for their sixth battle in Gloucestershire, it was arranged between them to decide their respective claims by single combat. Cnut was a small man, and Edmund both tall and strong; so Cnut said to his adversary, "We both lay claim to the kingdom in right of our fathers; let us therefore divide it and make peace;" and they did so.

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