Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol 1 - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook
by The Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D.
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ALDRICK the Jesuit, confessor of Charlotte countess of Derby.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

ALDROVAND (Father), chaplain of sir Raymond Berenger, the old Norman warrior.—Sir W. Scott, The Betrothed (time, Henry II.).

ALDUS, father of Al'adine (3 syl), the "lusty knight."—Spenser, Faery Queen, vi. 3 (1596).

ALEA, a warrior who invented dice at the siege of Troy; at least so Isidore of Seville says. Suidas ascribes the invention to Palamedes.

Alea est ludus tabulae inventa a Graecis, in otio Trojani belli, a quodam milite, nomine ALEA, a quo et ars nomen accepit.—Isidorus, Orig. xviii. 57.

ALEC'TRYON, a youth set by Mars to guard against surprises, but he fell asleep, and Apollo thus surprised Mars and Venus in each others' embrace. Mars in anger changed the boy into a cock.

And from out the neighboring farmyard Loud the cock Alectryon crowed. Longfellow, Pegasus in Pound.

ALEC YEATON, the Gloucester skipper in T. B. Aldrich's ballad, Alec Yeaton's Son.

The wind it wailed, the wind it moaned, And the white caps flecked the sea; "An' I would to God," the skipper groaned, "I had not my boy with me!"

* * * * *

Long did they marvel in the town At God His strange decree; That let the stalwart skipper drown, And the little child go free. (1890.)

ALE'RIA, one of the Amazons, and the best beloved of the ten wives of Guido the Savage.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

ALESSANDRO, husband of the Indian girl Ramona, in Helen Hunt Jackson's novel Ramona. The story of the young couple is a series of oppressions and deceits practised by U. S. officials (1884). ALESSIO, the young man with whom Lisa was living in concubinage, when Elvi'no promised to marry her. Elvino made the promise out of pique, because he thought Ami'na was not faithful to him, but when he discovered his error he returned to his first love, and left Lisa to marry Alessio, with whom she had been previously cohabiting.—Bellini's opera, La Sonnamlula (1831).

ALE'THES (3 syl.), an ambassador from Egypt to king Al'adine (3 syl.); subtle, false, deceitful, and full of wiles.—Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered (1575).

ALEXANDER PATOFF, brother of the young Russian who figures most prominently in F. Marion Crawford's novel Paul Patoff. Alexander's mysterious disappearance in a mosque leads to suspicions involving his brother, even the mother of the two brothers accusing Paul of fratricide (1887).

ALEX. WALTON, physician and suitor of Margaret Kent in The Story of Margaret Kent, by Henry Hayes (Ellen Olney Kirke) (1886).

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, a tragedy by Nathaniel Lee (1678). In French we have a novel called Roman d'Alexandre, by Lambert-li-cors (twelfth century), and a tragedy by Racine (1665).

Alexander an Athlete. Alexander, being asked if he would run a course at the Olympic games, replied, "Yes, if my competitors are all kings."

The Albanian Alexander, George Castriot (Scanderbeg or Iscander beg, 1404-1467).

The Persian Alexander, Sandjar (1117-1158).

Alexander of the North, Charles XII. of Sweden (1682-1718).

Alexander deformed.

Ammon's great son one shoulder had too high.

Pope, Prologue to the Satires, 117.

Alexander and Homer. When Alexander invaded Asia Minor, he offered up sacrifice to Priam, and then went to visit the tomb of Achilles. Here he exclaimed, "O most enviable of men, who had Homer to sing thy deeds!"

Which made the Eastern conqueror to cry,

"O fortunate young man! whose virtue found So brave a trump thy noble deeds to sound."

Spenser, The Ruins of Time (1591).

Alexander and Parme'nio. When Darius, king of Persia, offered Alexander his daughter Stati'ra in marriage, with a dowry of 10,000 talents of gold, Parmenio said, "I would accept the offer, if I were Alexander." To this Alexander rejoined, "So would I, if I were Parmenio."

On another occasion the general thought the king somewhat too lavish in his gifts, whereupon Alexander made answer, "I consider not what Parmenio ought to receive, but what Alexander ought to give."

Alexander and Perdiccas. When Alexander started for Asia he divided his possessions among his friends. Perdiccas asked what he had left for himself. "Hope," said Alexander. "If hope is enough for Alexander," replied the friend, "it is enough for Perdiccas also;" and declined to accept anything.

Alexander and Raphael. Alexander encountered Raphael in a cave in the mountain of Kaf, and being asked what he was in search of, replied, "The water of immortality." Whereupon Raphael gave him a stone, and told him when he found another of the same weight he would gain his wish. "And how long," said Alexander, "have I to live?" The angel replied, "Till the heaven above thee and the earth beneath thee are of iron." Alexander now went forth and found a stone almost of the weight required, and in order to complete the balance, added a little earth; falling from his horse at Ghur he was laid in his armor on the ground, and his shield was set up over him to ward off the sun. Then understood he that he would gain immortality when, like the stone, he was buried in the earth, and that his hour was come, for the earth beneath him was iron, and his iron buckler was his vault of heaven above. So he died.

Alexander and the Robber. When Dion'ides, a pirate, was brought before Alexander, he exclaimed, "Vile brigand! How dare you infest the seas with your misdeeds?" "And you," replied the pirate, "by what right do you ravage the world? Because I have only one ship, I am called a brigand, but you who have a whole fleet are termed a conqueror." Alexander admired the man's boldness, and commanded him to be set at liberty.

Alexander's Beard, a smooth chin, or a very small beard. It is said that Alexander the Great had scarcely any beard at all.

Disgraced yet with Alexander's bearde.

G. Gascoigne, The Steele Glas (died 1577).

Alexander's Runner, Ladas.

ALEXAN'DRA, daughter of Oronthea, queen of the Am'azons, and one of the ten wives of Elba'nio. It is from this person that the land of the Amazons was called Alexandra.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

ALEX'IS, the wanton shepherd in The Faithful Shepherdess, a pastoral drama by John Fletcher (1610).

ALFA'DER, the father of all the Asen (deities) of Scandinavia, creator and governor of the universe, patron of arts and magic, etc.

ALFONSO, father of Leono'ra d'Este, and duke of Ferrara, Tasso the poet fell in love with Leonora. The duke confined him as a lunatic for seven years in the asylum of Santa Anna, but at the expiration of that period he was released through the intercession of Vincenzo Gonzago, duke of Mantua. Byron refers to this in his Childe Harold, iv. 36.

Alfonso XI of Castile, whose "favorite" was Leonora de Guzman.—Donizetti, La Favorita (an opera, 1842).

Alfon'so (Don), of Seville, a man of fifty and husband of donna Julia (twenty-seven years his junior), of whom he was jealous without cause.—Byron, Don Juan, i.

Alfon'so, in Walpole's tale called The Castle of Otranto, appears as an apparition in the moonlight, dilated to a gigantic form (1769).

ALFRED AS A GLEEMAN. Alfred, wishing to know the strength of the Danish camp, assumed the disguise of a minstrel, and stayed in the Danish camp for several days, amusing the soldiers with his harping and singing. After he had made himself master of all he required, he returned back to his own place.—William of Malmesbury (twelfth century).

William of Malmesbury tells a similar story of Anlaf, a Danish king, who, he says, just before the battle of Brunanburh, in Northumberland, entered the camp of king Athelstan as a gleeman, harp in hand; and so pleased was the English king that he gave him gold. Anlaf would not keep the gold, but buried it in the earth.

ALGARSIFE (3 syl.), and Cam'ballo, sons of Cambuscan' king of Tartary, and Elfeta his wife. Algarsife married Theodora.

I speak of Algarsife, How that he won Theodora to his wife.

Chaucer, The Squire's Tale AL'GEBAR' ("the giant"). So the Arabians call the constellation Orion.

Begirt with many a blazing star, Stood the great giant Algebar— Orion, hunter of the beast. Longfellow, The Occultation of Orion.

AL'I, cousin and son-in-law of Mahomet. The beauty of his eyes is proverbial in Persia. Ayn Hali ("eyes of Ali") is the highest compliment a Persian can pay to beauty.—Chardin.

ALI BABA, a poor Persian wood-carrier, who accidentally learns the magic words, "Open Sesame!" "Shut Sesame!" by which he gains entrance into a vast cavern, the repository of stolen wealth and the lair of forty thieves. He makes himself rich by plundering from these stores; and by the shrewd cunning of Morgiana, his female slave, the captain and his whole band of thieves are extirpated. In reward of these services, Ali Baba gives Morgiana her freedom, and marries her to his own son.—Arabian Nights ("Ali Baba or the Forty Thieves").

AL'ICE (2 syl.), sister of Valentine, in Mons. Thomas, a comedy by Beaumont and Fletcher (1619).

Al'ice (2 syl.), foster-sister of Robert le Diable, and bride of Rambaldo, the Norman troubadour, in Meyerbeer's opera of Roberto il Diavolo. She comes to Palermo to place in the duke's hand his mother's "will," which he is enjoined not to read till he is a virtuous man. She is Robert's good genius, and when Bertram, the fiend, claims his soul as the price of his ill deeds, Alice, by reading the will, reclaims him.

Al'ice (2 syl.), the servant-girl of dame Whitecraft, wife of the innkeeper at Altringham.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

Al'ice, the miller's daughter, a story of happy first love told in later years by an old man who had married the rustic beauty. He was a dreamy lad when he first loved Alice, and the passion roused him into manhood. (See ROSE.)—Tennyson, The Miller's Daughter.

Al'ice (The Lady), widow of Walter, knight of Avenel (2 syl).—Sir W. Scott, The Monastery (time, Elizabeth).

Al'ice [GRAY], called "Old Alice Gray," a quondam tenant of the lord of Ravenswood. Lucy Ashton visits her after the funeral of the old lord.—Sir W. Scott, Bride of Lammermoor (time, William III.).

Alice Munro, one of the sisters taken captive by Indians in Cooper's Last of the Mohicans (1821).

ALICHI'NO. a devil in Dante's Inferno.

ALICIA gave her heart to Mosby, but married Arden for his position. As a wife, she played falsely with her husband, and even joined Mosby in a plot to murder him. Vacillating between love for Mosby and respect for Arden, she repents, and goes on sinning; wishes to get disentangled, but is overmastered by Mosby's stronger will. Alicia's passions impel her to evil, but her judgment accuses her and prompts her to the right course. She halts, and parleys with sin, like Balaam, and of course is lost.—Anon., Arden of Feversham (1592).

Alic'ia, "a laughing, toying, wheedling, whimpering she," who once held lord Hastings under her distaff, but her annoying jealousy, "vexatious days, and jarring, joyless nights," drove him away from her. Being jealous of Jane Shore, she accused her to the duke of Gloster of alluring lord Hastings from his allegiance, and the lord protector soon trumped up a charge against both; the lord chamberlain he ordered to execution for treason, and Jane Shore he persecuted for witchcraft. Alicia goes raving mad.—Rowe, Jane Shore (1713).

Alic'ia (The lady), daughter of lord Waldemar Fitzurse.—Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.).

ALICK [POLWORTH], one of the servants of Waverley.—Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, George II.).

ALIFAN'FARON, emperor of the island Trap'oban, a Mahometan, the suitor of Pentap'olin's daughter, a Christian. Pentapolin refused to sanction this alliance, and the emperor raised a vast army to enforce his suit. This is don Quixote's solution of two flocks of sheep coming in opposite directions, which he told Sancho were the armies of Alifanfaron and Pentapolin.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. iii. 4 (1605).

Ajax the Greater had a similar encounter. (See AJAX.)

ALIN'DA, daughter of Alphonso, an irascible old lord of Sego'via.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Pilgrim (1621).

(Alinda is the name assumed by young Archas when he dresses in woman's attire. This young man is the son of general Archas, "the loyal subject" of the great duke of Moscovia, in the drama by Beaumont and Fletcher, called The Loyal Subject, 1618.)

ALIPRANDO, a Christian knight, who discovered the armor of Rinaldo, and took it to Godfrey. Both inferred that Rinaldo had been slain, but were mistaken.—Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered (1575).

AL'IRIS, sultan of Lower Buchar'ia, who, under the assumed name of Fer'amorz, accompanies Lalla Rookh from Delhi, on her way to be married to the sultan. He wins her love, and amuses the tedium of the journey by telling her tales. When introduced to the sultan, her joy is unbounded on discovering that Feramorz the poet, who has won her heart, is the sultan to whom she is betrothed.—T. Moore, Lalla Rookh.

ALISAUNDER (Sir), surnamed LORFELIN, son of the good prince Boudwine and his wife An'glides (3 syl.). Sir Mark, king of Cornwall, murdered sir Boudwine, who was his brother, while Alisaunder was a mere child. When Alisaunder was knighted, his mother gave him his father's doublet, "bebled with old blood," and charged him to revenge his father's death. Alisaunder married Alis la Beale Pilgrim, and had one son called Bellen'gerus le Beuse. Instead of fulfilling his mother's charge, he was himself "falsely and feloniously slain" by king Mark.—Sir T. Malory, History of King Arthur, ii. 119-125 (1470).

AL'ISON, the young wife of John, a rich old miserly carpenter. Absolon, a priggish parish clerk, paid her attention, but she herself loved a poor scholar named Nicholas, lodging in her husband's house. Fair she was, and her body lithe as a weasel. She had a rouguish eye, small eyebrows, was "long as a mast and upright as a bolt," more "pleasant to look on than a flowering pear tree," and her skin "was softer than the wool of a wether."—Chaucer, "The Miller's Tale," Canterbury Tales, (1388).

Al'ison, in sir W. Scott's Kenilworth, is an old domestic in the service of the earl of Leicester at Cumnor Place.

AL'KEN, an old shepherd, who instructs Robin Hood's men how to find a witch, and how she is to be hunted.—Ben Jonson, The Sad Shepherd (1637).

ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL, a comedy by Shakespeare (1598). The hero and heroine are Bertram of Rousillon, and Hel'ena a physician's daughter, who are married by the command of the king of France, but part because Bertram thought the lady not sufficiently well-born for him. Ultimately, however, all ends well.—(See HELENA.)

The story of this play is from Painter's Gilletta of Narbon.

ALL THE TALENTS Administration, formed by lord Grenville, in 1806, on the death of William Pitt. The members were lord Grenville, the earl Fitzwilliam, viscount Sidmouth, Charles James Fox, earl Spencer, William Windham, lord Erskine, sir Charles Grey, lord Minto, lord Auckland, lord Moira, Sheridan, Richard Fitzpatrick, and lord Ellenborough. It was dissolved in 1807.

On "all the talents" vent your venal spleen.

Byron, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers.

ALLAN, lord of Ravenswood, a decayed Scotch nobleman.—Sir W. Scott, The Bride of Lammermoor (time, William III.).

Al'lan (Mrs.), colonel Mannering's housekeeper at Woodburne.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George II.).

Al'lan [Breck Cameron], the sergeant sent to arrest Hamish Bean McTavish, by whom he is shot. Sir W. Scott, The Highland Widow (time, George II.).

ALLAN-A-DALE, one of Robin Hood's men, introduced by sir W. Scott in Ivanhoe. (See ALLIN-A-DALE.)

ALLAN QUARTERMAIN, hunter and traveller whose adventures are recorded in She, King Solomon's Mines, and Allan Quartermain, by W. Rider Haggard (1886-1891).

ALLE'GRE (3 syl.), the faithful servant of Philip Chabot. When Chabot was accused of treason, Allegre was put to the rack to make him confess something to his master's damage, but the brave fellow was true as steel, and it was afterwards shown that the accusation had no foundation but jealousy.—G. Chapman and J. Shirley, The Tragedy of Philip Chabot.

ALLEN (Ralph), the friend of Pope, and benefactor of Fielding.

Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame, Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame.


Allen (Long), a soldier in the "guards" of king Richard I.—Sir W. Scott, The Talisman.

Allen (Major), an officer in the duke of Monmouth's army.—Sir W. Scott, Old Mortality (time, Charles II.).

ALL-FAIR, a princess, who was saved from the two lions (which guarded the Desert Fairy) by the Yellow Dwarf, on condition that she would become his wife. On her return home she hoped to evade this promise by marrying the brave king of the Gold Mines, but on the wedding day Yellow Dwarf carried her off on a Spanish cat, and confined her in Steel Castle. Here Gold Mine came to her rescue with a magic sword, but in his joy at finding her, he dropped his sword, and was stabbed to the heart with it by Yellow Dwarf. All-Fair, falling on the body of her lover, died of a broken heart. The syren changed the dead lovers into two palm trees.—Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("The Yellow Dwarf," 1682). ALLIN-A-DALE or ALLEN-A-DALE, of Nottinghamshire, was to be married to a lady who returned his love, but her parents compelled her to forego young Allin for an old knight of wealth. Allin told his tale to Robin Hood, and the bold forester, in the disguise of a harper, went to the church where the wedding ceremony was to take place. When the wedding party stepped in, Robin Hood exclaimed, "This is no fit match; the bride shall be married only to the man of her choice." Then, sounding his horn, Allin-a-Dale with four and twenty bowmen entered the church. The bishop refused to marry the woman to Allin till the banns had been asked three times, whereupon Robin pulled off the bishop's gown, and invested Little John in it, who asked the banns seven times, and performed the ceremony.—Robin Hood and Allin-a-Dale (a ballad).

ALL'IT. Captain of Nebuchadrezzar's guards in The Master of the Magicians, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert D. Ward. He is flattered and content to be the queen's favorite until he meets Lalitha, a Jewish damsel. He braves death to save her from runaway horses attached to a chariot, is captivated by her beauty, and forgets his royal mistress in an honorable love (1890).

ALLNUT (Noll), landlord of the Swan, Lambythe Ferry (1625).

Grace Allnut, his wife.

Oliver Allnut, the landlord's son.—Sterling, John Felton (1852).

ALLWORTH (Lady), stepmother to Tom Allworth. Sir Giles Overreach thought she would marry his nephew Wellborn, but she married lord Lovel.

Tom Allworth, stepson of lady Allworth, in love with Margaret Overreach, whom he marries.—Massinger, A New Way to pay Old Debts (1625).

ALL'WORTHY, in Fielding's Tom Jones, a man of sturdy rectitude, large charity, infinite modesty, independent spirit, and untiring philanthropy, with an utter disregard of money or fame. Fielding's friend, Ralph Allen, was the academy figure of this character.

ALMA (the human soul) queen of a Castle, which for seven years was beset by a rabble rout. Arthur and sir Guyon were conducted by Alma over this castle, which though not named is intended to represent the human body.—Spenser, The Faerie Queene, ii. 9 (1590).

ALMANSOR ("the invincible"), a title assumed by several Mussulman princes, as by the second caliph of the Abbasside dynasty, named Abou Giafar Abdallah (the invincible, or al mansor). Also by the famous captain of the Moors in Spain, named Mohammed. In Africa, Yacoubal-Modjahed was entitled "al mansor," a royal name of dignity given to the kings of Fez, Morocco, and Algiers.

The kingdoms of Almansor, Fez, and Sus, Marocco and Algiers. Milton, Paradise Lost, xi. 403 (1665).

ALMANZOR, the caliph, wishing to found a city in a certain spot, was told by a hermit named Bag dad that a man called Moclas was destined to be its founder. "I am that man," said the caliph, and he then told the hermit how in his boyhood he once stole a bracelet and pawned it, whereupon his nurse ever after called him "Moclas" (thief). Almanzor founded the city, and called it Bag dad, the name of the hermit.—Marigny.

Alman'zor, in Dryden's tragedy of The Conquest of Grana'da.

Alman'zor, lackey of Madelon and her cousin Cathos, the affected fine ladies in Moliere's comedy of Les Precieuses Ridicules (1659).

ALMAVI'VA, (Count), in The Marriage of Figaro and The Barber of Seville by Beaumarchais. The Follies of a Day by T. Holcroft (1745-1809) is borrowed from Beaumarchais.

ALME'RIA, daughter of Manuel king of Grana'da. While captive of Valentia, prince Alphonso fell in love with her, and being compelled to fight, married her; but on the very day of espousal the ship in which they were sailing was wrecked, and each thought the other had perished. Both, however, were saved, and met unexpectedly on the coast of Granada, to which Alphonso was brought as a captive. Here Alphonso, under the assumed name of Osmyn, was imprisoned, but made his escape, and at the head of an army invaded Granada, found Manuel dead, and "the mournful bride" became converted into the joyful wife.—W. Congreve, The Mourning Bride (1697).

ALMES'BURY (3 syl.). It was in a sanctuary of Almesbury that queen Guenever took refuge, after her adulterous passion for sir Lancelot was made known to the king. Here she died, but her body was buried at Glastonbury.

ALMEY'DA, the Portuguese governor of India. In his engagement with the united fleets of Cambaya and Egypt, he had his legs and thighs shattered by chain-shot, but instead of retreating to the back, he had himself bound to the shipmast, where he "waved his sword to cheer on the combatants," till he died from loss of blood.

Similar stories are told of admiral Benbow, Cynaegeros brother of the poet AEschylos, Jaafer who carried the sacred banner of "the prophet" in the battle of Muta, and of some others.

Whirled by the cannons' rage, in shivers torn, His thighs far scattered o'er the waves are borne; Bound to the mast the godlike hero stands, Waves his proud sword and cheers his woeful hands: Tho' winds and seas their wonted aid deny, To yield he knows not; but he knows to die. Camoens, Lusiad, x. (1569).

ALMIRODS (The), a rebellions people, who refused to submit to prince Pantag'ruel after his subjugation of Anarchus king of the Dipsodes (2 syl). It was while Pantagruel was marching against these rebels that a tremendous shower of rain fell, and the prince, putting out his tongue "halfway," sheltered his whole army.—Rabelais, Pantagruel, ii. 32 (1533).

ALNAS'CHAR, the dreamer, the "barber's fifth brother." He invested all his money in a basket of glassware, on which he was to gain so much, and then to invest again and again, till he grew so rich that he would marry the vizier's daughter and live in grandeur; but being angry with his supposed wife, he gave a kick with his foot and smashed all the ware which had given birth to his dream of wealth.—The Arabian Nights' Entertainments.

The Alnaschar of Modern Literature, S.T. Coleridge, so called because he was constantly planning magnificent literary enterprises which he never carried out (1772-1834).

ALOA'DIN (4 syl.), a sorcerer, who made for himself a palace and garden in Arabia called "The Earthly Paradise." Thalaba slew him with a club, and the scene of enchantment disappeared.—Southey, Thalaba the Destroyer, vii. (1797).

ALON'SO, king of Naples, father of Ferdinand and brother of Sebastian, in The Tempest, by Shakespeare (1609).

ALONZO the brave, the name of a ballad by M.G. Lewis. The fair Imogene was betrothed to Alonzo, but during his absence in the wars became the bride of another. At the wedding-feast Alonzo's ghost sat beside the bride, and, after rebuking her for her infidelity, carried her off to the grave.

Alonzo the brave was the name of the knight; The maid was the fair Imogene. M.G. Lewis.

Alon'zo, a Portuguese gentleman, the sworn enemy of the vainglorious Duarte (3 syl.), in the drama called The Custom of the Country, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1647).

Alonzo, the husband of Cora. He is a brave Peruvian knight, the friend of Rolla, and beloved by king Atali'ba. Alonzo, being taken prisoner of war, is set at liberty by Rolla, who changes clothes with him. At the end he fights with Pizarro and kills him.—Sheridan, Pizarro (altered from Kotzebue).

Alonzo (Don), "the conqueror of Afric," friend of don Carlos, and husband of Leonora. Don Carlos had been betrothed to Leonora, but out of friendship resigned her to the conqueror. Zanga, the Moor, out of revenge, persuaded Alonzo that his wife and don Carlos still entertained for each other their former love, and out of jealousy Alonzo has his friend put to death, while Leonora makes away with herself. Zanga now informs Alonzo that his jealousy was groundless, and mad with grief he kills himself.—Edw. Young, The Revenge (1721).

ALONZO FERNANDEZ DE AVELLANEDA, author of a spurious Don Quixote, who makes a third sally. This was published during the lifetime of Cervantes, and caused him great annoyance.

ALP, a Venetian renegade, who was commander of the Turkish army in the siege of Corinth. He loved Francesca, daughter of old Minotti, governor of Corinth, but she refused to marry a renegade and apostate. Alp was shot in the siege, and Francesca died of a broken heart.—Byron, Siege of Corinth.

ALPHE'US (3 syl.), a magician and prophet in the army of Charlemagne, slain in sleep by Clorida'no.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

Alphe'us (3 syl.), of classic story, being passionately in love with Arethu'sa, pursued her, but she fled from him in a fright, and was changed by Diana into a fountain, which bears her name.

ALPHON'SO, an irascible old lord in The Pilgrim, a comedy by Beaumont and Fletcher (1621).

Alphon'so, king of Naples, deposed by his brother Frederick. Sora'no tried to poison him, but did not succeed. Ultimately he recovered his crown, and Frederick and Sorano were sent to a monastery for the rest of their lives.—Beaumont and Fletcher, A Wife for a Month (1624).

Alphonso, son of count Pedro of Cantabria, afterwards king of Spain. He was plighted to Hermesind, daughter of lord Pelayo.

The young Alphonso was in truth an heir Of nature's largest patrimony; rich In form and feature, growing strength of limb, A gentle heart, a soul affectionate, A joyous spirit, filled with generous thoughts, And genius heightening and ennobling all. Southey, Roderick, etc., viii. (1814).

ALQUI'FE (3 syl.), a famous enchanter in Amadis of Gaul, by Vasco de Lobeira, of Oporto, who died 1403.

La Noue denounces such beneficent enchanters as Alquife and Urganda, because they serve "as a vindication of those who traffic with the powers of darkness."—Francis de la Noue, Discourses, 87 (1587).

ALRINACH, the demon who causes shipwrecks, and presides over storms and earthquakes. When visible it is always in the form and dress of a woman.—Eastern Mythology.

ALSCRIP (Miss), "the heiress," a vulgar parvenue, affected, conceited, ill-natured, and ignorant. Having had a fortune left her, she assumes the airs of a woman of fashion, and exhibits the follies without possessing the merits of the upper ten.

Mr. Alscrip, the vulgar father of "the heiress," who finds the grandeur of sudden wealth a great bore, and in his new mansion, Berkeley Square, sighs for the snug comforts he once enjoyed as scrivener in Furnival's Inn.—General Burgoyne, The Heiress (1781).

AL'TAMONT, a young Genoese lord, who marries Calista, daughter of lord Sciol'to (3 syl). On his wedding day he discovers that his bride has been seduced by Lotha'rio, and a duel ensues, in which Lothario is killed, whereupon Calista stabs herself.—N. Rowe, The Fair Penitent (1703). (Rowe makes Sciolto three syllables always.)

ALTAMO'RUS, king of Samarcand', who joined the Egyptian armament against the crusaders. He surrendered himself to Godfrey (bk. xx.).—Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered (1575).

ALTASCAR (Senor). A courtly old Spaniard in Bret Harte's Notes by Flood and Field. He is dispossessed of his corral in the Sacramento Valley by a party of government surveyors, who have come to correct boundaries (1878).

ALTEMERA. Typical far-southern girl, with a lovely face, creamy skin, and a "lazy sweet voice," who takes the leading part in Annie Eliot's An Hour's Promise (1888).

ALTHAEA'S BRAND. The Fates told Althaea that her son Melea'ger would live just as long as a log of wood then on the fire remained unconsumed. Althaea contrived to keep the log unconsumed for many years, but when her son killed her two brothers, she threw it angrily into the fire, where it was quickly consumed, and Meleager expired at the same time.—Ovid, Metaph. viii. 4.

The fatal brand Althaea burned. Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI. act i. sc. 1 (1591).

ALTHE'A (The divine), of Richard Lovelace, was Lucy Saeheverell, also called by the poet, Lucasta.

When love with unconfined wings Hovers within my gates, And my divine Althea brings To whisper at my grates.

(The "grates" here referred to were those of a prison in which Lovelace was confined by the Long Parliament, for his petition from Kent in favor of the king.)

ALTHEETAR, one of the seven bridegrooms of Lopluel, condemned to die successively, by a malignant spirit. He is young, beautiful, and endowed with rare gifts of soul and mind. While singing to her, his lyre falls from his hand and he dies in her arms, her loosened hair falling about him as a shroud.

"So calm, so fair, He rested on the purple, tapestried floor, It seemed an angel lay reposing there."

Lopluel, or the Bride of Seven, by Maria del Occidente (Maria Gowen Brooks) (1833).

ALTISIDO'RA, one of the duchess's servants, who pretends to be in love with don Quixote, and serenades him. The don sings his response that he has no other love than what he gives to his Dulcin'ea, and while he is still singing he is assailed by a string of cats, let into the room by a rope. As the knight is leaving the mansion, Altisidora accuses him of having stolen her garters, but when the knight denies the charge, the damsel protests that she said so in her distraction, for her garters were not stolen. "I am like the man looking for his mule at the time he was astride its back."—Cervantes, Don Quixote, II. iii. 9, etc.; iv. 5 (1615).

AL'TON (Miss), alias Miss CLIFFORD, a sweet, modest young lady, the companion of Miss Alscrip, "the heiress," a vulgar, conceited parvenue. Lord Gayville is expected to marry "the heiress," but detests her, and loves Miss Alton, her humble companion. It turns out that L2000 a year of "the heiress's" fortune belongs to Mr. Clifford (Miss Alton's brother), and is by him settled on his sister. Sir Clement Flint destroys this bond, whereby the money returns to Clifford, who marries lady Emily Gayville, and sir Clement settles the same on his nephew, lord Gayville, who marries Miss Alton.—General Burgoyne, The Heiress (1781).

AL'TON LOCKE, tailor and poet, a novel by the Rev. Charles Kingsley (1850). This novel won for the author the title of "The Chartist Clergyman."

ALVIRA ROBERTS, hired "girl" and faithful retainer of the Fairchild family. For many years she and Milton Squires, the hired man, have "kept company." In his prosperity he deserts her. When he is convicted of murder, she kisses him. "Ef 'twas the last thing I ever done in my life, I'd dew it. We was—engaged—once't on a time!"—Seth's Brother's Wife, by Harold Frederic (1886).

ALZIR'DO, king of Trem'izen, in Africa, overthrown by Orlando in his march to join the allied army of Ag'ramant.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

AM'ADIS OF GAUL, a love-child of king Per'ion and the princess Elize'na. He is the hero of a famous prose romance of chivalry, the first four books of which are attributed to Lobeira, of Portugal (died 1403). These books were translated into Spanish in 1460 by Montal'vo, who added the fifth book. The five were rendered into French by Herberay, who increased the series to twenty-four books. Lastly, Gilbert Saunier added seven more volumes, and called the entire series Le Roman des Romans.

Whether Amadis was French or British is disputed. Some maintain that "Gaul" means Wales, not France; that Elizena was princess of Brittany (Bretagne), and that Perion was king of Gaul (Wales), not Gaul (France).

Amadis de Gaul was a tall man, of a fair complexion, his aspect something between mild and austere, and had a handsome black beard. He was a person of very few words, was not easily provoked, and was soon appeased.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, II. i. 1 (1615).

As Arthur is the central figure of British romance, Charlemagne of French, and Diderick of German, so Amadis is the central figure of Spanish and Portuguese romance; but there is this difference—the tale of Amadis is a connected whole, terminating with his marriage with Oria'na, the intervening parts being only the obstacles he encountered and overcame in obtaining this consummation. In the Arthurian romances, and those of the Charlemagne series, we have a number of adventures of different heroes, but there is no unity of purpose; each set of adventures is complete in itself.

AMA'DIS OF GREECE, a supplemental part of Amadis of Gaul, by Felicia'no de Silva. There are also several other Amadises—as Amadis of Colchis, Amadis of Trebisond, Amadis of Cathay, but all these are very inferior to the original Amadis of Gaul.

The ancient fables, whose relickes doe yet remain, namely, Lancelot of the Lake, Pierceforest, Tristram, Giron the Courteous, etc., doe beare witnesse of this odde vanitie. Herewith were men fed for the space of 500 yeeres, untill our language growing more polished, and our minds more ticklish, they were driven to invent some novelties wherewith to delight us. Thus came ye bookes of Amadis into light among us in this last age.—Francis de la Noue, Discourses, 87 (1587).

AMAI'MON (3 syl.), one of the principal devils. Asmode'us is one of his lieutenants. Shakespeare twice refers to him, in 1 Henry IV. act ii. sc. 4, and in The Merry Wives of Windsor, act ii. sc. 2.

AMAL'AHTA, son of Erill'yab the deposed queen of the Hoamen (2 syl.), an Indian tribe settled on the south of the Missouri. He is described as a brutal savage, wily, deceitful, and cruel. Amalahta wished to marry the princess Goer'vyl, Madoc's sister, and even seized her by force, but was killed in his flight.—Southey, Madoc, ii. 16 (1805).

AMALTHAE'A, the sibyl who offered to sell to Tarquin nine books of prophetic oracles. When the king refused to give her the price demanded, she went away, burnt three of them, and returning to the king, demanded the same price for the remaining six. Again the king declined the purchase. The sibyl, after burning three more of the volumes, demanded the original sum for the remaining three. Tarquin paid the money, and Amalthaea was never more seen. Aulus Gellius says that Amalthaea burnt the books in the king's presence. Pliny affirms that the original number of volumes was only three, two of which the sibyl burnt, and the third was purchased by king Tarquin.

AMALTHE'A, a mistress of Ammon and mother of Bacchus. Ammon hid his mistress in the island Nysa (in Africa), in order to elude the vigilance and jealousy of his wife Rhea. This account (given by Diodorus Sic'ulus, bk. iii., and by sir Walter Raleigh in his History of the World, I. vi. 5) differs from the ordinary story, which makes Sem'ele the mother of Bacchus, and Rhea his nurse. (Ammon is Ham or Cham, the son of Noah, founder of the African race.)

... that Nyseian ile, Girt with the river Triton, where old Cham (Whom Gentiles Ammon call, and Libyan Jove) Hid Amalthea and her florid son, Young Bacchus, from his stepdame Rhea's eye.

Milton, Paradise Lost, iv. 275 (1665).

AMANDA, wife of Loveless. Lord Foppington pays her amorous attentions, but she utterly despises the conceited coxcomb, and treats him with contumely. Colonel Townly, in order to pique his lady-love, also pays attention to Loveless's wife, but she repels his advances with indignation, and Loveless, who overhears her, conscious of his own shortcomings, resolves to reform his ways, and, "forsaking all other," to remain true to Amanda, "so long as they both should live."—Sheridan, A Trip to Scarborough.

Aman'da, in Thomson's Seasons, is meant for Miss Young, who married admiral Campbell.

And thou, Amanda, come, pride of my song! Formed by the Graces, loveliness itself.

"Spring," 480, 481 (1728).

Amanda, the victim of Peregrine Pickle's seduction, in Smollett's novel of Peregrine Pickle (1751).

Amanda, worldly woman in Julia Ward Howe's poem, Amanda's Inventory, who sums up her wealth and honors, and is forced to conclude the list with death (1866).

AMARAN'TA, wife of Bar'tolus, the covetous lawyer. She was wantonly loved by Leandro, a Spanish gentleman.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Spanish Curate (1622).

AM'ARANTH (Lady), in Wild Oats, by John O'Keefe, a famous part of Mrs. Pope (1740-1797).

AMARIL'LIS, a shepherdess in love with Per'igot (t sounded), but Perigot loved Am'oret. In order to break off this affection, Amarillis induced "the sullen shepherd" to dip her in "the magic well," whereby she became transformed into the perfect resemblance of her rival, and soon effectually disgusted Perigot with her bold and wanton conduct. When afterwards he met the true Amoret, he repulsed her, and even wounded her with intent to kill. Ultimately, the trick was discovered by Cor'in, "the faithful shepherdess," and Perigot was married to his true love.—John Fletcher, The Faithful Shepherd (1610).

AMARYLLIS, in Spenser's pastoral Colin Clout's Come Home Again, was the countess of Derby. Her name was Alice, and she was the youngest of the six daughters of sir John Spenser, of Althorpe, ancestor of the noble houses of Spenser and Marlborough. After the death of the earl, the widow married sir Thomas Egerton, keeper of the Great Seal (afterwards baron of Ellesmere and viscount Brackley). It was for this very lady, during her widowhood, that Milton wrote his Ar'cades (3 syl.).

No less praiseworthy are the sisters three, The honour of the noble family Of which I meanest boast myself to be ... Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis: Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three, The next to her is bountiful Charyllis, But th' youngest is the highest in degree.

Spenser, Colin Clout's Come Home Again (1594).

AM'ASISI, Amosis, or Aah'mes (3 syl.), founder of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty (B.C. 1610). Lord Brooke attributes to him one of the pyramids. The three chief pyramids are usually ascribed to Suphis (or Cheops), Sen-Suphis (or Cephrenes), and Mencheres, all of the fourth dynasty.

Amasis and Cheops how can time forgive. Who in their useless pyramids would live?

Lord Brooke, Peace.

AMATEUR (An), Pierce Egan the younger published under this pseudonym his Real Life in London, or The Rambles and Adventures of Rob Tally-ho, Esq., and his Cousin, the Hon. Tom Dashall, through the Metropolis (1821-2).

AMAUROTS (The), a people whose kingdom was invaded by the Dipsodes (2 syl.), but Pantag'ruel, coming to their defence, utterly routed the invaders.—Rabelais, Pantagruel, ii. (1533).

AMA'VIA, the personification of Intemperance in grief. Hearing that her husband, sir Mordant, had been enticed to the Bower of Bliss by the enchantress Acra'sia, she went in quest of him, and found him so changed in mind and body she could scarcely recognize him; however, she managed by tact to bring him away, but he died on the road, and Amavia stabbed herself from excessive grief.—Spenser, Faery Queen, ii. 1 (1590).

AMAZO'NA, a fairy, who freed a certain country from the Ogri and the Blue Centaur. When she sounded her trumpet, the sick were recovered and became both young and strong. She gave the princess Carpil'lona a bunch of gilly-flowers, which enabled her to pass unrecognized before those who knew her well.—Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("The Princess Carpillona," 1682).

AMAZONS, a fabled race of women-warriors. It was said that in order to use the bow, they cut off one of their breasts.

AMBER, said to be a concretion of birds' tears, but the birds were the sisters of Melea'ger, called Meleag'rides, who never ceased weeping for their dead brother.—Pliny, Natural History, xxxvii. 2, 11.

Around thee shall glisten the loveliest amber. That ever the sorrowing sea-birds have wept.

T. Moore, Fire-Worshippers.

AM'BROSE (2 syl.), a sharper, who assumed in the presence of Gil Blas the character of a devotee. He was in league with a fellow who assumed the name of don Raphael, and a young woman who called herself Camilla, cousin of donna Mencia. These three sharpers allure Gil Blas to a house which Camilla says is hers, fleece him of his ring, his portmanteau, and his money, decamp, and leave him to find out that the house is only a hired lodging.—Lesage, Gil Blas, i. 15, 16 (1715).

(This incident is borrowed from Espinel's romance entitled Vida de Escudero, marcos de Obregon, 1618.)

Am'brose (2 syl.), a male domestic servant waiting on Miss Seraphine and Miss Angelica Arthuret.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George II.).

Ambrose (Brother), a monk who attended the prior Aymer, of Jorvaulx Abbey.—Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.).

Am'brosius (Father), abbot of Kennaquhair, is Edward Glendinning, brother of sir Halbert Glendinning (the knight of Avenel). He appears at Kinross, disguised as a nobleman's retainer.—Sir W. Scott, The Abbot (time, Elizabeth).

AME'LIA, heroine of novel of same name. Young daughter of a German inn-keeper, who rises to a high position in society, through native merit, graces of mind and person.—Eliza Leslie (1843).

Ame'lia, a model of conjugal affection, in Fielding's novel so called. It is said that the character was modelled from his own wife. Dr. Johnson read this novel from beginning to end without once stopping.

Amelia is perhaps the only book of which, being printed off betimes one morning, a new edition was called for before night. The character of Amelia is the most pleasing heroine of all the romances.—Dr. Johnson.

Ame'lia, in Thomson's Seasons, a beautiful, innocent young woman, overtaken by a storm while walking with her troth-plight lover, Cel'adon, "with equal virtue formed, and equal grace. Hers the mild lustre of the blooming morn, and his the radiance of the risen day." Amelia grew frightened, but Celadon said, "'Tis safety to be near thee, sure;" when a flash of lightning struck her dead in his arms.—"Summer" (1727).

Amelia, in Schiller's tragedy of The Robbers.

Or they will learn how generous worth sublimes The robber Moor, and pleads for all his crimes; How poor Amelia kissed with many a tear His hand, blood-stained, but ever, ever dear.

Campbell, Pleasures of Hope, ii. (1799).

Amelia Bailey, ambitious woman with "literary tastes," who in pursuit of a suitable sphere, marries a rich Californian, and "shines with the diamonds her husband has bought, and makes a noise, but it is the blare of vulgar ostentation,"—William Henry Rideing, A Little Upstart (1885).

AMELOT (2 syl.), the page of sir Damian de Lacy.—Sir W. Scott, The Betrothed (time, Henry II.).

AM'GIAD, son of Camaralzaman and Badoura, and half-brother of Assad (son of Camaralzaman and Haiatal'nefous). Each of the two mothers conceived a base passion for the other's son, and when the young princes revolted at their advances, accused them to their father of designs upon their honor. Camaralzaman ordered his emir Giondar to put them both to death, but as the young men had saved him from a lion he laid no hand on them, but told them not to return to their father's dominions. They wandered on for a time, and then parted, but both reached the same place, which was a city of the Magi. Here, by a strange adventure Amgiad was made vizier, while Assad was thrown into a dungeon, where he was designed as a sacrifice to the fire-god. Bosta'na, a daughter of the old man who imprisoned Assad, released him, and Amgiad out of gratitude made her his wife. After which, the king, who was greatly advanced in years, appointed him his successor, and Amgiad used his best efforts to abolish the worship of fire and establish "the true faith."—Arabian Nights ("Amgiad and Assad").

AM'YAS, a squire of low degree, beloved by Aemylia. They agreed to meet at a given spot, but on their way thither both were taken captives—Amyas by Corflambo, and Aemylia by a man monster. Aemylia was released by Belphoebe (3 syl.), who slew "the caitiff;" and Amyas by prince Arthur, who slew Corflambo. The two lovers were then brought together by the prince "in peace and joyous blis."—Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 7, 9 (1596).

AMI'DAS, the younger brother of Brac'idas, sons of Mile'sio; the former in love with the dowerless Lucy, and the latter with the wealthy Philtra. The two brothers had each an island of equal size and value left them by their father, but the sea daily added to the island of the younger brother, and encroached on that belonging to Bracidas. When Philtra saw that the property of Amidas was daily increasing, she forsook the elder brother and married the wealthier; while Lucy, seeing herself jilted, threw herself into the sea. A floating chest attracted her attention, she clung to it, and was drifted to the wasted island. It was found to contain great riches, and Lucy gave its contents and herself to Bracidas. Amidas claimed the chest as his own by right, and the question in dispute was submitted to sir Ar'tegal. The wise arbiter decided, that whereas Armidas claimed as his own all the additions given to his island by the sea, Lucy might claim as her own the chest, because the sea had given it to her.—Spenser, Faery Queen, v. 4 (1596).

AM'IEL, in Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel, is meant for sir Edward Seymour, Speaker of the House of Commons.

Who can Amiel's praise refuse? Of ancient race by birth, but nobler yet In his own worth, and without title great. The sanhedrim long time as chief he ruled, Their reason guided, and their passion cooled.

Part i.

A'MIN (Prince), son of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid; he married Am'ine, sister of Zobeide (3 syl.), the caliph's wife.—Arabian Nights' Entertainments ("The History of Amine").

Am'ina, an orphan, who walked in her sleep. She was betrothed to Elvi'no, a rich farmer, but being found the night before the wedding in the chamber of count Rodolpho, Elvino rightly refused to marry her. The count remonstrated with the young farmer, and while they were talking, the orphan was seen to get out of a window and walk along the narrow edge of a mill-roof while the great wheel was rapidly revolving; she then crossed a crazy old bridge, and came into the same chamber. Here she awoke, and, seeing Elvino, threw her arms around him so lovingly, that all his doubts vanished, and he married her.—Bellini, La Sonnambula (an opera, 1831).

AM'INE (3 syl.), half-sister of Zobei'de (3 syl.), and wife of Amin, the caliph's son. One day she went to purchase a robe, and the seller told her he would charge nothing if she would suffer him to kiss her cheek. Instead of kissing he bit it, and Amine, being asked by her husband how she came by the wound, so shuffled in her answers that he commanded her to be put to death, a sentence he afterwards commuted to scourging. One day she and her sister told the stories of their lives to the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, when Amin became reconciled to his wife, and the caliph married her half-sister.—Arabian Nights'Entertainments ("History of Zobeide and History of Amine").

AM'INE (3 syl.) or AM'INES (3 syl.), the beautiful wife of Sidi Nouman. Instead of eating her rice with a spoon, she used a bodkin for the purpose, and carried it to her mouth in infinitesimal portions. This went on for some time, till Sidi Nouman determined to ascertain on what his wife really fed, and to his horror discovered that she was a ghoul, who went stealthily by night to the cemetery, and feasted on the freshly-buried dead.—Arabian Nights ("History of Sidi Nouman").

One of the Amines' sort, who pick up their grains of food with a bodkin.—O.W. Holmes, Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table.

AMIN'TOR, a young nobleman, the troth-plight husband of Aspatia, but by the king's command he marries Evad'ne (3 syl.). This is the great event of the tragedy of which Amintor is the hero. The sad story of Evadne, the heroine, gives name to the play.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Maid's Tragedy (1610).

(Till the reign of Charles II., the kings of England claimed the feudal right of disposing in marriage any one who owed them feudal allegiance. In All's Well that Ends Well, Shakespeare makes the king of France exercise a similar right, when he commands Bertram, count of Rousillon, to marry against his will Hel'ena, the physician's daughter.)

AMIS THE PRIEST, the hero of a comic German epic of the 13th century, represented as an Englishman, a man of great wit and humor, but ignorant and hypocritical. His popularity excites the envy of the superior clergy, who seek to depose him from the priesthood by making public exposition of his ignorance, but by his quickness at repartee he always manages to turn the laugh against them.—Ascribed to Stricker of Austria.

AM'LET (Richard), the gamester in Vanbrugh's Confederacy (1695). He is usually called "Dick."

I saw Miss Pope for the second time, in the year 1790, in the character of "Flippanta," John Palmer being "Dick Amlet," and Mrs. Jordan "Corinna."—James Smith.

Mrs. Amlet, a rich, vulgar tradeswoman, mother of Dick, of whom she is very proud, although she calls him a "sad scapegrace," and swears "he will be hanged." At last she settles on him L10,000, and he marries Corinna, daughter of Gripe the rich scrivener.

AMMO'NIAN HORN (The), the cornucopia. Ammon king of Lib'ya gave to his mistress Amalthe'a (mother of Bacchus) a tract of land resembling a ram's horn in shape, and hence called the "Ammonian horn" (from the giver), the "Amalthe'an horn" (from the receiver), and the "Hesperian horn" (from its locality). Amalthea also personifies fertility. (Ammon is Ham, son of Noah, founder of the African race.) (See AMALTHEA.)

[Here] Amalthea pours, Well pleased, the wealth of that Ammonian horn, Her dower. Akenside, Hymn to the Naiads.

AM'MON'S SON. Alexander the Great called himself the son of the god Ammon, but others call him the son of Philip of Macedon.

Of food I think with Philip's son, or rather Ammon's (ill pleased with one world and one father). Byron, Don Juan, v. 31.

(Alluding to the tale that when Alexander had conquered the whole world, he wept that there was no other world to conquer.)

A'MON'S SON is Rinaldo, eldest son of Amon or Aymon marquis d'Este, and nephew of Charlemagne.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

AM'ORET, a modest, faithful shepherdess, who plighted her troth to Per'igot (t sounded) at the "Virtuous Well." The wanton shepherdess Amarillis, having by enchantment assumed her appearance and dress, so disgusted Perigot with her bold ways, that he lost his love for the true Amoret, repulsed her with indignation, and tried to kill her. The deception was revealed by Cor'in, "the faithful shepherdess," and the lovers being reconciled, were happily married.—John Fletcher, The Faithful Shepherdess (before 1611).

AMORET'TA or AM'ORET, twin-born with Belphoebe (3 syl.), their mother being Chrysog'one (4 syl.). While the mother and her two babes were asleep, Diana took one (Belphoebe) to bring up, and Venus the other. Venus committed Amoretta to the charge of Psyche (2 syl.), and Psyche tended her as lovingly as she tended her own daughter Pleasure, "to whom she became the companion." When grown to marriageable estate, Amoretta was brought to Fairyland, and wounded many a heart, but gave her own only to sir Scudamore (bk. iii. 6). Being seized by Bu'sirane, an enchanter, she was kept in durance by him because she would not "her true love deny;" but Britomart delivered her and bound the enchanter (bk. iii. 11, 12), after which she became the tender, loving wife of sir Scudamore.

Amoret is the type of female loveliness and wifely affection, soft, warm, chaste, gentle, and ardent; not sensual nor yet platonic, but that living, breathing, warm-hearted love which fits woman for the fond mother and faithful wife.—Spenser, Faery Queen, iii. (1590).

AMOUR'Y (Sir Giles), the Grand-Master of the Knights Templars, who conspires with the marquis of Montserrat against Richard I. Saladin cuts off the Templar's head while in the act of drinking.—Sir W. Scott, The Talisman (time, Richard I.).

AM'PHIBAL (St.), confessor of St. Alban of Verulam. When Maximia'nus Hercu'lius, general of Diocle'tian's army in Britain, pulled down the Christian churches, burnt the Holy Scriptures, and put to death the Christians with unflagging zeal, Alban hid his confessor, and offered to die for him.

A thousand other saints whom Amphibal had taught ... Were slain where Lichfield is, whose name doth rightly sound (There of those Christians slain), "Dead-field" or burying-ground.

Drayton, Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622).

AMPHI'ON is said to have built Thebes by the music of his lute. Tennyson has a poem called Amphion, a skit and rhyming jeu d'esprit.

Amphion there the loud creating lyre Strikes, and behold a sudden Thebes aspire.

Pope, Temple of Fame.

AMPHIS-BAENA, a reptile which could go head foremost either way, because it had a head at each extremity. Milton uses the word in Paradise Lost, x. 524. (Greek, ampi baino, "I go both ways.")

The amphis-baena doubly armed appears, At either end a threatening head she rears.

Rowe, Pharsalia, ix. 696, etc. (by Lucan).

AMPHITRYON, a Theban general, husband of Alcme'ne (3 syl.). While Amphitryon was absent at war with Pter'elas, king of the Tel'eboans, Jupiter assumed his form, and visited Alcmene, who in due time became the mother of Her'cules. Next day Amphitryon returned, having slain Pterelas, and Alcmene was surprised to see him so soon again. Here a great entanglement arose, Alcmene telling her husband he visited her last night, and showing him the ring he gave her, and Amphitryon declaring he was with the army. This confusion is still further increased by his slave Sos'ia, who went to take to Alcmene the news of victory, but was stopped at the door of the house by Mercury, who had assumed for the nonce Sosia's form, and the slave could not make out whether he was himself or not. This plot has been made a comedy by Plautus, Moliere, and Dryden.

The scenes which Plautus drew, to-night we show, Touched by Moliere, by Dryden taught to glow.

Prologue to Hawksworth's version.

As an Amphitryon chez qui l'on dine, no one knows better than Ouida the uses of a recherche dinner.—E. Yates, Celebrities, xix.

"Amphitryon": Le veritable Amphitryon est l'Amphitryon ou l'on dine ("The master of the feast is the master of the house"). While the confusion was at its height between the false and true Amphitryon, Socie [Sosia] the slave is requested to decide which was which, and replied—

Je ne me trompois pas, messieurs; ce mot termine Toute l'irresolution; Le veritable Amphitryon Est l'Amphitryon ou l'on dine.

Moliere, Amphitryon, iii. 5 (1668).

Demosthenes and Cicero Are doubtless stately names to hear, But that of good Amphitryon Sounds far more pleasant to my ear.

M.A. Desaugiers (1772-1827).

AMRAH, the faithful woman-servant of the household of Ben-Hur in Lew Wallace's novel, Ben-Hur. Through her heroic services, Judah, the son, finds the mother and sister from whom he has been so long separated (1880).

AM'RI, in Absalom and Achitophel, by Dryden and Tate, is Heneage Finch, earl of Nottingham and lord chancellor. He is called "The Father of Equity" (1621-1682).

To whom the double blessing did belong, With Moses' inspiration, Aaron's tongue.

Part ii.

AMUN'DEVILLE (Lord Henry), one of the "British privy council." After the sessions of parliament he retired to his country seat, where he entertained a select and numerous party, among which were the duchess of Fitz-Fulke, Aurora Raby, and don Juan, "the Russian envoy." His wife was lady Adeline. (His character is given in xiv. 70, 71.)—Byron, Don Juan, xiii. to end.

AM'URATH III., sixth emperor of the Turks. He succeeded his father, Selim II., and reigned 1574-1595. His first act was to invite all his brothers to a banquet, and strangle them. Henry IV. alludes to this when he says—

This is the English, not the Turkish court; Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds, But Harry, Harry.

Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV. act v. sc. 2 (1598).

AMUSEMENTS OF KINGS. The great amusement of Ardeltas of Arabia Petraea, was currying horses; of Artaba'nus of Persia, was mole-catching; of Domitian of Rome, was catching flies; of Ferdinand VII., of Spain, was embroidering petticoats; of Louis XVI., clock and lock making; of George IV., the game of patience.

AMY MARCH, the artist sister in Louisa M. Alcott's Little Women (1868).

AMY WENTWORTH, the high-born but contented wife of the "Brown Viking of the Fishing-smack," in John Greenleaf Whittier's poem, Amy Wentworth.

She sings, and smiling, hears her praise, But dreams the while of one Who watches from his sea-blown deck The ice-bergs in the sun. (1860.)

AMYN'TAS, in Colin Clout's Come Home Again, by Spenser, is Ferdinando earl of Derby, who died 1594.

Amyntas, flower of shepherd's pride forlorn. He, whilst he lived, was the noblest swain That ever piped on an oaten quill.

Spenser, Colin Clout's Come Home Again (1591).


A'MYS and AMY'LION, the Damon and Pythias of mediaeval romance.—See Ellis's Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances.

AMYTIS, the Median queen of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. Beautiful, passionate, and conscienceless, she condemns an innocent rival to the worst of fates, without a pang of conscience, and dies a violent death at the hands of one who was once her lover.

The gardens were well-watered and dripped luxuriantly.... At this time of the morning, Amytis amused herself alone, or with a few favored slaves. She dipped through artificial dew and pollen, bloom and fountain, like one of the butterflies that circled above her small head, or one of the bright cold lizards that crept about her feet. She bathed, she ran, she sang, and curled to sleep, and stirred and bathed again.—The Master of the Magicians, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert D. Ward (1890).

ANACHARSIS [CLOOTZ]. Baron Jean Baptiste Clootz assumed the prenome of Anacharsis, from the Scythian so called, who travelled about Greece and other countries to gather knowledge and improve his own countrymen. The baron wished by the name to intimate that his own object in life was like that of Anacharsis (1755-1794).


CHAUCER, in his tale of Troilus, at the siege of Troy, makes Pandarus refer to Robin Hood.

And to himselfe ful soberly he saied, From hasellwood there jolly Robin plaied.

Book v.

GILES FLETCHER, in Christ's Victory, pt. ii. makes the Tempter seem to be "a good old hermit or palmer, travelling to see some saint, and telling his beads!!"

LODGE, in The True Tragedies of Marius and Sylla (1594), mentions "the razor of Palermo" and "St. Paul's steeple," and introduces Frenchmen who "for forty crowns" undertake to poison the Roman consul.

MORGLAY makes Dido tell AEneas that she should have been contented with a son, even "if he had been a cockney dandiprat" (1582).

SCHILLER, in his Piccolomini, speaks of lightning conductors. This was about 150 years before they were invented.

SHAKESPEAKE, in his Coriolanus (act ii. sc. 1), makes Menenius refer to Galen above 600 years before he was born.

Cominius alludes to Roman Plays, but no such things were known for 250 years after the death of Cominius.—Coriolanus, act ii. sc. 2.

Brutus refers to the "Marcian Waters brought to Rome by Censorinus." This was not done till 300 years afterwards.

In Hamlet, the prince Hamlet was educated at Wittemberg School, which was not founded till 1502; whereas Saxo-Germanicus, from whom Shakespeare borrowed the tale, died in 1204. Hamlet was thirty years old when his mother talks of his going back to school (act i. sc. 2).

In 1 Henry IV., the carrier complains that "the turkeys in his pannier are quite starved" (act ii. sc. 5), whereas turkeys came from America, and the New World was not even discovered for a century after. Again in Henry V., Grower is made to say to Fluellen, "Here comes Pistol, swelling like a turkey-cock" (act v. sc. 1).

In Julius Caesar, Brutus says to Cassius, "Peace, count the clock." To which Cassius replies, "The clock has stricken three."

Clocks were not known to the Romans, and striking-clocks were not invented till some 1400 years after the death of Caesar.

VIRGIL places AEneas in the port Velinus, which was made by Curius Dentatus.

This list, with very little trouble, might be greatly multiplied. The hotbed of anachronisms is mediaeval romance; there nations, times and places, are most recklessly disregarded. This may be instanced by a few examples from Ariosto's great poem, Orlando Furioso.

Here we have Charlemagne and his paladins joined by Edward king of England, Richard earl of Warwick, Henry duke of Clarence, and the dukes of York and Gloucester (bk. vi.). We have cannons employed by Cymosco king of Friza (bk. iv.), and also in the siege of Paris (bk. vi.). We have the Moors established in Spain, whereas they were not invited over by the Saracens for nearly 300 years after Charlemagne's death. In bk. xvii. we have Prester John, who died in 1202; and in the last three books we have Constantine the Great, who died in 337.

ANAC'REON, the prince of erotic and bacchanalian poets, insomuch that songs on these subjects are still called Anacreon'tic (B.C. 563-478).

Anacreon of Painters, Francesco Albano or Alba'ni (1578-1660).

Anacreon of the Guillotine, Bertrand Barere de Vieuzac (1755-1841).

Anacreon of the Temple, Guillaume Amfrye, abbe de Chaulieu (1639-1720).

Anacreon of the Twelfth Century, Walter Mapes, "The Jovial Toper." His famous drinking song, "Meum est prepositum ..." has been translated by Leigh Hunt (1150-1196).

The French Anacreon. 1. Pontus de Thiard, one of the "Pleiad poets" (1521-1605). 2. P. Laujon, perpetual president of the Caveau Moderne, a Paris club, noted for its good dinners, but every member was of necessity a poet (1727-1811).

The Persian Anacreon, Mahommed Hafiz. The collection of his poems is called The Divan (1310-1389).

The Sicilian Anacreon, Giovanni Meli (1740-1815).

ANACREON MOORE, Thomas Moore of Dublin (1780-1852), poet, called "Anacreon," from his translation of that Greek poet, and his own original anacreontic songs.

Described by Mahomet and Anacreon Moore.

Byron, Don Juan, i. 104.

ANAGNUS, Inchastity personified in The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher (canto vii.). He had four sons by Caro, named Maechus (adultery), Pornei'us (fornication), Acath'arus, and Asel'ges (lasciviousness), all of whom are fully described by the poet. In the battle of Mansoul (canto xi.) Anagnus is slain by Agnei'a (wifely chastity), the spouse of Encra'tes (temperance) and sister of Parthen'ia (maidenly chastity). (Greek, anagnos, "impure.") (1633.)


CHARLES JAMES STUART (James I.). Claims Arthur's Seat.

DAME ELEANOR DAVIES (prophetess in the reign of Charles I.). Never so mad a ladie.

HORATIO NELSON. Honor est a Nilo.

MARIE TOUCHET (mistress of Charles IX.). Je charme tout (made by Henri IV.).

Pilate's question, QUID EST VERITAS? Est vir qui adest.

SIR ROGER CHARLES DOUGHTY TICHBORNE, BARONET. You horrid butcher, Orton, biggest rascal here.

A'NAH, granddaughter of Cain and sister of Aholiba'mah. Japhet loved her, but she had set her heart on the seraph Azaz'iel, who carried her off to another planet when the Flood came.—Byron, Heaven and Earth.

Anah and Aholibamah are very different characters: Anah is soft, gentle, and submissive; her sister is proud, imperious, and aspiring; the one loving in fear, the other in ambition. She fears that her love makes her "heart grow impious," and that she worships the seraph rather than the Creator.—Ed. Lytton Bulwer (Lord Lytton).

ANAK OF PUBLISHERS, so John Murray was called by lord Byron (1778-1843).

AN'AKIM or ANAK, a giant of Palestine, whose descendants were terrible for their gigantic stature. The Hebrew spies said that they themselves were mere grasshoppers in comparison of them.

I felt the thews of Anakim, The pulses of a Titan's heart.

Tennyson, In Memoriam, iii.

(The Titans were giants, who, according to classic fable, made war with Jupiter or Zeus, 1 syl.)

ANAMNES'TES (4 syl), the boy who waited on Eumnestes (Memory). Eumnestes was a very old man, decrepit and half blind, a "man of infinite remembrance, who things foregone through many ages held," but when unable to "fet" what he wanted, was helped by a little boy yclept Anamnestes, who sought out for him what "was lost or laid amiss." (Greek, eumnestis, "good memory;" anamne'stis, "research or calling up to mind.")

And oft when things were lost or laid amiss, That boy them sought and unto him did lend; Therefore the Anamnestes cleped is, And that old man Eumnestes.

Spenser, Faery Queen, ii. 9 (1590).

ANANI'AS, in The Alchemist, a comedy by Ben Jonson (1610).

("Wasp" in Bartholomew Fair, "Corbaccio" in The Fox, "Morose" in The Silent Woman, all by B. Jonson.)

ANARCHUS, king of the Dipsodes (2 syl.), defeated by Pantag'ruel, who dressed him in a ragged doublet, a cap with a cock's feather, and married him to "an old lantern-carrying hag." The prince gave the wedding-feast, which consisted of garlic and sour cider. His wife, being a regular termagant, "did beat him like plaster, and the ex-tyrant did not dare call his soul his own."—Rabelais, Pantagruel, ii. 31 (1533).

ANASTA'SIUS, the hero of a novel called Memoirs of Anastasius, by Thomas Hope (1770-1831), a most brilliant and powerful book. It is the autobiography of a Greek, who, to escape the consequences of his crimes and villainies, becomes a renegade, and passes through a long series of adventures.

Fiction has but few pictures which will bear comparison with that of Anastasius, sitting on the steps of the lazaretto of Trieste, with his dying boy in his arms.—Encyc. Brit. Art. "Romance."

ANASTASIUS GRUeN, the nom de plume of Anton Alexander von Auersperg, a German poet (1806-1876).

ANASTERAX, brother of Niquee [ne.kay], with whom he lives in incestuous intercourse. The fairy Zorphee, in order to withdraw her god-daughter from this alliance, enchanted her.—Amadis de Gaul.

AN'CHO, a Spanish brownie, who haunts the shepherds' huts, warms himself at their fires, tastes their clotted milk and cheese, converses with the family, and is treated with familiarity mixed with terror. The Ancho hates church bells.

ANCIENT MARINER (The), by Coleridge. For the crime of having shot an albatross (a bird of good omen to seamen) terrible sufferings are visited upon him, which are finally remitted through his repentance; but he is doomed to wander over the earth and repeat his story to others as a warning lesson.

AN'DERSON (Eppie), a servant at the inn of St. Ronan's Well, held by Meg Dods.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

ANDRE (2 syl.). Petit-Andre and Trois Echelles are the executioners of Louis XI. of France. They are introduced by sir W. Scott, both in Quentin Durward and in Anne of Geierstein.

Andre, the hero and title of a novel by George Sand (Mde. Dudevant). This novel and that called Consuelo (4 syl.) are considered her best (1804-1876).

ANDRE'OS, Fortitude personified in The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher (canto x.). "None fiercer to a stubborn enemy, but to the yielding none more sweetly kind." (Greek, andria or andreia, "manliness.")

ANDREW, gardener, at Ellangowan, to Godfrey Bertram the laird.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George II.).

ANDREWS, a private in the royal army of the duke of Monmouth.—Sir W. Scott, Old Mortality (time, Charles II.).

Andrews (Joseph), the hero and title of a novel by Fielding. He is a footman who marries a maid-servant. Joseph Andrews is a brother of [Richardson's] "Pamela," a handsome, model young man.

The accounts of Joseph's bravery and good qualities, his voice too musical to halloa to the dogs, his bravery in riding races for the gentlemen of the county, and his constancy in refusing bribes and temptation, have something refreshing in their naivete and freshness, and prepossess one in favor of that handsome young hero.—Thackeray.

ANDROCLUS AND THE LION. Androclus was a runaway Roman slave, who took refuge in a cavern. A lion entered, and instead of tearing him to pieces, lifted up its fore-paw that Androclus might extract from it a thorn. The fugitive, being subsequently captured, was doomed to fight with a lion in the Roman arena, and it so happened that the very same lion was let out against him; it instantly recognized its benefactor, and began to fawn upon him with every token of gratitude and joy. The story being told of this strange behavior, Androclus was forthwith set free.

A somewhat similar anecdote is told of sir George Davis, English consul at Florence at the beginning of the present century. One day he went to see the lions of the great duke of Tuscany. There was one which the keepers could not tame, but no sooner did sir George appear, than the beast manifested every symptom of joy. Sir George entered the cage, when the creature leaped on his shoulder, licked his face, wagged its tail, and fawned like a dog. Sir George told the great duke that he had brought up this lion, but as it grew older it became dangerous, and he sold it to a Barbary captain. The duke said he bought it of the same man, and the mystery was cleared up.

ANDROMACHE [An. drom'. a. ky], widow of Hector. At the downfall of Troy both she and her son Asty'anax were allotted to Pyrrhus king of Epirus, and Pyrrhus fell in love with her, but she repelled his advances. At length a Grecian embassy, led by Orestes son of Agamemnon, arrived, and demanded that Astyanax should be given up and put to death, lest in manhood he should attempt to avenge his father's death. Pyrrhus told Andromache that he would protect her son in defiance of all Greece if she would become his wife, and she reluctantly consented thereto. While the marriage ceremonies were going on, the ambassadors rushed on Pyrrhus and slew him, but as he fell he placed the crown on the head of Andromache, who thus became the queen of Epirus, and the ambassadors hastened to their ships in flight.—Ambrose Philips, The Distressed Mother (1712).

ANDROMEDA, beautiful daughter of the king of Ethiopia. To appease Neptune, she was bound to a rock to be devoured by Neptune. Perseus slew the monster and made the maiden his wife.

ANDRONI'CA, one of Logistilla's handmaids, noted for her beauty.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

ANDRONI'CUS (Titus), a noble Roman general against the Goths, father of Lavin'ia. In the play so called, published among those of Shakespeare, the word all through is called Andron'icus (1593).

Marcus Andronicus, brother of Titus, and tribune of the people.

ANDROPH'ILUS, Philanthropy personified in The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). Fully described in canto x. (Greek, Andro-philos, "a lover of mankind.")

ANDY (Handy), Irish lad in the employ of Squire Egan. He has boundless capacity for bulls and blunders.—Samuel Lover, Handy Andy.

ANEAL (2 syl.), daughter of Maae'ni, who loves Djabal, and believes him to be "hakeem'" (the incarnate god and founder of the Druses) returned to life for the restoration of the people and their return to Syria from exile in the Spo'rades. When, however, she discovers his imposture, she dies in the bitterness of her disappointment.—Robert Browning, The Return of the Druses.

L'ange de Dieu, Isabeau la belle, the "inspired prophet-child" of the Camisards.

ANGELA MESSENGER, heiress to Messenger's Brewery and an enormous fortune. In order to know the people of the East End she lives among them as a dressmaker. She sees their needs, and to supply these in part, builds The People's Palace—or Palace of Delights.—All Sorts and Conditions of Men, by Walter Besant (1889).

ANGEL'ICA, in Bojardo's Orlando Innamorato (1495), is daughter of Gal'aphron king of Cathay. She goes to Paris, and Orlando falls in love with her, forgetful of wife, sovereign, country, and glory. Angelica, on the other hand, disregards Orlando, but passionately loves Rinaldo, who positively dislikes her. Angelica and Rinaldo drink of certain fountains, when the opposite effects are produced in their hearts, for then Rinaldo loves Angelica, while Angelica loses all love for Rinaldo.

Angelica, in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso (1516), is the same lady, who marries Medoro, a young Moore, and returns to Cathay, where Medoro succeeds to the crown. As for Orlando, he is driven mad by jealousy and pride.

The fairest of her sex, Angelica, ...Sought by many prowest knights, Both painim and the peers of Charlemagne.

Milton, Paradise Regained, iii. (1671).

Angelica (The Princess), called "The Lady of the Golden Tower." The loves of Parisme'nos and Angelica form an important feature of the second part of Parismus Prince of Bohemia, by Emanuel Foord (1598).

Angelica, an heiress with whom Valentine Legend is in love. For a time he is unwilling to declare himself because of his debts; but Angelica gets possession of a bond for L4000, and tears it. The money difficulty being adjusted, the marriage is arranged amicably.—W. Congreve, Love for Love (1695).

Mrs. Anne Bracegirdle equally delighted in melting tenderness and playful coquetry, in "Statira" or "Millamant;" and even at an advanced age, when she played "Angelica."—C. Dibden.

Angelica, the troth-plight wife of Valere, "the gamester." She gives him a picture, and enjoins him not to part with it on pain of forfeiting her hand. However, he loses it in play, and Angelica in disguise is the winner of it. After much tribulation, Valere is cured of his vice, and the two are happily united by marriage.—Mrs. Centlivre, The Gamester (1705).

ANGELI'NA, daughter of lord Lewis, in the comedy called The Elder Brother, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1637).

Angelina, daughter of don Charino. Her father wanted her to marry Clodio, a coxcomb, but she preferred his elder brother Carlos, a bookworm, with whom she eloped. They were taken captives and carried to Lisbon. Here in due time they met, the fathers who went in search of them came to the same spot, and as Clodio had engaged himself to Elvira of Lisbon, the testy old gentlemen agreed to the marriage of Angelina with Carlos.—C. Cibber, Love Makes a Man.

Angelique' (3 syl.), daughter of Argan the malade imaginaire. Her lover is Cleante (2 syl.). In order to prove whether his wife or daughter loved him the better, Argan pretended to be dead, whereupon the wife rejoiced greatly that she was relieved of a "disgusting creature," hated by every one; but the daughter grieved as if her heart would break, rebuked herself for her shortcomings, and vowed to devote the rest of her life in prayer for the repose of his soul. Argan, being assured of his daughter's love, gave his free consent to her marriage with Cleante.—Moliere, Malade Imaginaire (1673).

Angelique, the aristocratic wife of George Dandin, a French commoner. She has a liaison with a M. Clitandre, but always contrives to turn the tables on her husband. George Dandin first hears of a rendezvous from one Lubin, a foolish servant of Clitandre, and lays the affair before M. and Mde. Sotenville, his wife's parents. The baron with George Dandin call on the lover, who denies the accusation, and George Dandin has to beg pardon. Subsequently, he catches his wife and Clitandre together, and sends at once for M. and Mde. Sotenville; but Angelique, aware of their presence, pretends to denounce her lover, and even takes up a stick to beat him for the "insult offered to a virtuous wife;" so again the parents declare their daughter to be the very paragon of women. Lastly, George Dandin detects his wife and Clitandre together at night-time, and succeeds in shutting his wife out of her room; but Angelique now pretends to kill herself, and when George goes for a light to look for the body, she rushes into her room and shuts him out. At this crisis the parents arrive, when Angelique accuses her husband of being out all night in a debauch; and he is made to beg her pardon on his knees.—Moliere, George Dandin (1668).

AN'GELO, in Measure for Measure, lord deputy of Vienna in the absence of Vincentio the duke. His betrothed lady is Maria'na. Lord Angelo conceived a base passion for Isabella, sister of Claudio, but his designs were foiled by the duke, who compelled him to marry Mariana.—Shakespeare (1603).

An'gelo, a gentleman friend to Julio in The Captain, a drama by Beaumont and Fletcher (1613).

ANGELS (Orders of). According to Dionysius the Areop'agite, the angels are divided into nine orders: Seraphim and Cherubim, in the first circle; Thrones and Dominions, in the second circle; Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Archangels, and Angels, in the third circle.

Novem angelorum ordines dicimus, quia videlicet esse, testante sacro eloquio, scimus Angelos, Archangelos, Virtutes, Potestates, Principatus, Dominationes, Thronos, Cherubim, atque Seraphim.—St. Gregory the Great, Homily 34.

(See Hymns Ancient and Modern, No. 253, ver. 2, 3.)

ANGER ... THE ALPHABET. It was Athenodo'rus the Stoic who advised Augustus to repeat the alphabet when he felt inclined to give way to anger.

Un certain Grec disait a l'empereur Auguste, Comme une instruction utile autant que juste, Que, lorsqu' une aventure en colere nous met, Nous devons, avant tout, dire notre alphabet, Afin que dans ce temps la bile se tempere, Et qu'on ne fasse rien que l'on ne doive faire.

Moliere, L'Ecole des Femmes, ii. 4 (1662).

ANGIOLI'NA (4 syl.), daughter of Loreda'no, and the young wife of Mari'no Faliero, the doge of Venice. A patrician named Michel Steno, having behaved indecently to some of the women assembled at the great civic banquet given by the doge, was kicked out of the house by order of the doge, and in revenge wrote some scurrilous lines against the dogaressa. This insult was referred to "The Forty," and Steno was sentenced to two months' imprisonment, which the doge considered a very inadequate punishment for the offence.—Byron, Marino Faliero.

The character of the calm, pure-spirited Angiolina is developed most admirably. The great difference between her temper and that of her fiery husband is vividly portrayed, but not less vividly touched is that strong bond of union which exists in the common nobleness of their deep natures. There is no spark of jealousy in the old man's thoughts. He does not expect the fervor of youthful passion in his young wife; but he finds what is far better—the fearless confidence of one so innocent that she can scarcely believe in the existence of guilt.... She thinks Steno's greatest punishment will be "the blushes of his privacy."—Lockhart.

ANGLAN'TE'S LORD, Orlando, who was lord of Anglante and knight of Brava.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

AN'GLIDES (3 syl.), wife of good prince Boud'wine (2 syl.), brother to sir Mark king of Cornwall ("the falsest traitor that ever was born"). When king Mark slew her husband, Anglides and her son Alisaunder made their escape to Magounce (i.e. Arundel), where she lived in peace, and brought up her son till he received the honor of knighthood.—Sir T. Malory, Hist, of Pr. Arthur, ii. 117, 118 (1470).

AN'GUISANT, king of Erin (Ireland), subdued by king Arthur fighting in behalf of Leod'ogran king of Cam'eliard (3 syl.).—Tennyson, Coming of King Arthur.

ANGULE (St.), bishop of London, put to death by Maximia'nus Hercu'lius, Roman general in Britain in the reign of Diocletian.

St. Angule put to death, one of our holiest men, At London, of that see the godly bishop then.

Drayton, Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622).

ANGURVA'DEL, Frithiof's sword, inscribed with Runic characters, which blazed in time of war, but gleamed dimly in time of peace.

ANICE, the woman who steals Fenn's fancy, rather than his heart, from his wife, in George Parsons Lathrop's story, An Echo of Passion (1882).

ANIMULA, beauteous being revealed in a drop of water by a microscope of extraordinary and inconceivable power.—The Diamond Lens, by Fitz-James O'Brien (1854).

ANJOU (The Fair Maid of), lady Edith Plantagenet, who married David earl of Huntingdon (a royal prince of Scotland). Edith was a kinswoman of Richard Coeur de Lion, and an attendant on queen Berengaria.

Sir Walter Scott has introduced her in The Talisman (1825).

ANN (The princess), lady of Beaujeu.—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

Ann (The Lady), the wife who, in John G. Saxe's ballad, The Lady Ann, goes mad at the news of the death of sir John, her husband (1868).

ANNA (Donna), the lady beloved by don Otta'vio, but seduced by don Giovanni.—Mozart's opera, Don Giovanni (1787).

AN'NABEL, in Absalom and Achitophel, by

Dryden, is the duchess of Monmouth, whose maiden name was Anne Scott (countess of Buccleuch). She married again after the execution of her faithless husband.

With secret joy indulgent David [Charles II.] viewed His youthful image in his son renewed; To all his wishes nothing he denied, And made the charming Annabel his bride. Part i.

ANNABEL LEE. Edgar A. Poe's poem of this name is supposed to be a loving memorial to his young wife, Virginia Clemm, who died of consumption at Fordham, N.Y., in 1847.

The angels, not half so happy in heaven Went envying her and me; Yes! that was the reason (as all men know, In this kingdom by the sea) That the wind came out of the cloud by night, Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee. (1848.)

ANNA PASTORIUS, wife of Pastorius in Whittier's poem, The Pennsylvania Pilgrim. At his cry "Help! for the good man faileth!" she points to her aloe-tree, and reminds him that as surely as "the century-moulded bud shall burst in bloom," love and patience will soon or late conquer wrong (1872).

AN'NAPLE [BAILZOU], Effie Dean's "monthly" nurse.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

An'naple, nurse of Hobbie Elliot of the Heugh-foot, a young farmer.—Sir W. Scott, The Black Dwarf (time, Anne).

ANNE (Sister), the sister of Fat'ima, the seventh and last wife of Blue Beard. Fatima, having disobeyed her lord by looking into the locked chamber, is allowed a short respite before execution. Sister Anne ascends the high tower of the castle, with the hope of seeing her brothers, who are expected to arrive every moment. Fatima, in her agony, keeps asking "sister Anne" if she can see them, and Blue Beard keeps crying out for Fatima to use greater despatch. As the patience of both is exhausted, the brothers arrive, and Fatima is rescued from death.—Charles Perrault, La Barbe Bleue.

Anne, own sister of king Arthur. Her father was Uther the pendragon, and her mother Ygerna, widow of Gorlois. She was given by her brother in marriage to Lot, consul of Londonesia, and afterwards king of Norway.—Geoffrey, British History, viii. 20, 21.

In Arthurian romance this Anne is called Margawse (History of Prince Arthur, i. 2); Tennyson calls her Bellicent (Gareth and Lynette). In Arthurian romance Lot is always called king of Orkney.

ANNE CATHERICK, half-witted girl, the natural sister of Laura Fairlie, to whom she bears a strong resemblance. This circumstance suggests to the villain of the book the deception of showing her dead body as that of Laura, as a step toward securing the fortune of the latter.—The Woman in White, by Wilkie Collins (1865).

ANNE DOUGLAS, heroine of Anne, a novel by Constance Fenimore Woolson (1882). The scene laid on the Island of Mackinac, Mich.

ANNETTE, daughter of Mathis and Catherine, the bride of Christian, captain of the patrol.—J.E. Ware, The Polish Jew.

ANNETTE AND LUBLIN, by Marmontel, imitated from the Daphnis and Chloe of Longos (q.v.).

ANNIE KILBURN, the conscientious heiress who returns to a New England homestead after long residence abroad, and endeavors to do her duty in the station to which Providence has called her. Prim, pale, pretty, and not youthful except in heart.—Annie Kilburn, by William Dean Howells (1888).

AN'NIE LAU'RIE, eldest of the three daughters of sir Robert Laurie, of Maxwelton. In 1709 she married James Fergusson, of Craigdarroch, and was the mother of Alexander Fergusson, the hero of Burns's song The Whistle. The song of Annie Laurie was written by William Douglas, of Fingland, in the stewardry of Kirkcud'bright, hero of the song Willie was a Wanton Wag. (See WHISTLE.)

Bayard Taylor has used the ballad with thrilling effect in his poem The Song of the Camp.

They sang of love, and not of fame, Forgot was Britain's glory, Each heart recalled a different name, But all sang "Annie Laurie." Voice after voice caught up the song Until its tender passion Rose, like an anthem, rich and strong, Their battle-eve confession.

* * * * *

Dear girl! her name he dared not speak, But as the song grew louder, Something upon the soldier's cheek Washed off the stain of powder.

* * * * *

AN'NIE WIN'NIE, one of the old sibyls at Alice Gray's death; the other was Ailsie Gourlay.—Sir W. Scott, The Bride of Lammermoor (time, William III.).

ANNIR, king of Inis-thona (an island of Scandinavia). He had two sons (Argon and Ruro) and one daughter. One day Cor'malo, a neighboring chief, came and begged the honor of a tournament. Argon granted the request, and overthrew him, which so vexed Cormalo that during a hunt he shot both the brothers secretly with his bow. Their dog Runa ran to the palace, and howled so as to attract attention; whereupon Annir followed the hound, and found both his sons dead, and on his return he further found that Cormalo had carried off his daughter. Oscar, son of Ossian, led an army against the villain, and slew him; then liberating the young lady, he took her back to Inis-thona, and delivered her to her father.—Ossian ("The War of Inis-thona").

AN'NOPHEL, daughter of Cas'silane (3 syl.) general of Candy.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Laws of Candy (1647).

ANSELM, prior of St. Dominic, the confessor of king Henry IV.—Sir W. Scott, The Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

ANSELME (2 syl.), father of Valere (2 syl.) and Mariane (3 syl.). In reality he is don Thomas d'Alburci, of Naples. The family were exiled from Naples for political reasons, and being shipwrecked were all parted. Valere was picked up by a Spanish captain, who adopted him; Mariane fell into the hands of a corsair, who kept her a captive for ten years, when she effected her escape; and Anselme wandered from place to place for ten years, when he settled in Paris, and intended to marry. At the expiration of sixteen years they all met in Paris at the house of Har'pagon, the miser. Valere was in love with Elise (2 syl.), the miser's daughter, promised by Harpagon in marriage to Anselme; and Mariane, affianced to the miser's son Cleante (2 syl.), was sought in marriage by Harpagon, the old father. As soon as Anselme discovered that Valere and Mariane were his own children, matters were soon amicably arranged, the young people married, and the old ones retired from the unequal contest.—Moliere, L'Avare (1667).

ANSELMO, a noble cavalier of Florence, the friend of Lothario. Anselmo married Camilla, and induced his friend to try to corrupt her, that he might rejoice in her incorruptible fidelity. Lothario unwillingly undertook the task, and succeeded but too well. For a time Anselmo was deceived, but at length Camilla eloped, and the end of the silly affair was that Anselmo died of grief, Lothario was slain in battle, and Camilla died in a convent.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. iv. 5, 6; Fatal Curiosity (1605).

AN'STER (Hob), a constable at Kinross village.—Sir W. Scott, The Abbot (time, Elizabeth).

ANSTISS DOLBEARE, heroine of Mrs. A.D.T. Whitney's novel, Hitherto, a sensitive, imaginative, morbid, motherless girl who is "all the time holding up her soul ... with a thorn in it" (1872).

ANTAE'OS, a gigantic wrestler of Libya (or Irassa). His strength was inexhaustible so long as he touched the earth, and was renewed every time he did touch it. Her'cules killed him by lifting him up from the earth and squeezing him to death. (See MALEGER.)

As when earth's son Antaeus ... in Irassa strove With Jove's Alcides, and oft foiled, still rose, Receiving from his mother earth new strength, Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grapple joined, Throttled at length in the air, expired and fell.

Milton, Paradise Regained, iv. (563).

Similarly, when Bernardo del Carpio assailed Orlando or Rolando at Roncesvalles, as he found his body was not to be pierced by any instrument of war, he took him up in his arms and squeezed him to death.

N.B.—The only vulnerable part of Orlando was the sole of his foot.

ANTE'NOR, a traitorous Trojan prince, related to Priam. He advised Ulysses to carry away the palladium from Troy, and when the wooden horse was built it was Antenor who urged the Trojans to make a breach in the wall and drag the horse into the city.—Shakespeare has introduced him in Troilus and Cressida (1602).

ANTHEA, beautiful woman to whom Herrick addresses several poems.

ANTHI'A, the lady beloved by Abroc'omas in the Greek romance called De Amoribus Anthiae et Abrocomae, by Xenophon of Ephesus, who lived in the fourth Christian century. (This is not Xenophon the historian, who lived B.C. 444-359.)

ANTHONIO, "the merchant of Venice," in Shakespeare's drama so called (1598). Anthonio borrows of Shylock, a Jew, 3000 ducats for three months, to lend to his friend Bassanio. The conditions of the loan were these: if the money was paid within the time, only the principal should be returned; but if not, the Jew should be allowed to cut from Anthonio's body "a pound of flesh." As the ships of Anthonio were delayed by contrary winds, he was unable to pay within the three months, and Shylock demanded the forfeiture according to the bond. Portia, in the dress of a law-doctor, conducted the case, and when the Jew was about to cut the flesh, stopped him, saying—(1) the bond gave him no drop of blood; and (2) he must take neither more nor less than an exact pound. If he shed one drop of blood or if he cut more or less than an exact pound, his life would be forfeit. As it was quite impossible to comply with these restrictions, the Jew was nonsuited, and had to pay a heavy fine for seeking the life of a citizen.

Antho'nio, the ursuping duke of Milan, and brother of Pros'pero (the rightful duke, and father of Miranda).—Shakespeare, The Tempest (1609).

Antho'nio, father of Protheus, and suitor of Julia.—Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1594).

AN'THONY, an English archer in the cottage of farmer Dickson, of Douglasdale.—Sir W. Scott, Castle Dangerous (time, Henry I.).

An'thony, the old postillion at Meg Dods's, the landlady of the inn at St. Ronan's Well.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

ANTID'IUS, bishop of Jaen, martyred by the Vandals in 411. One day, seeing the devil writing in his pocket-book some sin committed by the pope, he jumped upon his back and commanded his Satanic majesty to carry him to Rome. The devil tried to make the bishop pronounce the name of Jesus, which would break the spell, and then the devil would have tossed his unwelcome burden into the sea, but the bishop only cried, "Gee up, devil!" and when he reached Rome he was covered with Alpine snow. The chronicler naively adds, "the hat is still shown at Rome in confirmation of this miracle."—General Chronicle of King Alphonso the Wise.

ANTIG'ONE (4 syl.), daughter of Oe'dipos and Jocas'te, a noble maiden, with a truly heroic attachment to her father and brothers. When Oedipos had blinded himself, and was obliged to quit Thebes, Antigone accompanied him, and remained with him till his death, when she returned to Thebes. Creon, the king, had forbidden any one to bury Polyni'ces, her brother, who had been slain by his elder brother in battle; but Antigone, in defiance of this prohibition, buried the dead body, and Creon shut her up in a vault under ground, where she killed herself. Haemon, her lover, killed himself also by her side. Sophocles has a Greek tragedy on the subject, and it has been dramatized for the English stage.

The Modern Antigone, Marie Therese Charlotte duchesse d'Angouleme, daughter of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette (1778-1851).

ANTIG'ONUS, a Sicilian lord, commanded by king Leontes to take his infant daughter to a desert shore and leave her to perish. Antigonus was driven by a storm to the coast of Bohemia, where he left the babe; but on his way back to the ship, he was torn to pieces by a bear.—Shakespeare, The Winter's Tale (1604).

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