Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol 1 - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook
by The Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D.
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Wallace's Larder is a similar phrase. It is the dungeon of Ardrossan, in Ayrshire, where Wallace had the dead bodies of the garrison thrown, surprised by him in the reign of Edward I.

Douloureuse Garde (La), a castle in Berwick-upon-Tweed, won by Sir Launcelot du Lac, in one of the most terrific adventures related in romance. In memory of this event, the name of the castle was changed into La Joyeuse Garde or La Garde Joyeuse.

Dousterswivel (Herman), a German schemer, who obtains money under the promise of finding hidden wealth by a divining rod.—Sir W. Scott, The Antiquary (time, George III.).

The incident of looking for treasure in the church is copied from one which Lily mentions, who went with David Kamsay to search for hidden treasure in Westminster Abbey.—See Old and New London, i. 129.

DOVE (Dr.), the hero of Southey's novel called The Doctor (1834).

Dove (Sir Benjamin), of Cropley Castle, Cornwall. A little, peaking, puling creature, desperately hen-pecked by a second wife; but madam overshot the mark, and the knight was roused to assert and maintain the mastery.

That very clever actor Cherry (1769-1812), appeared in "Sir Benjamin Dove," and showed himself a master of his profession.—Boaden.

Lady Dove, twice married, first to Mr. Searcher, king's messenger, and next to Sir Benjamin Dove. She had a tendresse for Mr. Paterson. Lady Dove was a terrible termagant, and when scolding failed used to lament for "poor dear dead Searcher, who—, etc., etc." She pulled her bow somewhat too tight, and Sir Benjamin asserted his independence.

Sophia Dove, daughter of Sir Benjamin. She loved Robert Belfield, but was engaged to marry the elder brother Andrew. When, however, the wedding day arrived, Andrew was found to be a married man, and the younger brother became the bridegroom.—R. Cumberland, The Brothers (1769).

DOWLAS (Daniel), a chandler of Gosport, who trades in "coals, cloth, herrings, linen, candles, eggs, sugar, treacle, tea, and brickdust." This vulgar and illiterate petty shopkeeper is raised to the peerage under the title of "The Right Hon. Daniel Dowlas, Baron Duberly." But scarcely has he entered on his honors, when the "heir-at-law," supposed to have been lost at sea, makes his appearance in the person of Henry Morland. The "heir" settles on Daniel Dowlas an annuity.

Deborah Dowlas, wife of Daniel, and for a short time Lady Duberly. She assumes quite the airs and ton of gentility, and tells her husband "as he is a pear, he ought to behave as sich."

Dick Dowlas, the son, apprenticed to an attorney at Castleton. A wild young scamp, who can "shoot wild ducks, fling a bar, play at cricket, make punch, catch gudgeons, and dance." His mother says "he is the sweetest-tempered youth when he has everything his own way." Dick Dowlas falls in love with Cicely Homespun, and marries her.—G. Colman, Heir-at-law (1797).

Miss Pope asked me about the dress. I answered. "It should be black bombazeen ..." I proved to her that not only "Deborah Dowlas," but all the rest of the dramatis personae ought to be in mourning ... The three "Dowlases" as relatives of the deceased Lord Duberly; "Henry Morland" as the heir-at-law; "Dr. Pangloss" as a clergyman, "Caroline Dormer" for the loss of her father, and "Kenrick" as a servant of the Dormer family.—James Smith.

Dowlas (Old Dame), housekeeper to the Duke of Buckingham.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

DOWLING-(Captain), a great drunkard, who dies in his cups.—Crabbe, Borough, xvi. (1810).

DOWNER (Billy), an occasional porter and shoeblack, a diffuser of knowledge, a philosopher, a citizen of the world, and an "unfinished gentleman."—C. Selby, The Unfinished Gentleman.

DOWNING, PROFESSOR, in the University of Cambridge. So called from Sir George Downing, bart., who founded the law professorship in 1800.

DOWSABEL, daughter of Cassemen (3 syl.), a knight of Arden; a ballad by M. Drayton (1593).

Old Chaucer doth of Topaz tell, Mad Rabelais of Pantagruel, A later third of Dowsabel.

M. Drayton, Nymphida.

DRAC, a sort of fairy in human form, whose abode is the caverns of rivers. Sometimes these dracs will float like golden cups along a stream to entice bathers, but when the bather attempts to catch at them, the drac draws him under water.—South of France Mythology.

DRA'CHENFELS ("Dragon rocks"), so called from the dragon killed there by Siegfried, the hero of the Niebelungen Lied.

DRAGON (A), the device on the royal banner of the old British kings. The leader was called the pendragon. Geoffrey of Monmouth says: "When Aurelius was king, there appeared a star at Winchester, of wonderful magnitude and brightness, darting forth a ray at the end of which was a flame in the form of a dragon." Uther ordered two golden dragons to be made, one of which he presented to Winchester, and the other he carried with him as a royal standard. Tennyson says that Arthur's helmet had for crest a golden dragon.

... they saw The dragon of the great pendragonship. That crowned the state pavilion of the king.

Tennyson, Guinevere.

Dragon (The), one of the masques at Kennaquhair Abbey.—Sir W. Scott, The Abbot (time, Elizabeth).

Dragon (The Red) the personification of "the devil," as the enemy of man.—Phineas Fletcher, The Purple Island, ix. (1633).

DRAGON OF WANTLEY (i. e. Warncliff, in Yorkshire), a skit on the old metrical romances, especially on the old rhyming legend of Sir Bevis. The ballad describes the dragon, its outrages, the flight of the inhabitants, the knight choosing his armor, the damsel, the fight and the victory. The hero is called "More, of More Hall" (q. v.)—Percy, Reliques, III. iii. 13.

(H. Carey, has a burlesque called The Dragon of Wantley, and calls the hero "Moore, of Moore Hall," 1697-1743).

DRAGON'S HILL (Berkshire). The legend isays it is here that St. George killed the dragon; but the place assigned for this achievement in the ballad given in Percy's Reliques is "Sylene, in Libya." Another legend gives Berytus (Beyrut) as the place of this encounter.

(In regard to Dragon Hill, according to Saxon annals, it was here that Cedric (founder of the West Saxons) slew Naud the pendragon, with 5,000 men.)

DRAGON'S TEETH. The tale of Jason and AEetes is a repetition of that of Cadmus.

In the tale of CADMUS, we are told the fountain of Arei'a (3 syl.) was guarded by a fierce dragon. Cadmus killed the dragon, and sowed its teeth in the earth. From these teeth sprang up armed men called "Sparti," among whom he flung stones, and the armed men fell foul of each other, till all were slain excepting five.

In the tale of JASON, we are told that having slain the dragon, which kept watch over the golden fleece, he sowed its teeth in the ground, and armed men sprang up. Jason cast a stone into the midst of them, whereupon the men attacked each other, and were all slain.


AHBIMAN, the dragon slain by Mithra.—Persian Mythology.

DAHAK, the three-headed dragon slain by Thraetana-Yacna.—Persian.

FAFNIB, the dragon slain by Sigurd.

GRENDEL, the dragon slain by Beowulf, the Anglo-Saxon hero.

LA GAGOUILLE, the dragon which ravaged the Seine, slain by St. Romain of Rouen.

PYTHON, the dragon slain by Apollo.—Greek Mythology.

TAKASQUE (2 syl.), the dragon slain at Aix-la-Chapelle by St. Martha.

ZOHAK, the dragon slain by Feridun (Shahndmeh).

Numerous dragons have no special name. Many are denoted Red, White, Black, Great, etc..

DRAKE (Joseph Rodman), author of The Culprit Fay and The American Flag, died at the early age of twenty-five. His elegy was written by Fitz-Green Halleck and is known as far as the English tongue is spoken.

"Green be the turf above thee, Friend of my better days! None knew thee but to love thee, None named thee but to praise." (1820).

DRAMA. The earliest European drama since the fall of the Western empire appeared in the middle of the fifteenth century. It is called La Celestina, and is divided into twenty-one acts. The first act, which runs through fifty pages, was composed by Rodridgo Cota; the other twenty are ascribed to Ferdinando de Rojas. The whole was published in 1510.

The earliest English drama is entitled Ralph Roister Doister, a comedy by Nicholas Udal (before 1551, because mentioned by T. Wilson, in his Rule of Reason, which appeared in 1551).

The second English drama was Gammer Gurton's Needle, by Mr. S. Master of Arts. Warton, in his History of English Poetry (iv. 32), gives 1551 as the date of this comedy; and Wright, in his Historia Histrionica, says it appeared in the reign of Edward VI., who died 1553. It is generally ascribed to Bishop Still, but he was only eight years old in 1551.

Drama (Father of the French), Etienne, Jodell (1532-1573).

Father of the Greek Drama, Thespis (B.C. sixth century).

Father of the Spanish Drama, Lopez de Vega (1562-1635).

DRAP, one of Queen Mab's maids of honor.—Drayton, Nymphidia.

DRAPIER'S LETTERS, a series of letters written by Dean Swift, and signed "M.D. Drapier," advising the Irish not to take the copper money coined by William Wood, to whom George I. had given a patent. These letters (1724) stamped out this infamous job and caused the patent to be cancelled. The patent was obtained by the Duchess of Kendall (mistress of the king), who was to share the profits.

Can we the Drapier then forget? Is not our nation in his debt? 'Twas he that writ the "Drapier's Letters." Dean Swift, Verses on his own death.

DRAWCANSIR, a bragging, blustering bully, who took part in a battle, and killed every one on both sides, "sparing neither friend nor foe."—George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, The Rehearsal (1671).

Juan, who was a little superficial, And not in literature a great Drawcansir. Byron, Don Juan, xi. 51 (1824).

At length my enemy appeared, and I went forward some yards like a Drawcansir, but found myself seized with a panic as Paris was when he presented himself to fight with Menelaus.—Lesage, Gil Blas, vii. (1735).

DREAM AUTHORSHIP. Coleridge says that he wrote his Kubla Khan from his recollection of a dream.

Condillac (says Cabanis) concluded in his dreams the reasonings left incomplete at bed-time.

Dreams. The Indians believe all dreams to be revelations, sometimes made by the familiar genius, and sometimes by the "inner or divine soul." An Indian, having dreamt that his finger was cut off, had it really cut off the next day.—Charlevoix, Journal of a Voyage to North America.

DREAMER (The Immortal), John Bunyan, whose Pilgrim's Progress is said by him to be a dream (1628-1688).

The pretense of a dream was one of the most common devices of mediaeval romance, as, for example, the Romance of the Rose and Piers Plowman, both in the fourteenth century.

DREARY (Wat), alias BROWN WILL, one of Macheath's gang of thieves. He is described by Peachum as "an irregular dog, with an underhand way of disposing of his goods" (act i.1).—Gay, The Beggar's Opera (1727).

DREW (Timothy). A half-witted cobbler who, learning that a tailor had advertised for "frogs," catches a bagful and carries them to him, demanding one dollar a hundred. The testy tailor imagining himself the victim of a hoax, throws his shears at his head, and Timothy, in revenge empties the bag of bull-frogs upon the clean floor of Buckram's shop. Next day Timothy's sign was disfigured to read—Shoes Mended and Frogs Caught. By Timothy Drew.The Frog Catcher, Henry J. Finn, American Comic Annual 1831.

DRINK used by actors, orators, etc.

BRAHAM, bottled porter.

CATLEY (Miss), linseed tea and madeira.

COOKE (G. F.), everything drinkable.

EMERY, brandy-and-water (cold).

GLADSTONE (W. E.), an egg beaten up in sherry.

HENDERSON, gum arabic and sherry.

INCLEDON, madeira.

JORDAN (Mrs.), calves'-foot jelly dissolved in warm sherry.

KEAN (Edmund), beef-tea for breakfast, cold brandy.

LEWIS, mulled wine (with oysters).


SMITH (William), coffee.

WOOD (Mrs.), draught porter.

J Kemble took opium.

Drink. "I drink the air," says Ariel, meaning "I will fly with great speed."

In Henry IV. we have "devour the way," meaning the same thing.

DRI'VER, clerk to Mr. Pleydell, advocate.

Edinburgh.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George II.).

DRIVER OF EUROPE. The duc de Choiseul, minister of Louis XV., was so called by the empress of Russia, because he had spies all over Europe, and ruled by them all the political cabals.

DRO'GIO, probably Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. A Venetian voyager named Antonio Zeno (fourteenth century) so called a country which he discovered. It was said to lie south-west of Estotiland (Labrador), but neither Estotiland nor Drogio are recognized by modern geographers, and both are supposed to be wholly, or in a great measure, hypothetical.

DRO'MIO (The Brothers), two brothers, twins, so much alike that even their nearest friends and masters knew not one from the other. They were the servants of two masters, also twins and the exact facsimiles of each other. The masters were Antiph'olus of Ephesus and Antipholus of Syracuse.—Shakespeare, Comedy of Errors (1593).

(The Comedy of Errors is borrowed from the Menoechmi of Plautus).

DRONSDAUGHTER (Tronda), the old serving-woman of the Yellowleys.—Sir W. Scott, The Pirate (time, William III.).

DROP SERENE (Gutta Serena). It was once thought that this sort of blindness was an incurable extinction of vision by a transparent watery humor distilling on the optic nerve. It caused total blindness, but made no visible change in the eye. It is now known that this sort of blindness arises from obstruction in the capillary nerve-vessels, and in some cases at least is curable. Milton, speaking of his own blindness, expresses a doubt whether it arose from the Gutta Serena or the suffusion of a cataract.

So thick a 'drop serene' hath quenched their orbs, Or dim 'suffusion' veiled.

Milton, Paradise Lost, iii. 25 (1665).

DROOD (Edwin), hero of Charles Dickens' unfinished novel of that name.

DRUDGEIT (Peter), clerk to Lord Bladderskate.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.).

DRUGGER (Abel), a seller of tobacco; artless and gullible in the extreme. He was building a new house, and came to Subtle "the alchemist" to know on which side to set the shop door, how to dispose the shelves so as to ensure most luck, on what days he might trust his customers, and when it would be unlucky for him so to do.—Ben Jonson, The Alchemist (1610).

Thomas Weston was "Abel Drugger" himself [1727-1776], but David Garrick was fond of the part also [1716-1779].—C. Dibdin, History of the Stage.

DRUGGET, a rich London haberdasher, who has married one of his daughters to Sir Charles Racket. Drugget is "very fond of his garden," but his taste goes no further than a suburban tea-garden with leaden images, cockney fountains, trees cut into the shapes of animals, and other similar abominations. He is very headstrong, very passionate, and very fond of flattery.

Mrs. Druggett, wife of the above. She knows her husband's foibles, and, like a wise woman, never rubs the hair the wrong way.—A. Murphy, Three Weeks after Marriage.

DRUID (The), the nom de plume of Henry

Dixon, sportsman and sporting-writer; One of his books, called Steeple-chasing, appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine. His last work was called The Saddle and Sirloin.

Collins calls James Thomson (author of The Seasons) a druid, meaning a pastoral British poet or "Nature's High Priest."

In yonder grave a Druid lies. Collins (1746).

Druid (Dr.), a man of North Wales, 65 years of age, the travelling tutor of Lord Abberville, who was only 23. The doctor is a pedant and antiquary, choleric in temper, and immensely bigoted, wholly without any knowledge of the human heart, or indeed any practical knowledge at all.

"Money and trade, I scorn 'em both; ...I have traced the Oxus and the Po, traversed the Riphaean Mountains, and pierced into the inmost deserts of Kilmuc Tartary ...I have followed the ravages of Kuli Chan with rapturous delight. There is a land of wonders; finely depopulated; gloriously laid waste; fields without a hoof to tread 'em; fruits without a hand to gather 'em: with such a catologue of pats, peetles, serpents, scorpions, caterpillars, toads, and putterflies! Oh, 'tis a recreating contemplation indeed to a philosophic mind!"—Cumberland, The Fashionable Lover (1780).

DRUID MONEY, a promise to pay on the Greek Kalends. Patricius says: "Druidae pecuniam mutuo accipiebant in posteriore vita reddituri."

Like money by the Druids borrowed, In th' other world to be restored. Butler, Hudibras, iii. 1 (1678).

Purchase tells us of certain priests of Pekin, "who barter with the people upon bills of exchange, to be paid in heaven a hundredfold."—Pilgrims, iii. 2.

DRUM (Jack), Jack Drum's entertainment is giving a guest the cold shoulder.

Shakespeare calls it "John Drum's entertainment" (All Well, etc., act iii. sc. 6), and Holinshead speaks of "Tom Drum his entertaynement, which is to hale a man in by the heade, and thrust him out by both the shoulders."

DRUMMLE (Bentley) AND STARTOP, two young men who read with Mr. Pocket. Drummle is a surly, ill-conditioned fellow, who marries Estella.—C. Dickens, Great Expectations (1860).

DRUNKEN PARLIAMENT, a Scotch parliament assembled at Edinburgh, January I, 1661.

It was a mad, warring time, full of extravagance; and no wonder it was so, when the men of affairs were almost perpetually drunk.—Burnet, His Own Time (1723-34).

DRUON "the Stern," one of the four knights who attacked Britomart and Sir Scudamore (3 syl.).

The warlike dame (Britomart) was on her part assaid By Clarabel and Blandamour at one; While Paridel and Druon fiercely laid On Scudamore, both his professed fone [foes].

Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 9 (1596).

DRUSES (Return of the). The Druses, a semi-Mohammedan sect of Syria, being attacked by Osman, take refuge in one of the Spor'ades, and place themselves under the protection of the Knights of Rhodes. These knights slay their sheiks and oppress the fugitives. In the sheik massacre, Dja'bal is saved by Maae'ni, and entertains the idea of revenging his people and leading them back to Syria. To this end he gives out that he is Hakeem, the incarnate god, returned to earth, and soon becomes the leader of the exiled Druses. A plot is formed to murder the prefect of the isle, and to betray the Island to Venice, if Venice will supply a convoy for their return. An'eal (2 syl.), a young woman stabs the prefect, and dies in bitter disappointment when she discovers that Djabal is a mere impostor. Djabal stabs himself when his imposition is made public, but Loys, (2 syl.) a Brenton count, leads the exiles back to Lebanon. Robert Browning.—The Return of the Druses.

Historically, the Druses, to the number of 160,000 or 200,000, settled in Syria, between Djebail and Saide, but their original seat was Egypt. They quitted Egypt from persecution, led by Dara'zi or Durzi, from whom the name Druse (1 syl.) is derived. The founder of the sect was the hakem B'amr-ellah (eleventh century), believed to be incarnate deity, and the last prophet who communicated between God and man. From this founder the head of the sect was called the hakem, his residence being Deir-el-Kamar. During the thirteenth or fourteenth century the Druses were banished from Syria, and lived in exile in some of the Sporades but were led back to Syria early in the fifteenth century by Count Loys de Duex, a new convert. Since 1588 they have been tributaries of the sultan.

What say you does this wizard style himself— Hakeem Biamrallah, the Third Fatimite? What is this jargon? He the insane prophet, Dead near three hundred years!

Robert Browning, The Return of the Druses.

DRYAS or DRYAD, a wood-nymph, whose life was bound up with that of her tree (Greek, [Greek: dryas, dryados].)

"The quickening power of the soul," like Martha, "is busy about many things," or like "a Dryas living in a tree."—Sir John Davies, Immortality of the soul, xii.

DRY-AS-DUST (The Rev. Doctor), an hypothetical person whom Sir W. Scott makes use of to introduce some of his novels by means of prefatory letters. The word is a synonym for a dull, prosy, plodding historian, with great show of learning, but very little attractive grace.

DRYDEN OF GERMANY (The), Martin Opitz, sometimes called "The Father of German Poetry" (1597-1639).

DRYEESDALE (Jasper), the old steward at Lochleven Castle.—Sir W. Scott, The Abott (time, Elizabeth).

DRY'OPE (3 syl.), daughter of King Dryops, beloved by Apollo. Apollo, having changed himself into a tortoise, was taken by Dryope into her lap, and became the father of Amphis'sos. Ovid says that Dryope was changed into a lotus (Met., x. 331).

DUAR'TE (3 syl), the vainglorious son of Guiomar.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Custom of the Country (1647).

DUBOSC, the great thief, who robs the night-mail from Lyons, and murders the courier. He bears such a strong likeness to Joseph Lesurques (act i. 1) that their identity is mistaken.—Ed. Stirling, The Courier of Lyons (1852).

DUBOURG-(Mons.), a merchant at Bordeaux, and agent there of Osbaldistone of London.

Clement Dubourg, son of the Bordeaux merchant, one of the clerks of Osbaldistone, merchant.—Sir W. Scott, Rob Roy (time, George I.).

DUBRIC (St.) or St. Dubricius, archbishop of the City of Legions (Caerleon-upon-Usk; Newport is the only part left.) He set the crown on the head of Arthur, when only 15 years of age. Geoffrey says (British history, ix. 12); This prelate, who was primate of Britain, was so eminent for his piety, that he could cure any sick person by his prayers. St. Dubric abdicated and lived a hermit, leaving David his successor. Tennyson introduced him in his Coming of Arthur, Enid, etc.

Dubric, whose report old Carleon yet doth carry. Drayton, Polyolbion, xxiv. (1622).

To whom arrived, by Dubric the high saint. Chief of the Church in Britain, and before The stateliest of her altar-shrines, the king That morn was married. Tennyson, The Coming of Arthur.

DUCHOMAR was in love with Morna, daughter of Comac, king of Ireland. Out of jealousy, he slew Cathba, his more successful rival, went to announce his death to Morna, and then asked her to marry him. She replied she had no love for him, and asked for his sword. "He gave the sword to her tears," and she stabbed him to the heart. Duchomar begged the maiden to pluck the sword from his breast that he might die; and when she approached him for the purpose, "he seized the sword from her, and slew her."

"Duchomar, most gloomy of men; dark are thy brows and terrible; red are thy rolling eyes ... I love thee not," said Morna; "hard is thy heart of rock, and dark is thy terrible brow."—Ossian, Fingal, i.

DUCHRAN (The laird of), a friend of Baron Bradwardine.—Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, George II.).

DU CROISY and his friend La Grange are desirous to marry two young ladies whose heads are turned by novels. The silly girls fancy the manners of these gentlemen "too unaffected and easy to be aristocratic"; so the gentlemen send to them their valets, as "the viscount de Jodelet," and "the marquis of Mascarille." The girls are delighted whith their titled visitors; but when the game had gone far enough, the masters enter and unmask the trick. By this means the girls are taught a useful lesson, without being subjected to any fatal consequence.—Moliere, Les Precieuses Ridicules (1659).

DUDLEY, a young artist; a disguise assumed by Harry Bertram.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George II.).

Dudley (Captain), a poor English officer, of strict honor, good family, and many accomplishments. He has served his country for thirty years, but can scarcely provide bread for his family.

Charles Dudley, son of Captain Dudley. High-minded, virtuous, generous, poor, and proud. He falls in love with his cousin Charlotte Rusport, but forbears proposing to her, because he is poor and she is rich. His grandfather's will is in time brought to light, by which he becomes the heir of a noble fortune, and he then marries his cousin.

Louisa Dudley, daughter of Captain Dudley. Young, fair, tall, fresh, and lovely. She is courted by Belcour the rich West Indian, to whom ultimately she is married.—Cumberland, The West Indian (1771).

DUDLEY DIAMOND (The). In 1868 a black shepherd named Swartzboy brought to his master, Nie Kirk, this diamond, and received for it L400, with which he drank himself to death. Nie Kirk sold it for L12,000; and the earl of Dudley gave Messrs. Hunt and Roskell L30,000 for it. It weighed in the rough 88 1/2 carats, but cut into a heart shape it weighs 44 1/2 carats. It is triangular in shape, and of great brilliancy.

This magnificent diamond, that called the "Stewart" (q. v.), and the "Twin," have all been discovered in Africa since 1868.

DUDU, one of the three beauties of the harem, into which Juan, by the sultan's order, had been admitted in female attire. Next day, the sultana, out of jealousy, ordered that both Dudu and Juan should be stitched in a sack and cast into the sea; but by the connivance of Baba the chief eunuch, they affected their escape.—Byron, Don Juan, vi. 42, etc.

A kind of sleeping Venus seemed Dudu ... But she was pensive more than melancholy ... The strangest thing was, beauteous, she was holy. Unconscious, albeit turned of quick seventeen. Canto vi. 42-44 (1824).

DUENNA (The), a comic opera by R. B. Sheridan (1773). Margaret, the duenna, is placed in charge of Louisa, the daughter of Don Jerome. Louisa is in love with Don Antonio, a poor nobleman of Seville; but her father resolves to give her in marriage to Isaac Mendoza, a rich Portuguese Jew. As Louisa will not consent to her father's arrangement, he locks her up in her chamber, and turns the duenna out of doors, but in his impetuous rage he in reality turns his daughter out, and locks up the duenna. Isaac arrives, is introduced to the lady, elopes with her, and is duly married. Louisa flees to the convent of St. Catharine, and writes to her father for his consent to her marriage to the man of her choice; and Don Jerome supposing she means the Jew, gives it freely, and she marries Antonio. When they meet at breakfast at the old man's house, he finds that Isaac has married the duenna, Louisa has married Antonio, and his son has married Clara; but the old man is reconciled and says, "I am an obstinate old fellow, when I'm in the wrong, but you shall all find me steady in the right."

DUESSA (false faith), is the personification of the papacy. She meets the Red Cross Knight in the society of Sansfoy (infidelity), and when the knight slays Sansfoy, she turns to flight. Being overtaken, she says her name is Fidessa (true faith), deceives the knight, and conducts him to the palace of Lucif'era, where he encounters Sansjoy (canto 2). Duessa dresses the wounds of the Red Cross Knight, but places Sansjoy under the care of Escula'pius in the infernal regions (canto 4). The Red Cross Knight leaves the palace of Lucifera, and Duessa induces him to drink of the "Enervating Fountain;" Orgoglio then attacks him, and would have slain him if Duessa had not promised to be his bride. Having cast the Red Cross Knight into a dungeon, Orgoglio dresses his bride in most gorgeous array, puts on her head "a triple crown" (the tiara of the pope), and sets her on a monster beast with "seven heads" (the seven hills of Rome). Una (truth) sends Arthur (England) to rescue the captive knight, and Arthur slays Orgoglio, wounds the beast, releases the knight, and strips Duessa of her finery (the Reformation); whereupon she flies into the wilderness to conceal her shame (canto 7).—Spenser, Faery Queen, i. (1590).

Duessa, in bk. v., allegorizes Mary queen of Scots. She is arraigned by Zeal before Queen Mercilla (Elizabeth), and charged with high treason. Zeal says he shall pass by for the present "her counsels false conspired" with Blandamour (earl of Northumberland), and Paridel (earl of Westmoreland), leaders of the insurrection of 1569, as that wicked plot came to naught, and the false Duessa was now "an untitled queen." When Zeal had finished, an old sage named the Kingdom's Care (Lord Burghley) spoke, and opinions were divided. Authority, Law of Nations, and Religion thought Duessa guilty, but Pity, Danger, Nobility of Birth, and Grief pleaded in her behalf. Zeal then charges the prisoner with murder, sedition, adultery, and lewd impiety; whereupon the sentence of the court is given against her. Queen Mercilla, being called on to pass sentence, is so overwhelmed with grief that she rises and leaves the court.—Spenser, Faery Queen, v. 9 (1596).

DUFF (Jamie), the idiot boy attending Mrs. Bertram's funeral.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George II.).

DUKE (My lord), a duke's servant, who assumes the airs and title of his master, and is addressed as "Your grace," or "My lord duke." He was first a country cowboy, then a wig-maker's apprentice, and then a duke's servant. He could neither write nor read, but was a great coxcomb, and set up for a tip-top fine gentleman.—Rev. J. Townley, High Life Below Stairs (1763).

Duke (The Iron), the duke of Wellington, also called "The Great Duke" (1769-1852).

DUKE AND DUCHESS, in pt. II. of Don Quixote, who play so many sportive tricks on "the Knight of the Woeful Countenance," were Don Carlos de Borja, count of Ficallo, and Donna Maria of Aragon, duchess of Villaher'mora, his wife, in whose right the count held extensive estates on the banks of the Ebro, among others a country seat called Buena'via, the place referred to by Cervantes (1615).

DUKE OF MIL'AN, a tragedy by Massinger (1622). A play evidently in imitation of Shakespeare's Othello. "Sforza" is Othollo; "Francesco," Iago: "Marcelia," Desdemona: and "Eugenia," Emilia. Sforza "the More" [sic] doted on Marcelia his young bride, who amply returned his love. Francesco, Sforza's favorite, being left lord protector of Milan during a temporary absence of the duke, tried to corrupt Marcelia; but failing in this, accused her to Sforza of wantonness. The duke, believing his favorite, slew his beautiful young bride. The cause of Francesco's villainy was that the duke had seduced his sister Eugenia.

Shakespeare's play was produced 1611, about eleven years before Massinger's tragedy. In act v. 1 we have "Men's injuries we write in brass," which brings to mind Shakespeare's line, "Men's evil manners live in brass, their virtues we write in water."

(Cumberland reproduced this drama, with some alterations, in 1780).

DUKE COMBE, William Combe, author of Dr. Syntax, and translator of The Devil upon Two Sticks, from Le Diable Boiteux of Lesage. He was called duke from the splendor of his dress, the profusion of his table, and the magnificence of his deportment. The last fifteen years of his life were spent in the King's Bench (1743-1823).

DULCAMA'RA (Dr.), an itinerant physician, noted for his pomposity; very boastful, and a thorough charlatan.—Donizetti, L'Elisire d'Amore (1832).


DULCIFLUOUS DOCTOR, Antony Andreas, a Spanish minorite of the Duns Scotus school (_-1320).

DULCIN'EA DEL TOBO'SO, the lady of Don Quixote's devotion. She was a fresh-colored country wench, of an adjacent village, with whom the don was once in love. Her real name was Aldonza Lorenzo. Her father was Lorenzo Corchuelo, and her mother Aldonza Nogales. Sancho Panza describes her in pt. I. ii. 11.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. i. I (1605).

"Her flowing hair," says the knight, "is of gold, her forehead the Elysian fields, her eyebrows two celestial arches, her eyes a pair of glorious suns, her cheeks two beds of roses, her lips two coral portals that guard her teeth of Oriental pearl, her neck is alabaster, her hands are polished ivory, and her bosom whiter than the new-fallen snow."

Ask you for whom my tears do flow so? 'Tis for Dulcinea del Toboso. Don Quixote, I iii. 11 (1605).

DULL, a constable.—Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost (1594).

DU'MACHUS. The impenitent thief is so called in Longfellow's Golden Legend, and the penitent thief is called Titus.

In the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemis, the impenitent thief is called Gestas, and the penitent one Dysmas.

In the story of Joseph of Arimathea, the impenitent thief is called Gesmas, and the penitent one Dismas.

Alta petit Dismas, infelix infima Gesmas. A Monkish Charm to Scare away Thieves.

Dismas in paradise would dwell, But Gesmas chose his lot in hell.

DUMAIN, a French lord in attendance on Ferdinand, king of Navarre. He agreed to spend three years with the king in study, during which time no woman was to approach the court. Of course, the compact was broken as soon as made and Dumain fell in love with Katharine. When however, he proposed marriage, Katharine deferred her answer for twelve months and a day, hoping by that time "his face would be more bearded," for, she said, "I'll mark no words that smoothfaced wooers say."

The young Dumain, a well-accomplished youth, Of all that virtue love for virtue loved; Most power to do most harm, least knowing ill; For he hath wit to make an ill shape good, And shape to win grace, tho' he had no wit.

Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost, act ii. sc. I (1594).

DU'MARIN, the husband of Cym'oent, and father of Marinel.—Spenser, Fairy Queen, in. 4.

DUMAS (Alexandre D.), in 1845, published sixty volumes.

The most skillful copyist, writing 12 hours a day, can with difficulty do 3,900 letters in an hour, which gives him 46,800 per diem, or 60 pages of a romance. Thus he could copy 5 volumes octavo per month and 60 in a year, supposing that he did not lose one second of time, but worked without ceasing 12 hours every day thoughout the entire year.—De Mirecourt, Dumas Pere (1867).

DUMB OX (The). St. Thomas Aqui'nas was so called by his fellow-students at Cologne, from his taciturnity and dreaminess. Sometimes called "The Great Dumb Ox of Sicily." He was larged-bodied, fat, with a brown complexion, and a large head partly bald.

Of a truth, it almost makes me laugh To see men leaving the golden grain, To gather in piles the pitiful chaff That old Peter Lombard thrashed with his brain, To have it caught up and tossed again On the horns of the Dumb Ox of Cologne.

Longfellow, The Golden Legend.

(Thomas Aquinas was subsequently called "The Angelic Doctor," and the "Angel of the Schools," 1224-1274.)

DUMBIEDIKES (The old laird of), an exacting landlord, taciturn and obstinate.

The laird of Dumbiedikes had hitherto been moderate in his exactions ... but when a stout, active young fellow appeared ... he began to think so broad a pair of shoulders might bear an additional burden. He regulated, indeed, his management of his dependants as carters do their horses, never failing to clap an additional brace of hundred-weights on a new and willing horse.—Chap. 8 (1818).

The young laird of Dumbiedikes (3 syl.), a bashful young laird, in love with Jeanie Deans, but Jeanie marries the Presbyterian minister, Reuben Butler.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

DUM'MERAR (The Rev. Dr.), a friend of Sir Geoffrey Peveril.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

DUMMY or SUPERNUMERARY. "Celimene," in the Precieuses Ridicules, does not utter a single word, although she enters with other characters on the stage.

DUMTOUS'TIE (Mr. Daniel), a young barrister, and nephew of Lord Bladderskate.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.).

DUN (Squire), the hangman who came between Richard Brandon and Jack Ketch.

And presently a halter got, Made of the best strong hempen teer, And ere a cat could lick his ear, Had tied him up with as much art As Dun himself could do for's heart.

Cotton, Virgil Travestied, iv. (1677).

DUN COW (The), slain by Sir Guy of Warwick on Dunsmore Heath, was the cow kept by a giant in Mitchel Fold [middle-fold], Shropshire. Its milk was inexhaustible. One day an old woman, who had filled her pail, wanted to fill her sieve also with its milk, but this so enraged the cow that it broke away, and wandered to Dunsmore, where it was killed.

A huge tusk, probably an elephant's, is still shown at Warwick Castle as one of the horns of this wonderful cow.

DUNBAR AND MARCH (George, earl of), who deserted to Henry IV. of England, because the betrothal of his daughter Elizabeth to the king's eldest son was broken off by court intrigue.

Elizabeth Dunbar, daughter of the earl of Dunbar and March, betrothed to Prince Robert, duke of Rothsay, eldest son of Robert III. of Scotland. The earl of Douglas contrived to set aside this betrothal in favor of his own daughter Elizabeth, who married the prince, and became duchess of Rothsay.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

DUNCAN "the Meek," king of Scotland, was son of Crynin, and grandson of Malcolm II., whom he succeeded on the throne, Macbeth was the son of the younger sister of Duncan's mother, and hence Duncan and Macbeth were first cousins. Sueno, king of Norway, having invaded Scotland, the command of the army was entrusted to Macbeth and Banquo, and so great was their success that only ten men of the invading army were left alive. After the battle, King Duncan paid a visit to Macbeth in his castle of Inverness, and was there murdered by his host. The successor to the throne was Duncan's son Malcolm, but Macbeth usurped the crown.—Shakespeare, Macbeth (1606).

Duncan (Captain), of Knockdunder, agent at Roseneath to the Duke of Buckingham.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.). Duncan (Duroch), a follower of Donald Beau Lean.—Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, George II.).

DUNCE, wittily or willfully derived from Duns, surnamed "Scotus."

In the Gaelic, donas [means] "bad luck" or in contempt, "a poor ignorant creature." The Lowland Scotch has donsie, "unfortunate, stupid."—Notes and Queries, 225, September 21, 1878.

DUN'CIAD ("the dunce epic"), a satire by Alexander Pope—written to revenge himself upon his literary enemies. The plot is this: Eusden the poet-laureate being dead, the goddess of Dulness elects Colley Cibber as his successor. The installation is celebrated by games, the most important being the "reading of two voluminous works, one in verse and the other in prose, without nodding." King Cibber is then taken to the temple of Dulness, and lulled to sleep on the lap of the goddess. In his dream he sees the triumphs of the empire. Finally the goddess having established the kingdom on a firm basis, Night and Chaos are restored, and the poem ends (1728-42).

DUNDAS, (Starvation), Henry Dundas, first Lord Melville. So called because he introduced into the language the word starvation, in a speech on American affairs (1775).

DUNDER (Sir David), of Dunder Hall, near Dover. An hospitable, conceited, whimsical old gentleman, who forever interrupts a speaker with "Yes, yes, I know it," or "Be quiet, I know it." He rarely finishes a sentence, but runs on in this style: "Dover is an odd sort of a—eh?" "It is a dingy kind of a—humph!" "The ladies will be happy to—eh?" He is the father of two daughters, Harriet and Kitty, whom he accidentally detects in the act of eloping with two guests. To prevent a scandal, he sanctions the marriages, and discovers that the two lovers, both in family and fortune, are suitable sons-in-law.

Lady Dunder, fat, fair, and forty if not more. A country lady, more fond of making jams and pastry than doing the fine lady. She prefers cooking to croquet, and making the kettle sing to singing herself. (See HARRIET and KITTY.)—G. Colman, Ways and Means (1788).

William Dowton [1764-1851] played "Sir Anthony Absolute," "Sir Peter Teazle," "Sir David Dunder," and "Sir John Falstaff," and looked the very characters he represented.—W. Donaldson, Recollections.

"Sir Anthony Absolute," in The Rivals (Sheridan); "Sir Peter Teazle," in The School for Scandal (Sheridan).

DUNDREAR'Y (Lord), a good natured, indolent, blundering, empty-headed swell; the chief character in Tom Taylor's dramatic piece entitled Our American Cousin. He is greatly characterized by his admiration of "Brother Sam," for his incapacity to follow out the sequence of any train of thought, and for supposing all are insane who differ from him.

(Mr. Sothern of the Haymarket created this character by his power of conception and the genius of his acting.)

DUNIOS (The count de), in Sir W. Scott's novel of Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

DUNOIS THE BRAVE, hero of the famous French song, set to music by Queen Hortense, mother of Napoleon III., and called Partant pour Syrie. His prayer to the Virgin, when he left for Syria, was:

Que j'aime la plus belle, Et sois le plus vaillant!

He behaved with great valor, and the count whom he followed gave him his daughter to wife. The guests, on the bridal day, all cried aloud:

Amour a la plus belle! Honneur an plus vaillant! Words by M. de Laborde (1809).

DUN'OVER, a poor gentleman introduced by Sir W. Scott in the introduction of The Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

DUNROMMATH, lord of Uthal, one of the Orkneys. He carried off Oith'ona, daughter of Nuath (who was engaged to be married to Gaul, son of Morni), and was slain by Gaul in fight.

Gaul advanced in his arms. Dunrommath shrunk behind his people. But the spear of Gaul pierced the gloomy chief; his sword lopped off his head as it bended in death.—Ossian, Oithoha.

DUNS SCOTUS, called "The Subtle Doctor," said to have been born at Dunse, in Berwickshire, or Dunstance, in Northumberland (1265-1308).

John Scotus, called _Erigena_ ("Erin-born"), is quite another person (_-886). Erigena is sometimes called "Scotus the Wise," and lived four centuries before "The Subtle Doctor."

DUN-SHUNNER (Augustus), a nom de plnme of Professor William Edmonstoune Aytoun, in Blackwood's Magazine (1813-1865).

DUNS'TAN (St.), patron saint of goldsmiths and jewellers. He was a smith, and worked up all sorts of metals in his cell near Glastonbury Church. It was in this cell that, according to legend, Satan had a gossip with the saint, and Dunstan caught his sable majesty by the nose with a pair of red-hot forceps.

DUNTHAL'MO, lord of Teutha (the Tweed). He went "in his pride against Rathmor," chief of Clutha (the Clyde), but being overcome, "his rage arose," and he went "by night with his warriors" and slew Rathmor in his banquet hall. Touched with pity for his two young sons (Calthon and Colmar), he took them to his own house and brought them up. "They bent the bow in his presence, and went forth to his wars." But observing that their countenances fell, Dunthalmo began to be suspicious of the young men, and shut them up in two separate caves on the banks of the Tweed, where neither "the sun penetrated by day nor the moon by night." Colmal (the daughter of Dunthalmo), disguised as a young warrior, loosed Calthon from his bonds, and fled with him to the court of Fingal, to crave aid for the liberation of Colmar. Fingal sent his son Ossian with 300 men to effect this object, but Dunthalmo, hearing of their approach, gathered together his strength and slew Colmar. He also seized Calthon, mourning for his brother, and bound him to an oak. At daybreak Ossian moved to the fight, slew Dunthalmo, and having released Calthon, "gave him to the white-bosomed Colmal."—Ossian, Calthon and Colmal.

DUPELEY (Sir Charles), a man who prided himself on his discernment of character, and defied any woman to entangle him in matrimony; but he mistook Lady Bab Lardoon, a votary of fashion, for an unsophisticated country maiden, and proposed marriage to her.

"I should like to see the woman," he says, "that could entangle me ... Shew me a woman ...and at the first glance I will discover the whole extent of her artifice."—Burgoyne, The Maid of the Oaks, i. I.

DUPRE [Du.Pray'], a servant of Mr. Darlemont, who assists his master in abandoning Julio, count of Harancour (his ward) in the streets of Paris, for the sake of becoming possessor of his ward's property. Dupre repents and confesses the crime.—Th. Holcroft, The Deaf and Dumb (1785).

DURAN'DAL, the sword of Orlando, the workmanship of fairies. So admirable was its temper that it would "cleave the Pyrenees at a blow."—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516)

DURANDAR'TE (4 syl.), a knight who fell at Roncesvalles (4 syl.). Durandarte loved Belerma whom he served for seven years, and was then slain; but in dying he requested his cousin Montesi'nos to take his heart to Belerma.

Sweet in manners, fair in favor, Mild in temper, fierce in fight. Lewis.

DUR'DEN (Dame), a notable country gentlewoman, who kept five men-servants "to use the spade and flail," and five women-servants "to carry the milken-pail." The five men loved the five maids. Their names were:

Moll and Bet, and Doll and Kate, and Dorothy Draggletail; John and Dick, and Joe and Jack, and Humphrey with his flail. A Well-known Glee.

(In Bleak House, by C. Dickens, Esther Summerson is playfully called "Dame Durden.")

DURETETE (Captain), a rather heavy gentleman who takes lessons in gallantry from his friend, young Mirabel. Very bashful with ladies, and for ever sparring with Bisarre, who teazes him unmercifully [Dure-tait, Be-zar'].—G. Farquhar, The Inconstant (1702).

DURINDA'NA, Orlando's sword, given him by his cousin Malagi'gi. This sword and the horn Olifant were buried at the feet of the hero.

Charlemagne's sword "Joyeuse" was also buried with him, and "Tizo'na" was buried with the Cid.

DUROTI'GES (4. syl.). Below the Hedui (those of Somersetshire) came the Durotiges, sometimes called Mor'ini. Their capital was Du'rinum (Dorchester), and their territory extended to Vindel'ia (Portland Isle).—Richard of Cireneestre, Ancient State of Britain, vi. 15.

The Durotiges on the Dorsetian sand.

Drayton, Polyolbion, xvi. (1613).

DURWARD (Quentin), hero and title of a novel by Sir W. Scott. Quentin Durward is the nephew of Ludovic Lesly (surnamed LeBalafre). He enrolls himself in the Scottish guard, a company of archers in the pay of Louis XI., at Plessis les Tours, and saves the king in a boar-hunt. When Leigeis is assaulted by insurgents, Quentin Durward and the Countess Isabelle de Croye escape on horseback. The countess publicly refuses to marry the duc d'Orleans, and ultimately marries the young Scotchman.

DUSRONNAL, one of the two steeds of Cuthullin, general of the Irish tribes. The other was "Sulin-Sifadda" (q. v.).

Before the left side of the car is seen the snorting horse. The thin-maned, high-headed, strong-hoofed, fleet, bounding son of the hill. His name Dusronnal, among the stormy sons of the sword ... the [two] steeds like wreaths of mist fly over the vales. The wildness of deer is in their course, the strength of eagles descending on the prey.—Ossian, Fingal i.

DUTCH SCHOOL of painting, noted for its exactness of detail and truthfullness to life:—For Portraits: Rembrandt, Bol, Flinck, Hals, and Vanderhelst.

For Conversation pieces: Gerhard Douw, Terburg, Metzu, Mieris, and Netscher.

For low life: Ostade Brower and Jan Steen.

For landscapes: Ruysdael, Hobbema, Cuyp, Vanderneer (moonlight scenes), Berchem and A. Both.

For battle scenes: Wouvermans and Huchtenburg.

For marine pieces: Vandevelde and Bakhuizen.

For still life and flowers: Kalf, A. van Utrecht, Van Huysum, and De Heem.

DUTCH HOUSEWIFERY. In his papers upon Old New York (1846), John Fanning Watson pays a just tribute to Knickerbocker housekeepers.

"The cleanliness of Dutch housewifery was always extreme. Everything had to submit to scrubbing and scouring; dirt in no form could be endured by them, and dear as water was in the city, where it was generally sold, still it was in perpetual requisition. It was their honest pride to see a well-furnished dresser, showing copper and pewter in shining splendor as if for ornament rather than for use. In all this they differed widely from the Germans, a people with whom they have been erroneously and often confounded. Roost fowls and ducks are not more different. As water draws one it repels the other."

DUTTON (Mrs. Dolly), dairy-maid to the Duke of Argyll.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time George II.).

DWARF. The following are celebrated dwarfs of real life:—

ANDROMEDA, 2 feet 4 inches. One of Julia's free maids.

ARISTRATOS, the poet. "So small," says Athenaeos, "that no one could see him."

BEBE (2 syl), 2 feet 9 inches. The dwarf of Stanislas, king of Poland (died 1764). BORUWLASKI (Count Joseph), 2 feet 4 inches. Died aged 98 (1739-1837). He had a brother and a sister both dwarfs.

BUCHINGER (_Matthew_), who had no arms or legs, but _fins_ from the shoulders. He could draw, write, thread needles, and play the hautboy. Fac-similes of his writing are preserved among the Harleian MSS. (born 1674-_).

CHUNG, recently exhibited with Chang the giant.

COLO'BRI (Prince), of Sleswig, 25 inches; weight, 25 lbs. (1851).

CONOPAS, 2 feet 4 inches. One of the dwarfs of Julia, niece of Augustus.

COPPERNIN, the dwarf of the princess of Wales, mother of George III. The last court-dwarf in England.

CRACHAMI (Caroline), a Sicilian, born at Palermo, 20 inches. Her skeleton is preserved in Hunter's Museum (1814-1824).

DECKER or DUCKER (John), 2 feet 6 inches. An Englishman (1610).

FARREL (Owen), 3 feet 9 inches. Born at Cavan. He was of enormous strength (died 1742).

FERRY (Nicholas), usually called Bebe, contemporary with Boruwlaski. He was a native of France. Height at death, 2 feet 9 inches (died 1737).

GIBSON (Richard) and his wife Anne Shepherd. Neither of them 4 feet. Gibson was a noted portrait painter, and a page of the back-stairs in the court of Charles I. The king honored the wedding with his presence; and they had nine children (1615-1690).

Design or chance makes others wive, But Nature did this match contrive.

Waller (1642).

HUDSON (Sir Jeffrey), 18 inches. He was born at Oakham, in Rutlandshire (1619—1678).

LUCIUS, 2 feet; weight 17 lbs. The dwarf of the Emperor Augustus. PHILE'TAS, a poet, so small that "he wore leaden shoes to prevent being blown away by the wind" (died B.C. 280).

PHILIPS (Calvin) weighed less than 2 lbs. His thighs were not thicker than a man's thumb. He was born at Bridgewater, Massachusetts, in 1791.

RITCHIE (David), 3 feet 6 inches. Native of Tweeddale.

SOUVRAY (Therese).

STOBEUIN (C.H.) of Nuremberg was less than 3 feet at the age of 20. His father, mother, brothers, and sisters were all under the medium height.

THUMB (General Tom). His real name was Charles S. Stratton; 25 inches; weight, 25 lbs. at the age of 25. Born at Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1832.

THUMB (Tom), 2 feet 4 inches. A Dutch dwarf.

XIT, the royal dwarf of Edward VI.

Nicephorus Calistus tells us of an Egyptian dwarf "not bigger than a partridge."

Dwarf of Lady Clerimond was named Pac'olet. She had a winged horse, which carried off Valentine, Orson, and Clerimond from the dungeon of of Ferragus to the palace of King Pepin; and subsequently carried Valentine to the palace of Alexander, his father, emperor of Constantinople. Valentine and Orson (fifteenth century).

Dwarf (The Black), a fairy of malignant propensities, and considered the author of all the mischief of the neighborhood. In Sir W. Scott's novel so called, this imp is introduced under various aliases, as Sir Edward Mauley, Elshander the recluse, cannie Elshie, and the Wise Wight of Micklestane Moor.

DWARF ALBERICH, the guardian of the Niebelungen hoard. He is twice vanquished by Siegfried, who gets possession of his cloak of invisibility, and makes himself master of the hoard.—The Niebelungen Lied (1210).

DWARF PETER, an allegorical romance by Ludwick Tieck. The dwarf is a castle spectre, who advises and aids the family, but all his advice turns out evil, and all his aid is productive of trouble. The dwarf is meant for "the law in our members, which wars against the law of our minds, and brings us into captivity to the law of sin."

DWINING (Henbane), a pottingar or apothecary.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

DYING SAYINGS (real or traditional):

ADDISON. See how a Christian dies! or See in what peace a Christian can die!

ANAXAGORAS. Give the boys a holiday.

[ ]AERIA. My Paetus, it is not painful.

[c] AUGUSTUS. Vos plaudite. (After asking how he had acted his part in life.)—Cicero.

BEAUFORT (Cardinal Henry). I pray you all, pray for me.

BERRY (Mde. de). Is not this dying with courage and true greatness?

BRONTE (the brother of the authoresses). While there is life there is will. (He died standing.)

BYRON. I must sleep now.

[Sec.] CAESAR (Julius). Et tu, Brute! (To Brutus, when he stabbed him.)

[*] CHARLEMAGNE. Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!

CHARLES I. (of England). Remember! (To William Juxon, archbishop of Canterbury).

CHARLES II. (of England). Don't let poor Nellie starve! (Nell Gwynne).

CHARLES V. Ah! Jesus!

CHARLES IX. (of France). Nurse, nurse, what murder! what blood! Oh! I have done wrong. God pardon me! CHARLOTTE (The Princess). You make me drink. Pray, leave me quiet. I find it affects my head.

CHESTERFIELD. Give Day Rolles a chair.

COLUMBUS. Lord, into Thy hands I commend my spirit!

CROME (John), O Hobbima, Hobbima, how I do love thee!

CROMWELL. My desire is to make what haste I may to be gone.

[**]DEMONAX (the philosopher). You may go home, the show is over.—Lucian.

ELDEN (Lord). It matters not where I am going, whether the weather be cold or hot.

FONTENELLE. I suffer nothing, but feel a sort of difficulty in living longer.

FRANKLIN. A dying man can do nothing easy.

GAINSBOROUGH. We are all going to heaven, and Vandyke is of the company.

GEORGE IV. Whatty, what is this? It is death, my boy. They have deceived me. (Said to his page, Sir Wathen Waller).

GIBBON. Mon Dieu! Mon Dieu!

[] GOETHE. More light!

GREGORY VII. I have loved justice and hated iniquity, therefore I die in exile.

[*] GREY (Lady Jane). Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!

GROTIUS. Be serious.

HADYN. God preserve the emperor!

HALLER. The artery ceases to beat.

HAZLITT. I have led a happy life.

HOBBES. Now am I about to take my last voyage—a great leap in the dark.

[ ] HUNTER (Dr. William). If I had strength to hold a pen, I would write down how easy and pleasant a thing it is to die.

IRVING. If I die, I die unto the Lord. Amen.

JAMES V. (of Scotland). It came with a lass, and will go with a lass (i.e. the Scotch crown).

JEFFERSON (of America). I resign my spirit to God, my daughter to my country.

JOHNSON (Dr.). God bless you, my dear! (To Miss Morris).

KNOX. Now it is come.

LOUIS I. Huz! huz! Bouquet says: "He turned his face to the wall; and twice cried, 'Huz! huz!' (out, out), and then died."

LOUIS IX. I will enter now into the house of the Lord.

[ ] Louis XIV. Why weep ye! Did you think I should live for ever? (Then after a pause) I thought dying had been harder.

[**] Louis XVII. A king should die standing.

MAHOMET. O, Allah, be it so! Henceforth among the glorious host of paradise.

MARGARET (of Scotland, wife of Louis XI. of France). Fi de la vie! qu'on ne m'en parle plus.

MARIE ANTOINETTE. Farewell, my children, for ever. I go to your father.

[Sec.] MASANIELLO. Ungratetul traitors! (Said to the assassins.)

MATHEWS (Charles). I am ready.

MIRABEAU. Let me die to the sounds of delicious music.

MOODY (the actor):

Reason thus with life, If I do lose thee, I do lose a thing That none but fools would keep.


MOORE (Sir John). I hope my country will do me justice.

NAPOLEON I. Mon Dieu! La nation Francaise! Tete d'armee!

NAPOLEON III. Were you at Sedan? (To Dr. Conneau.)

NELSON. I thank God I have done my duty.

NERO. Qualis artifex pereo!

PALMER (the actor). There is another and a better country. (This he said on the stage, it being a line in the part he was acting. From The Stranger.)

PITT (William). O, my country, how I love thee!


POPE. Friendship itself is but a part of virtue.

[**] RABELAIS. Let down the curtain, the farce is over.

SAND (George). Laisez la verdure. (Meaning, "Leave the tomb green, do not cover it over with bricks or stone." George Sand was Mde. Dudevant.)

SCHILLER. Many things are growing plain and clear to my understanding.

SCOTT (Sir Walter). God bless you all! (To his family.) SIDNEY (Algernon). I know that my Redeemer liveth. I die for the good old cause.

SOCRATES. Crito, we owe a cock to AEsculapius.

STAEL (Mde. de). I have loved God, my father, and liberty.

[] TALMA. The worst is, I cannot see.

[*] TASSO. Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!

THURLOW (Lord). I'll be shot if I don't believe I'm dying.

[**] VESPASIAN. A king should die standing.

WEBSTER. I still live!

WILLIAM III. (of England). Can this last long? (To his physician).

WILLIAM OF NASSAU. O God, have mercy upon me, and upon this poor nation! (This was said as he was shot by Balthasar Gerard, 1584).

WOLFE (General). What! do they run already? Then I die happy.

WYATT (Thomas) That which I then said I unsay. That which I now say is true. (This to the priest who reminded him that he had accused the Princess Elizabeth of treason to the council, and that he now alleged her to be innocent.)

Those names preceded by similar pilcrows indicate that the "dying words" ascribed to them are identical or nearly so. Thus the [*] before Charlemagne, Columbus, Lady Jane Grey, and Tasso, show that their words were alike. So with the before Augustus, Demonax, and Rabelais; the [**] before Louis XVIII. and Vespasian; the [Sec.] before Caesar and Masaniello; the [ ] before Arria, Hunter, and Louis XIV.; and the [] before Goethe and Talma.

DYS'COLUS, Moroseness personified in The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). "He nothing liked or praised." Fully described in canto viii. (Greek, duskolos, "fretful.")

DYSMAS, DISMAS, OR DEMAS, the penitent thief crucified with our Lord. The impenitent thief is called Gesmas or Gestas.

Alta petit Dismas, infelix innma Gesmas.

Part of a Charm.

To paradise thief Dismas went, But Gesmas died impenitent.

EADBURGH, daughter of Edward the Elder, king of England, and Eadgifu, his wife. When three years old, her father placed on the child some rings and bracelets, and showed her a chalice and a book of the Gospels, asking which she would have. The child chose the chalice and book, and Edward was pleased that "the child would be a daughter of God." She became a nun, and lived and died in Winchester.

EAGLE (The), ensign of the Roman legion. Before the Cimbrian war, the wolf, the horse, and the boar were also borne as ensigns, but Marius abolished these, and retained the eagle only, hence called emphatically "The Roman Bird."

Eagle (The Theban), Pindar, a native of Thebes (B.C. 518-442).

EAGLE OF BRITTANY, Bertrand Duguesclin, constable of France (1320-1380).

EAGLE OF DIVINES, Thomas Aqui'nas (1224-1274).

EAGLE OF MEAUX [Mo], Jacques Benigne Bossuet, bishop of Meaux (1627-1704).

EAGLE OF THE DOCTORS OF FRANCE, Pierre d'Ailly, a great astrologer, who maintained that the stars foretold the great flood (1350-1425).

EARNSCLIFFE (Patrick), the young laird of Earnscliffe.—Sir W. Scott, Black Dwarf (time, Anne).

EASTWARD HO! a comedy by Chapman, Marston, and Ben Jonson. For this drama the three authors were imprisoned "for disrespect to their sovereign lord, King James I." (1605). (See WESTWARD Ho!).

EASTY (Mary), a woman of Salem (Mass), convicted of witchcraft, sends before her death a petition to the court, asserting her innocence. Of her accusers she says: "I know, and the Lord, He knows (as will shortly appear), that they belie me, and so I question not but they do others. The Lord alone, who is the searcher of all hearts knows, as I shall answer it at the tribunal seat, that I know not the least thing of witchcraft. Therefore I cannot, I durst not, belie my own soul."—Robert Caleb, More Wonders of the Invisible World (1700).

EASY (Midshipman), hero of Marryatt's sea-story of same name.

Easy (Sir Charles), a man who hates trouble; "so lazy, even in his pleasures, that he would rather lose the woman of his pursuit, than go through any trouble in securing or keeping her." He says he is resolved in future to "follow no pleasure that rises above the degree of amusement." "When once a woman comes to reproach me with vows, and usage, and such stuff, I would as soon hear her talk of bills, bonds, and ejectments; her passion becomes as troublesome as a law-suit, and I would as soon converse with my solicitor." (act iii.).

Lady Easy, wife of Sir Charles, who dearly loves him, and knows all his "naughty ways," but never shows the slightest indication of ill-temper or jealousy. At last she wholly reclaims him.—Colley Cibber, The Careless Husband (1704).

EATON THEOPHILUS (Governor). In his eulogy upon Governor Eaton, Dr. Cotton Mather lays stress upon the distinction drawn by that eminent Christian man between stoicism and resignation.

"There is a difference between a sullen silence or a stupid senselessness under the hand of GOD, and a childlike submission thereunto."

"In his daily life", we are told, "he was affable, courteous, and generally pleasant, but grave perpetually, and so courteous and circumspect in his discourses, and so modest in his expressions, that it became a proverb for incontestable truth,"—"Governor Eaton said it."—Cotton Mather, Magnolia Christi Americana (1702).

EBERSON (Ear), the young son of William de la Marck, "The Wild Boar of Ardennes."—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

EBLIS, monarch of the spirits of evil. Once an angel of light, but, refusing to worship Adam, he lost his high estate. Before his fall he was called Aza'zel. The Koran says: "When We [God] said unto the angels, 'Worship Adam,' they all worshipped except Eblis, who refused ... and became of the number of unbelievers" (ch. ii.).

EBON SPEAR (Knight of the), Britomart, daughter of King Ryence of Wales.—Spenser, Faery Queen, iii. (1590).

EBRAUC, son of Mempric (son of Guendolen and Madden) mythical king of England. He built Kaer-brauc [York], about the time that David reigned in Judea.—Geoffrey, British History, ii. 7 (1142).

By Ebrauk's powerful hand York lifts her towers aloft.

Drayton, Polyolbion, viii. (1612).

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY (The Father of), Eusebius of Caesarea (264-340).

His Historia Fcclesiastica, in ten books, begins with the birth of Christ and concludes with the defeat of Licinius by Constantine, A.D. 324.

ECHEPH'RON, an old soldier, who rebuked the advisers of King Picrochole (3 syl.), by relating to them the fable of The Man and his Ha'p'orth of Milk. The fable is as follows:—

A shoemaker brought a ha'poth of milk: with this he was going to make butter; the butter was to buy a cow; the cow was to have a calf; the calf was to be changed for a colt; and the man was to become a nabob; only he cracked his jug, spilt his milk, and went supperless to bed.—Rabelais, Pantagruel, i. 33 (1533.)

This fable is told in the Arabian Nights ("The Barber's Fifth Brother, Alnas-char.") Lafontaine has put it into verse, Perrette et le Pot au Lait. Dodsley has the same, The Milk-maid and her Pail of Milk.

ECHO, in classic poetry, is a female, and in English also; but in Ossian echo is called "the son of the rock."—Songs of Selma.

ECK'HART (The Trusty), a good servant, who perishes to save his master's children from the mountain fiends.—Louis Tieck.

(Carlyle has translated this tale into English.)

ECLECTA, the "Elect" personified in The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher. She is the daughter of Intellect and Voleta (free-will), and ultimately becomes the bride of Jesus Christ, "the bridegroom" (canto xii., 1633).

But let the Kentish lad [Phineas Fletcher] ... that sung and crowned Eclecta's hymen with ten thousand flowers Of choicest praise ... be the sweet pipe.

Giles Fletcher, Christ's Triumph, etc, (1610).

ECOLE DES FEMMES, a comedy of Moliere, the plot of which is borrowed from the novelletti of Ser Giovanni (1378.)

ECTOR (Sir), lord of many parts of England and Wales, and foster-father of Prince Arthur. His son Sir Key or Kay, was seneschal or steward of Arthur when he became king.—Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, i. 3 (1470.)

Sir Ector and Sir Ector de Maris were two distinct persons.

ECTOR DE MARIS (Sir), brother "of Sir Launcelot" of Benwick, i.e. Brittany.

Then Sir Ector threw his shield, his sword, and his helm from him, and ... he fell down in a swoon; and when he awaked, it were hard for any tongue to tell the doleful complaints [lamentations] that he made for his brother. "Ah, Sir Launcelot" said he "head of all Christian knights." ... etc.—Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, iii. 176 (1470.)

EDEN (A Journey to the land of), Col. William Evelyn Byrd of Westover Virginia gives this name to a tract of Southern Virginia surveyed under his direction and visited by him in one of his numerous expeditions for the good of the young colony.

(Colonel Byrd laid out upon his own ground the cities of Richmond and Petersburgh, Va.)—William Evelyn Byrd, Westover MSS. (1728-39).

Eden, in America. A dismal swamp, the climate of which generally proved fatal to the poor dupes who were induced to settle there through the swindling transactions of General Scadder and General Choke. So dismal and dangerous was the place, that even Mark Tapley was satisfied to have found at last a place where he could "come out jolly with credit."—C. Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit (1844).

EDENHALL (The Luck of) an old painted goblet, left by the fairies on St. Cuthbert's Well in the garden of Edenhall. The superstition is that if ever this goblet is lost or broken, there will be no more luck in the family. The goblet is in possession of Sir Christopher Musgrave, bart. Edenhall, Cumberland.

Longfellow has a poem on The Luck of Edenhall, translated from Uhland.

EDGAR (959-775), "king of all the English," was not crowned till he had reigned thirteen years (A.D. 973). Then the ceremony was performed at Bath. After this he sailed to Chester, and eight of his vassal kings came with their fleets to pay him homage, and swear fealty to him by land and sea. The eight are Kenneth (king of Scots), Malcolm (of Cumberland), Maccus (of the Isles), and five Welsh princes, whose names were Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, and Juchil. The eight kings rowed Edgar in a boat (while he acted as steersman) from Chester to St. John's, where they offered prayer and then returned.

At Chester, while he, [Edgar] lived at more than kingly charge. Eight tributary kings they rowed him in his barge.

Drayton, Polyolbion, xii. (1613).

Edgar, son of Gloucester, and his lawful heir. He was disinherited by Edmund, natural son of the earl.—Shakespeare, King Lear (1605).

This was one of the characters of Robert Wilks (1670-1732), and also of Charles Kemble (1774-1854).

Edgar, master of Ravenswood, son of Allan of Ravenswood (a decayed Scotch nobleman). Lucy Ashton, being attacked by a wild bull, is saved by Edgar, who shoots it; and the two falling in love with each other, plight their mutual troth, and exchange love-tokens at the "Mermaid's Fountain." While Edgar is absent in France on State affairs, Sir William Ashton, being deprived of his office as lord keeper, is induced to promise his daughter Lucy in marriage to Frank Hayston, laird of Bucklaw, and they are married; but next morning, Bucklaw is found wounded and the bride hidden in the chimney-corner insane. Lucy dies in convulsions, but Bucklaw recovers and goes abroad. Edgar is lost in the quick-sands at Kelpies Flow, in accordance with an ancient prophecy. Sir W. Scott, Bride of Lammermoor (time, William III.).

In the opera, Edgar is made to stab himself.

Edgar, an attendant on Prince Robert of Scotland.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time Henry IV.).

EDGARDO, master of Ravenswood, in love with Lucia di Lammermoor [Lucy Ashton]. While absent in France on State affairs, the lady is led to believe him faithless, and consents to marry the laird of Bucklaw; but she stabs him on the bridal night, goes mad, and dies. Edgardo also stabs himself. Donizetti, Lucia di Lammermoor (1835).

In the novel called The Bride of Lammermoor, by Sir W. Scott, Edgar is lost in the quicksands at Kelpies Flow, in accordance with an ancient prophecy.

EDGEWOOD (L'Abbe), who attended Louis XVI. to the scaffold, was called "Mons. de Firmount," a corruption of Fairymount, in Longford (Ireland), where the Edgeworths had extensive domains.

EDGING (Mistress), a prying, mischief making waiting-woman, in The Careless Husband, by Colly Cibber (1704.) EDITH (Leete). Name of the two girls beloved and won by Julian West in his first and second lives.—Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward (1888).

Edith, daughter of Baldwin, the tutor of Rollo and Otto, dukes of Normandy.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Bloody Brother (1639).

Edith, the "maid of Lorn" (Argyllshire), was on the point of being married to Lord Ronald, when Robert, Edward, and Isabel Bruce sought shelter at the castle. Edith's brother recognized Robert Bruce, and being in the English interest a quarrel ensued. The abbot refused to marry the bridal pair amidst such discord. Edith fled and in the character of a page had many adventures, but at the restoration of peace, after the battle of Bannockburn, was duly married to Lord Ronald.—Sir W. Scott, Lord of the Isles (1815).

Edith (the lady), mother of Athelstane "the Unready" (thane of Conningsburgh).—Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.).

Edith [GRANGER], daughter of the Hon. Mrs. Skewton, married at the age of 18 to Colonel Granger of "Ours," who died within two years, when Edith and her mother lived as adventuresses. Edith became Mr. Dombey's second wife, but the marriage was altogether an unhappy one, and she eloped with Mr. Carker to Dijon, where she left him, having taken this foolish step merely to annoy her husband for the slights to which he had subjected her. On leaving Carker she went to live with her cousin Feenix, in the south of England.—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

EDITH PLANTAGENET (The lady), called "The Fair Maid of Anjou," a kinswoman of Richard I., and attendant of Queen Berenga'ria. She married David, earl of Huntingdon (prince royal of Scotland), and is introduced by Sir W. Scott in The Talisman (1825).

EDMUND, natural son of the earl of Gloucester. Both Goneril and Regan (daughters of King Lear) were in love with him. Regan, on the death of her husband, designed to marry Edmund, but Goneril, out of jealousy, poisoned her sister Regan.—Shakespeare, King Lear (1605).

Edmund Andros. In a letter to English friends (1698) Nathaniel Byfield writes particulars of the revolt in the New England Colonies against the royal governor, Sir Edmund Andros.

"We have, also, advice that on Friday last Sir Edmund Andros did attempt to make an escape in woman's apparel, and passed two guards and was stopped at the third, being discovered by his shoes, not having changed them." Nathaniel Byfield.—An Account of the Late Revolution in New England (1689).

Edmund Dante (See MONTE CRISTO).

EDO'NIAN BANE (The), priestesses and other ministers of Bacchus, so called from Edo'nus, a mountain of Thrace, where the rites of the wine-god were celebrated.

Accept the rites your bounty well may claim, Nor heed the scoffing of th' Edonian band.

Akinside, Hymn to the Naiads (1767).

EDRIC, a domestic at Hereward's barracks.—Sir W. Scott, Count Robert of Paris (time, Rufus).

EDWARD, brother of Hereward the Varangian guard. He was slain in battle.—Sir W. Scott, Count Robert of Paris (time, Rufus). Edward (Sir). He commits a murder, and keeps a narrative of the transaction in an iron chest. Wilford, a young man who acts as his secretary, was one day caught prying into this chest, and Sir Edward's first impulse was to kill him; but on second thought he swore the young man to secrecy, and told him the story of the murder. Wilford, unable to live under the suspicious eye of Sir Edward, ran away; but was hunted down by Edward, and accused of robbery. The whole transaction now became public, and Wilford was acquitted.—G. Colman, The Iron Chest (1796).

This drama is based on Goodwin's novel of Caleb Williams. "Williams" is called Wilford in the drama, and "Falkland" is called Sir Edward.

Sowerby, whose mind was always in a ferment, was wont to commit the most ridiculous mistakes. Thus when "Sir Edward" says to "Wilford," "You may have noticed in my library a chest," he transposes the words thus: "You may have noticed in my chest a library," and the house was convulsed with laughter.— Russell, Representative Actors (appendix).

EDWARD II., a tragedy by C. Marlowe (1592), imitated by Shakespeare in his Richard II. (1597). Probably most readers would prefer Marlowe's noble tragedy to Shakespeare's.

EDWARD IV. of England, introduced by Sir W. Scott in his novel entitled Anne of Geierstein (1829).

EDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE, a tragedy by W. Shirley (1640). The subject of this drama is the victory of Poitiers.

Yes, Philip lost the battle [Cressy] with the odds Of three to one. In this [Poitiers]... The have our numbers more than twelve times told, If we can trust report.

Act iii. 2.

ED'WIDGE, wife of William Tell.—Rossini, Guglielmo Tell (1829).

EDWIN "the minstrel," a youth living in romantic seclusion, with a great thirst for knowledge. He lived in Gothic days in the north countrie, and fed his flocks on Scotia's mountains.

And yet poor Edwin was no vulgar boy, Deep thought oft seemed to fix his infant eye, Danties he heeded not, nor gaude, nor toy, Save one short pipe of rudest ministrelsy; Silent when glad, affectionate, yet shy ... And now he laughed aloud, yet none knew why. The neighbors stared and sighed, yet blessed the lad;

Some deemed him wonderous wise, and some believed him mad. Beattie, The Minstrel, 1. (1773).

EDWIN AND ANGELI'NA. Angelina was the daughter of a wealthy lord, "beside the Tyne." Her hand was sought in marriage by many suitors, amongst whom was Edwin, "who had neither wealth nor power, but he had both wisdom and worth." Angelina loved him, but "trifled with him," and Edwin, in despair, left her and retired from the world. One day, Angelina, in boy's clothes, asked hospitality at a hermit's cell; she was kindly entertained, told her tale, and the hermit proved to be Edwin. From that hour they never parted more.—Goldsmith, The Hermit.

A correspondent accuses me of having taken this ballad from The Friar of Orders Gray ... but if there is any resemblance between the two, Mr. Percy's ballad is taken from mine. I read my ballad to Mr. Percy, and he told me afterwards that he had taken my plan to form the fragments of Shakespeare into a ballad of his own.—Signed, O. Goldsmith, 1767.

EDWIN AND EMMA. Emma was a rustic beauty of Stanemore, who loved Edwin "the pride of swains;" but Edwin's sister, out of envy, induced his father, "a sordid man," to forbid any intercourse between Edwin and the cottage. Edwin pined away, and being on the point of death, requested he might be allowed to see Emma. She came and said to him, "My Edwin, live for me;" but on her way home she heard the death bell toll. She just contrived to reach her cottage door, cried to her mother, "He's gone!" and fell down dead at her feet.—Mallet, Edwin and Emma (a ballad).

ED'YRN, son of Nudd. He ousted the earl of Yn'iol from his earldom, and tried to to win E'nid, the earl's daughter, but failing in this, became the evil genius of the gentle earl. Ultimately, being sent to the court of King Arthur, he became quite a changed man—from a malicious "sparrow-hawk" he was converted into a courteous gentleman.—Tennyson, Idylls of the King ("Enid").

EFESO (St.), a saint honored in Pisa. He was a Roman officer [Ephesus] in the service of Diocletian, whose reign was marked by a great persecution of the Christians. This Efeso or Ephesus was appointed to see the decree of the emperor against the obnoxious sect carried out in the island of Sardinia; but being warned in a dream not to persecute the servants of the Lord, both he and his friend Potito embraced Christianity, and received a standard from Michael the archangel himself. On one occasion, being taken captive, St. Efeso was cast into a furnace of fire, but received no injury; whereas those who cast him in were consumed by the flames. Ultimately, both Efeso and Potito suffered martyrdom, and were buried in the island of Sardinia. When, however, that island was conquered by Pisa in the eleventh century, the relics of the two martyrs were carried off and interred in the duomo of Pisa, and the banner of St. Efeso was thenceforth adopted as the national ensign of Pisa.

EGALITE (Philippe), the duc d'Orleans, father of Louis Philippe, king of France. He himself assumed this "title" when he joined the revolutionary party, whose motto was "Liberty, Fraternity, and Egalite" (born 1747, guillotined 1793).

EGE'US (3 syl.), father of Her'mia. He summoned her before The'seus (2 syl.), duke of Athens, because she refused to marry Demetrius, to whom he had promised her in marriage; and he requested that she might either be compelled to marry him or else be dealt with "according to law," i.e. "either to die the death," or else to "endure the livery of a nun, and live a barren sister all her life." Hermia refused to submit to an "unwished yoke," and fled from Athens with Lysander. Demetrius, seeing that Hermia disliked him but that Hel'ena doted on him, consented to abandon the one and wed the other. When Egeus was informed thereof, he withdrew his summons, and gave his consent to the union of his daughter with Lysander.—Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Dream (1592).

S. Knowles, in The Wife, makes the plot turn on a similar "law of marriage" (1833).

E'GIL, brother of Weland; a great archer. One day, King Nidung commanded him to shoot at an apple placed on the head of his own son. Egil selected two arrows, and being asked why he wanted two, replied, "One to shoot thee with, O tyrant, if I fail."

(This is one of the many stories similar to that of William Tell, q.v.) EGILO'NA, the wife of Roderick, last of the Gothic kings of Spain. She was very beautiful, but cold-hearted, vain, and fond of pomp. After the fall of Roderick, Egilona married Abdal-Aziz, the Moorish governor of Spain; and when Abdal-Aziz was killed by the Moorish rebels, Egilona fell also.

The popular rage Fell on them both; and they to whom her name Had been a mark for mockery and reproach, Shuddered with human horror at her fate.

Southey, Roderick, etc., xxii. (1814).

EG'IA, a female Moor, a servant to Amaranta (wife of Bar'tolus, the covetous lawyer).—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Spanish Curate (1622).

EG'LAMOUR (Sir) or SIR EGLAMORE of Artoys, a knight of Arthurian romance. Sir Eglamour and Sir Pleindamour have no French original, although the names themselves are French.

Eg'lamour, the person who aids Silvia, daughter of the duke of Milan, in her escape.—Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1594).

EGLANTINE (3 syl.). daughter of King Pepin, and bride of her cousin Valentine (brother of Orson). She soon died.—Valentine and Orson (fifteenth century).

Eglantine (Madame), the prioress; good-natured, wholly ignorant of the world, vain of her delicacy of manner at table, and fond of lap-dogs. Her dainty oath was "By Saint Eloy!" She "entuned the service swetely in her nose," and spoke French "after the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe."—Chaucer, Canterbury Tales (1388).

EGMONT. Dutch patriot executed by order of Philip II. of Spain.—Goethe's Egmont (1788).

EGYPT, in Dryden's satire of Absalom and Achitophel, means France.

Egypt and Tyrus [Holland] intercept your trade. Part i. (1681).

EGYPTIAN PRINCESS. Nitetis, the real daughter of Hophra, king of Egypt, and the assumed daughter of Amases, his successor. She was sent to Persia, as the bride of Cambyses, the king, but before their marriage, was falsely accused of infidelity, and committed suicide.—George Ebers, An Egyptian Princess.

EGYPTIAN THIEF (The), Thyamis, a native of Memphis. Knowing he must die, he tried to kill Chariclea, the woman he loved.

Why should I not, had I the heart to do it, Like to th' Egyptian thief at point of death, Kill what I love? Shakespeare, Twelth Night, act v. sc. 1 (1614).

EIGHTH WONDER (The). When Gil Blas reached Pennaflor, a parasite entered his room in the inn, hugged him with great energy, and called him the "eighth wonder." When Gil Blas replied that he did not know his name had spread so far, the parasite exclaimed, "How! we keep a register of all the celebrated names within twenty leagues, and have no doubt Spain will one day be as proud of you as Greece was of the seven sages." After this, Gil Blas could do no less than ask the man to sup with him. Omelet after omelet was despatched, trout was called for, bottle followed bottle, and when the parasite was gorged to satiety, he rose and said, "Signor Gil Blas, don't believe yourself to be the eighth wonder of the world because a hungry man would feast by flattering your vanity." So saying, he stalked away with a laugh.—Lesage, Gil Blas, i. 2 (1715).

(This incident is copied from Aleman's romance of Guzman d' Alfarache, q.v.)

EIKON BASIL'IKE (4 syl.), the portraiture of a king (i.e. Charles I.), once attributed to King Charles himself; but now admitted to be the production of Dr. John Gauden, who (after the restoration) was first created Bishop of Exeter, and then of Worcester (1605-1662).

In the Eikon Basilike a strain of majestic melancholy is kept up, but the personated sovereign is rather too theatrical for real nature, the language is too rhetorical and amplified, the periods too artificially elaborated.—Hallam, Literature of Europe, iii. 662.

(Milton wrote his Eikonoclasets in answer to Dr. Gauden's Eikon Baslike.)

EINER'IAR, the hall of Odin, and asylum of warriors slain in battle. It had 540 gates, each sufficiently wide to admit eight men abreast to pass through.—Scandinavian Mythology.

EINION (Father), Chaplain to Gwenwyn Prince of Powys-land.—Sir W. Scott, The Betrothed (time, Henry II.).

EIROS. Imaginary personage, who in the other world holds converse with "Charmion" upon the tragedy that has wrecked the world. The cause of the ruin was "the extraction of the nitrogen from the atmosphere."

"The whole incumbent mass of ether in which we existed burst at once into a species of intense flame for whose surpassing brilliancy and all fervid heat even the angels in the high Heaven of pure knowledge have no name. Thus ended all."—Edgar Allen Poe, Conversation of Eiros and Charmion (1849).

ELVIR, a Danish maid, who assumes boy's clothing, and waits on Harold "the Dauntless," as his page! Subsequently her sex is discovered, and Harold marries her.—Sir. W. Scott, Harold the Dauntless (1817).

ELAIN, sister of King Arthur by the same mother. She married Sir Nentres of Carlot, and was by King Arthur the mother of Mordred. (See ELEIN)—Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, i. (1470).

In some of the romances there is great confusion between Elain (the sister) and Morgause (the half-sister) of Arthur. Both are called the mother of Mordred, and both are also called the wife of Lot. This, however, is a mistake. Elain was the wife of Sir Nentres, and Morgause of Lot; and if Gawain, Agrawain, Gareth and Gaheris were [half] brothers of Mordred, as we are told over and over again, then Morgause and not Elain was his mother. Tennyson makes Bellicent the wife of Lot, but this is not in accordance with any of the legends collected by Sir T. Malory.

ELAINE (Dame), daughter of King Pelles (2 syl.) "the foragn country," and the unwedded mother of Sir Galahad by Sir Launcelot du Lac.—Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, iii. 1 (1470).

Elaine, daughter of King Brandeg'oris, by whom Sir Bors de Ganis had a child.

It is by no means clear from the history whether Elaine was the daughter of King Brandegoris, or the daughter of Sir Bors and granddaughter of King Brandegoris.

Elaine' (2 syl.), the strong contrast of Guinevere. Guinevere's love for Launcelot was gross and sensual, Elaine's was platonic and pure as that of a child; but both were masterful in their strength. Elaine is called "the lily maid of Astolat" (Guildford), and knowing that Launcelot was pledged to celibacy, she pined and died. According to her dying request, her dead body was placed on a bed in a barge, and was thus conveyed by a dumb servitor to the palace of King Arthur. A letter was handed to the king, telling the tale of Elaine's love, and the king ordered the body to be buried, and her story to be blazoned on her tomb.—Tennyson, Idylls of the King ("Elaine").

EL'AMITES (3 syl.), Persians. So called from Elam, son of Shem.

EL'BERICH, the most famous dwarf of German romance.—The Heldenbuch.

EL'BOW, a well-meaning but loutish constable.—Shakespeare, Measure for Measure (1603).

EL'EANOR, queen-consort of Henry II., alluded to by the Presbyterian minister in Woodstock, x. (1826).

"Believe me, young man, thy servant was more likely to see visions than to dream idle dreams in that apartment; for I have always heard that, next to Rosamond's Bower, in which ... she played the wanton, and was afterwards poisoned by Queen Eleanor, Victor Lee's chamber was the place ... peculiarly the haunt of evil spirits."—Sir W. Scott, Woodstock (time, Commonwealth).

ELEANOR CROSSES, twelve or fourteen crosses erected by Edward I. in the various towns where the body of his queen rested, when it was conveyed from Herdelie, near Lincoln, to Westminster. The three that still remain are Geddington, Northampton, and Waltham. ELEAZAR the Moor, insolent, bloodthirsty, lustful, and vindictive, like "Aaron," in [Shakespeare's?] Titus An-dron'icus. The lascivious queen of Spain is in love with this monster.—C. Marlowe, Lust's dominion or The Lascivious Queen (1588).

Elea'zar, a famous mathematician, who cast out devils by tying to the nose of the possessed a mystical ring, which the demon no sooner smelled than he abandoned the victim. He performed before the Emperor Vespasian; and to prove that something came out of the possessed, he commanded the demon in making off to upset a pitcher of water, which it did.

I imagine if Eleazar's ring had been put under their noses, we should have seen devils issue with their breath, so loud were these disputants.— Lesage, Gil Blas, v. 12 (1724).

ELECTOR (The Great), Frederick William of Brandenburg (1620-1688).

ELEIN, wife of King Ban of Benwick (Brittany), and mother of Sir Launcelot and Sir Lionell. (See ELAIN.)—Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, i. 60 (1470)

ELEVEN THOUSAND VIRGINS (The), the virgins who followed St. Ur'sula in her flight towards Rome. They were all massacred at Cologne by a party of Huns, and even to the present hour "their bones" are shown lining the whole interior of the Church of Ste. Ursula.

A calendar in the Freisingen codex notices them as "SS. M. XL VIRGINUM," this is, eleven virgin martyrs; but "M" (martyrs) being taken for 1000, we get 11,000. It is furthermore remarkable that the number of names known of these virgins is eleven; (1) Ursula, (2) Sencia, (3) Gregoria, (4) Pinnosa, (5) Martha, (6) Saula, (7) Brittola, (8) Saturnina, (9) Rabacia or Sabatia, (10) Saturia or Saturnia, and (11) Palladia.

ELFENREIGEN [el.f'] (4 syl.) or Alpleich, that weird music with which Bunting, the pied piper of Hamelin, led forth the rats into the river Weser, and the children into a cave in the mountain Koppenberg. The song of the sirens is so called.

EL'FETA, wife of Cambuscan', king of Tartary.

EL'FLIDA or AETHELFLAEDA, daughter of King Alfred, and wife of Aethelred, chief of that part of Mercia not claimed by the Danes. She was a woman of enormous energy and masculine mind. At the death of her husband, she ruled over Mercia, and proceeded to fortify city after city, as Bridgenorth, Tamworth, Warwick, Hertford, Witham, and so on. Then attacking the Danes, she drove them from place to place, and kept them from molesting her.

When Elflida up-grew ... The puissant Danish powers victoriously pursued, And resolutely here thro' their thick squadrons hewed Her way into the north.

Drayton, Polyolbion, xii. (1613).

ELFRIDE (Swancourt). Blue-eyed girl, betrothed first to Stephen Smith; afterwards she loves passionately Henry Knight. He leaves her in pique, and she weds Lord Luxellian, dying soon after the marriage.—Thomas Hardy, A Pair of Blue Eyes (1873).

ELF'THRYTH or AELF'THRYTH, daughter of Ordgar, noted for her great beauty. King Edgar sent Aethelwald, his friend, to ascertain if she were really as beautiful as report made her out to be. When AEthelwald saw her he fell in love with her, and then, returning to the king, said she was not handsome enough for the king, but was rich enough to make a very eligible wife for himself. The king assented to the match, and became godfather to the first child, who was called Edgar. One day the king told his friend he intended to pay him a visit, and Aethelwald revealed to his wife the story of his deceit, imploring her at the same time to conceal her beauty. But Elfthryth, extremely indignant, did all she could to set forth her beauty. The king fell in love with her, slew Aethelwald, and married the widow.

A similar story is told by Herodotus; Prexaspes being the lady's name, and Kambyses the king's.

EL'GITHA, a female attendant at Rotherwood on the Lady Rowe'na.—Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.).

E'LIA, pseudonym of Charles Lamb, author of the Essays of Elia (1823).—London Magazine.

ELI'AB, in the satire of Absalom and Achitophel, by Dry den and Tate, is Henry Bennet, earl of Arlington. As Eliab befriended David (1 Chron. xii. 9), so the earl befriended Charles II.

Hard the task to do Eliab right; Long with the royal wanderer he roved, And firm in all the turns of fortune proved.

Absalom and Achitophel, ii. (1682).

E'LIAN GOD (The), Bacchus. An error for 'Eleuan, i.e. "the god Eleleus" (3 syl). Bacchus was called El'eleus from the Bacchic cry, eleleu!

As when with crowned cups unto the Elian god Those priests high orgies held.

Drayton, Polyolbion, vi. (1612). EL'IDURE (3 syl.), surnamed "the Pious," brother of Gorbonian, and one of the five sons of Morvi'dus (q.v.). He resigned the crown to his brother Arthgallo, who had been deposed. Ten years afterwards, Arthgallo died, and Elidure was again advanced to the throne, but was deposed and imprisoned by his two younger brothers. At the death of these two brothers, Elidure was taken from prison, and mounted the British throne for the third time.—Geoffrey, British History, iii. 17,18 (1470).

Then Elidure again, crowned with applausive praise, As he a brother raised, by brothers was deposed And put into the Tower ... but, the usurpers dead, Thrice was the British crown set on his reverend head.

Drayton, Polyolbion, viii. (1612).

Wordsworth has a poem on this subject.

ELIJAH FED BY RAVENS. While Elijah was at the brook Cherith, in concealment, ravens brought him food every morning and evening.—1 Kings xvii. 6.

A strange parallel is recorded of Wyat, in the reign of Richard III. The king cast him into prison, and when he was nearly starved to death, a cat appeared at the window-grating, and dropped into his hand a pigeon, which the warder cooked for him. This was repeated daily.

E'LIM, the guardian angel of Lebbeus (3 syl.) the apostle. Lebbeus, the softest and most tender of the twelve, at the death of Jesus "sank under the burden of his grief."—Klopstock, The Messiah, iii. (1748).

ELINOR GREY, self-poised daughter of a statesman in Frank Lee Benedict's novel, My Daughter Elinor (1869). EL'ION, consort of Beruth, and father of Che.—Sanchoniathon.

ELIOT (John). Of the Apostle to the North American Indians, Dr. Cotton Mather writes:

"He that will write of Eliot must write of charity, or say nothing. His charity was a star of the first magnitude in the bright constellation of his virtues, and the rays of it were wonderfully various and extensive."—Cotton Mather, Magna Christi Americana (1702).

Eliot (George), Marian Evans (or "Mrs. Marian Lewes"), author of Adam Bede (1858), Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), etc.

ELISA, often written ELIZA in English, Dido, queen of Carthage.

... nec me meminisse pigebit Elisae, Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos reget artus.

Virgil, Aeneid, iv. 335, 336.

So to Eliza dawned that cruel day Which tore AEneas from her sight away, That saw him parting, never to return, Herself in funeral flames decreed to burn.

Falconer, The Shipwreck, iii. 4 (1756).

ELIS'ABAT, a famous surgeon, who attended Queen Madasi'ma in all her solitary wanderings, and was her sole companion.—Amadis de Gaul (fifteenth century).

ELISABETH OU LES EXILES DE SIBERIE, a tale by Madame Cottin (1773-1807). The family being exiled for some political offence, Elizabeth walked all the way from Siberia to Russia, to crave pardon of the Czar. She obtained her prayer, and the family returned.

ELISABETHA (Miss). "She is not young. The tall, spare form stiffly erect, the little wisp of hair behind ceremoniously braided and adorned with a high comb, the long, thin hands and the fine network of wrinkles over her pellucid, colorless cheeks, tell this." But she is a gentlewoman, with generations of gentlewomen back of her, and lives for Doro, her orphan ward, whom she has taught music. She loved his father, and for his sake—and his own—loves the boy. She works for him, hoards for him, and is ambitious for him only. When he grows up and marries a lowborn girl,—"a Minorcan"—and fills the old home with rude children, who break the piano-wires, the old aunt slaves for them. After he dies, a middle-aged man, she does not leave them.

"I saw her last year—an old woman, but working still."—Constance Fennimore Woolson, Southern Sketches (1880).

ELISE (2 syl.), the motherless child of Harpagon the miser. She was affianced to Valere, by whom she had been "rescued from the waves." Valere turns out to be the son of Don Thomas d'Alburci, a wealthy nobleman of Naples.—Moliere, L'Avare (1667).

ELIS'SA, step-sister of Medi'na and Perissa. They could never agree upon any subject.—Spenser, Faery Queen, ii. 2 (1590).

"Medina" (the golden mean), "Elissa" and "Perissa" (the two extremes).

ELIZABETH (Le Marchant.) Nice girl whose life is, darkened by a frustrated elopement, by which she is apparently compromised. All comes well in the end.—Rhoda Broughton, Alas! (1890).

Elizabeth (The Queen), haughty, imperious, but devoted to her people. She loved the earl of Essex, and, when she heard that he was married to the countess of Rutland, exclaimed that she never "knew sorrow before." The queen gave Essex a ring after his rebellion, saying, "Here, from my finger take this ring, a pledge of mercy; and whensoe'er you send it back, I swear that I will grant whatever boon you ask." After his condemnation, Essex sent the ring to the queen by the countess of Nottingham, craving that her most gracious majesty would spare the life of Lord Southampton; but the countess, from jealousy, did not give it to the queen. The queen sent a reprieve for Essex, but Burleigh took care that it came too late, and the earl was beheaded as a traitor.—Henry Jones, The Earl of Essex (1745).

Elizabeth (Queen), introduced by Sir W. Scott in his novel called Kenilworth.

ELIZABETH OF HUNGARY (St.), patron saint of queens, being herself a queen. Her day is July 9 (1207-1231).

ELLEN (Montgomery). The orphaned heroine of Susan Warner's story, The Wide, Wide World (1851.)

Ellen (Wade). Girl of eighteen who travels and camps with the family of Ishmael Bush, although many grades above them in education and refinement. Betrothed to Paul Hover, the bee-hunter.—James Fennimore Cooper, The Prairie, (1827).

ELLESMERE (Mistress), the head domestic of Lady Peveril.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

ELLIOTT, (Hobbie, i.e. Halbert), farmer at the Heugh-foot. His bride-elect is Grace Armstrong.

Mrs. Elliott, Hobbie's grandmother. John and Harry, Hobbie's brothers.

Lilias, Jean, and Arnot, Hobbie's sisters.—Sir W. Scott, The Black Dwarf (time, Anne).

ELMO (St.). The fire of St. Elmo (Feu de Saint Elme), a comazant. If only one appears on a ship-mast, foul weather is at hand; but if two or more, they indicate that stormy weather is about to cease. By the Italians these comazants are called the "fires of St. Peter and St. Nicholas." In Latin the single fire is called "Helen," but the two "Castor and Pollux." Horace says (Odes, I. xiii. 27):

Quorum simul alba nautis stella refulsit, Defluit saxis agitatus humor, Concident venti, fugiuntque nubes, etc.

But Longfellow makes the stella indicative of foul weather:

Last night I saw St. Elmo's stars, With their glimmering lanterns all at play ... And I knew we should have foul weather to-day.

Longfellow, The Golden Legend.

(St. Elmo is the patron saint of sailors.)

ELOA, the first of seraphs. He name with God is "The Chosen One," but the angels call him Eloa. Eloa and Gabriel were angel friends.

Eloa, fairest spirit of heaven. His thoughts are past understanding to the mind of man. He looks more lovely than the day-spring, more beaming than the stars of heaven when they first flew into being at the voice of the Creator. —Klopstock, The Messiah, i. (1748).

ELOI (St.), that is, St. Louis. The kings of France were called Loys up to the time of Louis XIII. Probably the "delicate oath" of Chaucer's prioress, who was a French scholar "after the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe," was St. Loy, i.e. St. Louis, and not St. Eloi the patron saint of smiths and artists. St.

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