Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol 1 - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook
by The Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D.
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"He's got a good head and he wanted to study for the ministry when they were all living together out on the farm ... You know they used to think that any sort of stuff was good enough to make a preacher out of; but they wanted the good timber for business, and so the old man wouldn't let him."

Foiled in this purpose, Conrad becomes a reformer and receives a mortal wound in the attempt to protect an old Socialist against the police, who are trying to quell a mob of strikers (1890).

CON'RADE (2 syl.), a follower of Don John (bastard brother of Don Pedro, Prince of Aragon).—Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing (1600).

Conrade (2 syl.), Marquis of Montserrat, who, with the grand-master of the Templars, conspired against Richard Coeur de Lion. He was unhorsed in combat, and murdered in his tent by the Templar.—Sir W. Scott, The Talisman (time, Richard I.).

CONSTANCE, mother of Prince Arthur, and widow of Geoffrey Plantagenet.—Shakespeare, King John (1598).

Mrs. Bartley's "Lady Macbeth," "Constance," and "Queen Katherine" [Henry VIII.], were powerful embodiments, and I question if they have ever since been so finely portrayed (1785-1850).—J. Adolphus, Recollections.

Constance, daughter of Sir William Fondlove, and courted by Wildrake, a country squire, fond of field sports. "Her beauty rich, richer her grace, her mind yet richer still, though richest all." She was "the mould express of woman, stature, feature, body, limb;" she danced well, sang well, harped well. Wildrake was her childhood's playmate, and became her husband.—S. Knowles, The Love Chase (1837).

Constance, daughter of Bertulphe, provost of Bruges, and bride of Bouchard, a knight of Flanders. She had "beauty to shame young love's most fervent dream, virtue to form a saint, with just enough of earth to keep her woman." By an absurd law of Charles "the Good," earl of Flanders, made in 1127, this young lady, brought up in the lap of luxury, was reduced to serfdom, because her grandfather was a serf; her aristocratic husband was also a serf because he married her (a serf). She went mad at the reverse of fortune, and died.—S. Knowles, The Provost of Bruges (1836).

Constance Varley. American girl traveling in the East with friends, and bearing with her everywhere the memory of a man she has loved for years in secret. She meets him at Damascus and after some days of pleasant companionship, he resolves to offer his hand to her. The words are upon his tongue, when an unfortunate misunderstanding divides them forever. A year later she marries another man who loves her sincerely without appreciating the finest part of her nature.

A woman quotes at sight of Constance's portrait:

"I discern Infinite passion and the pain Of finite hearts that yearn."

"There was a singular suggestion of sadness about the grave sweet eyes, and on the small close mouth."—Julia C. Fletcher, Mirage (1882).

CONSTANS, a mythical king of Britain. He was the eldest of the three sons of Constantine, his two brothers being Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon. Constans was a monk, but at the death of his father he laid aside the cowl for the crown. Vortigern caused him to be assassinated, and usurped the crown. Aurelius Ambrosius succeeded Vortigern, and was himself succeeded by his younger brother, Uther Pendragon, father of King Arthur. Hence it will appear that Constans was Arthur's uncle.

CONSTANT (Ned), the former lover of Lady Brute, with whom she intrigued after her marriage with the surly knight.—Vanbrugh, The Provoked Wife (1697).

Constant (Sir Bashful), a younger brother of middle life, who tumbles into an estate and title by the death of his elder brother. He marries a woman of quality, but finding; it comme il faut not to let his love be known, treats her with indifference and politeness, and though he dotes on her, tries to make her believe he loves her not. He is very soft, carried away by the opinions of others, and is an example of the truth of what Dr. Young has said, "What is mere good nature but a fool?"

Lady Constant, wife of Sir Bashful, a woman of spirit, taste, sense, wit, and beauty. She loves her husband, and repels with scorn an attempt to shake her fidelity because he treats her with cold indifference.—A. Murphy, The Way to Keep Him (1760).

CONSTAN'TIA, sister of Petruccio, governor of Bologna, and mistress of the duke of Ferrara.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Chances (1620).

Constantia, a protegee of Lady McSycophant. An amiable girl, in love with Egerton McSycophant, by whom her love is amply returned.—C. Macklin, The Man of the World (1764).

CON'STANTINE (3 syl.), a king of Scotland, who (in 937) joined Anlaf (a Danish king) against Athelstan. The allied kings were defeated at Brunanburh, in Northumberland, and Constantine was made prisoner.

Our English Athelstan ... Made all the Isle his own, And Constantine, the king a prisoner hither brought.

Drayton, Polyolbion, xii. 3 (1613).

CONSTANTINOPLE (Little), Kertch was so called by the Genoese from its extent and its prosperity. Demosthenes calls it "the granary of Athens."

CONSUELO (4 syl.), the impersonation of moral purity in the midst of temptations. Consuelo is the heroine of a novel so called by George Sand (i.e. Mde. Dudevant).

CONTEMPORANEOUS DISCOVERIES. Goethe and Vicq d'Azyrs discovered at the same time the intermaxillary bone. Goethe and Von Baer discovered at the same time Morphology. Goethe and Oken discovered at the same time the vertebral system. The Penny Cyclopaedia and Chambers's Journal were started nearly at the same time. The invention of printing is claimed by several contemporaries. The processes called Talbotype and Daguerreotype were nearly simultaneous discoveries. Leverrier and Adams discovered at the same time the planet Neptune.

This list may be extended to a very great length.

CONTENTED MAN (The). Subject of a poem by Rev. John Adams in 1745

No want contracts the largeness of his thoughts, And nothing grieves him but his conscious faults, He makes his GOD his everlasting tower And in His firm munition stands secure.

CONTEST (Sir Adam). Having lost his first wife by shipwreck, he married again after the lapse of some twelve or fourteen years. His second wife was a girl of 18, to whom he held up his first wife as a pattern and the very paragon of women. On the wedding day this first wife made her appearance. She had been saved from the wreck; but Sir Adam wished her in heaven most sincerely.

Lady Contest, the bride of Sir Adam, "young, extremely lively, and prodigiously beautiful." She had been brought up in the country, and treated as a child, so her naivete was quite captivating. When she quitted the bride-groom's house, she said, "Good-by, Sir Adam, good-by. I did love you a little, upon my word, and should be really unhappy if I did not know that your happiness will be infinitely greater with your first wife."

Mr. Contest, the grown-up son of Sir Adam, by his first wife.—Mrs. Inchbald, The Wedding Day (1790).


ALEXANDER THE GREAT having gained the battle of Issus (B.C. 333), the family of King Darius fell into his hands; but he treated the ladies as queens, and observed the greatest decorum towards them. A eunuch, having escaped, told Darius that his wife remained unspotted, for Alexander had shown himself the most continent and generous of men.—Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, iv. 20.

SCIPIO AFRICANUS, after the conquest of Spain, refused to touch a beautiful princess who had fallen into his hands, "lest he should be tempted to forget his principles." It is, moreover, said that he sent her back to her parents with presents, that she might marry the man to whom she was betrothed. A silver shield, on which this incident was depicted, was found in the river Rhone by some fishermen in the seventeenth century.

E'en Scipio, or a victor yet more cold, Might have forgot his virtue at her sight.

N. Rowe, Tamerlane, iii. 3 (1702.)

ANSON, when he took the Senhora Theresa de Jesus, refused even to see the three Spanish ladies who formed part of the prize, because he was resolved to prevent private scandal. The three ladies consisted of a mother and her two daughters, the younger of whom was "of surpassing beauty."

CONVEN'TUAL FRIARS are those who live in convents, contrary to the rule of St. Francis, who enjoined absolute poverty, without land, books, chapel, or house. Those who conform to the rule of the founder are called "Observant Friars."

CONVERSATION SHARP, Richard Sharp, the critic (1759-1835.)

COOK WHO KILLED HIMSELF (The). Vatel killed himself in 1671, because the lobster for his turbot sauce did not arrive in time to be served up at the banquet at Chantilly, given by the Prince de Conde to the king.

COOKS OF MODERN TIMES. Careme, called "The Regenerator of Cookery" (1784-1833). Charles Elme Francatelli, cook at Crockford's, then in the Royal Household, and lastly at the Reform Club (1805-1876). Ude, Gouffe, and Alexis Soyer, the last of whom died in 1858.

COOKERY (Regenerator of), Careme (1784-1833.)

(Ude, Gouffe, and Soyer were also regenerators of this art).

COOPER (Anthony Ashly,) earl of Shaftesbury, introduced by Sir W. Scott in Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.)

COPHET'UA or COPET'HUA, a mythical king of Africa, of great wealth, who fell in love with a beggar-girl, and married her. Her name was Penel'ophon, but Shakespeare writes it Zenel'ophon in Love's Labour's Lost, act iv. sc. 1. Tennyson has versified the tale in The Beggar-Maid.—Percy, Reliques, I. ii. 6.

COPLEY (Sir Thomas), in attendance on the earl of Leicester at Woodstock.—Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

COPPER CAPTAIN (A), Michael Perez, a captain without money, but with a plentiful stock of pretence, who seeks to make a market of his person and commission by marrying an heiress. He is caught in his own trap, for he marries Estifania, a woman of intrigue, fancying her to be the heiress Margaritta. The captain gives the lady "pearls," but they are only whitings' eyes. His wife says to him:

Here's a goodly jewel.. Did you not win this at Goletta, captain?.. See how it sparkles, like an old lady's eyes.. And here's a chain of whitings' eyes for pearls.. Your clothes are parallels to these, all counterfeits. Put these and them on you're a man of copper, A copper,... copper captain.

Beaumont and Fletcher, Rule a Wife and Have a Wife (1640).

COPPERFLELD (David), the hero of a novel by Charles Dickens. David is Dickens himself, and Micawber is Dickens's father. According to the tale, David's mother was nursery governess in a family where Mr. Copperfield visited. At the death of Mr. Copperfield, the widow married Edward Murdstone, a hard, tyrannical man, who made the home of David a dread and terror to the boy. When his mother died, Murdstone sent David to lodge with the Micawbers, and bound him apprentice to Messrs. Murdstone and Grinby, by whom he was put into the warehouse, and set to paste labels upon wine and spirit bottles. David soon became tired of this dreary work, and ran away to Dover, where he was kindly received by his [great]-aunt Betsey Trotwood, who clothed him, and sent him as day-boy to Dr. Strong, but placed him to board with Mr. Wickfield, a lawyer, father of Agnes, between whom and David a mutual attachment sprang up. David's first wife was Dora Spenlow, but at the death of this pretty little "child-wife," he married Agnes Wickfield.—C. Dickens, David Copperfield (1849).

COPPERHEADS, members of a faction in the North, during the civil war in the United States. The copperhead is a poisonous serpent, that gives no warning of its approach, and hence is a type of a concealed or secret foe. (The Trigonecephalus contortrix.)

COPPERNOSE (3 syl.). Henry VIII. was so called, because he mixed so much copper with the silver coin that it showed after a little wear in the parts most pronounced, as the nose. Hence the sobriquets "Coppernosed Harry," "Old Copper-nose," etc.

COPPLE, the hen killed by Reynard, in the beast-epic called Reynard the Fox (1498).

CORA, the gentle, loving wife of Alonzo, and the kind friend of Rolla, general of the Peruvian army.—Sheridan, Pizarro (altered from Kotzebue, 1799).

CORA MUNRO, the daughter of an English officer and the elder of the sisters whose adventures fill Cooper's Last of the Mohicans. Cora loves Heyward the as yet undeclared lover of Alice, and has, herself, attracted the covetous eye of Magua, an Indian warrior. He contrives to gain possession of her, and drawing his knife, gives her the choice between death and his wigwam.

Cora neither heard nor heeded his demand ... Once more he struggled with himself and lifted the keen weapon again—but just then a piercing cry was heard above them, and Uncas appeared, leaping frantically from a fearful height upon the ledge. Magua recoiled a step, and one of his assistants, profiting by the chance, sheathed his own knife in the bosom of Cora. (1826).

CO'RAH, in Dryden's satire of Absalom and Architophel, is meant for Dr. Titus Oates. As Corah was the political calumniator of Moses and Aaron, so Titus Oates was the political calumniator of the pope and English papists. As Corah was punished by "going down alive into the pit," so Oates was "condemned to imprisonment for life," after being publicly whipped and exposed in the pillory. North describes Titus Oates as a very short man, and says, if his mouth were taken for the centre of a circle, his chin, forehead, and cheekbones would fall in the circumference.

Sunk were his eyes, his voice was harsh and loud, Sure signs he neither choleric was, nor proud; His long chin proved his wit; his saint-like grace, A Church vermilion, and a Moses' face; His memory miraculously great Could plots, exceeding man's belief, repeat.

Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, i. (1631).

CORBAC'CIO (Signior), the dupe of Mosca the knavish confederate of Vol'pone (2 syl.). He is an old man, with seeing and hearing faint, and understanding dulled to childishness, yet he wishes to live on, and

Feels not his gout nor palsy; feigns himself Younger by scores of years; flatters his age With confident belying it; hopes he may With charms, like Aeson, have his youth restored.

Ben Jonson, Volpone or the Fox (1605).

Benjamin Johnson [1665-1742] ... seemed to be proud to wear the poet's double name, and was particularly great in all that author's plays that were usually performed, viz "Wasp," in Bartholomew Fair; "Corbaccio;" "Morose," in The Silent Woman; and "Ananias," in The Alchemist.—Chetwood.

C. Dibdin says none who ever saw W. Parsons (1736-1795) in "Corbaccio" could forget his effective mode of exclaiming "Has he made his will? What has he given me!" but Parsons himself says: "Ah! to see 'Corbaccio' acted to perfection, you should have seen Shuter. The public are pleased to think that I act that part well, but his acting was as far superior to mine as Mount Vesuvius is to a rushlight."

COR'BANT, the rook, in the beast-epic of Reynard the Fox (1498). (French, corbeau, "a rook.")

CORCE'CA (3 syl.), mother of Abessa. The word means "blindness of heart," or Romanism. Una sought shelter under her hut, but Corceca shut the door against her; whereupon the lion which accompanied Una broke down the door. The "lion" means England, "Corceca" popery, "Una" protestantism, and "breaking down the door" the Reformation.—Spenser, Faery Queen, i. 3 (1590).

CORDAY (Marie Anne Charlotte), descendant of the poet Corneille. Born in Normandy 1768. She killed the bloody Marat in the bath and was guillotined for the deed, July, 1793.

CORDE'LIA, youngest daughter of King Lear. She was disinherited by her royal father, because her protestations of love were less violent than those of her sisters. Cordelia married the king of France, and when her two elder sisters refused to entertain the old king with his suite, she brought an army over to dethrone them. She was, however, taken captive, thrown into prison, and died there.

Her voice was ever soft, Gentle, and low; an excellent thing in woman.

Shakespeare, King Lear, act v. sc. 3 (1605).

CORFLAM'BO, the personification of sensuality, a giant killed by Arthur. Corflambo had a daughter named Paea'na, who married Placidas, and proved a good wife to him.—Spenser, Faery Queen, iv. 8 (1596).

CORIAT (Thomas) died 1617, author of a book called Crudities.

Besides, 'tis known he could speak Greek, As naturally as pigs do squeak.

Lionel Cranfield, Panegyric Verses on T. Coriat

But if the meaning was as far to seek As Coriat's horse was of his master's Greek, When in that tongue he made a speech at length, To show the beast the greatness of his strength.

G. Wither, Abuses Stript and Whipt (1613).

COREY (Bromfield). An amiable Boston aristocrat in W. D. Howells's story, The Rise of Silas Lapham. His father complains of his want of energy and artistic tastes, but allows him "to travel indefinitely." He remains abroad ten years studying art, comes home and paints an amateurish portrait of his father, marries and has a family, but continues a dilettante, never quite abandoning his art, but working at it fitfully. He does nothing especially clever, but never says anything that is not clever, and is as much admired as he is beloved. At heart he is true, however cynical may be his words, and throughout he is the gentleman in grain, and incorruptible (1885).

CORIN, "the faithful shepherdess," who, having lost her true love by death, retired from the busy world, remained a virgin for the rest of her life, and was called "The Virgin of the Grove." The shepherd Thenot (final t pronounced) fell in love with her for her "fidelity," and to cure him of his attachment she pretended to love him in return. This broke the charm, and Thenot no longer felt that reverence of love he before entertained. Corin was skilled "in the dark, hidden virtuous use of herbs," and says:

Of all green wounds I know the remedies In men and cattle, be they stung by snakes, Or charmed with powerful words of wicked art, Or be they love-sick.

—John Fletcher, The Faithful Shepherdess, i. 1, (1610).

Cor'in, Corin'eus (3 syl.), or Corine'us (4 syl.) "strongest of mortal men," and one of the suite of Brute (the first mythical king of Britain.) (See CORINEUS.)

From Corin came it first? [i.e., the Cornish hug in wrestling].

M. Drayton, Polyolbion, i. (1612).

CORINEUS (3 syl). Southey throws the accent on the first syllable, and Spenser on the second. One of the suite of Brute. He overthrew the giant Goem'agot, for which achievement he was rewarded with the whole western horn of England, hence called Corin'ea, and the inhabitants Corin'eans. (See CORIN).

Corineus challenged the giant to wrestle with him. At the beginning of the encounter, Corineus and the giant standing front to front held each other strongly in their arms, and panted aloud for breath; but Goemagot presently grasped Corineus with all his might, broke three of his ribs, two on his right side and one on his left. At which Corineus, highly enraged, roused up his whole strength, and snatching up the giant, ran with him on his shoulders to the neighboring shore, and getting on to the top of a high rock, hurled the monster into the sea ... The place where he fell is called Lam Goemagot or Goemagot's Leap, to this day.—Geoffrey, British History, i. 16 (1142).

When father Brute and Cor'ineus set foot On the white island first.

Southey, Madoc, vi. (1805).

Cori'neus had that province utmost west. To him assigned.

Spenser, Faery Queen, ii. 10 (1500).

Drayton makes the name a word of four syllables, and throws the accent on the last but one.

Which to their general then great Corine'us had.

Drayton, Polyolbion, i. (1612).

CORINNA, a Greek poetess of Boeotia, who gained a victory over Pindar at the public games (fl. B.C. 490).

... they raised A tent of satin, elaborately wrought With fair Corinna's triumph.

Tennyson, The Princess, iii.

Corinna, daughter of Gripe, the scrivener. She marries Dick Amlet. Sir John Vanbrugh, The Confederacy (1695).

See lively Pope advance in jig and trip "Corinna," "Cherry," "Honeycomb," and "Snip;" Not without art, but yet to nature true, She charms the town with humor just yet new.

Churchill, Roseiad (1761).

Corinne' (2 syl.) the heroine and title of a novel by Mde. de Stael. Her lover proved false, and the maiden gradually pined away.

A Corinthian, a rake, a "fast man." Prince Henry says (1 Henry IV. act ii. sc. 4.) "[They] tell me I am no proud Jack, like Falstaff, but a Corinthian, a lad of mettle."

CORINTHIAN TOM, "a fast man," the sporting rake in Pierce Egan's Life in London.

CORIOLA'NUS (Caius Marcius), called Coriolanus from his victory at Cori'oli. His mother was Vetu'ria (not Volumnia), and his wife Volumnia (not Virgilia). Shakespeare has a drama so called. La Harpe has also a drama entitled Coriolan, produced in 1781.—Livy, Annals, ii. 40.

I remember her [Mrs. Siddons] coming down the stage in the triumphal entry of her son Coriolanus, when her dumb-show drew plaudits that shook the house. She came alone, marching and beating time to the music, rolling ... from side to side, swelling with the triumph of her son. Such was the intoxication of joy which flashed from her eye and lit up her whole face, that the effect was irresistible.—C.M. Young.

CORITA'NI, the people of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Rutlandshire, and Northamptonshire. Drayton refers to them in his Polyolbion, xvi. (1613).

CORMAC I., son of Conar, a Cael, who succeeded his father as "king of Ireland," and reigned many years. In the latter part of his reign the Fir-bolg (or Belgae settled in the south of Ireland), who had been subjugated by Conar, rebelled, and Cormac was reduced to such extremities that he sent to Fingal for aid. Fingal went with a large army, utterly defeated Colculla "lord of Atha," and re-established Cormac in the sole possession of Ireland. For this service Cormac gave Fingal his daughter Roscra'na for wife, and Ossian was their first son. Cormac I. was succeeded by his son Cairbre; Cairbre by his son Artho; Artho by his son Cormac II. (a minor); and Cormac II., (after a short interregnum) by Ferad-Artho.—Ossian.

CORMAC II. (a minor), king of Ireland. On his succeeding his father Artho on the throne, Swaran, king of Lochlin [Scandinavia] invaded Ireland, and defeated the army under the command of Cuthullin. Fingal's arrival turned the tide of events, for the next day Swaran was routed and returned to Lochlin. In the third year of his reign Torlath rebelled, but was utterly discomfited at lake Lago by Cuthullin, who, however, was himself mortally wounded by a random arrow during the persuit. Not long after this Cairbre rose in insurrection, murdered the young king, and usurped the government. His success, however, was only of short duration, for having invited Oscar to a feast, he treacherously slew him, and was himself slain at the same time. His brother Cathmor succeeded for a few days, when he also was slain in battle by Fingal, and the Conar dynasty restored. Conar (first king of Ireland, a Caledonian) was succeeded by his son Cormac I; Cormac I. was succeeded by his son Cairbre; Cairbre by his son Artho; Artho by his son Cormac II.; and Cormac II (after a short interregnum) by his cousin Ferad-Artho.—Ossian, Fingal, Dar-Thula and Temora.

COR'MACK (Donald), a Highland robber-chief.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV).

COR'MALO, a "chief of ten thousand spears," who lived near the waters of Lano (a Scandinavian lake). He went to Inis-Thona (an island of Scandinavia), to the court of King Annir, and "sought the honor of the spear" (i.e. a tournament). Argon, the eldest son of Annir, tilted with him and overthrew him. This vexed Cormalo greatly, and during a hunting expedition he drew his bow in secret and shot both Argon and his brother Ruro. Their father wondered they did not return, when their dog Runa came bounding into the hall, howling so as to attract attention. Annir followed the hound, and found his sons both dead. In the mean time his daughter was carried off by Cormalo. When Oscar, son of Ossian, heard thereof, he vowed vengeance, went with an army to Lano, encountered Cormalo, and slew him. Then rescuing the daughter, he took her back to Inis-Thona, and delivered her to her father.—Ossian, The War of Inis-Thona.

COR'MORAN' (The Giant), a Cornish giant slain by Jack the Giant-killer. This was his first exploit, accomplished when he was a mere boy. Jack dug a deep pit, and so artfully filmed it over atop, that the giant fell into it, whereupon Jack knocked him on the head and killed him.

CORNAVII, the inhabitants of Cheshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, and Worcestershire. Drayton refers to them in his Polyolbion, xvi. (1613).

CORNE'LIA, wife of Titus Sempronius Gracchus, and mother of the two tribunes Tiberius and Caius. She was almost idolized by the Romans, who erected a statue in her honor, with this inscription: CORNELIA, MOTHER OF THE GRACCHI.

Clelia, Cornelia,... and the Roman brows Of Agrippina

Tennyson, The Princess, ii.

CORNET, a waiting-woman on Lady Fanciful. She caused great offence because she did not flatter her ladyship. She actually said to her, "Your ladyship looks very ill this morning," which the French waiting-woman contradicted by saying, "My opinion be, matam, dat your latyship never look so well in all your life." Lady Fanciful said to Cornet, "Get out of the room, I can't endure you;" and then turning to Mdlle, she added, "This wench is insufferably ugly.... Oh, by-the-by, Mdlle., you can take these two pair of gloves. The French are certainly well-mannered, and never flatter."—Vanbrugh, The Provoked Wife (1697).

This is of a piece with the archbishop of Granada and his secretary Gil Blas.

CORNEY (Mrs.), matron of the workhouse where Oliver Twist was born. She is a well-to-do widow, who marries Bumble, and reduces the pompous beadle to a hen-pecked husband.—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist, xxxvii. (1837).

CORNFLOWER (Henry), a farmer, who "beneath a rough outside, possessed a heart which would have done honor to a prince."

Mrs. Cornflower, (by birth Emma Belton), the farmer's wife abducted by Sir Charles Courtly.—Dibdin, The Farmer's Wife (1789).

CORNIOLE GIOVANNI DELLE, i.e. Giovanni of the Cornelians, the cognomen given to an engraver of these stones in the time of Lorenzo di Medici. His most famous work, the Savonarola in the Uffoziel gallery.

CORN-LAW RHYMER (The), Ebenezer Elliot (1781-1849).

CORNWALL (Barry), an imperfect anagram of Bryan Waller Proctor, author of English Songs (1788-1874).

COROMBONA (Vittoria), the White Devil, the chief character in a drama by John Webster, entitled The White Devil, or Vittoria Corombona (1612).

CORO'NIS, daughter of Phoroneus (3 syl.) king of Pho'cis, metamorphosed by Minerva into a crow. CORPORAL (The Little). General Bonaparte was so called after the battle of Lodi(1796).

CORRECTOR (Alexander the), Alexander Cruden, author of the Concordance to the Bible, for many years a corrector of the press, in London. He believed himself divinely inspired to correct the morals and manners of the world (1701-1770).

COURROUGE' (2 syl.), the sword of Sir Otuel, a presumptuous Saracen, nephew of Farracute (3 syl.). Otuel was in the end converted to Christianity.

CORSAIR (The), Lord Conrad, afterwards called Lara. Hearing that the Sultan Seyd [Seed] was about to attack the pirates, he assumed the disguise of a dervise and entered the palace, while his crew set fire to the Sultan's fleet. Conrad was apprehended and cast into a dungeon, but being released by Glulnare (queen of the harem), he fled with her to the Pirates' Isle. Here he found that Medo'ra (his heart's darling) had died during his absence, so he left the Island with Gulnare, returned to his native land, headed a rebellion, and was shot.—Byron, The Corsair, continued in Lara (1814).

(This tale is based on the adventures of Lafitte, the notorious buccaneer. Lafitte was pardoned by General Jackson for services rendered to the States in 1815, during the attack of the British on New Orleans).

COR'SAND, a magistrate at the examination of Dirk Hatteraick at Kippletringan.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time George II).

CORSICAN GENERAL (The), Napoleon I., who was born in Corsica (1769-1821).

COR'SINA, wife of the corsair who found Fairstar and Chery in the boat as it drifted on the sea. Being made very rich by her foster-children, Corsina brought them up as princes. Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales (The Princess Fairstar, 1682).

CORTE'JO, a cavaliere servente, who as Byron says in Beppo:

Coach, servants, gondola, must go to call, And carries fan and tippet, gloves and shawl.

Was it not for this that no cortejo ere I yet have chosen from the youth of Sev'ille?

Byron, Don Juan, i. 148 (1819).

CORVI'NO (Signior), a Venetian merchant, duped by Mosca into believing that he is Vol'pone's heir.—Ben Jonson, Volpone or the Fox (1605).

CORYATE'S CRUDITIES, a book of travels by Thomas Coryate, who called himself the "Odcombian Legstretcher." He was the son of the rector of Odcombe (1577—1617).

CORYCIAN NYMPHS (The), the Muses, so called from the cave of Corycia on Lyeorca, one of the two chief summits of Mount Parnassus, in Greece.

COR'YDON, a common name for a shepherd. It occurs in the Idylls of Theocritos; the Eclogues of Virgil; The Cantata, v., of Hughes, etc.

Cor'ydon, the shepherd who languished for the fair Pastorella (canto 9). Sir Calidore, the successful rival, treated him most courteously, and when he married the fair shepherdess, gave Corydon both flocks and herds to mitigate his disappointment (canto 11).—Spenser, Faery Queen, vi. (1596).

Cor'ydon, the shoemaker, a citizen.—Sir W. Scott, Count Robert of Paris (time, Rufus).


The Polish poet called upon ... the great Corypheeus of German literature.—W. R. Morfell, Notes and Queries, April 27, 1878.

CORYPHE'US (4 syl.), a model man or leader, from the Koruphaios or leader of the chorus in the Greek drama. Aristarchos is called The Corypheus of Grammarians.

COSETTE. Illegitimate child of Fantine, a Parisian grisette. She puts the baby into the care of peasants who neglect and maltreat the little creature. She is rescued by the ex-convict Jean Valjean, who nurtures her tenderly and marries her to a respectable man.—Victor Hugo, Les Miserables.

COSME (St.), patron of surgeons, born in Arabia. He practised medicine in Cilicia with his brother St. Damien, and both suffered martyrdom under Diocletian in 303 or 310. Their fete day is December 27. In the twelfth century there was a medical society called Saint Cosme.

COS'MIEL (3 syl.), the genius of the world. He gave to Theodidactus a boat of asbestos, in which he sailed to the sun and planets.—Kircher, Ecstatic Journey to Heaven.

COSMOS, the personification of "the world" as the enemy of man. Phineas Fletcher calls him "the first son to the Dragon red" (the devil). "Mistake," he says, "points all his darts;" or, as the Preacher says, "Vanity, vanity, all is vanity." Fully described in The Purple Island, viii (1633). (Greek, kosmos, "the world.")

COS'TARD, a clown who apes the court wits of Queen Elizabeth's time. He uses the word "honorificabilitudinitatibus," and some of his blunders are very ridiculous, as "ad dunghill, at the fingers' ends, as they say" (act v. I).—Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost (1594).

COSTIGAN, Irish Captain in Pendennis, W. M. Thackeray.

COSTIN (Lord), disguised as a beggar, in The Beggar's Bush, a drama by Beaumont and Fletcher (1622).

COTE MALE-TAILE (Sir), meaning the "knight with the villainous coat," the nickname given by Sir Key (the seneschal of King Arthur) to Sir Brewnor le Noyre, a young knight who wore his father's, coat with all its sword-cuts, to keep him in remembrance of the vengeance due to his father. His first achievement was to kill a lion that "had broken loose from a tower, and came hurling after the queen." He married a damsel called Maledisaunt (3 syl.), who loved him, but always chided him. After her marriage she was called Beauvinant.—Sir T. Malory, History of Prince Arthur, ii. 42-50 (1470).

COTTER'S SATURDAY NIGHT; Poem in which Burns depicts the household of a Scottish peasant gathering about the hearth on the last evening of the week for supper, social converse and family worship. The picture of the "Saint, the Father and the Husband" is drawn the poet's own father. COTYTTO, Groddess of the Edoni of Thrace. Her orgies resembled those of the Thracian Cybele (3 syl).

Hail goddess of nocturnal sport, Dark-veiled Cotytto, to whom the secret flame Of midnight torches burns. Milton, Comus, 136, etc. (1634.)

COULIN, a British giant pursued by Debon till he came to a chasm 132 feet across which he leaped; but slipping on the opposite side, he fell backwards into the pit and was killed.

And eke that ample pit yet far renowned For the great leap which Debon did compell Coulin to make, being eight lugs of grownd, Into which the returning back he fell. Spencer, Faery Queen, ii. 10 (1590.)

COUNT OF NARBONNE, a tragedy by Robert Jephson (1782). His father, Count Raymond, having poisoned Alphonso, forged a will barring Godfrey's right, and naming Raymond as successor. Theodore fell in love with Adelaide, the count's daughter, but was reduced to this dilemma: if he married Adelaide he could not challenge the count and obtain the possessions he had a right to as grandson of Alphonso; if, on the other hand, he obtained his rights and killed the count in combat, he could not expect that Adelaide would marry him. At the end the count killed Adelaide, and then himself. This drama is copied from Walpole's Castle of Otranto.

COUNT ROBERT OF PARIS, a novel by Sir W. Scott, after the wreck of his fortune and repeated strokes of paralysis (1831). The critic can afford to be indulgent, and those who read this story must remember that the sun of the great wizard was hastening to its set. The time of the novel is the reign of Rufus. COUNTRY (Father of his). Cicero was so called by the Roman senate (B.C. 106-43). Julius Caesar was so called after quelling the insurrection in Spain (B.C. 100-43). Augustus Caesar was called Pater atque Princeps (B.C. 63, 31-14). Cosmo de Medici (1389-1464). Washington, defender and paternal counsellor of the American States (1732-1799). Andrea Dorea is so called on the base of his statue in Genoa (1468-1560). Andronlcus Palaeologus II. assumed the title (1260-1332). (See 1 Chron. iv. 14).

COUNTRY GIRL (The), a comedy by Garrick, altered from Wycherly. The "country girl" is Peggy Thrift, the orphan daughter of Sir Thomas Thrift, and ward of Moody, who brings her up in the country in perfect seclusion. When Moody is 50 and Peggy is 19, he wants to marry her, but she outwits him and marries Bellville, a young man of suitable age and position.

COUNTRY WIFE (The), a comedy by William Wycherly (1675).

Pope was proud to receive notice from the author of The Country Wife.—R. Chambers, English Literature, i. 393.

COUPEE, the dancing-master, who says "if it were not for dancing-masters, men might as well walk on their heads as heels." He courts Lucy by promising to teach her dancing.—Fielding, The Virgin Unmasked.

COURTAIN, one of the swords of Ogier the Dane, made by Munifican. His other sword was Sauvagine.

But Ogier gazed upon it [the sea] doubtfully One Moment, and then, sheathing, Courtain, said, "What tales are these?" W. Morris, The Earthly Paradise ("August").

COURTALL, a fop and consummate libertine, for ever boasting of his love-conquests over ladies of the haut monde. He tries to corrupt Lady Frances Touchwood, but is foiled by Saville.—Mrs. Cowley, The Belle's Stratagem (1780).

COURTLY (Sir Charles), a young libertine, who abducted the beautiful wife of Farmer Cornflower.—Dibdin, The Farmer's Wife (1780).

COUSIN COPELAND, a little old bachelor, courtly and quaint, who lives in "Old Gardiston," the home of his ancestors "befo' de wah." He has but one suit of clothes, so he dresses for dinner by donning a ruffled shirt and a flower in his buttonhole. His work is among "documents," his life in the past; without murmur at poverty or change he keeps up the even routine of life until one evening, trying to elevate his gentle little voice as he reads to his niece, so as to be heard above the rain and wind, it fails.

"Four days afterward he died, gentle and placid to the last. He was an old man, although no one had ever thought so."—Constance Fennimore Woolson, Southern Sketches, (1880).

COUSIN MICHEL or MICHAEL, the nickname of a German, as John Bull is of an Englishman, Brother Jonathan of an American, Colin Tampon a Swiss, John Chinaman a Chinese, etc.

COUVADE (2 syl.), a man who takes the place of his wife when she is in child-bed. In these cases the man lies a-bed, and the woman does the household duties. The people called "Gold Tooth," in the confines of Burmah, are couvades. M. Francisque Michel tells us the custom still exists in Biscay; and Colonel Yule assures us that it is common in Yunnan and among the Miris in Upper Assam. Mr.

Tylor has observed the same custom among the Caribs of the West Indies, the Abipones of Central South America, the aborigines of California, in Guiana, in West Africa, and in the Indian Archipelago. Diodorus speaks of it as existing at one time in Corsica; Strabo says the custom prevailed in the north of Spain; and Apollonius Rhodius that the Tabarenes on the Euxine Sea observed the same:

In the Tabarenian land, When some good woman bears her lord a babe, 'Tis he is swathed, and groaning put to bed; While she arising tends his bath and serves Nice possets for her husband in the straw. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautic Exp

COVERLEY (Sir Roger de), a member of an hypothetical club, noted for his modesty, generosity, hospitality, and eccentric whims; most courteous to his neighbors, most affectionate to his family, most amiable to his domestics. Sir Roger, who figures in thirty papers of the Spectator, is the very beau-ideal of an amiable country gentleman of Queen Anne's time.

What would Sir Roger de Coverley be without his follies and his charming little brain-cracks? If the good knight did not call out to the people sleeping in church, and say "Amen" with such delightful pomposity; if he did not mistake Mde. Doll Tearsheet for a lady of quality in Temple Garden; if he were wiser than he is ... of what worth were he to us? We love him for his vanities as much as for his virtues.—Thackeray.

COWARDS and BULLIES. In Shakespeare we have Paroles and Pistol; in Ben Jonson, Bobadil; in Beaumont and Fletcher, Bessus and Mons. Lapet, the very prince of cowards; in the French drama, La Capitan, Metamore, and Scaramouch. (See also BASILISCO, CAPTAIN NOLL BLUFF, BOROUGHCLIFF, CAPTAIN BRAZEN, SIR PETRONEL FLASH, SACRIPANT, VINCENT DE LA ROSA, etc.)

COWPER, called "Author of The Task," from his principal poem (1731-1800).

COXCOMB (The Prince of) Charles Joseph Prince de Ligne (1535-1614).

Richard II. of England (1366, 1377-1400).

Henri III, of France, Le Mignon (1551, 1574-1589).

COXE (Captain), one of the masques at Kenilworth.—Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

COY BISHOP. Best friend and unconscious foil to Avis Dobell in Elizabeth Stuart Phelps' Story of Avis. "Her face is as innocent of sarcasm as a mocking bird's;" she "is one of the immortal few who can look pretty in their crimping-pins;" she "has the glibness of most unaccentuated natures;" she admires Avis without comprehending her, and she makes an excellent wife to John Rose, a practical young clergyman. (1877).

CRABSHAW (Timothy), the servant of Sir Launcelot Greaves's squire.—Smollett, Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves (1760).

CRABTREE, in Smollett's novel called The Adventures of Peregine Pickle (1751).

Crabtree, uncle of Sir Harry Bumber, in Sheridan's comedy, The School for Scandal (1777).

Crabtree, a gardener at Fairport.—Sir W. Scott, The Antiquary (time George III.).

CRAC (M. de), the French Baron Munchausen; hero of a French operetta.

CRACKENTHORP (Father), a publican.

Dolly Crackenthorp, daughter of the publican.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.).

CRACKIT (Flash Toby), one of the villains in the attempted burglary in which Bill Sikes and his associates were concerned.—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist (1837.)

CRA'DLEMONT, king of Wales, subdued by Arthur, fighting for Leod'ogran, king of Cam'eliarn (3 syl.).—Tennyson, Coming of Arthur.

CRADOCK (Sir), the only knight who could carve the boar's head which no cuckold could cut; or drink from a bowl which no cuckold could quaff without spilling the liquor. His lady was the only one in King Arthur's court who could wear the mantle of chastity brought thither by a boy during Christmas-tide.—Percy, Reliques, etc., III. iii. 18.

CRAIGDAL'LIE (Adam), the senior baillie of Perth.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

CRAIG'ENGELT (Captain), an adventurer and companion of Bucklaw. Sir W. Scott, Bride of Lammermoor (time, William III.).

CRAIK MAMSELL. A murderer who allows suspicion to fall upon the innocent in Anna Katherine Green's story, Hand and Ring (1883).

CRAMP (Corporal), under captain Thornton.—Sir W. Scott, Bob Roy (time, George I.)

CRAN'BOURNE, (Sir Jasper), a friend of Sir Geoffrey Peveril—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

CRANE (Dame Alison), mistress of the Crane inn, at Marlborough.

Gaffer Crane, the dame's husband.—Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

Crane (Ichabod), a credulous Yankee schoolmaster. He is described as "tall, exceedingly lank, and narrow-shouldered; his arms, legs, and neck unusually long; his hands dangle a mile out of his sleeves; his feet might serve for shovels; and his whole frame is very loosely hung together."

The head of Ichabod Crane was small and flat at top, with huge ears, large green glassy eyes, and a long snipe nose, so that it looked like a weather-cock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.—W. Irving, Sketch-Book ("Legend of Sleepy Hollow.")

CRANES (1 syl.). Milton, referring to the wars of the pygmies and the cranes, calls the former

That small infantry Warred on by cranes.

Paradise Lost, i. 575 (1665).

CRANION, queen Mab's charioteer.

Four nimble gnats the horses were, Their harnesses of gossamere, Fly Cranion, her charioteer.

M. Dayton, Nymphidia (1563-1631).

CRANK (Dame), the papist laundress at Marlborough.—Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

CRA'PAUD (Johnnie), a Frenchman, as John Bull is an Englishman, Cousin Michael a German, Colin Tampon a Swiss, Brother Jonathan a North American, etc. Called Crapaud from the device of the ancient kings of France, "three toads erect saltant." Nostradamus, in the sixteenth century, called the French crapauds in the well-known line:

Les anciens crapauds prendront Sara.

("Sara" is Aras backwards, a city taken from the Spaniards under Louis XIV.) CRATCHIT (Bob or Robert), clerk of Ebenezer Scrooge, stock-broker. Though Bob Cratchit has to maintain nine persons on 15s. a week, he has a happier home and spends a merrier Christmas than his master with all his wealth and selfishness.

Tiny Tim Cratchit, the little lame son of Bob Cratchit, the Benjamin of the family, the most helpless and most beloved of all. Tim does not die, but Ebenezer Scrooge, after his change of character, makes him his special care.—C. Dickens, A Christmas Carol (in five staves, 1843).

CRAW'FORD (Lindsay, earl of), the young earl-marshal of Scotland.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

Craw'ford (Lord), captain of the Scottish guard at Plessis les Tours, in the pay of Louis XI.—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

CRAWLEY (Sir Pitt), of Great Gaunt Street, and of Queen's Crawley, Hants. A sharp, miserly, litigious, vulgar, ignorant baronet, very rich, desperately mean, "a philosopher with a taste for low life," and intoxicated every night. Becky Sharp was engaged by him to teach his two daughters. On the death of his second wife, Sir Pitt asked her to become lady Crawley, but Becky had already married his son, Captain Rawdon Crawley. This "aristocrat" spoke of "brass fardens," and was unable to spell the simplest words, as the following specimen will show:—"Sir Pitt Crawley begs Miss Sharp and baggidge may be hear on Tuseday, as I leaf ... to-morrow erly." The whole baronetage, peerage, and commonage of England did not contain a more cunning, mean, foolish, disreputable old rogue than Sir Pitt Crawley. He died at the age of fourscore, "lamented and beloved, regretted and honored," if we can believe his monumental tablet.

Lady Crawley. Sir Pitt's first wife was "a confounded quarrelsome, high-bred jade." So he chose for his second wife the daughter of Mr. Dawson, iron-monger, of Mudbury, who gave up her sweetheart, Peter Butt, for the gilded vanity of Crawleyism. This ironmonger's daughter had "pink cheeks and a white skin, but no distinctive character, no opinions, no occupation, no amusements, no vigor of mind, no temper; she was a mere female machine." Being a "blonde, she wore draggled sea-green or slatternly sky-blue dresses," went about slip-shod and in curl-papers all day till dinner-time. She died and left Sir Pitt for the second time a widower, "to-morrow to fresh woods and pastures new."

Mr. Pitt Crawley, eldest son of Sir Pitt, and at the death of his father inheritor of the title and estates. Mr. Pitt was a most proper gentleman. He would rather starve than dine without a dress-coat and white neckcloth. The whole house bowed down to him; even Sir Pitt himself threw off his muddy gaiters in his son's presence. Mr. Pitt always addressed his mother-in-law with "most powerful respect," and strongly impressed her with his high aristocratic breeding. At Eton he was called "Miss Crawley." His religious opinions were offensively aggressive and of the "evangelical type." He even built a meeting-house close by his uncle's church. Mr. Pitt Crawley came into the large fortune of his aunt, Miss Crawley, married Lady Jane Sheepshanks, daughter of the Countess of Southdown, became an M.P., grew money-loving and mean, but less and less "evangelical" as he grew great and wealthy.

Captain Rawdon Crawley, younger brother of Mr. Pitt Crawley. He was in the Dragoon Guards, a "blood about town," and an adept in boxing, rat-hunting, the fives-court, and four-in-hand driving. He was a young dandy, six feet high, with a great voice, but few brains. He could swear a great deal, but could not spell. He ordered about the servants, who nevertheless adored him; was generous, but did not pay his tradesmen; a Lothario, free and easy. His style of talk was, "Aw, aw; Jave-aw; Grad-aw; it's a confounded fine segaw-aw—confounded as I ever smoked. Gad-aw." This military exquisite was the adopted heir of Miss Crawley, but as he chose to marry Becky Sharp, was set aside for his brother Pitt. For a time Becky enabled him to live in splendor "upon nothing a year," but a great scandal got wind of gross improprieties between Lord Steyne and Becky, so that Rawdon separated from his wife, and was given the governorship of Coventry Isle by Lord Steyne. "His Excellency Colonel Rawdon Crawley died in his island of yellow fever, most deeply beloved and deplored," and his son Rawdon inherited his uncle's title and the family estates.

The Rev. Bute Crawley, brother of Sir Pitt. He was a "tall, stately, jolly, shovel-hatted rector." "He pulled stroke-oar in the Christ Church boat, and had thrashed the best bruisers of the town. The Rev. Bute loved boxing-matches, races, hunting, coursing, balls, elections, regattas, and good dinners; had a fine singing voice, and was very popular." His wife wrote his sermons for him.

Mrs. Bute Crawley, the rector's wife, was a smart little lady, domestic, politic, but apt to overdo her "policy." She gave her husband full liberty to do as he liked; was prudent and thrifty.—Thackeray, Vanity Fair (1848).

CRAYDOCKE (Miss). Quaint friend of the Ripwinkleys and of everybody else who figures in A.D.T. Whitney's Real Folks, and other of her books. "Around her there is always springing up a busy and a spreading crystallizing of shining and blessed elements. The world is none too big for her, or for any such, of course."

CRAY'ON (Le Sieur de), one of the officers of Charles "the Bold," Duke of Burgundy.—Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.).

Crayon (Geoffrey), Esq., Washington Irving, author of The Sketch-Book (1820).

CREA'KLE, a hard, vulgar school-master, to whose charge David Copperfield was entrusted, and where he first made the acquaintance of Steerforth.

The circumstance abont him which impressed me most was that he had no voice, but spoke in a whisper.—C. Dickens, David Copperfield, vi. (1849).

CREAM CHEESE (Rev.), an aesthetic divine whose disciple Mrs. Potiphar is in The Potiphar Papers.—George William Curtis (1853).

CREBILLON OF ROMANCE (The), A. Francois Prevost d'Exiles (1697-1763).

CREDAT JUDAEUS APELLA, NONEGO (Horace, Sat. I. v. 100). Of "Apella" nothing whatever is known. In general the name is omitted, and the word "Judaeus" stands for any Jew. "A disbelieving Jew would give credit to the statement sooner than I should."

CRES'SIDA, in Chaucer CRESSEIDE (2 syl.), a beautiful, sparkling, and accomplished woman, who has become a by-word for infidelity. She was the daughter of Calchas, a Trojan priest, who took part with the Greeks. Cressida is not a character of classic story, but a mediaeval creation. Pope says her story was the invention of Lollius the Lombard, historiographer of Urbino, in Italy. Cressida betroths herself to Troilus, a son of Priam, and vows eternal fidelity. Troilus gives the maiden a sleeve, and she gives her Adonis a glove, as a love-knot. Soon after this betrothal an exchange of prisoners is made, when Cressida falls to the lot of Diomed, to whom she very soon yields her love, and even gives him the very sleeve which Troilus had given her as a love-token.

As false As air, as water, wind, or sandy earth. Yea, let [men] say to stick the heart of falsehood, "As false as Cressid."

(Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, act iii. sc. 2) (1602).

CRESSWELL (Madame), a woman of infamous character, who bequeathed L10 for a funeral sermon, in which nothing ill should be said of her. The Duke of Buckinham wrote the sermon, which was as follows:—"All I shall say of her is this: she was born well, she married well, lived well, and died well; for she was born at Shad-well, married Cress-well, lived at Clerken-well, and died in Bride-well."

CRESSY MCKINSTRY. Belle of Tuolumne County, California; pretty, saucy and illiterate. She conceives the idea of getting an education, and attends the district school, breaking an engagement of marriage to do this; bewitches the master, a college graduate, and confesses her love for him, but will not be "engaged:"

"I don't know enough to be a wife to you just now and you know it. I couldn't keep a house fit for you and you couldn't keep me without it.... You're only a dandy boy, you know, and they don't get married to backwood Southern girls."

After many scrapes involving perils, shared together, and much love-making, he is stunned one morning to learn that Cressy is married to another man, whom she had feigned not to like.—Bret Harte, Cressy (1889).

CRETE (Hound of), a blood-hound.—See Midsummer Night's Dream, act iii. sec. 2.

Coupe le gorge, that's the word; I thee defy again, O hound of Crete!

Shakespeare, Henry V. act ii. sc. 1 (1599).

Crete (The Infamy of), the Minotaur.

[There] lay stretched The infamy of Crete, detested brood Of the feigned heifer. Dante, Hell, xii. (1300, Cary's translation).

CREVECOUR (2 syl.). The count Philip de Crevecour is the envoy sent by Charles "the Bold," duke of Burgundy, with a defiance to Louis XI., king of France.

The Countess of Crevecour, wife of the count.—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

CRIB (Tom), Thomas Moore, author of Tom Crib's Memorial to Congress (1819).

CRILLON. The following story is told of this brave but simple-minded officer. Henry IV., after the battle of Arques, wrote to him thus:

Prends-toi, brave Crillon, nous avons vaincu a Arques, et tu n'y etais pas.

The first and last part of this letter have become proverbial in France.

When Crillon heard the story of the Crucifixion read at Church, he grew so excited that he cried out in an audible voice, Ou etais tu, Crillon? ("What were you about, Crillon, to permit of such atrocity!")

When Clovis was told of the Crucifixion, he exclaimed, "Had I and my Franks been by, we would have avenged the wrong, I warrant."

CRIMO'RA AND CONNAL. Crimora, daughter of Rinval, was in love with Connal of the race of Fingal, who was defied by Dargo. He begs his "sweeting" to lend him her father's shield, but she says it is ill-fated, for her father fell by the spear of Gormar. Connal went against his foe, and Crimora, disguised in armor, went also, but unknown to him. She saw her lover in fight with Dargo, and discharged an arrow at the foe, but it missed its aim and shot Connal. She ran in agony to his succor. It was too late. He died, Crimora died also, and both were buried in one grave. Ossian, Carric-Thura.

CRINGLE (Tom), Hero of sea-story by Michael Scott, Tom Cringle's Log.

CRISPIN (St.). Crispinos and Crispianus were two brothers, born at Rome, from which place they traveled to Soissons, in France (about A.D. 303), to propagate the gospel, and worked as shoe-makers, that they might not be chargeable to any one. The governor of the town ordered them to be beheaded the very year of their arrival, and they were made the tutelary saints of the "gentle craft." St. Crispin's Day is October 25.

This day is called the feast of Crispian.. And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by, From this day to the ending of the world, But we in it shall be remembered.

Shakespeare, Henry V. act iv. sc. 3 (1599).

CRITIC (A Bossu), one who criticizes the "getting up" of a book more than its literary worth; a captious, carping critic. Rene le Bossu was a French critic (1631-1680).

The epic poem your lordship bade me look at, upon taking the length, breadth, height, and depth of it, and trying them at home upon an exact scale of Bossu's, 'tis out, my lord, in every one of its dimensions. Admirable connoisseur! —Sterne.

(Probably the scale referred to was that of Bossut the mathematician, and that either Bossu and Bossut have been confounded, or else that a pun is intended).

Critic (The), by R. B. Sheridan, suggested by The Rehearsal (1779).

The Rehearsal is by the Duke of Buckingham (1671).

CRITICS (The Prince of), Aristarchos of Byzantium, who compiled, in the second century B.C., the rhapsodies of Homer.

CROAKER, guardian to Miss Richland. Never so happy as when he imagines himself a martyr. He loves a funeral better than a festival, and delights to think that the world is going to rack and ruin. His favorite phrase is "May be not."

A poor, fretful soul, that has a new distress for every hour of the four and twenty.—Act i. 1.

Mrs. Croaker, the very reverse of her grumbling, atrabilious husband. She is mirthful, light-hearted, and cheerful as a lark.

The very reverse of each other. She all laugh and no joke, he always complaining and never sorrowful.—Act i. 1.

Leontine Croaker, son of Mr. Croaker. Being sent to Paris to fetch his sister, he falls in love with Olivia Woodville, whom he brings home instead, introduces her to Croaker as his daughter, and ultimately marries her.—Goldsmith, The Good Natured Man (1768).

CROCODILE (King). The people of Isna, in Upper Egypt, affirm that there is a king crocodile as there is a queen bee. The king crocodile has ears but no tail, and has no power of doing harm. Southey says that though the king crocodile has no tail, he has teeth to devour his people with.—Browne, Travels.

Crocodile (Lady Kitty), meant for the Duchess of Kingston.—Sam. Foote, A Trip to Calais.

CROCUS, a young man enamoured of the nymph Smilax, who did not return his love. The gods changed him into the crocus flower, to signify unrequited love.

CROESUS, king of Lydia, deceived by an oracle, was conquered by Cyrus, king of Persia. Cyrus commanded a huge funeral pile to be erected upon which Croesus and fourteen Lydian youths were to be chained and burnt alive. When this was done, the discrowned king called on the name of Solon, and Cyrus asked why he did so. "Because he told me to call no one happy till death." Cyrus, struck with the remark, ordered the fire of the pile to be put out, but this could not be done. Croesus then called on Apollo, who sent a shower which extinguished the flames, and he with his Lydians came from the pile unharmed.

The resemblance of this legend to the Bible account of the Jewish youths condemned by Nebuchadnezzar to be cast into the fiery furnace, from which they came forth uninjured, will recur to the reader.—Daniel, iii. Croesus's Dream. Croesus dreamt that his son, Atys, would be slain by an iron instrument, and used every precaution to prevent it, but to no purpose; for one day Atys went to chase the wild boar, and Adrastus, his friend, threw a dart at the boar to rescue Atys from danger; the dart, however, struck the prince and killed him. The tale is told by William Morris in his Earthly Paradise ("July").

CROFTANGRY (Mr. Chrystal), a gentleman fallen to decay, cousin of Mrs. Martha Bethune Baliol, to whom at death, he left the MS. of two novels, one The Highland Widow, and the other The Fair Maid of Perth, called the First and Second Series of the "Chronicles of Canongate" (q. v.). The history of Mr. Chrystal Croftangry is given in the introductory chapters of The Highland Widow, and continued in the introduction of the The Fair Maid of Perth.

Lockhart tells us that Mr. Croftangry is meant for Sir Walter Scott's father and that "the fretful patient at the death-bed" is a living picture.

CROFTS (Master), the person killed in a duel by Sir Geofrey Hudson, the famous dwarf.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

CROKER'S MARE. In the proverb As coy as Croker's Mare. This means "as chary as a mare that carries crockery."

She was to them as koy as a croker's Mare.

J. Heywood, Dialogue ii. 1 (1566).

CROKERS. Potatoes are so called because they were first planted in Croker's field, at Youghal, in Ireland.—J. R. Planche, Recollections, etc. ii. 119.

CROM'WELL (Oliver), introduced by Sir W. Scott in Woodstock. Cromwell's daughter Elizabeth, who married John Claypole. Seeing her father greatly agitated by a portrait of Charles I., she gently and lovingly led him away out of the room.—Sir W. Scott, Woodstock (time, Commonwealth).

Cromwell is called by the Preacher Burroughs "the archangel who did battle with the devil."

Cromwell's Lucky Day. The 3rd September was considered by Oliver Cromwell to be his red-letter day. On the 3rd September, 1650, he won the battle of Dunbar; on 3rd September, 1651, he won the battle of Worcester; and on 3rd September, 1658, he died. It is not, however, true that he was born on 3rd September, as many affirm, for his birthday was 25th April, 1599.

Cromwell's Dead Body Insulted. Cromwell's dead body was, by the sanction, if not by the express order of Charles II., taken from its grave, exposed on a gibbet, and finally buried under the gallows.

Similarly, the tomb of Am'asis, king of Egypt, was broken open by Camby'ses; the body was then scourged and insulted in various ways, and finally burnt, which was abhorrent to the Egyptians, who used every possible method to preserve dead bodies in their integrity.

The dead body of Admiral Coligny [] was similarly insulted by Charles IX., Catherine de Medicis, and all the court of France, who spattered blood and dirt on the half-burnt blackened mass. The king had the bad taste to say over it:

Fragrance sweeter than a rose Rises from our slaughtered foes.

It will be remembered that Coligny was the guest of Charles, his only crime being that he was a Huguenot.

CROOK-FINGERED JACK, one of Macheath's gang of thieves. In eighteen months' service he brought to the general stock four fine gold watches and seven silver ones, sixteen snuff-boxes (five of which were gold), six dozen handkerchiefs, four silver-hilted swords, six shirts, three periwigs, and a "piece" of broadcloth. Pea'chum calls him "a mighty cleanhanded fellow," and adds:

"Considering these are only the fruits of his leisure hours, I don't know a prettier fellow, for no man alive hath a more engaging presence of mind upon the road."—Gay, The Beggar's Opera. I. 1 (1727).

CROP (George), an honest, hearty farmer, who has married a second wife, named Dorothy, between whom there are endless quarrels. Two especially are noteworthy. Crop tells his wife he hopes that better times are coming, and when the law-suit is over "we will have roast pork for dinner every Sunday." The wife replies, "It shall be lamb." "But I say it shall be pork." "I hate pork, I'll have lamb." "Pork, I tell you." "I say lamb." "It shan't be lamb, I will have pork." The other quarrel arises from Crop's having left the door open, which he asks his wife civilly to shut. She refuses, he commands; she turns obstinate, he turns angry; at length they agree that the person who first speaks shall shut the door. Dorothy speaks first, and Crop gains the victory.—P. Hoare, No Song, no Supper (1754-1834).

CROPLAND (Sir Charles), an extravagant, heartless libertine and man of fashion, who hates the country except for hunting, and looks on his estates and tenants only as the means of supplying money for his personal indulgence. Knowing that Emily Worthington is the daughter of a "poor gentleman," he offers her "a house in town, the run of his estate in the country, a chariot, two footmen, and L600 a year;" but the lieutenant's daughter rejects with scorn such "splendid infamy." At the end Sir Charles is made to see his own baseness, and offers the most ample apologies to all whom he has offended.—G. Colman, The Poor Gentleman (1802).

CROQUEMITAINE [], the bogie raised by fear. Somewhere near Saragossa was a terrible castle called Fear Fortress, which appeared quite impregnable; but as the bold approached it, the difficulties of access gradually gave way and even the fortress itself vanished into thin air.

Croquemitaine is a romance in three parts; the first part is a tournament between the knights of Marsillus, a Moorish king, and the paladins of Charlemagne; the second part is the siege of Saragossa by Charlemagne; and the third part is the allegory of Fear Fortress. Mitaine is the godchild of Charlemagne, who goes in search of Fear Fortress.

CROQUIS (Alfred), Daniel Maclise, R.A. This pseudonym was attached to a series of character-portraits in Frazer's Magazine between the years 1830 and 1838. Maclise was born 1811, and died 1870.

CROS'BIE (William), provost of Dumfries, a friend of Mr. Fairford the lawyer.

Mrs. Crosbie, wife of the provost, and a cousin of Eedgauntlet.—Sir W. Scott. Redgauntlet, (time, George III.).

CROSBITE (2 syl.), a barrister.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time George III.).

CROSS PURPOSES, a farce by O'Brien. There are three brothers named Bevil—Francis, an M.P., Harry, a lawyer, and George, in the Guards. They all, unknown to each other, wish to marry Emily Grub, the handsome daughter of a rich stockbroker. Francis pays court to the father, and obtains his consent; Harry to the mother, and obtains her consent; and George to the daughter, whose consent he obtains, and the two elder brothers retire from the field. The fun of the farce is the contention of the Grubs about a suitable husband, their joy at finding they have all selected Mr. Bevil, and their amazement at discovering that there are three of the same name.

CROSS'MYLOOF, a lawyer.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

CROTHAR, "Lord of Atha," in Connaught (then called Alnec'ma). He was the first and most powerful chief of the Fir-bolg ("bowmen") or Belgae from Britain who colonized the southern parts of Ireland. Crothar carried off Conla'ma, daughter of Cathmin, a chief of the Cael or Caledonians, who had colonized the northern parts of Ireland and held their court in Ulster. As Conlama was betrothed to Turloch, a Cael, he made an irruption into Connaught, slew Cormul, but was himself slain by Crothar, Cormul's brother. The feud now became general, "Blood poured on blood, and Erin's clouds were hung with ghosts." The Cael being reduced to the last extremity, Trathel (the grandfather of Fingal) sent Conar (son of Trenmor) to their relief. Conar, on his arrival in Ulster, was chosen king, and the Fir-bolg being subdued, he called himself "the King of Ireland."—Ossian, Temora, ii.

Crothar, vassal king of Croma (in Ireland), held under Artho, over-lord of all Ireland. Crothar, being blind with age, was attacked by Rothmar, chief of Tromlo, who resolved to annex Croma to his own dominion. Crotha sent to Fingal for aid, and Fingal sent his son Ossian with an army; but before he could arrive Fovar-Gormo, a son of Crothar, attacked the invader, but was defeated and slain. When Ossian reached Ulster, he attacked the victorious Rothmar and both routed the army and slew the chief.—Ossian, Croma.

CROTO'NA'S SAGE, Pythagoras, so called because his first and chief school of philosophy was established at Crotna (fl. B.C. 540.)

CROWDE'RO, one of the rabble leaders encountered by Hudibras at a bear-baiting. The academy figure of this character was Jackson or Jephson, a milliner in the New Exchange, Strand, London. He lost a leg in the service of the roundheads, and was reduced to the necessity of earning a living by playing on the crowd or crouth from ale-house to ale-house.—S. Butler, Hudibras, i. 2 (1664).

(The crouth was a long box-shaped instrument, with six or more strings, supported by a bridge. It was played with a bow. The last noted performer on this instrument was John Morgan, a Welshman, who died 1720).

CROWE (Captain), the attendant of Sir Launcelot Greaves (1 syl.), in his peregrinations to reform society. Sir Launcelot is a modern Don Quixote, and Captain Crowe is his Sancho Panza.

CROWFIELD (Christopher), a pseudonym of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1814-).

CROWN. Godfrey, when made the overlord of Jerusalem, or "Baron of the Holy Sepulchre," refused to wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had only worn a crown of thorns.

Canute, after the rebuke he gave to his flatterers, refused to wear thenceforth any symbol of royalty at all.

Canute (truth worthy to be known) From that time forth did for his brows disown The ostentatious symbol of a crown, Esteeming earthly royalty Presumptuous and vain.

CROWNED AFTER DEATH. Inez de Castro was exhumed six years after her assassination, and crowned queen of Portugal by her husband, Don Pedro. (See INEZ DE CASTRO.)

CROWQUILL (Alfred), Alfred Henry Forrester, author of Leaves from my Memorandum-Book (1859), one of the artists of Punch (1805-1872).

CROYE (Isabelle, countess of), a ward of Charles "the Bold," duke of Burgundy. She first appears at the turret window in Plessis les Tours, disguised as Jacqueline; and her marriage with Quentin Durward concludes the novel.

The Countess Hameline of Croye, aunt to Countess Isabelle. First disguised as Dame Perotte (2 syl.) at Plessis les Tours; afterwards married to William de la Marck.—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV).

Croye (Monseigneur de la), an officer of Charles "the Bold," duke of Burgundy.—Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.).

CROYSA'DO The Great, General Lord Fairfax (1611-1671).—S. Butler, Hudibras.

CRUDOR (Sir), the knight who told Bria'na he would not marry her till she brought him enough hair, consisting of ladies' locks and the beards of knights to purfle his cloak with. In order to obtain this love-gift, the lady established a toll, by which every lady who passed her castle had to give the hair of her head, and every knight his beard, as "passing pay," or else fight for their lives. Sir Crudor being overthrown by Sir Calidore, Briana was compelled to abolish this toll.—Spencer, Faery Queen, v. 1. (1596).

CRUEL (The), Pedro, king of Castle (1334, 1350-1369).

CRUIK'SHANKS (Ebenezer), landlord of the Golden Candlestick inn. Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, George II.).

CRUM'MLES (Mr. Vincent), the eccentric but kind-hearted manager of the Portsmouth Theatre.

It was necessary that the writer should, like Mr. Crummles, dramatist, construct his piece in the interest of "the pump and washing-tubs."— P. Fitzgerald.

Mrs. Crummles, wife of Mr. Vincent Crummles, a stout, ponderous, tragedy-queen sort of a lady. She walks or rather stalks like Lady Macbeth, and always speaks theatrically. Like her husband, she is full of kindness, and always willing to help the needy.

Miss Ninetta Crummles, daughter of the manager, and called in the play-bills "the infant phenomenon."—C Dickens, Nicholas Nickleby (1838).

CRUNCHER (Jerry), an odd-job man in Tellson's bank. His wife was continually saying her prayers, which Jerry termed "flopping." He was a "resurrection man."—C. Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities (1859).

CRUPP (Mrs.), a typical humbug, who let chambers in Buckingham Street for young gentlemen. David Copperfield lodged with her.—C. Dickens, David Copperfield (1849).

CRUSHED BY ORNAMENTS. Tarpeia, daughter of the governer of the Roman citadel on the Saturnian Hill, was tempted by the gold on the Sabine bracelets and collars to open a gate of the fortress to the besiegers on condition that they would give her the ornaments which they wore on their arms. Tarpeia opened the gate, and the Sabines as they passed threw on her their shields, saying, "These are the ornaments worn by the Sabines on their arms," and the maid was crushed to death. G. Gilfillan, alluding to Longfellow, has this erroneous allusion:

His ornaments, unlike those of the Sabine [sic] maid, have not crushed him.—Introductory Essay to Longfellow.

CRUSOE (Robinson), the hero and title of a novel by Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe is a shipwrecked sailor, who leads a solitary life for many years on a desert island, and relieves the tedium of life by ingenious contrivances (1719).

(The story is based on the adventures of Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch sailor, who in 1704 was left by Captain Stradding on the uninhabited island of Juan Fernandez. Here he remained for four years and four months, when he was rescued by Captain Woods Rogers and brought to England.)

Was there ever anything written by mere man that the reader wished longer except Robinson Crusoe, Don Quixote and The Pilgrim's Progress!—Dr. Johnson.

CRUTH-LODA, the war-god of the ancient Gaels.

On thy top, U-thormo, dwells the misty Loda: the house of the spirits of men. In the end of his cloudy hall bends forward Cruth-Loda of swords. His form is dimly seen amid the wavy mists, his right hand is on his shield.—Ossian, Cath-Loda.

CUCKOLD KING (The), Sir Mark of Cornwell, whose wife Ysolde [E. seld] intrigued with Sir Tristram (his nephew), one of the knights of the Round Table.

CUD'DIE or CUTHBERT HEADRIGG, a ploughman, in the service of Lady Bellenden of the Tower of Tillietudlem.—Sir W. Scott, Old Mortality (time, Charles II.).

CUDDY, a herdsman, in Spenser's Shephearde's Calendar.

Cuddy, a shepherd, who boasts that the charms of his Buxo'ma far exceed those of Blouzelinda. Lobbin, who is Blouzelinda's swain, repels the boast, and the two shepherds agree to sing the praises of their respective shepherdesses, and to make Clod'dipole arbiter of their contention. Cloddipole listens to their alternate verses, pronounces that "both merit an oaken staff," but, says he, "the herds are weary of the songs, and so am I."—Gay, Pastoral, i. (1714).

(This eclogue is in imitation of Virgil's Ecl. iii.)

CULDEES (i.e. sequestered persons), the primitive clergy of presbyterian character, established in Io'na or Icolmkill [I-columb-kill] by St. Columb and twelve of his followers in 563. They also founded similar church establishments at Abernethy, Dunkeld, Kirkcaldy [Kirk-Culdee], etc., and at Lindesfarne, in England. Some say as many as 300 churches were founded by them. Augustine, a bishop of Waterford, began against them in 1176 a war of extermination, when those who could escape sought refuge in Iona, the original cradle of the sect, and were not driven thence till 1203.

Peace to their shades! the pure Culdees Were Albyn's [Scotland's] earliest priests of God, Ere yet an island of her seas By foot of Saxon monk was trod.

Campbell, Reullura.

CULLOCH (Sawney) a pedlar.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George III.).

CULPRIT FAY, a sprite condemned for loving a mortal maiden to catch the spray-gem from the sturgeon's "silver bow," and light his torch with a falling star.—Joseph Rodman Drake, The Culprit Fay (1847).

CUMBERLAND (John of). "The devil and John of Cumberland" is a blunder for "The devil and John-a-Cumber." John-a-Cumber was a famous Scotch magician.

He poste to Scotland for brave John-a-Cumber, The only man renowned for magick skill. Oft have I heard he once beguylde the devill. A. Munday, John-a-Kent and John-a-Cumber (1595).

Cumberland (William Augustus, duke of), commander-in-chief of the army of George II., whose son he was. The duke was especially celebrated for his victory of Cullo'den (1746); but he was called "The Butcher" from the great severity with which he stamped out the clan system of the Scottish Highlanders. He was wounded in the leg at the battle of Dettingen (1743). Sir W. Scott has introduced him in Waverley (time, George II.).

Proud Cumberland prances, insulting the slain, And their hoof-beaten bosoms are trod to the plan. Campbell, Lochiel's Warning.


Wordsworth, born at Cockermouth (1770-1850).

CUMNOR HALL, a ballad by Mickel, the lament of Amy Robsart, who had been won and thrown away by the Earl of Leicester. She says if roses and lilies grow in courts, why did he pluck the primrose of the field, which some country swain might have won and valued! Thus sore and sad the lady grieved in Cumnor Hall, and ere dawn the death bell rang, and never more was that countess seen.

Sir W. Scott took this for the groundwork of his Kenihvorth, which he called Cumnor Hall, but Constable, his publisher, induced him to change the name.

CUNEGONDE [Ku'.na.gond], the mistress of Candide (2 syl.). in Voltaire's novel called Candide. Sterne spells it "Cunegund."

CUN'NINGHAM (Archie), one of the archers of the Scotch guards at Plessis les Tours, in the pay of Louis XI.—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

CU'NO, the ranger, father of Agatha.—Weber, Der Freischuetz (1822).

CUNO'BELINE, a king of the Silures, son of Tasciov'anus and father of Caractacus. Coins still exist bearing the name of "Cunobeline," and the word "Camalodunum" [Colchester], the capital of his kingdom. The Roman general between A.D. 43 and 47 was Aulus Plautius, but in 47 Ostorius Scapula took Caractacus prisoner.

Some think Cunobeline is Shakespeare's "Cymbeline," who reigned from B.C. 8 to A.D. 27; but Cymbeline's father was Tenantius or Tenuantius, his sons Guide'rius Arvir'agus, and the Roman general was Caius Lucius.

... the courageous sons of our Cunobelin Sank under Plautius' sword. Drayton, Polyolbion, viii. (1612).


CUPID AND PSYCHE [] an episode in The Golden Ass of Apuleius. The allegory represents Cupid in love with Psyche. He visited her every evening, and left at sunrise, but strictly enjoined her not to attempt to discover who he was. One night curiosity overcame her prudence, and going to look upon her lover a drop of hot oil fell on his shoulder, awoke him, and he fled. Psyche now wandered in search of the lost one, but was persecuted by Venus with relentless cruelty. Having suffered almost to the death, Cupid at length married her, and she became immortal. Mrs. Tighe has a poem on the subject. Wm. Morris has poetized the same in his Earthly Paradise ("May"); Lafontaine has a poem called Psyche, in imitation of the episode of Apuleius; and Moliere has dramatized the subject.

CU'PIDON (Jean). Count d'Orsay was so called by Lord Byron (1798-1852). The count's father was styled Le Beau d' Orsay.

CUR'AN, a courtier in Shakespeare's tragedy of King Lear (1605).

CURE DE MEUDON, Rabelais, who was first a monk, then a leech, then prebendary of St. Maur, and lastly cure of Meudon (1483-1553).

CU'RIO, a gentleman attending on the Duke of Illyria.—Shakespeare, Twelfth Night (1614).

Curio. So Akenside calls Mr. Pulteney, and styles him "the betrayer of his country," alluding to the great statesman's change of politics. Curio was a young Roman senator, at one time the avowed enemy of Caesar, but subsequently of Caesar's party, and one of the victims of the civil war.

Is this the man in freedom's cause approved. The man so great, so honored, so beloved ... This Curio, hated now and scorned by all, Who fell himself to work his country's fall? Akenside, Epistle to Curio.

CURIOUS IMPERTINENT (The), a tale introduced by Cervantes in his Don Quixote. The "impertinent" is an Italian gentleman who is silly enough to make trial of his wife's fidelity by persuading a friend to storm it if he can. Of course his friend "takes the fort," and the fool is left to bewail his own folly.—Pt. I. iv. 5 (1605).

CURRER BELL, the nom de plume of Charlotte Bronte, author of Jane Eyre [Air] (1816-1855).

CURTA'NA, the sword of Edward the Con'fessor, which had no point, and was therefore the emblem of mercy. Till the reign of Henry III., the royal sword of England was so called.

But when Curtana will not do the deed, You lay the pointless clergy-weapon by, And to the laws, your sword of justice, fly. Dryden, The Hind and the Panther, ii. (1687).

CURTA'NA or COURTAIN, the sword of Ogier the Dane.

He [Ogier] drew Courtain his sword out of its sheath. W. Morris, Earthly Paradise, (634).

CURT-HOSE (2 syl.). Robert II. duc de Normandie (1087-1134).

CURT-MANTLE, Henry II. of England

(1133, 1154-1189). So called because he wore the Anjou mantle, which was shorter than the robe worn by his predecessors.

CURTIS, one of Petruchio's servants.—Shakespeare, Taming of the Shrew (1594).

PARSON CUSHING, pastor of the Orthodox Church in Poganuc. In fits of learned abstraction, he fed the dog surreptitiously under the table, thereby encouraging his boys to trust his heart rather than his tongue. He justifies the expulsion of the Indian tribes by Scripture texts, and gathers eggs in the hay-mow with Dolly; upholds the doctrines of his denomination and would seal his faith with his blood, but admits that "the Thirty-nine articles (with some few exceptions) are a very excellent statement of truth." He is Catholic without suspecting it.—Harriet Beecher Stowe, Poganuc People, (1878).

CUSTANCE, daughter of the Emperor of Rome, affianced to the Sultan of Syria, who abjured his faith and consented to be baptized in order to marry her. His mother hated this apostasy, and at the wedding breakfast slew all the apostates except the bride. Her she embarked in a ship, which was set adrift and in due time reached the British shores, where Custance was rescued by the Lord-constable of Northumberland, who took her home, and placed her under the care of his wife Hermegild. Custance converted both the constable and his wife. A young knight wished to marry her, but she declined his suit, whereupon he murdered Hermegild, and then laid the bloody knife beside Custance, to make her suspected of the crime. King Alia examined the case, and soon discovered the real facts, whereupon the knight was executed, and the king married Custance.

The queen-mother highly disapproved of the match, and during the absence of her son in Scotland embarked Custance and her infant boy in a ship, which was turned adrift. After floating about for five years, it was taken in tow by a Roman fleet on its return from Syria, and Custance with her son Maurice became the guests of a Eoman Senator. It so happened that Alla at this same time was at Rome on a pilgrimage, and encountered his wife, who returned with him to Northumberland and lived in peace and happiness the rest of her life.—Chaucer, Canterbury Tales ("The Man of Law's Tale," 1388).

Custance, a gay and rich widow, whom Ralph Roister Doister wishes to marry, but he is wholly baffled in his scheme.—Nicholas TJdall, Ralph Roister Doister (first English comedy, 1534).

CUTE (Alderman), a "practical philosopher," resolved to put down everything. In his opinion "everything must be put down." Starvation must be put down, and so must suicide, sick mothers, babies, and poverty.—C. Dickens, The Chimes (1844).

CUTHAL, same as Uthal, one of the Orkneys.

CUTHBERT (St.), a Scotch monk of the sixth century.

CUTHBERT BEDE, the Rev. Edw. Bradley, author of Verdant Green (1857.)

CUTHO'NA, daughter of Rumar, was betrothed to Conlath, youngest son of Morni, of Mora. Not long before the espousals were to be celebrated, Toscar came from Ireland, and was hospitably entertained by Morni. On the fourth day, he saw Cuthona out hunting, and carried her off by force. Being pursued by Conlath, a fight ensued, in which both the young men fell, and Cuthona, after languishing for three days, died also.—Ossian, Conlath and Cuthona.

CUTHULLIN, son of Semo, commander of the Irish army, and regent during the minority of Cormac. His wife was Brag'elo, daughter of Sorglan. In the poem called Fingal, Cuthullin was defeated by Swaran, king of Lochlin [Scandinavia], and being ashamed to meet Fingal, retired from the field gloomy and sad. Fingal having utterly defeated Swaran, invited Cuthullin to the banquet, and partially restored his depressed spirits. In the third year of Cormac's reign, Torlah, son of Can'tela, rebelled. Cuthullin gained a complete victory over him at the lake Lego, but was mortally wounded in the pursuit by a random arrow. Cuthullin was succeeded by Nathos, but the young king was soon dethroned by the rebel Cairbre, and murdered.—Ossian, Fingal and The Death of Cuthullin.

CUTLER (Sir John), a royalist, who died 1699, reduced to the utmost poverty.

Cutler saw tenants break, and houses fall. For very want he could not build a wall. His only daughter in a stranger's power, for very want he could not pay a dower. A few gray hairs his reverend temples crowned, 'Twas very want that sold them for two pound....

Cutler and Brutus, dying, both exclaim, "Virtue and wealth, what are ye but a name?" Pope, Moral Essays, iii. (1709).

CUTPURSE (Moil), Mary Frith, the heroine of Middleton's comedy called The Roaring Girl (1611). She was a woman of masculine vigor, who not unfrequently assumed man's attire. This notorious cut-purse once attacked General Fairfax on Hounslow Heath, but was arrested and sent to Newgate; she escaped, however, by bribing the turnkey, and died of dropsy at the age of 75. Nathaniel Field introduces her in his drama called Amends for Ladies (1618).

CUTSHAMAQUIN, an Indian Sachem, whose disobedient and rebellious son was "dealt with" publicly by John Eliot. At the second summons and serious admonition, the lad repented and confessed humbly, "and entreated his father to forgive him, and took him by the hand, at which his father burst forth into great weeping."—John Eliot, The Clear Sunshine of the Gospel Breaking Forth Upon the Indians (1648).

CUTTLE (Captain Edward), a great friend of Solomon Gills, ship's instrument maker. Captain Cuttle had been a skipper, had a hook instead of a right hand, and always wore a very hard, glazed hat. He was in the habit of quoting, and desiring those to whom he spoke "to overhaul the catechism till they found it;" but, he added, "when found, make a note on." The kind-hearted seaman was very fond of Florence Dombey, and of Walter Gay, whom he called "Wal'r." When Florence left her father's roof, Captain Cuttle sheltered her at the Wooden Midshipman. One of his favorite sentiments was "May we never want a friend, or a bottle to give him."—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

("When found, make a note of," is the motto of Notes and Queries.)

CYC'LADES (3 syl.), some twenty islands, so called from the classic legend that they circled round Delos when that island was rendered stationary by the birth of Diana and Apollo.

CYCLIC POETS, a series of epic poets, who wrote continuations or additions to Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; they were called "Cyclic" because they confined themselves to the cycle of the Trojan war.

AG'IAS wrote an epic on "the return of the Greeks from Troy" (B.C. 740).

ARCTI'NOS wrote a continuation of the Iliad, describing the taking of Troy by the "Wooden Horse," and its conflagration. Virgil has copied from this poet (B.C. 776).

EU'GAMON wrote a continuation of the Odyssey. It contains the adventures of Telegonos in search of his father Ulysses. When he reached Ith'aca, Ulysses and Telemachos went against him, and Telegonos killed Ulysses with a spear which his mother Circe had given him (B.C. 568).

LES'CHES, author of the Little Iliad, in four books, containing the fate of Ajax, the exploits of Philoctetes, Neoptol'emos, and Ulysses, and the final capture of Troy (B.C. 708).

STASI'NOS, "son-in-law" of Homer. He wrote an introduction to the Iliad.

CYCLOPS. Their names are Brontes, Steropes, and Arges. (See SINDBAD, voy. 3).

Cyclops (The Holy). So Dryden in the Masque of Albion and Albanius, calls Richard Rumbold, an Englishman, the chief conspirator in the "Ryehouse Plot." He had lost one eye, and was executed.

CYDIP'PE (3 syl), a lady courted by Acontius of Cea, but being unable to obtain her, he wrote on an apple, "I swear by Diana that Acontius shall be my husband." This apple was presented to the maiden, and being persuaded that she had written the words, though inadvertently, she consented to marry Acontius for "the oath's sake."

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