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Chapters in the History of the Insane in the British Isles
by Daniel Hack Tuke
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Authorizes the Commissioners in urgent cases to employ any competent person to visit any lunatic and to report to them.

Directs committee of every hospital to submit regulations to the Secretary of State for approval, and to send a copy to Commissioners.

Empowers Commissioners, with sanction of the Secretary of State, to make regulations for the government of licensed houses.

Enacts that Bethlem Hospital shall be subject to the provisions of Act 8 and 9 Vict., c. 100.

The third Act (16 and 17 Vict., c. 97) repeals the several Acts then in force respecting county and borough lunatic asylums, and re-enacts most of the provisions therein contained, with certain additions and improvements.

It authorizes justices of boroughs, instead of providing asylums for their own use, or in arranging with counties, etc., to contract with the Visitors of any asylum for the reception of their pauper lunatics, in consideration of certain payments.

The powers of the Visitors were enlarged in many ways.

When a county or borough asylum can accommodate more than its own pauper lunatics, the Visitors are empowered to permit the admission of the pauper lunatics of any other county or borough, or lunatics who are not paupers, but proper objects to be admitted into a public asylum, such non-pauper patients to have the same accommodation, in all respects, as the pauper lunatics.

The Visitors are directed to appoint a medical officer to be superintendent of the asylum.

They are empowered to grant superannuation annuities to the officers and servants.

They are directed to make an annual report to the general or quarter sessions of the state of the asylum.

Every pauper lunatic, not in an asylum, hospital, or licensed house, is to be visited every quarter by the medical officer of the parish or union, who is to make return thereof; and the medical officer is to be paid two shillings and sixpence for every visit.

The forms of orders, statements, and medical certificates are amended, and the medical officers of unions are permitted to sign certificates.

The medical man certifying is required to state his qualification, when and where the patient was examined, and to specify facts indicating insanity; distinguishing facts observed by himself from those communicated to him by others.

Visitors are empowered to order the removal of pauper patients to and from asylums, and also to discharge or permit the absence on trial of any patient. The Commissioners are empowered to direct the removal of any lunatic from any asylum, hospital, or licensed house to any other.

The person signing the order for admission of a private patient into an asylum may discharge such patient, subject, in the case of dangerous lunatics, to the consent of the visiting justices. Any person having authority to discharge a private patient is empowered (with consent of two Commissioners) to transfer him to another asylum or to the care of any person.

Orders and certificates, if defective, may be amended within fourteen days.

Patients escaping may be retaken within fourteen days.

This statute did not re-enact the clause contained in the Act it repealed respecting workhouses.

18 AND 19 VICT., C. 105 (1855).

In 1855 was passed the Act 18 and 19 Vict., c. 105, "to amend the Lunatic Asylum Acts and the Acts passed in the Ninth and Seventeenth Years of Her Majesty, for the Regulation of the Care and Treatment of Lunatics."

By this statute it was enacted that any single county or borough might unite with the subscribers to a registered hospital, and that the proportion of expenses between any county and borough might be fixed with reference to accommodation likely to be required.

Other sections provide in detail for the maintenance of county and borough asylums, and other matters which it is unnecessary to enumerate.



APPENDIX G.

(Page 195.)

A short summary is added of the provisions in force at the time of the Select Committee of 1859-60, for the protection of private patients. They remain essentially the same.

In the metropolis, the power of licensing is exclusively in the hands of the Metropolitan Commissioners. In the provincial districts it rests with the justices at quarter sessions. These licenses are annually renewed, and they may be revoked by the Lord Chancellor. The patients are admitted upon an order signed by some relative or friend, with a statement of all the particulars of the case. This statement must be supported by the certificates of two medical practitioners, who, having examined the patient separately within seven days previous to the reception, state that he is a person of unsound mind, and a proper person to be detained under care and treatment. It must also specify the grounds upon which their opinion has been formed, viz. the facts observed by themselves or communicated by others. After two and before the expiration of seven clear days, the proprietor or superintendent of the licensed house must transmit to the Commissioners, and also to the visiting justices, if the licensed house is within their jurisdiction, a copy of the order and certificates. The licensed house must be visited by two of the Commissioners, four times at least every year, if it lies within their immediate jurisdiction; and if beyond, it must be visited four times at least by Visitors appointed by the justices, one of whom shall be a medical man, and twice at least by two of the Commissioners. In the course of such visits, inquiries are directed to be made as to the occupation, amusement, classification, condition, and dietary of the different patients, and also whether a system of non-coercion has been adopted or not; and where it shall appear, either to the Commissioners or to the visiting justices, that a patient is detained without sufficient cause, they have the power, under certain conditions, of ordering his discharge. When a patient recovers, the proprietor or superintendent is required to send notice of such recovery to the person who signed the order for his reception; and if such patient is not discharged or removed within fourteen days, the proprietor is required immediately to transmit a similar notice to the Commissioners or visiting justices, as the case may be. When a patient dies, the medical practitioner who attended such patient during his illness is to cause a statement to be entered in the case-book, setting forth the time and cause of death, and the duration of the disease of which the patient died, and a copy of such statement, within two days, must be transmitted to the coroner. In addition to these specific provisions, the Commissioners have power from time to time to make regulations for the government of any of these licensed houses, and they must report annually to the Lord Chancellor the number of visits they have made, the number of patients they have seen, the state and condition of the house, the care of the patients therein, and such other particulars as they may think deserving of notice (p. vi.).

25 AND 26 VICT., C. 111, "THE LUNACY ACTS AMENDMENT ACT, 1862."

In consequence of the importance of the Act of 1862, the Commissioners issued the following circular noting its chief provisions:—

Private Patients.

Sec. 23.—The order must be dated within one month prior to reception; the person signing the order must himself have seen the patient within one month prior to its date; and a statement of the time and place when the patient was so seen must be appended to the order.

Sec. 25.—When possible, every order must contain the name and address of one or more relations of the lunatic, to whom notice of the death of a lunatic must be sent.

Sec. 24.—Besides the persons hitherto prohibited from signing certificates and orders, the following also are now disqualified:—Any person receiving any percentage on or otherwise interested in the payments for patients, and the medical attendant as defined in the Lunacy Act, c. 100. Also 15 and 16 Vict., c. 96, s. 12; c. 97, s. 76.

Sec. 26.—Where a patient received as a pauper is made a private patient, no fresh order or certificate is required, and vice versa.

Sec 28.—With the exception of the statement by the medical officer as to a patient's mental and bodily condition, all the documents heretofore required to be sent to the Commissioners after two or before seven clear days from the reception of the patient, must in future be sent within one clear day from such reception. The medical officer's statement is, as heretofore, not to be sent until after two and before seven clear days.

Letters of Patients.

Sec 40.—Without special directions to the contrary, letters addressed to the Commissioners, committees of Visitors, committees of a hospital, and the Visitors of licensed houses, must be forwarded unopened. Other letters must also be forwarded, unless, by an endorsement thereon, the superintendent or other person having charge of patients should prohibit their transmission. Letters so endorsed to be laid before Commissioners, committees, or Visitors at next visit.

Sec. 38.—Absence on trial may be permitted to patients, in the same way as leave of absence for the benefit of health is permitted under s. 86, c. 100.

Sec. 43.—In the absence of any person qualified to discharge, a discharge or removal may be ordered by the Commissioners.

Pauper Patients.

Sec. 25.—The order must contain the name and address of one or more relations of the lunatic, and notice of the death of the lunatic must be sent to such relation.

Sec. 38.—A pauper permitted to be absent on trial from a licensed house or hospital may have such an allowance made to him by order of the Commissioners, Visitors, or committees as would be charged for him were he in the house or hospital.

Licensed Houses and Hospitals.

Secs. 14 and 15.—No fresh licence can be granted by justices without inspection and report by the Commissioners. Notices of alterations in houses licensed by justices must be given to Commissioners. Their report must be considered by the justices before licence is granted or alterations are consented to.

Sec. 16.—The physician, surgeon, or apothecary not being a licensee, where any such is by law required to reside in or visit a licensed house, must in the metropolitan district be approved of by the Commissioners, and in the provincial district by the visiting justices.

A penalty is imposed on any person infringing the terms of his licence as to numbers, sex, or class.

Sec. 18.—With consent of two of the Commissioners, or, in the case of the provincial licensed houses, of two of the Visitors, a person who may have been a patient within five years immediately preceding, may be received as a boarder into a licensed house (extension of c. 96, s. 6).

Sec. 29.—Licensed houses may be visited at any time by one or more of the Commissioners or Visitors, but in the metropolitan district they must be so visited twice in the year, in addition to the present visits by two Commissioners, and in the provincial districts similarly by Visitors. Commissioners and Visitors visiting singly have substantially the same powers of inspection and inquiry as when visiting together. To these the sixty-second section of the Act does not apply.

Sec. 39.—A penalty is now imposed on any officer or servant conniving at an escape.

Sec. 43.—In the absence of any person qualified under ss. 72, 73, c. 100, the Commissioners may order discharge or removal of a patient.

Sec. 38.—Absence on trial may be permitted to patients, in the same way as leave of absence for the benefit of health is permitted under s. 86, c. 100.

Medical Certificates.

Sec 27.—Where medical certificates have been returned with a written direction of the Commissioners for amendment, and such amendment shall not have been made within fourteen days, the Commissioners may order the patient's discharge.

Sec. 22.—Lunatics so found by inquisition may be received without certificate on an order of the committee, accompanied by an official copy of the order appointing such Committee.[316]

Workhouses.

The Poor Law Board issued a circular at the same time. The only paragraph which it is of interest to cite here is the following:—"The eighth section empowers the Visitors of any asylum and the guardians of any parish or union within the district for which the asylum has been provided, if they shall see fit, to make arrangements, subject to the approval of the Commissioners in Lunacy and the President of the Poor Law Board, for the reception and care of a limited number of chronic lunatics in the workhouse of such parish or union, to be selected by the superintendent of the asylum and certified by him to be fit and proper so to be removed. The Board are at present not aware of any workhouse in which any such arrangement could conveniently be made; but they will be ready to consider any such proposals on the subject when the Visitors of the Board of Guardians of any union shall find it convenient or practicable to act upon this clause."

FOOTNOTES:

[316] Seventeenth Report of Commissioners in Lunacy, 1863.



APPENDIX H.

(Page 205.)

Extract from the British and Foreign Medical Review, January, 1840:—

"In this particular there is apparently no asylum in England which presents so remarkable a model as that of Lincoln. Of all the works that have appeared on the subject of lunatic houses since the publication of Mr. Tuke's account of the Retreat, there is none which contains matter more deserving of attention than that recently published by Mr. Hill. His lecture is little more than a simple commentary on the resolutions of the board of management of the Lincoln Asylum for twenty years past; during which period, under the superintendence of Dr. Charlesworth, and latterly with the vigilant co-operation of Mr. Hill himself, as house surgeon, almost every kind of bodily restraint is stated to have gradually fallen into disuse as superfluous, a mere substitute for want of watchful care.... If the Lincoln Asylum can present a model of this kind, which all may visit and examine, the services of Dr. Charlesworth to the cause of humanity and in behalf of the insane, already considerable, will only be second to that of him who first released them from their chains."

On this Mr. Hill observes, July 8, 1840:—

"At last the first Medical Review in Europe took up the subject, and placed most deservingly Dr. Charlesworth in a striking position as to the non-restraint system, and also honoured myself with approbation."

The following extracts from the Orders in the Lincoln Asylum books[317] are essential to the right understanding of the introduction of non-restraint there. Dr. Charlesworth was visiting physician from its opening in 1821; Mr. Hill was appointed house surgeon in 1835.

"1828. Ordered—That the use of the strait waistcoat be discontinued in this institution except under the special written order of the physician of the month.

"1828, October 13. Ordered and resolved—That the physicians be requested to consider whether it be possible to make any improvement in the means of restraint now in use, and especially for obviating the use of the strait waistcoat."

Extract from the Fifth Report of the Lincoln Lunatic Asylum, 1829, April:—

"The governors have particularly directed their views to the subject of coercion and restraint, well aware of their injurious consequences to the patients.... The construction of the instruments in use having also been carefully examined, they have destroyed a considerable proportion of those that were not of the most improved and least irritating description, and hope hereafter to introduce still further amelioration into this department."

Extract from the House Visitor's Report, 1829, August 17:—

"Every attention seems to be paid to the patients, whose general state has, I understand, for some time past, been so generally good that it is gratifying to say that the strait waistcoat has almost become useless."

Extract from the Seventh Annual Report, 1831, March 28:—

"Heretofore it was conceived that the only intention of a receptacle for the insane was the safe custody of the unhappy objects, by any means, however harsh and severe. These views are now passing away, and the fair measure of a superintendent's ability, in the treatment of such patients, will be found in the small number of restraints which are imposed. The new director has answered this test in a very satisfactory manner."

The new director here referred to was Mr. Henry Marston. The following note is appended to this report:—

"As early as the 24th day of November last (viz. Nov., 1830, five years before Mr. Hill's appointment), there was not any patient in the house under restraint, unless one wearing a collar, which leaves all the limbs quite at liberty, can be so considered. This gratifying occurrence has taken place more than once since that time."

Extract from the Ninth Annual Report, 1833, April:—

"It is unceasingly an object in this institution, and should form a prominent point in the annual reports, to dispense with or improve as much as possible the instruments of restraint."

Extract from the House Visitor's Report, 1834, August 4th to 10th inclusive:—

"I have much satisfaction in being able to state that not a single male patient has been under restraint since the 16th of July, and not one female patient since the 1st of August, and then only for a few hours."

At this time Mr. Hadwen held the appointment of house surgeon.

Extract from the Governor's Memorandum Book, 1835, July 8th:—

"Resolved,—That this Board, in acknowledging the services of Mr. Hadwen during the period of fifteen months that he held the situation of house surgeon of this institution, feel called upon to express their high approbation of the very small proportion of instances of restraint which have occurred amongst the patients under his care."

Extract from Edinburgh Review, April, 1870:—

"But to Conolly belongs a still higher crown, not merely for his courage in carrying out a beneficent conception on a large scale and on a conspicuous theatre, but for his genius in expanding it. To him, hobbles and chains, handcuffs and muffs, were but material impediments that merely confined the limbs; to get rid of these he spent the best years of his life; but beyond these mechanical fetters he saw there were a hundred fetters to the spirit, which human sympathy, courage, and time only could remove.

"Perfect as was the experiment carried out at Lincoln Asylum, the remoteness of that institution from the great centre of life, and the want of authority in its author, would no doubt have prevented its acceptance for years by the physicians of the great county asylums so long wedded to old habits. It was for some time treated as the freak of an enthusiastic mind, that would speedily go the way of all such new-fangled notions; and no doubt it would, had not an irresistible impulse been given to it by the installation of Dr. Conolly at Hanwell, where, with a noble ardour, he at once set to work to carry out in the then largest asylum in the kingdom the lesson he had learned at Lincoln."

Dr. Conolly's works bearing on mental disorders, in addition to his "Lectures on Insanity," were as follows:—

1. "An Inquiry concerning the Indications of Insanity, with Suggestions for the better Protection and Care of the Insane." 1830.

2. "The Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane." 1847.

3. "The Treatment of the Insane without Mechanical Restraints." 1856.

See "Memoir of Dr. Conolly." By Sir James Clark. 1869.

FOOTNOTES:

[317] As given in the Journal of Mental Science, July, 1870.



APPENDIX I.

(Page 236.)

The Commissioners give, in their Report for 1857, a table in support of the statement at p. 236, but it is not borne out by the average of the six largest and six smallest county asylums.

- - Daily average Average weekly cost Asylum. number of patients. per head. - - s. d. Colney Hatch 1257 9 10 Hanwell 1020 10 5-3/4 Surrey 934 8 8-3/4 Wakefield 803 7 4 Lancaster 710 8 1-1/2 Prestwich 509 7 10 - - Average} 872 Average} 8 8-1/2 number} cost } Dorset 155 8 1 Denbigh 189 9 8-3/4 Bucks 192 10 8 Notts 216 10 5 Cornwall 238 8 3-3/4 Chester 278 8 6 - - Average} 211 Average} 9 3 number} cost} - -



APPENDIX K I.

(Page 258.)

The sketch of the rise and growth of county asylums and registered hospitals would not be complete without giving the provision obtained, up to the present time, by means of rates on the one hand and private charity on the other. We are not concerned here with private asylums.

The following are the asylums and charitable hospitals in England and Wales, January 1st, 1881, with the number of patients.

Counties.—Beds., Herts, and Hunts. (913); Berks (420), Bucks. (421), Cambridge (421); Carmarthen, Cardigan, and Pembroke (335); Chester—at Chester (521), ditto at Macclesfield (632); Cornwall (582); Cumberland and Westmoreland (447); Denbigh, Anglesea, Carnarvon, Flint, and Merioneth (427); Derby (404), Devon (800), Dorset (469), Durham (944), Essex (932), Glamorgan (581), Gloucester (662), Hants (792), Hereford (364), Kent—at Maidstone (1253), ditto at Canterbury (692); Lancaster—at Lancaster Moor (1118), ditto at Rainhill (675), ditto at Prestwich (1211), ditto at Whittingham (1260); Leicester and Rutland (463), Lincoln (600); Middlesex—at Banstead (1702), Colney Hatch (2173), Hanwell (1841); Monmouth, Brecon, and Radnor (537); Norfolk (619), Northampton (557), Northumberland (432), Notts (280), Oxford (471), Salop and Montgomery (50), Somerset (733); Stafford—at Stafford (645), ditto at Burntwood (529); Suffolk (401); Surrey—at Wandsworth (1028), ditto at Brookwood (1050); Sussex (802), Warwick (644), Wilts (586), Worcester (766); York—North Riding, York (525); ditto West Riding, Wakefield (1400); ditto West Riding, Sheffield (1125); ditto East Riding, Beverley (260).

Boroughs.—Birmingham (676), Bristol (387), Hull (163), Ipswich (249), Leicester (392), City of London (380), Newcastle-on-Tyne (248), Norwich (171), Nottingham (262), Portsmouth (375).

Metropolitan District Asylums.—Leavesden, Herts (1990); Darenth, Kent (687); Caterham, Surrey (2039).

Hospitals.—Manchester Royal Lunatic Hospital, Cheadle (183); Wonford House, Exeter (93); Barnwood House, Gloucester (111); Lincoln Lunatic Hospital (56); St. Luke's Hospital (199); Bethel Hospital, Norwich (74); St. Andrew's Hospital, Northampton (314); Nottingham Lunatic Hospital (66); Warneford Asylum, Oxford (68); Coton Hill, Stafford (146); Bethlem Hospital (265); Bootham Asylum, York (187); The Retreat, York (151).

Idiot Establishments. See chapter viii., pp. 307-319.

Naval and Military Hospitals and India Asylum.—Royal Military Hospital, Netley (34); Royal India Lunatic Asylum, Ealing (105); Royal Naval Hospital, Yarmouth (168).

Criminal Asylum.—Broadmoor (491). See chapter vi.

The total number of ascertained lunatics and idiots in England and Wales, January 1st, was as follows:—

+ + + Private. Pauper. Total. + -+ -+ + + + + + + Location. M. F. Total. M. F. Total. M. F. Total. + -+ -+ + + + + + + 61 county and borough asylums (51 and 10) 230 309 539 18,427 22,389 40,816 18,657 22,698 41,355 16 registered hospitals 1,454 1,346 2,800 92 56 148 1,546 1,402 2,948 Licensed houses: 35 Metropolitan 1,030 836 1,866 198 447 645 1,228 1,283 2,511 59 Provincial 738 816 1,554 257 304 561 995 1,120 2,115 3 naval and military and hospitals, Royal India Asylum 288 19 307 288 19 307 1 criminal lunatic asylum (Broadmoor) 172 55 227 199 65 264 371 120 491 Workhouses: Ordinary workhouses 5,211 6,882 12,093 5,211 6,882 12,093 Metropolitan district asylums 2,144 2,574 4,718 2,144 2,574 4,718 Private single patients 175 273 448 175 273 448 Outdoor paupers 2,358 3,769 6,127 2,358 3,769 6,127 + -+ -+ + + + + + + - 73,113 175 Total 4,087 3,654 7,741 28,886 36,486 65,372 32,973 40,140 [318] + -+ -+ + + + + + +

FOOTNOTES:

[318] Exclusive of 224 Chancery patients residing with their committees.



APPENDIX K II.

(Page 276.)

It should have been stated in the text that the ratio of the insane there given to the number of those tried, only refers to those tried for murder. I am indebted to Dr. Guy for the following additional figures, extracted from the last volume of the Judicial Statistics:—

- - - - - 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878. 1879. 1880. - - - - - Sentenced to death 33 32 34 20 34 28 Executed 18 22 22 15 16 13 Subsequently certified as insane and sent to Broadmoor 1 1 2 1 4 1 - - - - -

The following figures for 1878 are of interest:—

Removed by order of Secretary of State, acquitted as insane 33.2 Ditto, becoming insane after trial 22.2 Ditto, becoming insane after committal 23.5 Ditto, found or declared insane 20.9 Committed by justices—dangerous lunatics 0.2 ——- 100.0

The last figure is in striking contrast with the return from Ireland, where, on account of the peculiarity of the law, the justices committed 1276 as dangerous lunatics, out of 1393 sent to asylums in the same year.



APPENDIX L.

(Page 284.)

Since Broadmoor was opened, in 1863, to January 1, 1881, the number of persons admitted was 1322; the re-admissions were 27, making 1349 cases. The number discharged recovered was 108; the number recovered and sent back to prison to finish their sentences, 59; making a total of recoveries of 167, or 12.37 per cent. of the admissions. There were transferred to other asylums, being still insane, 452; and 234 died, or 2 per cent. on average number resident. Twenty-one patients escaped and were recaptured, 3 escaped and were not recaptured. The number remaining January 1, 1881, was 490.

Of these, 19 were affected with epilepsy; 13 with paralysis; and 4 with epilepsy and paralysis.

The principal crimes were as follows:—For murder, 220; attempt to murder, 122; arson, 28; larceny and petty theft, 25; insubordination as soldiers, 18; burglary and housebreaking, 16; manslaughter, 10.

With reference to the period at which insanity was recognized, 39 were certified to be insane whilst awaiting trial or judgment; 117 were found insane by jury on arraignment; 244 were acquitted on the ground of insanity; 13 were reprieved on the ground of insanity; and 77 were certified insane whilst undergoing sentence of penal servitude.

Of 230 who had committed homicide, 93 had killed their own children; 23 their wives; 8 women to whom engaged; 7 the mother, and 4 the father; while 18 had killed fellow patients in asylums.



APPENDIX M.

(Page 298.)

The following are some of the statistics of the duties performed in the office of the Masters in Lunacy during the year ending October 31, 1879:—

Orders for inquiry in Commissions of Lunacy executed by Masters in Lunacy 115

Reports made to the Lord Chancellor 248

Summonses for proceedings before the Masters 5739

REGISTRAR IN LUNACY.

Petitions presented for hearing 253

Ditto for orders for inquiry, and for orders under Lunacy Regulation Act, 1862 179

Orders made for inquiry (Commissioners in Lunacy) 119

Number of orders made in pursuance of the Lunacy Regulation Act, 1862, for the application of properties of small amounts for the maintenance of lunatics 51

CASH ACCOUNTS.

Amount of receipts included in accounts and affidavits of committees and receivers of lunatics' estates, taken and passed by the Masters L882,481

Amount of disbursements and allowances thereon 766,220

Percentage on lunatics' incomes under general order 21,140

Amount of stock directed to be transferred into court 144,439

Amount of stock directed to be sold or transferred out 325,925

Amount of stock directed by orders in lunacy to be transferred, or otherwise than into court 2,092,038

Judicial Statistics, 1880.



INDEX.

A.

Abendberg, the, 305

Aberdeen Asylum, 333, 334, 343

Abram men, 39, 40, 65

Accumulation of insane, 261, 362, 402, 429, 438, 493

Adam, Dr., 379

Admissions into asylums, 260

Aetius, 30

Agas's map, 60, 507

Agrippa, Cornelius, 36, 38

Ahagaltaun, 23

Airing-courts, 375

Ale, 2, 4, 5

Alkermes, 31

Allen, Dr. T., 80, 81

Altarnun, 11

America, 445

—— and idiots, 302

Amsterdam Hospital, 111

Amusements, 336

Apparition, treatment of, 4

Apples in insanity, 109

Apuleius, 2, 31

Argyll, Duke of, 340

Armagh, 403, 417

Armoric word for mania, 11

Arnold, Dr. T., 141

——, Dr. (Rugby), 442

Ashe, Dr., 431

Ashley, Lord, 170, 176, 177, 178, 180, 184, 339, 449, 451

Asylums in 1792, Appendix C; in 1844, pp. 209-212; in 1851, p. 225; in 1858, 238; in 1881, Appendix K I

Attendants, 233, 244, 466

Aubrey, 65

Austria, 444

Auxiliary asylums (Ireland), 426

Ayrshire petition against lunacy reform, 327

B.

Backus, Dr., 302

Bacon's restoration of Cibber's statues, 71

Baillarger, 444, 497

Bain, Mr., 474

Baker, Dr., 466

Baldovan Idiot School, 308

Ball, Professor, 284

Ballinasloe, 403, 417

Balsam of bats, 33

—— of earthworms, 33

Banstead, 460

Barking, asylum at, 55, 68

Barlow, Master, 191, 293, 294, 296

Bastian, Dr., 473

Bath, school for imbeciles, 304, 307, 320

Baths in insanity, 6, 12, 137, 485

Battie, Dr., 82, 86, 87

Batty, Dr., 141

Bayle, 444

Bayley, Mr., 504

Beach, Dr., 304, 308

Bedford Asylum, 165, 166, 180, 214

"Bedlam," synonymous with mad-house, 56; lines on, 75

—— Gate, 48, 49

Belfast Asylum, 417, 424

Belgium, 445

Belhomme, M., 302

Bell, Dr. Luther, 445, 467

——, St. Fillan's, 2, 15, 16

Benefits arising from the removal of restrictions, 379

Bennet, Hon. H. G., 149

Bethel Hospital, 210

Bethlem Hospital, 12, 45, 85, 152, 166, 400, 507

——, plates of, 60, 74; prints of, Appendix A

Bethnal Green Asylum, 155, 156, 167, 168, 174, 183

Bezoartick pastills, 33

Bicetre, the, 302, 446

Bile, 33, 43, 93

Bill of 1773, 101

Binning, Lord, 149, 326, 328

Bishopsgate Street, 45

Blackburn, Mr., 355

Blandford, Dr., 453

Blood-letting, 484

Board of Lunacy, 453, 493, 518

—— of Supervision (Scotland), 348, 349, 351, 352, 354, 355

—— of Works (Ireland), 404

Boarding out of lunatics, 387

Boase, Dr., 13

Boerhaave, 18

Boismont, Brierre de, 145, 444

Bootham Asylum (York Asylum), 210

Borage, 30

Borde, Dr., 26

Borlase, Mr. W. C., 13

——, Dr., 13

Bowen's Bethlem, 62

Bowling Green, the, 87

Bowssening lunatics, 11, 513

Boyd, Dr., 477

Braid, Mr. James, 472

Brank, the, 42

Braun's map, 60

Bread and milk in insanity, 109

Bridewell, 61

Bridle, scold's, 42

Brigham, Dr., 445, 500

Bright, Dr., 167

British Review, 123

British word for mania, 11

Broadmoor, 240, 252, 265, 494, Appendix L

Broadway, H., his medical certificate, 163

Brodie, Dr., 308

Brogden, Mr., 326

Brookwood Asylum, 42, 505

Brosius, 448

Brougham, Lord, 164, 175

Brown, Dr. (N. Y.), 134

Browne, Sir T., 31, 35

——, Dr. W. A. F., 335, 339, 368

——, Dr. Crichton, 480, 489

Bruce, Mr., 355

Brushfield, Dr., 42, 505

Buckland, Mr., 49

Bucknill, Dr., 191, 297, 458, 477, 500

Burt, Mr., 279

Burton, 29, 30, 31

Butt of St. Lewes, 16

C.

Cairns, Lord, 433

Calmeil, 444

Campbell, Lord, 245

Cappe, Dr., 118

Carlow Asylum, 403, 417

Carmarthen Asylum, 250

Carpenter, Dr., 469

Cassidy, Dr., 208

Castlebar Asylum, 423

Caterham Asylum, 240, 241, 262, 308, 319

Cath Finntraglia, 24

Census of insane, 1844, 179, 211, 451; 1847, 221; 1854, 230; 1858, 191; 1859, 259; 1864, 240; 1874, 252; 1879, 258; 1881, 259, 533

—— (Scotch), 1818, 330; 1855, 340; 1858, 360; 1874, 364; 1881, 367, 368, 373

—— (Ireland), 1827, 408; 1843, 414; 1881, 439, 441

Cerebral reflex action, 469

Certificate, illiterate, 163

Chains, 8, 40, 52, 64, 95, 154, 155

Chamber of Horrors at Lancaster, 208

Chancery lunatics, 199, 222, 285, 298, Appendix M —— (Ireland), 434

Charcot, 474

Charing Cross, asylum at, 53, 68

Charity Commissioners' Report on Bethlem, 60, 79, 85

—— Organization Committee on idiots, 311, 313, 461

Charles I., 66

Charlesworth, Dr., 182, 204, 206, 527

Chatham, Earl of, 98, 103-7

Chaucer, 10, 53, 54

Cheadle Lunatic Hospital, 199, 243, 458, 504

Cheshire Asylum, 42, 165, 214, 250

Chiaruggi, 445

Christ's Hospital, 61

Christmas Rose, 30

Chronicles of Great Britain during Middle Ages, 8

Church-bell, 2, 15

Cibber, Caius Gabriel, 70, 78

City and Bethlem, 58, 61, 67, 82

Clapton. See Darenth

Clark, J. Benwell, 61

Clarke, Lockhart, 478

——, Rev. E. M., 414

Classification of insanity, 467

Clerkenwell Close, 92

Cloghnagalt, 23

Clonmel Asylum, 394, 417

Clouston, Dr., 371, 488, 501

Cock, sacrifice of a, 20, 21

Code of rules (Irish) issued by Privy Council, 424

Coin paid to a Scotch loch, 20

Coke, 31, 32, 38

Colebrooke, Sir E., 352

College of Physicians, 102, 162, 170, 174, 449

Colney Hatch Asylum, 236, 249

Colquhoun, Mr., 324

Comfort of asylums, increased, 386

Commission, Lunacy Inquiry (Irish), 1877, 397

Commissioners in Lunacy, 187, 220, 235, 242, 246, 493

—— (Ireland), 403

Committee (House of Commons), 1763, 98; 1808, 127; 1814, 1815, 149, 157; 1816, 158, 159; 1827, 167; 1859, 191, Appendix G; 1877, 196, 294

—— (Ireland), 1804, 399; 1817, 394, 402; 1859, 402

—— (Scotch), 1848, 338, 339

—— House of Lords (Ireland), 1830, 409, 413; 1855, 417

Congress, International Medical, 284, 286

Connaught Asylum, 409

Conolly, Dr., 177, 180, 182, 191, 206, 207, 220, 414, 447, 448, 459, 484, Appendix H

Constantinople asylums, 110

Construction of asylums, 236

Coote, Mr., 508

Cork Asylum, 398, 407, 415, 420

Cornish word for mania, 11

Cornwall, treatment in, 11

—— Asylum, 165, 166, 199, 214, 215

Corrigan, Dr., 418

Corsellis, Dr., 182

Cost of asylums, 166, 180, 239, 241, 262, 461

—— of maintenance of lunatics, 222, 244, 269, 278, 366, Appendix I

—— of pauper lunatics transferred from parish to union, 239

Coton Hill Lunatic Hospital, 244, 504

Cottage treatment (Devon Asylum), 458

County asylums, 1844, 209, 211

Couper, Marable, 21

Course of Lunacy Legislation, 147

Cowan, Mr., 355

Cox, Dr., 142, 513

——, Mr. James (afterwards Sir James Coxe), 360

Crace, Mr., 508

Crichton, Dr. (Friars Carse), 335

——, Mrs., 335

——, Dr., 142

Criminal lunatics, 265

Crooke, Hilkiah, 64, 80

Cross, sign of the, 5

Crosses, lunatics bound to, 28

Cullen, Dr., prescribes stripes, 513

Currie, Dr., 513

D.

Daire Dornmhar, 24

Dalyell, 16, 21

Dangerous lunatics (Ireland), 423, 436, 534

Darenth Asylum, 241

—— Idiot Schools, 307, 319

Dark room, 29, 44

Darwin on idiots, 318

Davies, Dr. Pritchard, 486

Defoe, Daniel, 96

Dekker, 65

Delarive, Dr., 117, 137

Demoniacal possession, 1, 5, 9, 18, 27, 43

Demonology, 34

Denbigh Asylum, 253, 254

Denton, Robert, 55

Depeditch, 48, 49

Depletion in insanity, 136, 137, 484

Derby, Earl of, 269

"Description of the Retreat," 115, 123, 129, 400, 515

Desportes, 459

"Devil sickness," 2

Devon, Earl of, 306

Dickens on the Court of Chancery, 285

Dickson Thompson, Dr., 471

Diet in insanity, 136

Difficulties met with in carrying out improvements, 385

Dillwyn, Mr., 196, 200, 499

—— Committee, 196, 296, 450

Dioscorides, 2, 30

"Dissolution," 471

District asylums (Scotland), 358

Divination, 26

Dix, Miss, 338, 353, 445

"Dog and Duck," 84

Dorridge Grove Asylum, 306

Dorset Asylum, 214, 250

Down, Dr., 307

Downpatrick Asylum, 423

Drummond, Mr. H., 191, 332, 339, 351, 356

——, Alex., trial of, 21

Dublin Asylum. See Richmond

Ducking stools, 34

Dumfries Asylum, 335, 368

Dunbar, Sir William, 356

Duncan, Dr., 122, 322

Dundas, Mr. W., 324

Dundee Asylum, 333

Dundrum Asylum, 180, 268, 431, 435

Dunlop, Mr., 356

Dunne, Col., 417

Dunstan, Mr., 89

Durham Asylum, 250

Dwellings, insane in private, 262

E.

Earle, Dr. Pliny, 492

Earlswood, 305, 319

Edinburgh Review on Pinel, 142

Edinburgh Royal Asylum, 322, 323, 343, 371, 372

Edward VI., 61

Eldon, Lord, 162, 165

Electricity, 110

Elgin Asylum, 341

Ellice, Mr. E., 339, 348, 350, 352, 353, 355

Elliotson, Dr., 472

Elmes on St. Luke's, 88

Empiric, a Scotch, 21

Employment of patients, 137, 278, 333, 336, 489

Ennis Asylum, 423

Enniscorthy Asylum, 423

Epilepsy, 4, 20, 31-37, 489

Erskine, Lord, 130

Esquirol, 302, 448, 459, 467

Essex Hall, 305, 320

—— Asylum (Brentwood), 250

Evelyn's visit to Bethlem, 64, 68

"Evigilator" (Dr. Best), 124

Evolution, 471, 475

Exeter Lunatic Hospital, 214

Exorcism, 28

F.

Fallowes, Dr., 93

Falret, 302, 444

Farm labour, 138, 334, 382

Faulkner, Dr., 142

Fellows of College (Commissioners), 102, 167

Ferrier, Dr., 473

Ferrus, 132, 133, 444

Feuchtersleben, 445

Feverfew, 30

Fife and Kinross Asylum, 388, 391, 462

Fig poultices, 31

Finnmac-Cumhail, 24

Finsbury Circus, 67, 68

Fisherton House, 268

FitzMary, Simon, 45

Fletcher, Dr. Bell, 306

Fonthill-Gifford Asylum, 156, 212

Forfar, 42

Fort Clarence Hospital, 210

Foster, Mr. J. Leslie, 394, 400

Foville, 444

——, M. Achille, 284, 446

Fowler, Dr., 119

Fownes, Sir William, 396

Fox (Lord Holland), 98

——, Mr. John, on schools for the insane, 438

France, 142, 301, 444

Fraser, Dr., 387, 462

Friedreich, 445

Friends, Society of, 113, 125, 132, 134, 306

Fritsch, 473

Fry, Mrs., 329

Furness, 28

G.

Galen, 30

Gall, son of King of Ulster, a lunatic, 25

Galt, etymology of, 24

Gardner, Mr. J. E., 62, 74, Appendix A

Garth's Dispensary, 81

Gartnavel, 372

Gaskell, Mr., 191, 209, 214, 454, 456

Gay, 67

Gealach, etymology of, 24

Gentleman's Magazine, 99, 101

George III., insanity of, 107, 108

Georget, 444

Gerarde, 30

Germany, 304, 444

Gilchrist, Dr., 371

Giraldus of Wales, 8, 9

Glamorgan Asylum, 249, 250

Glasgow Asylum, 332, 334, 343

Glen-na-galt, 23, 25, 393

Gloucester Asylum, 165, 166, 179, 180, 214, 503

Godfrey, Bishop of Bethlehem, grant to, 47

Goltz, 473

Gordon, Mr. R., 166, 169, 171, 187, 202, 203, 332, 449

Grabham, Dr., 305, 319

Graham, Sir James, 184, 339

Grand Juries' presentments (Ireland), 404, 405

Grant, capitation, 196, 251, 364, 390

Gray, Dr. (Utica), 449, 463

Great Staughton, 41

Gregorian water, 18

Grenville, Mr., 98

Gresham, Sir J., 58, 61

Grey, Sir George, 191, 338, 351, 361

Griesinger, 448

Grove Hall Asylum, 481

Gudden, 482

Guislain, 445

Gurney, Mr. J. J., 329

Guy, Dr., 534

Guy's Hospital Lunatic Ward, 211

H.

Hale, 31, 32, 38

Hallaran, Dr., 398, 407

Halliday, Sir A., 127, 164, 165, 166, 167, 328

Hanwell Asylum, 177, 179, 180, 206, 207, 213, 228, 236, 489

Hardinge, Judge, on Dr. Battie, 86

Hardy's Act, 460

Harper, Dr., 142

Harvey, Mr., on Moorfields, 77

Haslam, Mr., 65, 80, 142, 152, 444

Haslar Hospital, 210, 213, 503

Hatchell, Dr., 423

Haverfordwest Asylum, 210, 253

Haywards Heath Asylum, 489

Hebrides, 19

Hellebore, 30, 31, 109

Henbane, 2

Henry VIII., portrait of, 73; treatment of insane in his reign, 27; grant of Bethlem, 58, 59

Herb treatment of insane, 1

Hereford Asylum, 183

Heron, Mr., 14

Higgins, Mr. G., 124, 150

Highgate Asylum, 305

Hill, Mr. R. Gardiner, 204, 205, 206, 447, Appendix H

Hills, Dr., 486

Hitch, Dr., 182, 446

Hitchcock, Professor, 284

Hitzig, 473, 480

Hogarth's Bethlem, 73, 74, 509

Hogenberg's map, 61

Hole in floor of cabin for lunatic, 395

Holidays, essential for superintendents, 465

Hollar's map, 65, 507

Holler, 482

Holy water, 2, 5

—— wells, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, 19, 21

Hood, Dr., 191

Hop, 5

Hospitals, lunatic, 210, 263

Howard, John, 110-112

Howe, Dr. S. G., 303, 445

Humieres, Mrs., evidence of, 155

Humours, influence of, 9, 33, 34

Hutcheson, Dr., 334

Hutchinson, Mr. Jonathan, 468, 497

Hypnotism, 472

I.

Idiots, 286, 299, 309, 483

Imbeciles, 299

Inch Maree, 17, 18

Increase of lunacy, apparent, 232, 253, 260

Incubi, 36

Industrial system, 381, 382

Inspectors of the poor, action of, in boarding out, 385

International Medical Congress, 443

Invocation to periwinkle, 3

Ipswich Borough Asylum, 250

Ireland, 23, 393

——, Dr., 304, 308

Ireland's Hogarth, 74

Irish Lunacy Inquiry Commission, 1878, 424-431

Island Bridge Asylum, 410

Itard, M., 301

Ivy ointment, 109

J.

Jacke Napes, 56

Jackson, Dr. (Boston), 109

——, Dr. Hughlings, 471

Jacobi, Dr., 126, 333, 445, 459, 460, 465, 515

Jails, lunatics in (Ireland), 412

James I., 34

Jarvis, Dr. E., 492

Jepson, G., 116, 118

Jocelin, 28

Johnstone, Mr., 356

Junius on Chatham, 106

K.

Kekewich, Mr., 191

Kennoway, 391

Kent Asylum, 180, 214

Kerry, 393

Kilkenny Asylum, 410, 421

Killarney Asylum, 339

Kimbell, Mr., 306

Kinnaird, 352

Kirkbride, Dr., 457, 458, 459, 460

Kitching, Dr., 515

Knowle, idiot asylum at, 306, 320

Kolk, Schroeder van der, 445, 467, 477, 482

Krafft-Ebing, 455

L.

Lalor, Dr., 430, 438, 496

Lamb, Rt. Hon. W., 406

Lancaster Idiot Asylum, 306, 319

—— Asylum, 165, 166, 179, 208, 214, 245

Langermann, 460

Lansdowne, Marquis of, 162

Larbert Institution, 308

Latham, Dr., 454

Law, John, his servant, 22

Laycock, Professor, 468

Laying on of hands, 21

Leavesden Asylum, 240, 241, 262, 308, 319, 461

Leech, Saxon, 7

Leechdoms, Saxon, 1

Legislation, 97, 449, Appendices D-G

Leicester Asylum, 214, 250

Lelut, 477

Leonards, Lord St., 188, 518

Letterkenny Asylum, 423

Leuret, 444

Libcorns, 2

Liberton Institution, 308

Lifford Asylum, 410

Lilburne, John, 50

Limerick Asylum, 394, 398, 399, 410, 417

Lincoln County Asylum, 250

—— Lunatic Hospital, 165, 166, 179, 204, 206, 213, 250, 447, Appendix H

Lindsay, Dr. Lauder, 448

——, Dr. Murray, 499

Litton, Mr., 434, 437, 439, 441

Liverpool Asylum, 210, 214, 242

—— Street, 48, 50

Location of insane, 1844, 191, 211; 1847, 221; 1858, 1859, 191, etc.

Loch Maree, 17, 18

Lochmanur, scene at, in 1871, 20

London, City of, asylum, 250

London Spy, 75

Londonderry Asylum, 417

Lord Chancellor, 175, 257

—— Chancellor's Visitors, 285

Lotherwerd, 28

Lucas, M., 497

Luke's Hospital. See Saint

Lunatics are God's minstrels, 10

"Lunatik lollares," 11

Luther on Idiots, 318

Lutwidge, Mr., 191, 257, 418

Luys, Dr., 473, 483

Lyndsay, Sir David, 28

Lyttleton, Hon. W. H., 149

M.

Macclesfield Asylum, 249

McCabe, Dr., 431

McIntosh, Dr., 334

Mackie, Mr., 356

McKinnons, Dr., 371

Mackworth, Mr., 101

McNeill, Sir John, 355

Madman's Glen, 24

—— Ford, 23

Madmen, cowards, 109

Madron Well, 13

Maelrubha, 17

Magnan, 448

Mahon, Lord, 104

Maistre, Joseph de, 112

Major, Dr. Herbert, 478, 479, 480

Malcolm, on Bethlem, 78

——, Dr., 334

Malmesbury, Lord, 170

Manchester Hospital, 210, 214

Mandrake, 3

Maniacs, how treated at the Retreat, 120, 121

Mapes, Walter, 8

Marce, 444

Maree, St., 17

Martin, Baron, 245

Maryborough Asylum, 408, 417

Masses sung, 2, 5, 6, 12

Masters in Lunacy, 291, Appendix M

Maudsley, Dr., 474, 501

Mayerne, Sir T., 32, 34

Mead, Dr., 109

Medical Repository, 136

Medico-psychological Association, functions of, 495

Melgund, Lord, 360

Melista, 19

Mesmerism, 472

Metropolitan Commissioners, 173-175, 177, 178 (Report), 187, 209, 220, (Report of 1841) 450, 515

—— Poor Act, 240, 241, 243

Meuynge after the mone, 11

Mewing of hawks, 54

Mewse, Royal, at Charing Cross, 54

Meyer, Dr., assault upon, 280

Mickle, Dr., 480, 481, 482

Mickley, Dr., 91

Middlesex Asylum, 165, 167

Mierzejewski, 483

Millard, Mr., 306, 319, 320

Millbank, 282

"Miller's Tale," 10

Mitchell, Dr. Arthur, 17, 18, 20, 21, 391, 392

Mitford, John, petition of, 164

Monks and the monastery in insanity, 8

Monro, Dr. Edward, 82

——, Dr. Henry, 470

——, Dr. James, 71, 81

——, Dr. John, 81, 86

——, Dr. Thomas, 68, 79, 82

Montrose Asylum, 343

Moon, 2, 4, 9, 11, 24, 31

Moir, Mr. G., 360

Monaghan Asylum, 423

Moorfields, 67, 68, 69, 86, 507

Moorgate, 67, 69

Moral insanity, 454

More, Sir T., 41, 56, 60

Morel, 444, 448, 467, 497

Motet, M., 284, 444, 446

Mould, Mr., 458, 503

Mount Hope Retreat, 484

Muggleton, Lodowick, 50

Mueller, Dr., 284

Mullingar Asylum, 421

Munk, 473

——, Dr., 64, 80, 81, 87

Murray Royal Institution, 329, 341

Musselburgh Asylums, 353

N.

Naudi, Dr., 122, 123

Needham, Dr., 458, 504

Newington, Dr. Hayes, 497

Newton, Mr., his map, 60, 61, 508

——, Dr., 92

Nicoll, Mr. S. W., 129

Nicolson, Dr., 494

Nider, 36

Night goblin visitors (nightmare), 5

Niolin, red, 4

Non-restraint, 139, 177, 182, 204, 205, 213, 216, 220, 221, 223, 226, 228, 240, 342, 360, 416, 448, 494

Norfolk Asylum, 165, 166, 214, 250

Norman Conquest, treatment before the, 1

Normansfield, 307

Norris, case of, 79

Northampton Lunatic Hospital, 210, 213, 244, 504

Northumberland Asylum, 250

Norwich Asylum, 235, 249

Nottingham Asylum, 165, 166, 214, 486

Nugent, Dr., 417, 423

O.

Occurring insanity, 260

O'Curry, Professor, 26

Ogilvie, Sir John, 308, 356

O'Hagan, Lord, 432, 434, 435, 437, 441

Oleum cephalicum, 93

Oliver Cromwell's porter, 71

Omagh Asylum, 421

Open-door system, 376-378

Orange, Dr. William, 273, 276, 494

Osborne, Dr., 407

Overall, Mr., 60, 507

P.

Palmerston house for idiots, 309, 439

Paracelsus, 484

Parchappe, 131, 444, 459, 460, 478, 482

Pargeter, 142, 512

Park House, Highgate, 305, 456

Parole, liberty on, 378

Pathology of insanity, 476

Paul, Sir George, 127

Pauper lunatics in private dwellings, 262, 392

Peerless Pool, 88

Pennant, 17, 88

Penny gates at Bethlem, 71, 73

Peony, its virtue in insanity, 2, 3

Pepys and Bethlem, 65

Percy Reliques, 39, 40

Perfect, Dr., 141

Periwinkle, 3

Perth Asylum, 333

—— Tolbooth, 329

Philanthropist, the, 126

Philip, Dr., his asylum, 216

Philipps, Dr. Rees, 466

Phlebotomy, 95, 484

Piers the Plowman, 10

Pillory, insane treated at, 27, 29

Pinel, 118, 133, 142-46, 186, 268, 467, 482

Pitt. See Lord Chatham

Plastidules, 475

Poole, Dr., 304, 334

Pools, insane placed in, 12

Poor Law Act, 1874, 196

Pope, on Colley Cibber, 70

Possession, demoniacal, 1, 5, 9, 18, 43, 393

Posts, whipping, 41, 57

Poultices, 31

Power, Rev. John, 12

Preston Lodge, institution for imbeciles, 308

Prestwich Asylum, 226, 249

Prichard, Dr., 454

Priest employed in treatment, 2

Principles pursued at the Retreat, 135

Prison Act in Ireland, 399

Private asylums, 99, 193, 194, 199, 201, 211, 212, 223, 264

—— dwellings, 262, 286, 458

—— patients, how distributed, 263

Prochaska, 469

Proctor, Mr. (Barry Cornwall), 450

Progress of Psychological Medicine, 1841-81, 443

Properties, small, 295

Property, protection of, 286

Prospect of the future, 495

Psycho-motor centres, 481

Q.

Quarterly visitation of pauper lunatics, 189

Queen's pleasure men, 274

R.

Radish, a cure for female chatter, 4

Rainhill Asylum, 226

Rake's Progress, 73, 509

Ramskill, Dr., 485

Ray, Dr., 108, 133, 449, 462, 463, 466

Rayner, Dr., 489

Recent changes in mode of administering Scotch asylums, 374

Recoveries in county asylums, private asylums, and lunatic hospitals, 263, 264

Recovery, statistics of, 263, 490

Reed, Rev. Andrew, 305, 456

Reil, 444, 460

Religious services, 369

Renton, Dr., 344

Rest in bed 489, 490

Restraint, abuse of, in Ireland, 420

Retreat. See York Retreat

Retrospect of the Past, 493

"Review of the Early History of the Retreat," 135

Reynolds, Dr., 107

Rice, Mr. T. Spring, 394, 398, 402, 406

Richart, accused, 22

Richmond Lunatic Asylum, Dublin, 400, 401, 406, 409, 417, 421, 438, 496

Ringmer Asylum, 224

Ripping, Dr., 492

Robert Evan, case of, 256

Robertson, Dr. Lockhart, 262, 263, 286, 296, 500

——, Dr. (Ireland), 424

Rome, treatment of a lunatic in, 27

Rose, Right Hon. G., 148, 149, 157, 159, 161, 202, 516

Roubiliac, 70

Rowe, Sir Thomas, 49, 508

Royal Commission (Ireland), 1856, 418

—— Asylums (Scotch), 341

—— Commission (Scotch) 1855, 340; report of, 342

Rural insanity, 362

Rush, Dr., 445

Rutherford, Dr., 372, 457

Rutherfurd, Lord, 338, 351, 352, 353

Rutter, J., his lines on Bethlem, 69

S.

Saegert, Herr, 304

Saints, Cornish, 13

Salpetriere, 302

Salt, 5, 21

Salve employed against the elfin race, 5; and for the "wood-heart," 6

Sandisone, Elspeth, 22

Savage, Dr., 74, 284, 455, 482, 489

Savage of the Aveyron, 301

Saxons, treatment of insane by the, 1

Saxony, Elector of, 319

Scarlet oak, 31

Schools for the insane, 438

Scone, Augustan canon of, 28

Scot, Reginald, 31, 33, 37, 38

Scotch Board of Lunacy, 325, 347, 354

—— Commissioners, Report of, 1858, 360; 1878, 366; 1881, 373

—— system, analyzed, 373

Scotland, 14, 185, 321, 453

Seclusion, 139, 250, 273, 342

Seguin, Dr., 302, 456

——, Dr. E., 456

Select Committee. See Committee

Seymour, Lord R., 160, 165

Shaftesbury, Earl of, 173, 191, 202, 248, 267, 268, 447

Shakespeare, 29, 40, 54, 56, 60, 65, 84

Shaw, Dr. Claye, 461

Sheil, Mr., 203

Sherlock, Dr., 448

Shuttleworth, Dr., 306

Sibbald, Dr., 501

Siegburg Asylum, 460, 492, Appendix C

Silk, toasted, 95

Single patients, 186, 236, 262, 286

Skae, Dr., 371, 467

Skelton, 56

Skull of man executed, 33

Sligo Asylum, 421

Smart, Mr. T. L., 48

Smith, Mr., his notice of Bethlem, 65, 67, 69, 73, 507

——, Dr. C., 24

——, Mr. C. Roach, 50

——, Dr. John, 391

——, Sydney, 83, 123, 147, 151, 152

——, Mr. W., 149

Smollett, 96

Solly, 473

Somerset, Lord R., 175, 176, 177, 187, 202

Southey, Dr., 191, 450

Specifics in insanity, 486

Spencer, Herbert, 474, 475

Spitzka, Dr., 498

St. Agnes, 13

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 58

St. Botolph, 45, 48

St. Fillan, 2, 14

St. George's Fields, 82, 84

St. Kea, 13

St. Kentigern, 14, 29

St. Levan, 13

St. Luke's Hospital, 86-91, 110, 113, 118, 166, 214, Appendix A

St. Mangose, 28

St. Maree, 17, 19

St. Martin's Lane, 53

St. Mary of Bethlem, 45

St. Molonah, 16

St. Nun, 11

St. Peter's Hospital, 210

St. Ronan, 16

St. Thomas' Asylum (Exeter), 210

St. Vincent de Paul, 301

St. Winifred, 9, 10

Stafford Asylum, 165, 214, 250

Stag's skull, 33

Star of Bethlem, 52

Starcraft (Saxon), 1

Starcross Institution, 306, 320

Stark, Mr., 121

Stearns, Dr., 460

Stewart, Dr. Henry, 309

——, Dr. Robert, 424

Stilliard's map, 61

Stocks, 43, 52

Stokes, Dr. (Baltimore), 484, 486

Stothard, 70

Stow, 53, 55, 88, 508

Strathfillan, 14

Struthill, 16

Submersion, 18, 19, 20, 513

Suffolk Asylum, 165, 214, 503

Sumner, George, 302

Superintendent of asylum, his strange mental environment, 464

——, the good, 460

Superstitions, Scotch, 14, 22

Surrey Asylum (Brookwood), 250, 505

——, (Wandsworth), 249

Swallows, stones from maw of, 5

Swift, Dean, 95

Swift's Asylum, 111, 396

Switzerland and idiots, 304

Symonds, Dr. J. Addington, 471

T.

"Tale of a Tub," 95

Tamburini, Professor, 284

Temple of St. Molonah, 16

Temptations of the fiend, 4

Thornbury's "London," 88

Thurnam, Dr., 492

Timbs' London, 84

Tober-na-galt, 23

Tokens (Bedlam), 48

Tom of Bedlam, 39, 40, 65, 66

Tooke, Horne, 103

Torture in Scotland, 42

Townshend, Mr. T., 98, 99, 101, 202

Treatment of insane, advance in, 484, 490

"Tree of truth," 41

Trelat, 444

Trevelyan, Sir Charles, 312

——, Mr., 103

Tuileries, Bethlem copied the, 70

Tuke, William, 113-116, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135

——, Samuel, 89, 121, 125, 126, 150, 182, 187, 220, 333, 400

——, J. Batty, 391, 478

Turkish bath, 485

Tyndale, 56, 60

Tyson, Dr., 80, 81

U.

University College, London, 443

Unzer, 468

Urban insanity, 362

V.

Vale of St. Fillan, 14

Valley of Lunatics, 22

Ventry, battle of, 24

Virchow, 475, 476

Visitation of Asylums, 188

Vitre, Dr. de, 182, 306

Voisin, 302, 444

——, M. Aug., 480

Voluntary patients, 374

—— restraint, 215

Votive offerings, 16

W.

Wakefield Asylum, 165, 166, 179, 180, 214, 250

Wakley, Mr., 176

Wales, 182, 253

Walpole, Mr., 191

Wandsworth Asylum, 249

Warburton, Dr., 164, 167, 168, 171, 183

Ward, Ned, 73, 75

Warneford Asylum, 210, 214

Warren, Dr., 107

Wastell cake, 53

Waterford Asylum, 399, 417

Weir, Dr., 156

Wells. See Holy

Wemyss, General, 324

Wesley, John, 108, 109

Western, Mr., 149

Westminster play, lines on Bethlem, 70

Westphal, 448, 478, 479, 480

Wexford, cells for lunatics, 411

Whipping insane, 7, 41, 42, 43, 57, 95, 513

Whitbread, Mr., 191

White, Dr., 411

——, Misses, 304

White Hart Tavern, 48

Whitmer, Dr., 284

Whittier, on St. Maree, 19

Wiclif, 299

Wierus, 35, 37

Wilbur, Dr. H. B., 303, 304

Wild Murdoch, 19

Wilkes, Mr., 98, 103, 418

Willes, Mr. Justice, 245

Williams, Mr. (afterwards Dr.), visiting physician to the Retreat, 333

——, Dr. Duckworth, 462, 489

——, Dr. W., 448

——, Dr. W., (Denbigh Asylum), 253

——, Mr. R. L., 257

Willis, Dr., 107

Windmill Hill, 86

—— Inn, 84

Winslow, Dr. Forbes, 446

Witch's bridle, 42

Witchcraft, 26, 31, 32, 34, 43

Witley, 85

"Wodnes" and "Wodman," 6

Wolf's flesh, 4

Wolsey, 56

Wonford Asylum, 466

"Wood," 6, 10

Wooden statues at Bethlem, 72

Woods, Dr. Oscar, 23

Woodward, Dr., 302, 445

Wordsworth, 54

Work, physical importance of, for women, 384

Workhouses, 126, 192, 199, 234, 250

—— (Irish), 430, 441

Wortcunning (Saxon), 1

Wortley, Mr. Stuart, 339

"Wud," 6

Wynn, Mr., 127, 128, 160, 161, 162, 164, 202, 203

Y.

Yellowlees, Dr., 372

York Asylum, 112, 124, 150, 174, 210, 244

—— Retreat, 113-125, 135, 187, 214, 220, 231, 244, 268, 323, 446, 493, 515. See Frontispiece

Young, Mr. G., 360

Z.

Ziemssen's "Cyclopaedia," 480

THE END.

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BECCLES.



BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

I. ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON THE BODY. Designed to Elucidate the Action of the Imagination. 8vo. 14s.

II. A MANUAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE. Fourth Edition. 8vo. 25s. (Joint Author with DR. BUCKNILL, F.R.S.)

III. INSANITY IN ANCIENT AND MODERN LIFE, WITH CHAPTERS ON ITS PREVENTION. Second Edition. 12mo. 6s.



————————————————————————————————————

Transcriber's Note, continued:

Except when index entries did not match the body of the text, irregularities in capitalization and hyphenation have not been corrected. Alternate spellings (e.g. Ogilvy vs. Ogilvie), possible errors in quoted passages (e.g. remembraance), and mathematical errors have not been changed or corrected.

Minor punctuation errors (e.g. missing or extra quotation marks, extra commas) have been corrected without note.

Footnote markers have been changed from symbols to numbers. Tables spanning more than one page in the original book have been joined and the "Carried Forward" and "Brought Forward" rows removed.

The following corrections and changes were also made:

p. 211: moved footnote marker in table from before "Workhouses and elsewhere" to after

p. 263: mantenance to maintenance (the average weekly cost of maintenance)

p. 304: Etvy to Etoy

p. 308 and p. 537/538 (Index): Boldovan to Baldovan, and moved index entry to correct alphabetical order

p. 340: aslyums to asylums (lunatics and lunatic asylums)

p. 356: Kircudbrightshire to Kirkcudbrightshire

p. 394: Clonwell to Clonmel (Clonmel Asylum)

p. 444: pychologists to psychologists (celebrated psychologists)

p. 489: apostrophe removed from "Haywards" (Haywards Heath Asylum)

p. 494: igorance to ignorance (ignorance and fear)

p. 533: chapter v to chapter vi (See chapter vi.)

p. 538: 1858, 1859, 191, 259; to 1858, 191; 1859, 259; (Index entry for "Census of insane")

p. 539: Colebrook to Colebrooke (Index entry)

p. 541: Stoughton to Staughton (Index entry for "Great Staughton")

p. 543: 553 to 355 (Index entry for "McNeill, Sir John")

p. 544: Nicolin to Niolin, and moved to correct alphabetical order (Index entry for "Niolin, red")

p. 546: added C. (Index entry for "Smith, Mr. C. Roach")

p. 546: Thomas's to Thomas' (Index entry for "St. Thomas' Asylum")

p. 548: moved Index entry for "Willes, Mr. Justice" to correct alphabetical order (originally between "Willis, Dr." and "Windmill Hill")

Italics markup has not been included on the currency symbols "d." and "s." and, to save space, several em-dashes in tables have been changed to colons.

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THE END

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