The battle is decided by one of the warriors knocking the potato from his opponent's fork. Toppling over three times is also counted as defeat. If one of the knights is obliged to let go of his foot in order to keep his balance it is counted as a fall. Every time the battle is interrupted in this way, either of the contestants is at liberty to change the foot he is resting upon. If one of the warriors falls against the other and upsets him, it is counted against the one who is responsible for the tumble.
You are not likely to realize on your first introduction to a potato joust the amount of skill and practice required to really become expert in handling the fork. A slight turn of the wrist, a quick push and the practised knight will defeat the novice so deftly, so easily that you are amazed.
Move your fork as little as possible; long sweeping strokes are more likely to throw off your own potato than to interfere with that of your opponent.
The most dangerous stroke is one from underneath; always maneuver to keep your potato below that of your antagonist.
Study the illustration and see if you can discover a way for the boys to get apart. To make it really exciting, a number of couples should be set going at once, and a "second" on ice cream offered to the pair who get apart first. To separate, the boys have only to push the center of one of the handkerchiefs under the loop made by the other handkerchief when it was tied about the wrist, and then carry the loop over the hand.
Rough-house is the expression used by the boy of today when he is describing a general scuffle, and he always smacks his lips over the word. But rough-house has its disadvantages, as many sprains and bruises can testify, and if the same amount of fun may be had from less trying amusement, an amusement, say, which is quite as energetic and quite as exciting, the boy of today will certainly adopt it in preference to rough-house.
A terrier fight is exciting, and it is funny—it is also energetic—and victory depends quite as much upon the skill of the fighter as upon his strength. Furthermore a terrier fight is not brutal. No boy will hurt himself while engaged in this sport. Two boys are placed facing each other in the center of the room, hands clasped beneath the knees and a stick just under the elbows, as shown. Each contestant endeavors to push the other over; but as it requires considerable attention to keep the balance at all when in this position, the attack is no easy matter.
To give way suddenly is a maneuver almost sure to upset your adversary, but unfortunately it is very apt to upset you at the same time and only after considerable practice will you be able to overcome a man in this way. The pivot, a sudden swing to the right or left is safer, though not quite as effective. Always remember that the best terrier fighter invariably makes his opponent throw himself. Give way at some unexpected point, and unless he is a skilful man, he is sure to go over. Never try a hard push except in the last extremity when everything else has failed.
A terrier fight consists of three one-minute rounds, with thirty seconds' rest between each round. The one scoring the largest number of falls during the time set is accounted the winner.
A large circle of players throw a lawn tennis ball at one in the center. The object of the player in the center is to remain "in" as long as possible without being hit. If he catches the ball in his hands it does not count as a hit. Whoever hits him with the ball takes his place. The player who remains "in" longest wins.
Lie down on the back, side by side, by twos, the feet of each boy of a two being beside the other boy's head. At the word "Go!" each brings the leg nearest his opponent at right angles with his body and then lowers it. This may be done twice or three times, but the last time the leg is raised he should catch his opponent's and endeavor to roll him over, which is a defeat.
Take hold of each other's right or left hand and spread the feet so as to get a good base. At the word "Go!" each one endeavors to force his opponent to lose his balance, so as to move one of his feet. This constitutes a throw. The opponent's arm is forced quickly down or backward and then drawn out to the side directly away from him, thus making him lose his balance. The one moving his foot or touching his hand or any part of his body to the floor, so as to get a better base, is thrown. The throw must be made with the hand. It is thus not rulable to push with the head, shoulder or elbow.
The combatants are arranged facing each other in two front, open ranks. The first two "opposites" at either or both ends, or if the floor is large enough all the opposites, may combat at the same time. The boys should fold their arms forward, and hop toward each other on one leg. The butting is done with the shoulder and upper arm, and never with the elbow, and the arm must remain folded throughout the combat. When the two adversaries meet, each attempts to push the other over, or make him touch to the floor the foot that is raised. When all have fought, the winners arrange themselves in two opposing ranks and renew the combat. This is done, until but one remains, and he is declared the victor.
Shoe and Sweater Race
The sweaters are placed at the opposite ends of the room. The boys start with their shoes (or sneakers) on (laces out). A line is drawn in the middle of the room; here the contestants sit down and pull off their shoes (or sneakers), run to the sweaters and put them on. On the return trip they put their shoes on and finish with both shoes and sweaters on.
Peanut Relay Race
Boys are lined up in two columns, as in ordinary relay races. For each column two chairs are placed a convenient distance apart, facing one another, with a knife and a bowl half full of peanuts on one, and an empty bowl on the other. At the proper word of command the first boy on each side takes the knife, picks up a peanut with it, and carries the peanut on the knife to the farther bowl; upon his return the second boy does the same and so on. The second boy cannot leave until the first has deposited his peanut in the empty bowl, and has returned with the knife. Peanuts dropped must be picked up with the knife. Fingers must not be used either in putting the peanut on the knife or holding it there. The side, every member of which first makes the round, wins.
A FEW INTERESTING TESTS
You can't stand for five minutes without moving, if you are blindfolded.
You can't stand at the side of a room with both of your feet touching the wainscoting lengthwise.
You can't get out of a chair without bending your body forward or putting your feet under it, that is, if you are sitting squarely on the chair and not on the edge of it.
You can't crush an egg when placed lengthwise between your hands, that is, if the egg is sound and has the ordinary shell of a hen's egg.
You can't break a match if the match is laid across the nail of the middle finger of either hand and pressed upon by the first and third fingers of that hand, despite its seeming so easy at first sight.
Social Activities for Men and Boys—A. M. Chesley. Association Press, $1.00. 295 ideas, games, socials and helpful suggestions. A gold mine for one dollar.
Games for Everybody—May C. Hofman. Dodge Publishing Co., 50 cents. 200 pages of rare fun.
Education by Play and Games—G. E. Johnson. Ginn and Company, 90 cents. A discussion of the meaning of play. Contains also a number of good games, graded according to ages or periods of child life.
Play—Emmett D. Angell. Little, Brown and Company, $1.50 net. A very practical book, containing instruction for planning more than one hundred games, including eight games in the water.
CHAPTER XXI—EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES
RECREATIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVE EDUCATION WHITTLERS' CLUB PYROGRAPHY BOAT BUILDING PLAYS LANTERN TALKS LIBRARY TUTORING PHOTOGRAPHY AGRICULTURE FORESTRY SCOUTCRAFT CAMP PAPER RECORD OF PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT KITE MAKING AND FLYING MODEL AEROPLANE PARACHUTE IDEA BOX FURNITURE CAMP CLOCK HOW TO MAKE A MOCCASIN HOW TO MAKE A "ROUGH AND READY" HAMMOCK A HOME-MADE TOBOGGAN HANDY FUNNEL INK FOR SCOUTING GAMES BIBLIOGRAPHY.
'Tis education forms the common mind; Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined. —Pope.
A boy is better unborn than untaught.—Gascoigne
Camping should not be merely a time of loafing or "having fun." The boy who has returned from a camp, having learned some definite thing, whether it be different from the school curriculum or supplementary to his school work, has accomplished something and his outing has been of use to him. All play and no work makes Jack a dull boy, as well as "all work and no play." Recreative and constructive education forms a combination which appeals strongly to a boy. He would call it, "doing things," and in the doing would have fun galore.
In addition to nature study, woodcraft, first-aid instruction and similar types of educational activities in vogue in boy's camps, there are many other forms of educational activities which boys can engage in during the camping season.
A "Whittlers' Club," organized to meet one hour several mornings a week, proved attractive to a group of boys in one camp. Under the leadership of a man who understood "Sloyd"  work the boys were taught how to handle a knife, and it is surprising how few boys really know how to handle this useful article found in every boy's pocket. They were also taught to know the different kinds of wood, bark, grain, and method of cutting and sawing wood for building and furniture purposes, etc. A popular model was a paper knife made of wild cherry. The bark was permitted to remain on the handle, while the other end was whittled evenly and smoothly for cutting leaves of books or magazines. With the aid of a pyrography set the name of the camp and that of the owner of the knife was burned on the handle.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: Manual training developed in Sweden, using woodworking tools.]
Carved paddles, war clubs, hiking sticks, etc., were used to display the artistic ability of the boys who brought to camp pyrography sets. The camp name, date of hikes, miles travelled, and other interesting information was burned on these souvenirs. Shields containing the athletic records and names of honor boys were made and hung upon the walls of the permanent building.
In one large camp an experienced boatman was engaged, and under his direction three large dories were built by the boys. Plans were carefully worked out, lumber purchased, and details of boat construction explicitly explained. It took three weeks to build the boats, but no boats of the fleet were used and appreciated as much by the boys as these which represented so much of their own labor and time. (See illustration.) Working plans and "knocked down" material for building boats may be purchased from a number of firms. Building a boat during the winter by boys who are contemplating going camping, aids to the anticipation of the delightful summer time.
"The Player's Scene," from "Midsummer Night's Dream," has been given several times outdoors with great success in the camps conducted by the writer. The boys were coached by a graduate of a School of Oratory, costumes were made by the boys out of all sorts of material, make-up was bought from a theatrical supply house and the scenery supplied by nature. Footlights were lanterns set in front of reflectors made from old tomato cans. The path leading to the natural amphitheatre was lighted by Japanese lanterns and the guests were seated on the ground. In the words of Hamlet, "The Play's the Thing," and boys and visitors are always enthusiastic over the presentation, while the players get a new conception of Shakespeare's plays and writings. "Hiawatha" was given with equal enthusiasm and success.
Since the invention of the inexpensive Reflectoscope, illustrated talks in camp are now possible. Travel talks, using postal cards from different parts of the world, postals telling the "Story of the Flag," "State Seals and their Mottoes," etc., are now published in series, and will be found to be very interesting and instructive. A number of the large camps have stereopticons. Lantern slides with accompanying lecture may be rented at reasonable rates, such as "The True Sportsman," and "Personal and National Thrift," sent out by the Moral Education League, Baltimore, Md., for the East. Any first-class firm dealing in lantern slides can furnish a number of valuable lectures with slides. A sheet hung between two trees on a dark night makes an excellent screen on which to show pictures.
Every camp should have a library or at least a small collection of good books. In most cases arrangements can be made with a near-by library or with the State Library for the loan of books for a certain period of time. Camps having permanent buildings should "grow" a library. The excellent library of 1,200 books in the camp of the writer was given by the boys (see illustration).
Gummed book labels were sent to each boy with the suggestion that he paste them in books which he could bring to camp to present to the library. Some boys would bring as many as ten books from the home library, all good, readable books. The books are catalogued and a loan system established, under the "Department of Education," and the following rules govern the library and use of books:
1. Library open for one-half hour after dinner daily except on Sunday, when it will be open for one-half hour after breakfast.
2. Books can be kept out three days. If kept overtime a charge of two (2) cents per day is made. Books may be renewed if returned on day due, otherwise the usual charge will be made.
3. From 9 o'clock A. M. to 12 o'clock M., and from 2 o'clock P. M., books may be taken away to read in the room, but must not be taken outside the building under any condition. Violation of this rule will deprive the violator of the use of the books for three days.
4. Please bring small change to pay fines.
The following announcement is sent by the writer to parents and boys concerning tutoring in camp:
SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT OF TUTORING.
Provides Opportunity For
(1) Those who, on account of illness or other unavoidable circumstances, have fallen behind their grade and wish to catch up by summer study.
(2) Those who, on account of poor work or failure in examination, cannot be promoted unless they do special work during the vacation time.
(3) Those who have not fully mastered a given subject and desire to review and strengthen themselves in the subject.
(4) Those who wish to use their summer in order to earn an extra promotion.
Many of our camp leaders are college men and have the requisite scholarship to conduct the academic feature of the camp. The instruction is very largely individual and is given in the morning and does not interfere with the recreation life. The combination of study and recreation makes tutoring attractive and stimulating.
Any subject in the grammar or high school curriculum.
Two or three periods per week will be given to each subject.
One dollar per week will be charged for each subject.
An accurate record is kept of every boy being tutored, on a card (see illustration), and a duplicate sent to his parent at the close of the season.
To stimulate interest in photography, a contest is held during the latter part of the camping season for a cup, to be awarded to the boy securing the best collection of photographs of camp life. The award is determined upon: first, selection of subjects, and, second, execution of detail. Ribbon awards are given for the best individual photograph in these three classes: (a) portraits, (b) groups, (c) landscapes. The regulations governing the contest are:
1. Exposure, developing, and printing must be the work of the exhibitor.
2. Mounted or unmounted photographs may be submitted.
3. All photographs must be handed in before 12 o'clock noon (date inserted).
For camps having good dark rooms, the following rules may be suggestive:
1. Key to the dark room must be returned to the office immediately after using room and locking same.
2. If films are drying, inform the office of same, so that the next user may be notified and care taken not to disturb the films.
3. Room must be kept clean: (a) Do not wipe shelves with the hand towels. (b) Hang hand towels on nail provided. (c) Leave buckets and trays in clean condition. (d) Put paper, empty tubes, etc., in box provided for same and not upon the floor.
4. Use only the buckets provided, and not those used for kitchen or camp purposes.
5. Use only your own property and that provided by the camp, and never touch the property or films or plates of others.
Every large camp has its official organ or camp paper. An editorial board is appointed, and the doings of the camp recorded in a permanent manner through the weekly issue or reading of the paper. Various names are given the paper, such as "The Camp Log," "Dudley Doings," "Seen and Heard," "Wawayanda Whirlwind," "The Maskwa," "The Wyanoka Log," "Kinoe Kamper." Some of these papers are printed and others are mimeographed and sold to the campers at five cents a copy. Most of them, however, are written in a book and read at the camp fire.
Where a camp is located so as to be near a farm, opportunity should be given city boys to study soil, rotation of crops, gardening, etc. In cooperation with the Department of Agriculture and under the leadership of a student of an Agricultural College, an experiment in raising vegetables may be tried in long-term camps. A plot of ground may be plowed and harrowed, and sub-divided into as many plots as there are tents, each tent to be given a plot and each boy in the tent his "own row to hoe," the boy to make his own choice of seed, keep a diary of temperature, sunshine, rainfall, when the first blade appeared; make an elementary analysis of soil, use of fertilizer and other interesting data. Prepare for an exhibit of vegetables. Whatever the boys raise may be cooked and eaten at their table. Free agricultural bulletins will be sent upon application to the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Farmers' Bulletin 385 tells about Boys' Agricultural Clubs.
The subject of forestry is akin to camping. Much valuable instruction may be given boys regarding the forests of the locality in which the camp is located, kind of land, character and use of woods, how utilized—conservatively or destructively—for saw timber, or other purposes, protection of forests, forest fires, etc. Send to United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for Forest Service Circular 130, "Forestry in the Public Schools;" Farmers' Bulletin 173, "A Primer of Forestry," Part I; Farmers' Bulletin 358, "A Primer of Forestry," Part II.
The Handbook of the Boy Scouts of America is full of information regarding knot tying, signalling, tracking, use of compass, direction and time calculator, etc., which every boy should know. Scoutcraft would furnish recreational education for scores of boys.
Boys like to carry home some permanent record of personal achievements while at camp, autographs of fellow campers, etc. A rather unique record is used by the boys at Camp Wawayanda. The illustration shows the card which was used. "A Vacation Diary," in the form of vest pocket memorandum book, bound in linen, is published by Charles R. Scott, State Y. M. C. A. Committee, Newark, N. J. Price, 10 cents.
Scientific kite flying is one of the best things a boy can indulge in. Hiye-Sho-To, a Japanese, gives this interesting information about kites. "To all Japanese the kite is symbolic of worthy, soaring ambitions, such as the work upward to success in school, or in trade, and so on. When a child is born, little kites are sent up by modest households to announce the arrival. Kites are also flown to celebrate birthdays. To lose a kite is considered an omen of ill-luck."
"For the control of a box kite, I prefer the lightest steel wire to a cord. This wire is about the thickness of an ordinary pin, with a tensile strength at the point of breaking of quite three hundred pounds. In handling a kite with such a wire-ground connection, a boy should always have rough gloves on his hands, that the wire may not cut them.
"Having a kite of this kind, or even two and three, so that on a single wire he can keep sending them higher and higher into the atmosphere, a boy can begin what we were wont to call in Yeddo our 'kite education.' First, he can make himself his own weather prophet. Self-registering thermometers are no longer very expensive. He can wire one of these to his kite, and, by knowing the length of wire he has in hand and the amount he pays out while the kite is up, ascertain just what the air temperature is 200 feet, 500 feet, 1,000 feet, 3,000 feet above him.
"There are wind gauges of cheap construction, moisture gauges which will note the coming of rain, small cameras that will automatically take pictures while the kite is in the air, that may be attached to these kites, and from the work of which valuable information may be obtained."
The following instruction for making a box kite was given in "The American Boy," April, 1909.
"Any boy can make a box kite. The material used may be any tough, light wood, such as spruce, cypress, bass-wood, or cedar. Cut four pieces 42 inches in length, and sixteen pieces 18 inches in length. The cuts show clearly how they are to be put together. Use glue and small brads at every point. The bridle cord is fastened 6 inches from each end of the box. This is best done before the cloth is put on the kite. Light cheese cloth may be used, and should be secured with glue and small brads at the last lap. When the cloth is in place paint it with thin varnish or glue to fill up the meshes and stretch it.
"The reason why box kites made by boys have a tendency to lie down flat on the ground is that they are not proportioned correctly. The proportions given here are correct. The painting, decorating, and tinting are matters of personal taste and skill."
The principle of kite flying is simple. Air is a fluid like water, but on account of the many changes of temperature, to which it is subjected, it constantly changes its density and is found to consist of layers or strata. These layers are not all flat and parallel, but take every variety of shape as the clouds do. In flying a kite you simply pull it up one of those layers just as you would pull a sled or wagon up a hill. Always run facing the wind.
Aeroplane season is now a calendar event in the boy's life. Many boys are engaged in building these fascinating little ships of the air. "The Boy's Book of Model Aeroplanes," by Francis A. Collins, Century Co. ($1.20 net), gives complete directions how to build these marvellous new toys. Form a club and conduct an "Aviation" meet during the season. Spon and Chamberlain, 123 North Liberty Street, New York City, sell a complete full-sized set of drawings for building three model aeroplanes. Price, 50 cents.
The parachute, in its various forms, has always been a favorite with boys. The idea is to make an umbrella-shaped contraption out of tissue paper and a stick, so that when it descends from any considerable height it will open out and float slowly to the ground. This part is easy enough. The trouble has always been to get it up in the air high enough to repay one for his efforts in making it. The idea that a common sling shot had propelling power sufficient for this purpose led to experiments which proved that the idea was a happy one. The combination of sling shot and parachute makes a very fascinating outdoor amusement device. Every time you shoot it into the air you try to make it go higher than last time.
To make the parachute, get a tough stick about two feet long and whittle it to a shape similar to Fig. 2. The bottom must be heavy enough to fall first so that the parachute will fall in the right direction to be opened out. You can weight the end by tying a piece of lead or a spool on it. Cut your tissue paper to a shape shown in Fig. 2 and place a thread through every scallop. If the paper tears right through, a good plan is to reinforce the edges of the circle by pasting a strip of tough paper or muslin all around. A parachute made of silk or any fine mesh cloth will be much more lasting, but not quite so buoyant.
The sling shot is made with a rubber band, some string, and a forked stick. The greater its propelling power, the more successful will the toy be.
Instead of using for firewood the boxes in which groceries, etc., are shipped to camp, have the boys make useful camp furniture from them. Get the book, "Box Furniture," by Louise Brigham: The Century Co.; price, $1.50. It tells what to do with boxes, and how to make all sorts of convenient furniture.
Mark the ground around the camp flag pole with white stones or stones whitewashed, like a sun dial. The sun's rays will cast the shadow of the pole so that the time of day may be accurately ascertained. (See illustration.) In the handbook of the Boy Scouts of America is the following description for making a Sun dial or Hunter's Clock: "To make a sun dial prepare a smooth board about 15 inches across, with a circle divided into 24 equal parts, and a temporarily hinged pointer, whose upper edge is in the middle of the dial. Place on some dead level solid post or stump in the open. At night fix the dial so that the 12-o'clock line points exactly to North, as determined by the North or Pole Star. Then, using two temporary sighting sticks of exactly the same height (so as to permit sighting clear above the edge of the board), set the pointer exactly pointing to the Pole Star, that is, the same angle as the latitude of the place, and fix it there immovably. Then remove the two sighting sticks."
SUN DIAL OR HUNTER'S CLOCK Some Quotations to Burn or Paint on the Sun Dial.
"My face marks the sunny hours, What can you say of yours."
"Grow old along with me, The best is yet to be."
Translation of motto on Cathedral Sun dial, St. Augustine. "The hours pass and we are held accountable."
The illustration shows how to locate the North or Pole Star.
F. O. Van Ness gives the following directions for making a pair of moccasins:
Fig. 1. Place foot on leather or canvas and draw outline of foot. Turn same and make pattern for other foot.
Fig. 2. Distance GB equals length of foot plus one inch; distance AC equals width across instep plus one-half inch; cut DF halfway between B and G; cut EG halfway between A and C. Cut piece reverse of this for other moccasin. Place B of Fig. 2 to B of Fig. 1, and sew overhand with wax cord the edges from B to A and B to C, bringing A and C of Fig. 2 together at A of Fig. 1. Sew AG to CG.
Fig. 3 is the tongue and DF of Fig. 3 is sewed to DF of Fig. 2. Cut pairs of half-inch slits a, b, c, d in Fig. 2, and run lace through.
For the afternoon "siesta" make a "rough-and-ready" hammock, by taking apart a flour barrel or sugar barrel, and in the end of each stave bore a three-quarter inch hole with a heated poker, or bit and auger. Then lace thin rope (clothes line is good) through the holes. This can be accomplished easily by noting method of lacing in figure "A." The stay-blocks "B" should be 12 inches long. Figure "C" shows hammock ready for use.
Get a cheese box. Knock in the end very carefully, so as not to split it, pull out all the nails and lay it flat, and you have a piece of very thin board about 4-1/2 feet long and 11 inches wide. Next take a piece of inch plank of same width as the cheese box, and three feet in length, and to this fasten the unrolled cheese box by using small lath nails, letting one end curl up over the plank. To the edge of this protruding piece of cheese box tack a narrow strip of wood. Tie a heavy cord to its ends, run the cord through the two hooks screwed into the planks and draw down the end until it is curved just right. The illustration shows how it is made.
A funnel may be made by taking an ordinary envelope and cutting off the part shown in dotted lines as in the illustration. Then clip a little off the point, open out, and you have an excellent funnel.
Dip a pen in an onion and press until the juice comes; then, with plenty of juice on the pen, write your message. To read it warm it over the fire, when the writing will stand out clearly.
LIST OF BOOKS ON HANDCRAFT AND CONSTRUCTION:
Field and Forest Handy Book—D. C. Beard. Charles Scribner's Sons, $2.00.
Jack of All Trades—D. C. Beard. Charles Scribner's Sons, $2.00.
The Boy Pioneers—D. C. Beard. Charles Scribner's Sons, $2.00 net.
The Boy Craftsman—A. Neely Hall. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., $2.00.
Woodworking for Beginners—C. G. Wheeler. Putnam and Company, $2.50.
Amateur Mechanics, Nos. 1 and 2. Popular Mechanics. 25 cents each. How to Build a Biplane Glider—A. P. Morgan. Spon & Chamberlain, 50 cents net.
Problems in Furniture Making—Fred D. Crawshaw. Manual Arts Press, $1.20.
Box Furniture—Louise Brigham. Century Co., $1.60 net.
The Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes—Francis A. Collins. Century Co., $1.20 net. Postage extra.
CHAPTER XXII—HONOR EMBLEMS AND AWARDS
NON-COMPETITIVE AWARDS DUDLEY PLAN "THE ORDER OF THE ADIRONDACK CAMP EAGLE" "ORDER OF THE PHANTOM SQUARE" FLAG OF HONOR "GREEN RAG" SOCIETY DURRELL AND BECKET PLAN PROFICIENCY CUP HALL OF FAME
Honour is purchased by the deeds we do; * * * honour is not won, Until some honourable deed be done. —Marlowe.
Achievement and cooperation based upon altruism, should be the underlying principles in determining the giving of emblems and awards. To give every boy an opportunity to do his best to measure up to the camp standard, is the thing desired in the awarding of emblems. Non-competitive tests are being recognized as the best lever of uplift and the most effective spur in arousing the latent ability of boys. The desire to down the other fellow is the reason for much of the prevailing demoralization of athletics and competitive games. Prizes should not be confused with "honors." An honor emblem should be representative of the best gift the camp can bestow and the recipient should be made to feel its worth. The emblem cannot be bought, it must be won.
Camp Dudley has the distinction of introducing the honor system in boys' camps. Boys pass tests which include rowing, swimming, athletics, mountain climbing, nature study, carpenter work, manual labor, participation in entertainments, "unknown" point (unknown to the camp, given secretly to the boy) and securing the approval of the leaders, in order to win the "C D." After winning this emblem, the boys try to win the camp pennant, the tests for which are graded higher.
"The Order of the Adirondack Camp Eagle" is established at Camp Adirondack for boys who qualify in the following tests: "Obedience is required to the few camp rules; promptness is required at the regular bugle calls—reveille, assembly for exercise, mess call, and tattoo and taps—and erect posture is required at meals. In addition to this there is a 'general personal' standard (embracing neatness at meals and courtesy, etc.). Boys coming up to the standard are initiated into the order and receive the emblem—the bronze eagle button. Boys who reach an especially high standard receive the silver eagle. Boys reaching this higher degree may compete for the golden eagle, the highest camp honor. To obtain this it is necessary for a boy to swim a hundred yards, do the high dive (about 12 feet), be able to row well and paddle a canoe skillfully, recognize and name twenty-five trees, and pass a practical examination in other nature work and in practical camping and woodcraft, and answer questions in physical training and care of the body along lines covered in camp-fire talks."
HONOR EMBLEMS AND AWARDS 281
"The Order of the Phantom Square" was organized at the Wisconsin State Boys' Camp for boys who succeed in qualifying in the tests named below:
Bronze, Silver and Gold Pins are awarded as follows: Bronze—60 points, 15 in each division. Silver—80 points, 20 in each division. Gold .—100 points, 25 in each division.
PHYSICAL. 30 POINTS POSSIBLE
Event A (16-17) B (14-15) C (12-13) Points *1. Run 100 yd 12 sec. 13 sec. 7.2 sec. (50 yd.) 1 *2. Run 440 yd 1:13 1:25 1:34 1 *3. Running Broad Jump 14 ft. 13 ft. 11 ft. 1 *4. Running High Jump 4 ft. 3 ft. 10 in. 3 ft 6 in. 1 *5. Shot put 8 lb. 30 ft. 25 ft. 20 ft. 1 *6. Swim 25 yd 19 sec. 22 sec. 25 sec 1 *7. Swim on back 25 yd —- —- —- 1 *8. Swim 100 yd —- —- —- 1 *9. Dive in acceptable form —- —- —- 1 *10. Row one mile 4:20 4:25 5:10 1 *11. Life Saving Test 70-79; 80-89; 90-100 3-5 +12. Calisthenic Drill 8, 11, 14 times 1-3 +13. Early Plunge in Lake 8, 11, 14 times 1-3 *14. Walk 10 miles 2 +15. Cleanliness 1-5
Social Activity Points *16. Teach other boys in aquatics, athletics, or mental tests 1-5 *17. Perform other good turns to individuals 1-5 +18. Congeniality with camp mates 1-4 +19. Neatness in care of personal property, tent and table 1-5 +20. Promptness in responding to bugle calls, signals and camp duties 1-3 *21. Participating acceptably in evening entertainments 1-5 *22. Participating acceptably in camp orchestra or glee club 3
Mental Test Points *23. Pass written test in life-saving examination with grade of 70-79, 80-89, or 90-100 3-5 *24. Name and describe different kinds of trees and birds 1-5 *25. Name and point out star groups 1-3 *26. Answer questions on camp-fire talks 1-4 *27. Read and orally answer questions on "Youth to Manhood" 1-5 *28. Read and tell story of other acceptable books 1-3 *29. Compose an acceptable song or yell for camp 5
Moral Activity Points *30. Daily Bible reading with written answers to questions 1-5 +31. Reverence at Religious exercises 1-3 +32. Attendance at Church on Sundays during camp 3 +33. Cheerful and faithful performance of camp duties 1-5 +34. Extra volunteer service at camp 1-5 +35. Self-control 1-4 +36. General conduct and disposition 1-5
Tests marked thus (*) are judged by certain leaders delegated for the purpose. Tests marked thus (+) are judged by all tent leaders for boys in their tents.
After a candidate has won the requisite number of points for the first degree, a unanimous vote of all leaders in council assembled, is necessary, after which, a solemn ceremony of initiation is conducted.
The Honor Emblem is given to all who win a total of at least thirty points covering all the tests.
Flag of Honor
Camp Couchiching spirit is developed through the "Flag of Honor," which is awarded each day to the tent scoring the highest number of points, as follows: Every boy up and in line at 3 minutes after 7, scores 5 points for his tent; the morning dip, 5 points; tent inspection, 100 points for perfect; winning in athletic and aquatic meet, 25 points; second, 20; third, 15; fourth, 10; and fifth, 5. On a winning baseball team, 5 points and amateur stunt, 10 points.
Green Rag Society
Camp Eberhart has the following elaborate plan: The camp emblem itself represents the first degree and the camper must be in camp for one full week before he can wear it. The emblem is a brown triangle with a large E placed upon it with a green background. A green bar is added for each year spent in camp. The second, third and fourth degrees are indicated by a small green star, to be placed at the points of the triangle, beginning at the lowest point, then the upper left, then the upper right. The second degree will be awarded by the first star, the third degree by the second star, also entitling the winner to membership in the "Brown Rag" Society. The fourth degree will be awarded by the third star and the winner be entitled to membership in the "Green Rag" Society.
Membership in the "Green Rag" Society is the highest honor the camp can bestow. The following are the requirements for the higher degrees.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SECOND DEGREE. 1. To catch a one-pound fish from Corey Lake. 2. To catch a one-pound fish from any other lake while at camp. 3. To row a boat (passing the rowing test). 4. To be able to swim 50 yards. 5. To be able to walk one mile in 11 minutes. 6. To be able to run 100 yards in 14 seconds. 7. To be able to start three consecutive fires with three consecutive matches in the woods, with fuel found in the woods; one of the fires to be built in a damp place. If one fire fails, the entire test must be repeated. 8. To bring in mounted five different butterflies. 9. To bring in mounted five different moths. 10. To bring in mounted five different beetles. 11. To collect and press 25 different wild flowers. 12. To jump 6 feet in standing broad jump.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE THIRD DEGREE. 1. To be able to start a fire with a fire drill, the fuel and material used to be found in the woods. 2. To be able to tell the correct time by the sun at least twice a day. 3. To be able to swim 200 yards. 4. To be able to row a boat one mile in ten minutes. 5. To measure the correct height of a tree without climbing it. 6. To be able to tie and untie eight different standard knots. 7. To catch a two-pound fish. 8. To be able to know and name fifteen different trees in the woods. 9. To be able to perform on a stunt night acceptably. 10. To be able to know and name 25 different birds as seen around the camp. 11. To lead in the Evening Devotions at least twice. 12. To run 100 yards in 13 seconds.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FOURTH DEGREE, 1. To catch a three-pound fish. 2. To be able to run 100 yards in 11 seconds. 3. To be able to run 100 yards in 12 seconds. 4. To conduct Evening Devotions. 5. To teach one boy how to swim (test one hundred feet). 6. To influence one boy into the Christian life. 7. To know and to name 25 different trees as found in the woods. 8. To be able to make twelve standard knots in a rope. 9. To conquer one bad habits while at camp. 10. To accomplish at least one definite piece of service as prescribed by the camp. 11. To become a member of the camp council. 12. To be able to jump 16 feet in the running broad Jump.
The tests in Camps Durrell and Becket are based upon Baden-Powell's book, "Scouting for Boys," and have proven very successful. They are as follows:
HONOR EMBLEMS AND A WARDS 285
HONOR PLAN DISCIPLINE. 1. Doing camp duty promptly, efficiently and cheerfully. (5 points) 2. Participating promptly in preparing tents, baggage and beds for Inspection. (4 points.) 3. Loyalty to captain in all games. (5 points.)
OBSERVATION. 1. Observe the ways of birds, animals and people and jot down a sketch of them in a notebook. (3 points.) 2. Take a walk and upon return to the camp write upon the following six subjects. (a) Nature of by-ways of paths. (b) Different kinds of trees you noticed. (c) People you met. (d) Peculiar smells of plants. (e) Kind of fences you saw. (f) Sounds you heard. (3 points.) 3. Observe sanitary and hygienic disorder and correct the same. (5 points.) 4. After the reading aloud of a story write an account of it. (3 points.)
WOODCRAFT. 1. Observe the tracks of birds and animals and distinguish them. (2 points.) 2. Identify fifteen birds, or fifteen trees, or fifteen flowers, or fifteen minerals. (2 points.) 3. Tie a square knot, a weaver's knot, a slip knot, a flemish coop, a bowline, a half, timber clove, boom hitches, stevedore and wall end knots, blackwall and catspaw turn and hitch hook hitches. (2 points.) 4. Make a "star" fire and cook a meal upon it for the boys of your tent. (3 points.) 5. Find the south at any time of day by the sun with the aid of a watch. (1 point.) 6. Estimate the distance across water. (1 point.) 7. Judge the time of day by the sun. (1 point.) 8. Read the signs of the weather by the sun, wind and clouds. (2 points.) 9. Make something useful for the camp. (5 points.)
HEALTH. 1. Promptness, erect carriage and earnestness in setting up drill. (3 points.) 2. Gain made in physical development during the time in camp. (2 points.) 3. Essay upon the camp-fire talks on "Personal Hygiene." (3 points.) 4. Care of tent, clothing and baggage, in dry and wet weather. (3 points.) 5. Cleanliness of person. (3 points). 6. Proper eating at meals. (5 points.) 7. Win first place in the athletic or aquatic events. (2 points.)
CHIVALRY. (Among the laws of the Knights was this: "Chivalry requireth that youth should be trained to perform the most laborious and humble offices with cheerfulness and grace: and to do good unto others.") 1. Do a good turn to somebody every day. (3 points.) 2. Control tongue and temper. (5 points.) 3. Participate in some entertainment. (2 points.) 4. Secure the approval of the leaders. (2 points.) 5. Promptness in attending Chapel services. (2 points.)
SAVING LIFE. 1. Be able to swim fifty yards and return without stopping. (1 point.) 2. Pass the examinations in Life Saving and First Aid Work by written and demonstration work. (5 points.) 3. Row from wharf to a given point and back in a given time. (1 point.)
PATRIOTISM. 1. Respect for the United States flag at raising and colors. (5 points.) 2. Memorize "America" and "Star Spangled Banner," (1 point.) 3. Write an essay explaining the plan of governing your own town and city. (2 points.) 4. Write in your own words what you think citizenship means. (2 points.) 5. Describe upon paper some historic spot or building near your home and its connection with the making of America. (1 point.)
NOTE.—Each boy must win 90 points out of a possible 100 to secure the honor emblem. Leaders will be appointed to take charge of the different tests, to whom the boys will report when they qualify in the tests and receive their points. The final decision in the giving of the honor emblem is made at a full meeting of the Camp Council.
The honor emblem consists of a white "swastika"  cross with garnet felt D for Durrell and B for Becket. Boys who fail to secure the emblem in one season are credited with points which hold good the next season. The Honor Pennant is awarded only to those who render special service to the camp.
The camp emblem is a garnet solid triangle with the initial of the camp in white felt upon it. A white bar placed above the triangle represents the attendance, one bar is given for each year. The Senior leader's emblem is a white felt disc with a garnet felt triangle, and the Junior leader's emblem, a garnet felt disc with a white felt triangle.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: The swastika is an ancient religious symbol, a Greek cross with the ends of the arms bent at right angles. It was adopted by the Nazi party under Adolf Hitler in 1935. This book was written 22 years earlier.]
Campers will find enough suggestions in these outlines to develop systems of their own which will help in the all-round development of the boy.
Camp Kineo Cup
Some camps prefer the awarding of what may be called "proficiency cups." At Camp Kineo a silver cup is awarded to the boy in each division who is the best all-round fellow, considering manly qualities, loyalty to camp, deportment, behavior under all conditions, skill in athletics, aquatics, tennis, baseball, and all other sports, self-control, temperament, popularity with boys and good standing with councilors. The judges are the Director and Camp Council, whose decision counts for 60 per cent toward the final award, the boys not competing deciding the other 40 per cent toward the final award.
Hall of Fame
At Camp Wildmere there is a "Hall of Fame." Votes are taken for the most respected leader and the most respected boy, the most popular leader and boy; the boy who has done the most for the camp and the boys; the most courteous boy, neatest boy, best-built boy, brightest boy, favorite in games; neatest in tent; best all-round camper; boy who talks least about himself; the one with the best table manners; the quietest boy, most generous boy, handsomest boy, best-natured boy and the camp humorist.
CHAPTER XXIII—PACKING UP
THE LAST NIGHT PACKING UP INSTRUCTIONS TO LEADERS THE LAST WORD
Farewell, wild hearth where many logs have burned; Among your stones the fireweed may grow. The brant are flown, the maple-leaves have turned, The goldenrod is brown—and we must go. -Arthur Guiterman.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: brant: Dark wild goose of the Arctic having a black neck and head.]
The Last Night
The last night in a boys' camp should be the best of all the nights. It is usually a night of reminiscence. Around the camp fire or log fire in the "Lodge," all the campers gather and rehearse the good times of the days that have passed all too quickly—those days of close intimacy of tent life, where boys of different tastes, temperaments and dispositions were thrown together, where life's great lessons of give and take were learned and where character was put to the test! Friendships have been formed which will last through life. The same group of fellows will never come together again. The director, perhaps as no other person, realizes the importance of making this night one of permanent impression, and his "good-by" talk to the fellows will reiterate the "why" of camping and emphasize the taking home of the spirit of good which has prevailed and the making it count for the best things in home, school, factory and church life of those boys who enjoyed the benefits of the camp.
All the favorite songs of the camp are sung, the leaders make "speeches," and the boys have an opportunity of telling what camp life has done for them. As the fire dies down the bugler off in the distance plays "God Be With You Till We Meet Again"; silence—and then "taps."
There is just as much need of system and care in breaking camp and packing up, as in opening camp. Chas. R. Scott at Camp Wawayanda issues to each leader the following letter of instructions, which may be of help to those in charge of large camps.
LETTER OF INSTRUCTION TO LEADERS
DEAR FRIEND—Will you kindly help me break camp by carrying out the following instructions:
1. Have all your boys return all books to the librarian not later than Thursday morning, and tools to the shop by the same time.
2. Encourage your helpers to loosen the side walls of tent early Friday morning, if clear, and fasten guy ropes so that canvas will dry if damp.
3. Take out all the pegs which fasten the side walls, clean off dirt and place in boxes at boat house.
4. Take down the board in your tent, take out all nails; straighten them and place in proper boxes in shop. Then take board to the boat house. Leave the rope over the ridge pole untied.
5. Take out all nails and screws in the upright poles of your tent and bunks, and place in boxes in shop.
6. Empty the oil and clean lantern and return to the boat house. Take bunks to the lodge and let us know the condition of each.
7. See that all paper and old things in and around the tent are picked up and placed on the fire for that purpose.
8. After Bible study we will take down all tents. We should like you to delegate one fellow to each upright pole, one to each of the four corner guy ropes, and then follow instructions as the bugle blows.
9. Take all rope on the trees to headquarters.
10. Kindly answer the following questions regarding your tent: a. Are all the poles properly marked with tent number? b. Does tent leak? If so, where? c. Is the ridge pole in good condition? d. Does front and rear of tent close securely? e. Does it need new fasteners for tying up?
Anything else you have noticed during the time you have been in the tent; please make a memorandum of same on back of this sheet.
11. Return camp keys, if you have them, to headquarters before leaving.
We would be pleased to have you write on the back of this sheet any suggestions you have for the improvement of camp for next season. Thanking you personally for your help and trusting to have your cooperation and that of your boys until the close of camp, I remain, Sincerely yours,
The day before camp breaks, each boy should pack his trunk or box neatly, leaving at the top the things needed to make the homeward journey, with room for his blankets. If the packing is left until the last day, confusion will result and temper be sorely tried.
Permanent buildings should be securely safeguarded against the severity of the winter and the breaking in of thieves. All kitchen utensils should be thoroughly cleaned and dried. If they are put away moist rust will eat holes. Give the stove a good coat of old grease and cover with burlap or old canvas. Hang the tents in bags where the squirrels and rats cannot get at them. When camp is closed it should be in such condition that it would require but a few hours to reopen and make ready for the next outing.
Advance Party. Aeroplanes. Agriculture. Aquatic Sports. Archery. Athletic Events and Awards. Athletic Grouping.
Bacon. Bandages. Bank. Barometer, Homemade. Barometers, Plant. Baseball League. Baseball, Water. Basket Ball, Water. Beds. Bible Study. Bites and Stings. Blanket Roll. Bleeding. Boats and Boat Building. Books, Rainy Day. Bow and Arrows. Box Furniture. Box Trunk. Broken Bone. Bruises and Burns. Buildings.
Camp, Plan of. Cleaning. Location of. Camp Fire. Camping, Arguments for. Canoe Tag. Chapel. Character Building. Check List. Chills. Choking. Circle Jumping. Clothing. Clouds. Cocoa. Coffee. Colds. Commissary Blank. Cooks. Council. Cramps. Cups, Drinking. Cuts.
Departments. Digestion, Time of. Director. Dirt. Discipline. Dish Washing. Dislocation. Drains. Dramas, Outdoor. Drowning, Rescue from.
Eggs. Egg Test. Earache. Evening Program. Eyes. Fainting. Fee.
Field Glasses. Fireplace. First Aid. Fish (Receipts). Fish, Study of. Flag Raising and Striking. Food Charts. Food, How to Buy. Forestry. Frog's Legs. Funnel.
Games and Stunts, Indoor. Games, Outdoor. Games, Their Purpose. Garbage. German Bowling. Grace at Meals. Green Rag Society. Griddle Cakes. Grocery List.
Hall of Fame. Hammocks. Hands. Hand Wrestling. Handy Devices. Hanger. Headache. Health Board. Health Charts. Health Maxims. Health Talks. Herbarium. Hiccough. Honor Awards. Honor Cup. Honor Flag. Honor Plan. Hospital Tent. "How Men Found the Great Spirit".
Indian and White Man. Ink, Onion. Inspection. Internal Organs.
Lamps. Lantern Talks.
Leaders or Counsellor. Blanks for. Letter to. Opportunities of. Pay of. Suggestions to.
Lean-to. Library. Life Saving.
Map Reading. Matches, Lighting. Measuring Device. Medical Stores. Mending Pots. Menu (for hike). Menus. Moccasins. Moral. Morning Hymn. Mottoes. Music.
Nature Study. Nature Study Equipment. Nature Study Walks. Nature Talks. Nose. Novel Bonfire.
Old Clothes Race. Order of Day. Organization Chart.
Packing Up. Packs. Pain and Pain Chart. Paper (Camp Journal). Parachute. Peanut Relay Race. Phantom Square. Photography. Physical Record Blanks. Physical Types, Average. Poison Ivy. Potatoes. Pulse. Pyrography.
Ration List. Records. Religious Life. Resuscitation. Roast Corn. Rooster Fight. Rough-house. Rover, All Come over. Rusty Nail.
Scoutcraft. Scout Law. Self Government. Serving. Shipping. Shoes. Shoot the Chutes. Sleep. Sore Throat. Soup. Stories. Story, A Good Example of. Stretcher. Stunned. Steward. Stomachache. Sun Dial and Camp Clock. Sun Glass. Sunday. Sunday Talks. Sunstroke. Surgical Supplies. Surveying. Swamps. Swimming and Bathing.
Table and Kitchen Ware. Table Etiquette. Tables and Seats. Take-off. Talks, to Individuals. To groups, evening. To groups, Sunday. Taps. Tattoo. Teeth. Tents, Arrangement of. Tents and Teepees. Tether Ball. Thatching. Thermometer, Clinical. Tilting. Toboggans. Toilets. Tongue. Tutoring. Tramper's Advice. Typhoid.
Waste Barrels. Water Supply. Weather Bureau. Weather Forecast. Weather Signals, U. S. Bureau. Weights and Measures, Table. Whale Hunt. Whistle Signal. Whittier's Club. Wigwag Code and Rules. Winds. Wolf. Work, Assignment of.