The bugler blows "tattoo" which means "all in tents." After the boys have undressed and are ready for bed, the leader reads a chapter from the Bible, and in many camps the boys lead in volunteer prayer, remembering especially the folks at home.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: Signal on a drum or bugle to summon soldiers to their quarters at night. Continuous, even drumming or rapping.]
From a hill near camp, or from a boat on the lake come the notes of a familiar hymn such as "Abide With Me," "Lead, Kindly Light," "The Day is Past and Over," "Sun of My Soul," or "Nearer, My God to Thee," played by the bugler. Every boy listens and the ear records a suggestion which helps to make the night's sleep pure and restful. Try it. Taps played slowly, follows the hymn. As the last notes are being echoed upon the still night air the lights are being extinguished in the tents, so that when the final prolonged note ends the camp is in darkness and quiet, and all have entered into a nine-hour period of restoration of body and mind. Who knows, but God himself, how many of the boys, and even leaders, while wrapped warmly in their blankets have silently breathed out that old, old prayer so full of faith, which has been handed down from generation to generation:
Now I lay me down to sleep I pray Thee Lord my soul to keep.
A prayer echoed by the camp director, for now is the only time of the day's program when he begins to breathe freely, and is partially able to lay aside his mantle of responsibility. A cough, a sigh, and even the moaning of the wind disturbs this ever vigilant leader and he thinks of his charges, until finally, weariness conquers and sleep comes.
THE WELL-ORDERED DAY
How shall the day be ordered? To the sage The young man spoke. And this was his reply:
A morning prayer. A moment with thy God who sends thee dawn Up from the east; to thank heaven for the care That kept thee through the night; to give thy soul, With faith serene, to his complete control; To ask his guidance still along the way. So starts the day.
A busy day. Do with a will the task that lies before. So much there is for every man to do, And soon the night when man can work no more. And none but he to life's behest is true Who works with zeal and pauses only when He stretches forth his hand to help the men Who fail or fall beside him on the way. So runs the day.
A merry evening. When toil is done, then banished be the care That frets the soul. With loved ones by the hearth The evening hour belongs to joy and mirth; To lighter things that make life fresh and fair. For honest work has earned its hour of play. So ends the day. —John Clair Minot in the "Independent"
Association Boys' Camps—Edgar M. Robinson. Association Boys, Vol. I., No.3, 1902.
The Day's Program—C. Hanford Henderson. "How to Help Boys," Vol. III., No.3, 1903.
The Camp Conference—Secretary's Report, 1905-06 (out of print).
The Camp Conference—"How to Help Boys," July, 1903.
CHAPTER VIII—MORAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE
THE RELIGIOUS INSTINCT NATURE'S TEACHINGS SUNDAY IN CAMP BIBLE STUDY HOW AND WHEN TO TEACH THE BIBLE COURSE OF CAMP BIBLE STUDY BIBLE STUDY COURSE FOR BOY SCOUTS DEVOTIONS IN TENT DAILY BIBLE READINGS A "NOVEL" BON-FIRE READING OF STORIES ON SUNDAY PURPOSEFUL READING CHAPEL SERVICES BIBLIOGRAPHY
The aspect of nature is devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head and hands folded upon her breast.—Emerson.
Camp life should help boys to grow not only physically and mentally, but morally. Religion is the basis of morality. The highest instinct in man is the religious. Man made the city with all its artificiality, but, as some one has said, "God made the country." Everything that the city boy comes in contact with is man-made. "Even the ground is covered with buildings and paving blocks; the trees are set in rows like telegraph poles; the sunlight is diluted with smoke from the factory chimneys, the moon and stars are blotted out by the glare of the electric light; and even the so-called lake in the park is a scooped-out basin filled by pumps. Little wonder that a boy who grows up under these conditions has little reverence for a God whose handiwork he has not seen."
[Footnote 1: Walter M. Wood in Association Boys, June. 1907.]
When a boy's soul is open to the influence of nature he feels the presence of the divine in the forest. There is an uplift, an inspiration, a joy that he never experiences in the city. He does not know how to express himself, but somehow he feels the spiritual atmosphere pervading the woods which his soul breathes in as really as his nostrils do the pure air, and he is ready to Go forth, under the open sky and list to Nature's teachings. -Bryant.
For as Martin Luther said, "God writes the Gospel not in the Bible alone, but in trees and flowers and clouds and stars."
Sunday in a boys' camp should be observed by the holding of a service in the morning, with song, scripture reading, prayer and a short talk. The afternoon is usually occupied by letter writing, Bible study, or reading, the day closing with a vesper service in the evening just as the sun is setting. Boisterousness should not be encouraged. Unnatural restraint, however, is contrary to the spirit of the day. The day should be different from other days. Many camp boys date their first real awakening to the best and highest things in life from a Sunday spent in camp.
Every real camper has experienced a Sunday similar to this one described by Howard Henderson. "A quiet Sunday in the deep woods is a golden day to be remembered for many a year. All nature combines to assist the camper in directing his thoughts to the great Author of all the beauty that he beholds. 'The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handiwork.' The trees under which one reclines rear their heads heavenward, pointing their spire-like minarets far up toward the blue-vaulted roof. It inspires the very soul to worship in these unbuilt cathedrals with wilderness of aisle and pillars, which for elegance and beauty have never been equalled by the architects of any age. And the music of the trees combined with the notes of the bird songsters, give a joy which is unknown in listening to a city choir."
The Bible becomes a new book to boys when studied under such an environment. As one boy wrote home to his father after a Sunday spent in a camp where Sunday was observed in this manner, "Dad, it is so different here, from a Sunday at home; I understood the talk and the Bible study was great; it was a bully day!"
The following Bible course was worked out by the author and has been used in scores of boys' camps. These lessons were taught to groups of boys at eventide when nature seemed to quiet down and the boys were most responsive to good, sensible suggestion. The camp was divided into tent groups, each group being taught by their leader or an exchange leader, one group occupying a big rock, another the "Crow's Nest," or "Tree House," another getting together under a big tree, another in their tent. No leader was permitted to take more than twenty minutes for the lesson. It is unwise to take twenty minutes for what could be said in ten minutes. The boys all had a chance to take part in the discussion. Each lesson was opened and closed with prayer, many of the boys participating in volunteer prayer. In teaching a lesson don't spend too much time in description unless you have the rare gift of being able to make your scene live before your hearers. Talk plainly and to the point. Naturalness should characterize each lesson. Boys hate cant and apologies and lack of definiteness. Your best illustrations will be drawn from the life of the camp and from nature.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: Monotonous talk filled with platitudes. Hypocritically pious language.]
In some camps these lessons were taught in the morning directly after breakfast, while the boys were seated at the tables.
There are "Sermons in stones, and good in every thing," therefore the purpose of these lessons should be to help boys hear these sermons and learn nature's lessons of purity, strength and character.
A COURSE IN BIBLE STUDY
LESSON 1. THE HILLS-PRAYER
Psalm 121. Christ going into the mountains to pray. Matt. 14:23; Mark 6:46; Luke 6:12; Mark 1:35; Matt. 6:6-15.
Unnatural not to pray. Even Pagans pray, but they pray through fear.
More things are wrought through prayer than this world dreams of. —Tennyson. Pray to Christ as friend to friend. The Lord's Prayer.
He prayeth well who loveth well Both man and bird and beast. He prayeth best who loveth best All things both great and small, For the dear God who loveth us He made and loveth all. —Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner."
Strength received through prayer. A time and place for prayer.
LESSON 2. THE BIRDS—DEPENDENCE UPON GOD
Matt. 6:26; Psa.147:9; Luke 12:24; Matt. 10:29-31.
God feeding the birds. How much more does God care for you. Not one forgotten, the most worthless, the most restless.
God loves the birds. He loves you. Show your love to Him by caring for the birds.
Isa. 40: 28-31.
Abraham Lincoln and the bird fallen from the nest.—"Gentlemen, I could not have slept tonight if I had not helped that little bird in its trouble, and put it back safe in the nest with its mother."
LESSON 3. FLOWERS-PURITY
Matt. 6:28-30. Beauty of flowers. Isa. 55:10-13. Provision for summer growth and beauty.
(Bring wild flowers to the class.) Flowers come up out of the dirt yet unsoiled. Possible for boys to keep clean and pure, surrounded by evil. Evil thoughts determine evil deeds.
"My strength is as the strength of ten Because my heart is pure."-Sir Galahad.
Purity of character, the lily. Know thyself. Keep thyself pure. 1 Cor. 3:16,17. White Cross Pledge. Virtue never dwelt long with filth and nastiness.—Count Rumford.
LESSON 4. TREES—GROWTH
Psalm 1. (Hold the session under the biggest and best proportioned tree.)
Cedars of Lebanon—Strong in the Lord. The oaks—From acorns grew. The fruit tree—Living for others. By their fruits ye shall know them. Stunted trees. Crooked trees. Scarred trees. Grafted trees. Matt. 1:16-20; Jer. 11:7, 8. Things that interfere with a boy's growth.
LESSON 5. WATER-LIFE
(Hold the session along the shore.) Psa. 65:9-13. God's liberality. Isa. 55: 1. Freeness of the gospel. John 4:14. Woman at the well. Rev. 22:11. The last invitation in the Bible.
The joy of living. The fun at camp. Friendship. Temporal life vs. eternal life. Water will only satisfy thirst temporarily. Water revives—Christ satisfies. Eternal life for the asking.
LESSON 6. ROCKS—CHARACTER
(Hold the session on or near some big boulder or rock.) Matt. 7:24-27. A good foundation. 1 Cor. 3:9-14.
PRACTICAL THOUGHTS All boys are building character day by day. All builders have a choice of foundation. All foundations will be tried. Only one foundation will stand. Jesus Christ is the Rock of Ages.
"Every thought that we've ever had Its own little place has filled. Every deed we have done, good or bad Is a stone in the temple we build."-Sargant.
Character, not reputation, will alone stand the final test.
LESSON 7. STORMS—TROUBLE Matt. 8:23-27. Need of help. Phil. 4:6. A strong deliverer. Psa. 107:28-30. A safe place.
PRACTICAL THOUGHTS Boys have real troubles, real temptations, real shipwrecks. Difficulties in school life, at home, in camp. Almost ready to give up. Have faith in Christ as a Saviour.
"The inner side of every cloud Is bright and shining, I therefore turn my clouds about, And always wear them inside out To show the lining."
"Look ever to Jesus. He'll carry you through."
LESSON 8. SPORTS—MASTERY (Teach this lesson after a field day.) 1 Cor. 9:24-27. The race of life. Mastery of self. Heb. 12:1, 2. Run with patience. 1 Tim. 6:12. A good fight. Rev. 2:10. Faithfulness. Ecele. 9:11. Not always to the swift. Eccle. 9:10. Wholeheartedness.
PRACTICAL THOUGHTS "Each victory of self will help you some other to win." Self-control. Value of training. You are either master or slave. The Bible, the book of instruction. Solomon's rule of self-defence. Prov. 15: 1.
LESSON 9. NIGHT—SIN Psa. 19. Night unto night. John 3:19-20. Evil deeds. Rom. 13:11-14. Awake out of sin.
Bad thoughts come to us in the dark. Dark places productive of crime. Mischief at camp during the night. Darkness cannot hide us from God. "Thou God seest me." North star a guide for sailors—Jesus Christ a safe guide. "Character is what a man is in the dark." -D. L. Moody.
LESSON 10. CHUMS—FRIENDSHIP 1 Sam. 18:1-4. True friendship. 1 John 4:11. Love one another. 1 Cor. 13:4-7. To the end.
Chum means "to abide with," to share the same tent. Camp chums. David and Jonathan. The genuine article. Helping each other. The Friend—Jesus Christ.
LESSON 11. CAMP FIRES
Build a camp fire along the shore. Read alternately the twenty-first chapter of the gospel of St. John. The fire on the beach. John 21:9.
Jesus was there—Jesus is here. Peter confessed Him there. John 21:15-17. Who will confess Him here? Peter denied Him by another fire. Luke 22:54-62. Will you deny Him here? P. S. Make this a decision meeting.
LESSON 12. FISHING—PERSONAL WORK
Luke 5:1-11. Fishers of men.
Sometimes fish are caught and used as bait to catch others. When a boy becomes a Christian he should bring to others the same blessing.
Patience is essential in fishing—same in winning boys to Christ. Every fisherman expects to catch fish. To lead others to Christ is the noblest work in the world. Dan. 12: 3.
In some camps a bit of Scripture is read each night in the tent just before retiring. The following readings having been prepared by W. H. Wones, C. C. Robinson, Arthur Wilson and Charles R. Scott for use at Camp Wawayanda. Just before taps, if you have a good cornetist, have him go a short distance from the camp and play a well known hymn, like "Abide With Me," "Nearer, My God, to Thee," "Lead, Kindly Light," then play "taps." The effect is wonderful, and prevents all inclination toward noise or "rough house."
1. Personal Work on a Journey. John 4:5-15. 2. Its Results. John 4:27-30, 39, 42. 3. The Disciples' Trip for Service. Mark 6:7-13. 4. Their Interrupted Vacation. Mark 6: 30-42. 5. A Night on the Lake. Mark 6:45-56. 6. A Foolish Journey. Luke 15:11-17. 7. A Wise Return. Luke 15:18-24. 8. The Welcome Guest. John 12:1-9. 9. A Fishing Experience. John 21:1-14. 10. Spending a Night on a Mountain. Luke 9:28-36. 11. Vacation Suggestion: "Keep Sweet." Psalm 34:8-15. 12. Vacation Suggestion: "Stick to Principle." Psalm 119:25-32. 13. Vacation Suggestion: "Confess Christ. "; Matthew 10:24-33. 14. Vacation Suggestion: "Keep up Bible Study."; Psalm 119:1-8. 15. Vacation Suggestion: "Write Good Letters." 1 Corinthians 16:3-13. 16. Speaking for Christ While Traveling; Acts 8:26-39. 17. A Queen's Visit. 1 Kings 10:1-10. 18. An Adventurous Voyage. Acts 27:1-13. 19. Shipwreck. Acts 27:14-26. 20. All Saved. Acts 27:27-44. 21. Praying for a Prosperous Journey. Romans 1:8-16. 22. A Traveler's Adventures. 2 Corinthians 11:23-33. 23. A Merry Heart Desirable. Proverbs 15:13-17. 24. Keeping from Sin. Romans 6:16-23. 25. Meeting a Stranger. Luke 24:13-27. 26. A Delightful Surprise. Luke 24:28-35. 27. Jacob's Bivouac. Genesis 28:10-22. 28. David's Prayer in the Cave. Psalm 142:1-7. 29. Avoiding Sinful Pleasure. Hebrews 11:23-27. 30. Peter's Counsel. 1 Peter 4:1-10. 31. The Greatest Pleasure. Psalm 16: 1-11.
1. The Story of Nature's Creation. Genesis 1:11-22. 2. The First Garden. Genesis 2:8-17. 3. God's Care for His Creation. Matthew 6:25-34. 4. The Symbol of Peace. Genesis 8:1-11. 5. The Sign of God's Promise. Genesis 9:8-17. 6. The Burning Bush. Exodus 3:1-6. 7. The Accompaniment of God's Presence. Exodus 19:16-25. 8. Nature Halts to Accomplish God's Purpose. Joshua 10:5-14. 9. Nature's Tribute to God's Glory. Psalm 97:1-12. 10. The Midnight Hymn. Psalm 8:1-9. 11. The Sunrise Hymn. Psalm 19:1-14. 12. The Thunder-storm Hymn. Psalm 29:1-11. 13. The God of Storm. Matthew 8:23-33. 14. Nature has no perils for the God-fearing Man. Job 5:8-27. 15. The Full Ear. Matthew 13:1-9,18,23. 16. Harmful Weeds. Matthew 13: 24-30, 36-43. 17. The God of Nature Protects Us. Psalm 121:1-8. 18. He Cares for Us. Psalm 147:1-20. 19. God's Voice After the Storm. 1 Kings 19:5-13. 20. The Tree of Life. Proverbs 3:13-21. 21. The Trees Desire a King. Judges 9:8-15; Joshua 24:15. 22. The Root Out of Dry Ground. Isaiah 53:1-12. 23. Water Without Price. Isaiah 55:1-13. 24. The Perfect Vine. John 15:1-14. 25. The Light Brighter than the Sun. Acts 9:1-20. 26. A Wonderful Star. Matthew 2:1-11. 27. Sand or Rock? Matthew 7:24-27. 28. Broken Branches. Matthew 21:1-11. 29. The Unprofitable Tree. Matthew 7:15-21. 30. The Profitable Tree. Psalm 1:1-6. 31. Do Good in all Seasons. Ecclesiastes 3:1-12.
BOY SCOUT COURSE
For a Boy Scout Camp, the following course, "Boy's Scout Guide Book Study," was prepared by W. S. Dillon:
THE SCOUT'S OATH Lesson 1. To Do My Duty to God and My Country. Daniel 1:8; 6:4-10. Lesson 2. To Help Other People at All Times. Exodus 3:1-11. Lesson 3. To Obey the Scout Law. Exodus 20:3-17; Luke 10:26, 27; Matthew 7:12.
THE SCOUT SALUTE AND SIGN Lesson 4. Judges 12:6; Acts 4:12; Galatians 6:14.
THREE CLASSES OF SCOUTS THE TENDERFOOT Lesson 5. Luke 5:1-11.
THE SECOND CLASS SCOUT Lesson 6. Have at Least One Month's Service as a Tenderfoot. 2 Samuel 15:1-6. Lesson 7. Signalling. 1 Samuel 20:20-22; 35-39. Lesson 8. Lay and Light a Fire. Fire Lighting Contest. 1 Kings 18: 22-24.
FIRST CLASS SCOUT Lesson 8. Signalling. Daniel 5: 1-31. Lesson 9. Go on Foot to a Given Point and Return and Give a Report of the Trip. Numbers 13:1-3; 17-21; 23-33. Lesson 10. Produce an Article of Carpentry, Joinery or Metal Work. 2 Chronicles 2:11-16. Lesson 11. Bring a Tenderfoot Trained in the Points Required for a Tenderfoot. John 1: 40-42.
THE SCOUT LAW Lesson 12. A Scout's Honor is to be Trusted. Genesis 39:7-10. Lesson 13. Loyalty. Esther 4:8-16. Lesson 14. A Scout is a Friend to All, and Must NEVER BE A SNOB. Luke 9:46-48. Lesson 15. A Friend to Animals. 1 Samuel 17:12-16. Lesson 16. Obey Orders. Jonah 1:1-3. Lesson 17. Cheerfulness and Willingness. Acts 16 :25; Phillippians 4:11-13. Lesson 18. Thrift. Matthew 6:19-21.
THE GREAT SCOUT MASTER Lesson 19. Matthew 23:10.
The author experienced something very unusual one Sunday afternoon in a camp where he was invited to speak. The talk was on "Trees or Growth," one of the studies of the course described. During the talk a number of things were referred to that enter into the growth of a tree which either mar or hinder it from becoming a symmetrical, beautiful tree and a similar comparison was made regarding a boy's growth. The question was asked of the boys, "What are some of the things which interfere with a boy's growth physically, mentally and morally?" A number of things, such as smoking, swearing, impurity, etc., were given, and finally one of the small boys piped up "reading dime novels." His answer was received with howls of derision, especially from the older boys. "Hold on," I said, "let's discuss the matter; if dime novels are good for a boy's growth mentally, we want to know about it, but if they are detrimental to this particular kind of desired growth, of course, we want to cut it out." The discussion brought out the fact that a number of the boys had smuggled a lot of this kind of literature into camp and were just loafing through their time in the woods, gloating over the wonderful and daring escapades of Wild West heroes. The boys finally decided that their mental growth was retarded by such reading. Then came the question, "What are you going to do about it?" "We don't usually have a bonfire on Sunday," I said. "I am inclined, however, to ask your leader for a special dispensation and we will have one.
You are to furnish the fuel, your leader the kerosene oil and I will provide the match. The fuel is to consist of all the dime novels in the camp." "Whew!" "I know it will take grit to do this, but it is a test of your sincerity and determination to progress along right lines." "We're game?" yelled the boys, "and we mean business."
The start was made for the place where the bonfires were usually held. By the time I reached the spot, the boys were coming from their tents with bundles of novels. Every boy was requested to tear each novel in half and throw it upon the heap. When everything was ready, the boys uncovered and in the silence that came upon the group, the match was struck and the flames began to leap upward, until finally, all that remained was the small piles of ashes. For the majority of the boys it meant the burning up of the dross and the beginning of better and nobler thinking. I shall always remember this novel bonfire. This is what I mean by making Bible study and camp talks effective.
Sunday afternoon is the time for reading good, wholesome stories. Take the boys out into the woods where they can squat under a big tree, or if the day is warm seek the cool shelter of the tent and while the boys are lying down read a short story or several chapters of a story like "Dr. Grenfell's Parish," by Norman Duncan, "Just Boys," by Mary Buell Wood, "Some Boys I Know," "Chapel Talks," or "The Story of Good Will Farm," by George W. Hinckley. If the group is made up of older boys who like to discuss life problems, read a chapter or two from Robert Speer's excellent books, "A Young Man's Questions" and "Young Men Who Overcame." Make sure that whatever you read has the uplift note. The real purpose of the afternoon's reading should be that of instilling in the boys' minds some of the cardinal virtues of Christian character.
Don't moralize; let the story do its own moralizing. Boys are hero worshippers. If the hero or the heroic appeal of the story is of a sane type and not abnormal there will be created naturally within the boy a desire to emulate the good deeds of the hero in the everyday life of the camp, which is much better than the parrot-like vocalization unfortunately many times encouraged by well-meaning men.
A pile of stones made to serve as an altar or pulpit, a chapel having the branches of a friendly pine as its roof and under which are built a reading desk and seats of white birch, a cathedral with towering columns of pine and cushions of pine needles, a rocky shore along the ocean—all are places where boys have heard the appeal for right living and responded with an earnest decision that marked an advance step in their moral and religious growth.
Make much of the music at these outdoor services on Sunday. A choir of men and boys responding in the distance to the hymns of the camp boys, in antiphonal manner, a cornetist playing a hymn in the distance, make an impression never to be forgotten.
The great test of camp life is not the fun the boy had, or his gain in weight, height or lung capacity, or the friendships formed, or his increased knowledge in woodcraft, but his advancement in character-making and gain in spiritual vigor.
BOOKS HELPFUL IN THE PREPARATION OF BIBLE STUDY LESSONS:
Lessons from Life (Animal and Human)—Thomas Whittaker. Macmillan, $2.50.
Sermons in Stones—Amos R. Wells. Doubleday, Page & Company, $1.00.
Parables from Nature—Mrs. Gatty. Colportage Library, 15 cents.
A Good Bible Dictionary and Concordance.
BOOKS UPON THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF Boys:
The Boy and the Church—Eugene C. Foster. The Sunday School Times Co., 75 cents net.
Starting to Teach—Eugene C. Foster. Association Pres., 40 cents.
The Child and His Religion—George E. Dawson. University of Chicago, 75 cents net.
Religion in Boyhood—Ernest B. Layard. E. P. Dutton and Company, 75 cents net.
CHAPTER IX—FOOD—ITS FUNCTION, PURCHASE, PREPARATION, COOKING, SERVING
GOOD COOKING FOOD CHARTS DIGESTION CHARTS TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES PURCHASE OF FOOD GROCERY LIST THE STEWARD COMMISSARY DEPARTMENT THE COOK LIST OF FOODS WEEK OF MENUS A FEW HINTS TABLE ETIQUETTE GRACE AT MEALS SERVING DISH WASHING
We may live without friends, we may live without books, But civilized man cannot live without cooks.
The normal boy sums up life in two words of three letters each: "F-u-n" and "E-a-t." As long as there is plenty of fun and plenty to eat, he thinks life is worth living, and he is not so far from the truth, for it is only when the fun of living dies within us, and our digestive apparatus refuses to do its function that we "become of all men most miserable." A boy will put up with all sorts of inconvenience but rebels at once at poor food and bad cooking. The good nature, congenial atmosphere, and contentedness of camp life is largely due to good cooking. Economize in every other way, but think twice before cheap cooks are employed or a cheap grade of food purchased.
A good cook will economize, he knows what to do with left-overs and how to prepare menus of variety. The quantity of swill soon reveals the worth of the cook. In a large camp a hundred dollars may easily find its way into the garbage can because of cheap cooks and poor food. A growing boy demands relatively more of the tissue-building kind of food than a grown person, because the body is being built up. When the full stature is reached the tissue-building part of the food is only required to take the place of that worn out each day. Professor Atwater has told us that the boy of fifteen or sixteen requires ninety per cent of the food ration of the adult man engaged in moderate muscular work. Boys at twelve require seventy per cent.
Vegetables, fruits, cereals, bread, nuts and meats furnish the essentials. Sugar and fat have only part of them. Coffee and tea have no food values except for the milk and sugar added. They tend to check certain normal secretion in the body and should not be used during growth.
The United States Department of Agriculture publishes a series of fifteen food charts of exceptional value. Leaders and cooks will find them helpful in providing and planning the food for the boys. Boys will be interested in the information given and the attractive form of presentation. The set costs $1.00. Send to Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. The following table is a condensation of the facts given on the charts, and will help in planning menus:
Prepared by C. F. LANGWORTHY. Expert in charge of Nutrition Investigation.
Carbohy- Calories Chart 1 Protein Fat drates Ash Water per Whole milk 3.3 4.0 5.0 0.7 87.0 310 Skim milk 3.4 0.3 5.1 0.7 90.5 165 Buttermilk 3.0 0.5 4.8 0.7 91.0 160 Cream 2.5 18.5 4.5 2.5 74.0 865
Chart 2 Whole egg 14.8 10.5 —- 1.0 73.7 700 Egg white 13.0 0.2 —- 0.6 86.2 265 Egg yolk 16.1 33.3 —- 1.1 49.5 1608 Cream cheese 25.9 33.7 2.4 3.8 34.2 1950 Cottage cheese 20.9 1.0 4.3 1.8 72.0 510
Chart 3 (edible portion of) Lamb chop 17.6 28.3 —- 1.0 53.1 1540 Pork 16.9 30.1 —- 1.0 52.0 1580 Smoked ham 16.1 38.8 —- 4.8 40.3 1940 Beefsteak 18.6 18.5 —- 1.0 61.9 1130 Dried beef 30.0 6.6 —- 9.1 54.3 840
Chart 4 Cod, lean fish 15.8 0.4 —- 1.2 82.6 325 Cod, Salt 21.5 0.3 —- 24.7 53.5 410 Oyster 6.2 1.2 3.7 2.0 86.9 235 Smoked herring 36.4 15.8 —- 13.2 34.6 1355 Mackerel, fat 18.3 7.1 —- 1.2 73.4 645
Chart 5 Olive Oil —- 100.0 —- —- —— 4080 Bacon 9.4 67.4 —- 4.4 18.8 3030 Beef suet 4.7 81.8 —- 0.3 13.2 3510 Butter 1.0 85.0 —- 3.0 11.0 3410 Lard —- 100.0 —- —- —— 4080
Chart 6 Corn 10.0 4.3 73.4 1.5 10.8 1800 Wheat 12.2 1.7 73.7 1.8 10.6 1750 Buckwheat 10.0 2.2 73.2 2.0 12.6 1600 Oat 11.8 5.0 69.2 3.0 11.0 1720 Rice 8.0 2.0 77.0 1.0 12.0 1720 Rye 12.2 1.5 73.9 1.9 10.5 1750
Chart 7 White bread 9.2 1.3 53.1 1.1 35.3 1215 Whole wh bread 9.7 0.9 49.7 1.3 38.4 1140 Oat breakfast food (cooked) 2.8 0.5 11.5 0.7 84.5 285 Toasted bread 11.5 1.6 61.2 1.7 24.0 1420 Cornbread 7.9 4.7 46.3 2.2 38.9 1205 Macaroni 3.0 1.5 15.8 1.3 78.4 415
Chart 8 Sugar, granulated —- 100.0 —- —— 1860 Molasses 2.4 —- 69.3 3.2 25.1 1290 Stick candy —- —- 96.5 0.5 3.0 1785 Maple sugar —- —- 82.8 0.9 16.3 1540 Honey 0.4 —- 81.2 0.2 18.2 1520
Chart 9 Parsnip 1.6 0.5 13.5 1.4 83.0 230 Onion 1.6 0.3 9.9 0.6 87.6 225 Potato 2.2 0.1 18.4 1.0 78.3 385 Celery 1.1 —- 3.4 1.0 94.5 8
Carbohy- Fuel Value Chart 10 Protein Fat drates Ash Water Calories per Shelled beans. fresh 9.4 0.6 29.1 2.0 58.9 740 Navy beans, dry 22.5 1.8 59.6 3.5 12.6 1600 String beans, green 2.3 0.3 7.4 0.8 89.2 195 Corn, green 3.1 1.1 19.7 0.7 75.4 500
Chart 11 Apple(edible portion) 0.4 0.5 14.2 0.3 84.6 290 Fried fig 4.3 0.3 74.2 2.4 18.8 1475 Strawberry 1.0 0.6 7.4 0.6 90.4 180 Banana 1.3 0.6 22.0 0.8 75.3 460
Chart 12 Grapes(edible portion)1.3 1.6 19.2 0.5 77.4 450 Raisins 2.6 3.3 76.1 3.4 14.6 1605 Canned fruit 1.1 0.1 21.1 0.5 77.2 415 Fruit jelly —- —- 78.3 0.7 21.0 1455 Grape juice 0.2 —- 7.4 0.2 92.2 150
Chart 13 Walnut 16.6 63.4 16.1 1.4 2.5 3285 Chestnut 10.7 7.0 74.2 2.2 5.9 1875 Peanut 25.8 38.6 22.4 2.0 9.2 2500 Peanut butter 29.3 46.5 17.1 5.0 2.1 2825 Coconut, desiccated 6.3 57.4 31.5 1.3 3.5 3121
Chart 15 DIETARY STANDARD FOR MAN IN FULL VIGOR AT MODERATE MUSCULAR WORK Protein Energy Condition Considered Grams Calories Food as purchased 115 3,800 Food eaten 100 3,500 Food digested 95 3,200
ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF MINERAL MATTER REQUIRED PER MAN PER DAY Grams Phosphoric acid (P2O5) 3 to 4 Calcium oxid 0.7 to 1.0 Sulphuric acid (SO3) 2 to 3.5 Magnesium oxid 0.3 to 0.5 Potassium oxid 2 to 3 Iron 0.006 to 0.012 Sodium oxid 4 to 6 Clorin 6 to 8
Time required for Digestion of various Foods: Hrs. Min. Apples, sweet 1 30 Apples, sour 2 Beans, pod, boiled 2 30 Beef, fresh, rare roasted 3 Beef, dried 3 30 Beets, boiled 3 45 Bread, wheat, fresh 3 40 Bread corn 3 15 Butter (melted) 3 30 Cabbage, raw, with vinegar 2 Cabbage, boiled 4 30 Cheese 3 30 Codfish 2 Custard, baked 2 45 Ducks, wild, roasted 4 30 Eggs, fresh, soft boiled 3 Eggs, fresh, hard boiled 3 30 Eggs, fresh, fried 3 30 Lamb, fresh, boiled 2 30 Milk, raw 2 15 Milk, boiled 2 Parsnips, boiled 2 30 Mutton, roast 3 15 Mutton, boiled 3 Mutton, broiled 3 Pork, roast 5 15 Potato, boiled 3 30 Potato, baked 2 30 Rice, boiled 1 Sago, boiled 1 45 Salmon, boiled 4 Soup, beef, vegetable 4 Soup, chicken 3 Tapioca, boiled 2 Trout, boiled or fried 1 30 Turnips, boiled 3 30 Veal, fresh, boiled 4
Food naturally falls into four classes. Potatoes and grains furnish starches. The starchy foods are heat and force producers. Eggs, meats, nuts, milk, dried beans, peas and lentils furnish nitrogen, and are flesh and muscle producers. Butter, oil, lard, and fatty meats supply fats. Sugar, molasses, honey, fruit, etc., furnish sugar.
Starchy foods should be cooked at a high temperature and either boiled or baked; nitrogenous and fatty foods at lower temperature, prolonging the time. Meats are much better broiled, roasted, or stewed than fried. Vegetables should be steamed or baked so that the juices may not be wasted. Veal and pork (except ham and bacon) should have no place in the menu of a boys' summer camp. Both require from four to five hours and fifteen minutes to digest. Study carefully the above tables and then plan your meals intelligently.
Table of Approximate Weights and Measures Three teaspoonfuls = one tablespoon. Four tablespoonfuls = one wine glass. Two wine glasses = one gill. Two gills = one tumbler or cup. Two cupfuls = one pint. One quart sifted flour = one pound. One quart granulated sugar = one pound, nine ounces. One pint closely packed butter = one pound. Three cupfuls sugar = one pound. Five cupfuls sifted flour = one pound. One tablespoonful salt = one ounce. Seven tablespoonfuls granulated sugar = one half pint. Twelve tablespoonfuls flour = one pint. Three coffee cupfuls = one quart. Ten eggs = one pound.
The purchase of food is an important item of expense in operating a boys' camp, large or small. If the camp is a large one, one hundred or more boys, and you have a good-sized refrigerator and storehouse, always purchase in bulk form from a wholesale firm. Canned goods, such as peas, tomatoes, corn, and apples, buy in gallon cans in case lots and save cost of extra tin and labels. Cocoa may be purchased in five-pound cans. Condensed milk (unsweetened) in 20-ounce cans. Flour and sugar by the barrel. Beans by the bushel. Butter by the firkin. For instance, a good heavy 200-pound hind quarter of beef will furnish a roast beef dinner, a steak breakfast, a meat stew supper, a meat hash breakfast, and a good thick soup full of nourishment from the bones. The suet may be rendered into lard. There will be no waste, and you get the very best of meat. Buy lamb whole and fowl cleaned, and eggs by the crate. Keep an accurate inventory, also the cost of foods. It will be found interesting to make a resume of food at the end of each season, listing quantities, costs, and amounts used each day and ascertain the actual cost per day for each boy.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: About 1/4 of a barrel or 9 gallons (34 liters).]
The following "Grocery List" is for a large camp, but it will serve also to form the basis of providing for small camps:
Cocoa Coffee Sugar (granulated) Beans, yellow Beans, red kidney Tapioca Rice Oatmeal (in bulk) Cornmeal Toasted Corn Flakes Cream of Wheat Shredded Wheat Salt (table) Salt (rock) Pepper, black Ginger Cloves Soda Cinnamon Baking Powder Cream of Tartar Magic yeast Raisins (seeded) Currants Flour Graham flour Corn starch Gelatin Figs Prunes Evaporated fruits Codfish cakes Macaroni Crackers Ginger Snaps Pilot Biscuits Extracts: Vanilla, Lemon Kitchen Boquet (for gravy) Chocolate cake Lemons Olive Oil Vinegar Lard Butter Eggs Onions Potatoes Sapolio [soap] Gold Dust Laundry soap Mustard (dry) Mustard (prepared in mugs); Chow Chow Pickles Piccalilli; Chili Sauce Bacon Ham Dried beef Salt pork Cheese Matches Candles Kerosene oil Lantern wicks Chloride of Lime.
Corn; Sliced peaches; Tomatoes; Shredded pineapple; Peas; Strawberries; Lima beans; Clams (for chowder); Beets; Condensed milk (unsweetened); Apples; Salmon; Plums;
A reliable person should be in charge of the food supplies. In some camps he is called the Steward. He will see that the supply is sufficient, arrange the menus in consultation with the Chef, keep his storeroom neat and scrupulously clean. As a matter of record and for the purpose of ascertaining cost of feeding the boys, a number of camps keep a daily record like the illustrated form.
The cook is the keynote of happiness or unhappiness. Get a good cook, professionally and morally, one who understands that he is not in camp for a vacation. A capable cook will take care of fifty boys without any assistance, except what help the boys may render in the preparation of vegetables. For years two cooks have looked after the meals of 175 to 200 boys in the camps conducted each season by the writer. The wages of the head cook or chef range from two to three dollars and fifty cents a day. Some camps secure cooks from the hotels and restaurants, others from the lumber camps. No matter where he is secured, be sure that he is clean, in person, in habits, and in speech. Do not permit boys to loaf about the kitchen. In the planning of menus, food value and variety must be considered. The following represents the staple articles of food for a boys' camp.
SUGGESTED LIST OF DISHES FOR BOYS' CAMPS Breakfast
Fruit: Bananas, raspberries, blueberries, cantaloupes, apples, stewed prunes, applesauce, baked apples, stewed apples, stewed apricots, stewed figs.
Cereals: Oatmeal, Shredded Wheat, Cream of Wheat, Toasted
Corn Flakes; corn meal mush and milk, Hominy Grits, Puffed Rice, Wheatlets.
Eggs: Fried, boiled, scrambled, omelette, poached on toast.
Meats and Fish: Bacon, meat hash, meat stew, chopped meat on toast, codfish cakes, creamed codfish, fried fresh fish, creamed dried beef, fresh sausage.
Vegetables: Potatoes-Baked, creamed, mashed, browned, German fried; baked beans.
Drinks: Cocoa, milk, coffee (only occasionally), pure water.
Bread: Toasted bread, corn bread, muffins, biscuits, hot cakes.
Soups: Old-fashioned vegetable soup, bean soup, clam or fish chowder, corn chowder. Thick soups are preferable for camps.
Meats: Roasts—beef, lamb, chicken. Stews—-beef, lamb, Steak, Fricassee of chicken, fricassee of lamb, haricot of lamb, pot roast of beef, Hamburg steak, corned beef, boiled ham, meat pie.
Fish: Baked, fried, boiled; escalloped salmon, salmon croquettes.
Vegetables: Potatoes—mashed, boiled, French fried, browned. Cabbage. Corn—stewed, escalloped, corn pie, corn on cob. Peas— creamed with carrots. Lima beans. Summer squash. Tomatoes— stewed, escalloped, au gratin with tomatoes. Apple sauce, creamed onions; cabbage slaw. Greens-spinach, beet tops.
Desserts: Ice Cream-vanilla, chocolate, strawberry (preserved), raspberry, lemon, coffee, caramel, peach, pineapple (shredded), orange, lemon. Sherbet—lemon, orange, pineapple, raspberry. Rice pudding, plain with fruit sauce, rice with raisins. Tapioca pudding with apples or fruit. Bread pudding. Cottage pudding, lemon sauce or fruit sauce. Banana pudding. Sliced peaches with cream. Pie-apple, blueberry, blackberry. Cornstarch pudding.
Cereals: Cream of Wheat, mush and milk, Shredded Wheat.
Cold Dishes: Sliced beef, ham, corned beef, potato salad, Cabbage slaw, pressed meats.
Hot Dishes: Irish stew, meat croquettes, frankfurters, potato cakes, baked beans, thick soups, stewed kidney beans. Potatoes—baked, fried, creamed. Creamed salmon with peas; codfish; macaroni and cheese; potato hash.
Desserts: Prunes, stewed apples, stewed apricots, fresh fruits, stewed pears, stewed figs.
Cakes: Gingerbread, sweetbread, cookies.
Relishes: Pickles beets, chow chow, piccalilli, watermelon spiced.
Drinks: Lemonade, iced tea, cocoa, hot milk.
Local geographical conditions will suggest a variety of dishes. There should be plenty of milk to drink, and good bread and butter. Cake and fancy dishes are not necessary. The bill of fare should be an elastic one. When the day is cold and dreary, hot chowders, soups, cocoa, etc., should be served.
On a warm day, lemonade and cold dishes are desirable. Every camp should, if possible, have its own ice-cream freezer, as ice-creams, sherbets, and water ices are not only healthy but inexpensive. An occasional delicacy is desirable. Canned shredded pineapple, strawberries and sliced peaches make excellent sherbets and ice cream. In one camp chicken and ice cream are served every Sunday dinner.
A Sample Week of Menus
BREAKFAST Oatmeal Fried potatoes Cocoa Cream of tartar biscuits.
DINNER Irish stew Boiled potatoes Green corn on cob Apple tapioca Bread and butter.
SUPPER Fried eggs Prunes Sweet cake Bread and butter Cocoa.
BREAKFAST Toasted Cornflakes Fish cakes Corn bread Cocoa.
DINNER Beef steak Mashed potatoes Peas Corn starch pudding Bread and butter.
SUPPER Vegetable soup Stewed figs Gingerbread Bread and butter.
BREAKFAST Cream of Wheat Meat hash Cocoa Bread and butter.
DINNER Roast lamb Tomato sauce Boiled potatoes Lemon sherbet Bread and butter.
SUPPER Creamed fish Apple sauce Sweet cake Bread and butter.
BREAKFAST Shredded Wheat Baked potatoes Creamed codfish Bread and butter Cocoa.
DINNER Boiled beef Mashed potatoes Corn starch Pudding with Strawberry sauce.
SUPPER Creamed dried beef Apple sauce Gingerbread Bread and Butter.
BREAKFAST Oatmeal Codfish cakes Bread and butter Cocoa.
DINNER Fried weak fish Stewed tomatoes Boiled potatoes Vanilla ice cream.
SUPPER Vegetable soup Bread and butter Sweet cake.
BREAKFAST Puffed Rice Fried eggs Bread and butter Cocoa.
DINNER Escalloped salmon Rice Boiled Tomatoes Cucumbers Bread and butter.
SUPPER Boston baked beans Tomato catsup Sweetbread.
BREAKFAST Cream of Wheat Bananas Fried mush and maple syrup Coffee.
DINNER Roast chicken Creamed onions Mashed potatoes Pineapple sherbet Bread and butter.
SUPPER Cold beef Apple sauce Sweet cake Bread and butter.
Each table is provided with meat platter, vegetable dishes, bread plate, butter dish, sugar bowl, milk pitcher, water pitcher, salt and pepper shakers, etc. The only need of a waiter is to bring the food to the tables and replenish the dishes. Each boy takes his turn at waiting. If there are seven boys in a tent, a boy serves one day in seven. He usually sits at the right side of the leader and eats his meal with the others. This does away with a second or "waiter" table. By this system you avoid the tendency to smartness and roughness. Each leader is careful to see that food is not wasted at his table, that decency and order is preserved, and wholesome conversation and pleasantries indulged in during the meal, as an aid to good digestion.
Some camps pay for all work done and give boys more freedom, but experience has clearly proven that the successful camp is the one where boys all have responsibility and definite duties to perform. Dishwashing is never attractive. It may be made less irksome by carefully systematizing the work. There are several ways. One way is that of having each boy wash his own dishes, working a tent at a time. A number of tubs of hot, soapy water are provided for washing, and several extra tubs filled with very hot water for rinsing. At a signal from the Camp Director or person in charge, each table of boys by rotation passes from the dining room with the dishes to these tubs and each boy proceeds to do his own dishwashing and rinsing and drying. Another way is to provide two good-sized dish-pans for each table, and assign two boys to do the dish-washing for the day. The dishes are washed at the tables and stowed away in a closet, each table having its own closet. Another way is to purchase a good dish-washing machine, like that made by the Fearless Dishwashing Co., Rochester, N. Y. (Cost, $100), and install it in the kitchen. This plan is in operation at Camp Dudley and Camp Hayo-Went-Ha.
Cleanliness must be insisted upon. Never leave anything unwashed until it is used again. The eating from dirty and greasy plates, forks, knives, and spoons will result in disease. No matter what system you use, do not let down on dirty dishes.
A FEW HINTS
"Soup makes the soldier," said Napoleon I. Bones should never be thrown away, but cracked and placed in stock pot, covered with water and let simmer. This makes "stock" which is the foundation of all soup.
All green vegetables should be washed well in cold water and put in boiling salted water, and boiled slowly until tender. All white and underground vegetables should be cooked in boiling unsalted water, the salt being added at the last moment.
Potatoes take from twenty to thirty minutes to boil. In boiling and roasting allow about a quarter of an hour for every pound of meat. The fire should be medium hot. Boiled fish should be cooked ten minutes to each pound.
Water is the only true beverage. Forming as it does three-quarters of the weight of the human body, it is of next importance to the air we breathe. Milk is a food and not a beverage.
Peel or slice onions in water and you will not shed tears.
To test the freshness of an egg, drop into cold water. If the egg sinks quickly it is fresh, if it stands on end it is doubtful, and quite bad if it floats. The shell of a fresh egg looks dull; a stale one is glossy.
A pot may be mended by making a paste of flour, salt and fine wood ashes. Plaster it on where the leak is and let it dry before using.
A mother complained that her boy, after being in camp for two weeks, returned home speaking a new language, particularly at the dining table. If he wanted milk, he called for "cow," butter was "goat," biscuits were "sinkers," meat was "corpse," and there were several other terms and phrases peculiar to camp life. He had to learn all over the ways of decency and reasonable table refinement. There is no plausible reason why this should be so in a boys' camp. Grabbing of food, yelling for food, upsetting of liquids, and table "rough-house" will be largely prevented by the system of seating and of serving. The most satisfactory way is to seat by tent groups. Have as many tables as you have tents. Let each tent leader preside at the head of his table, and serve the food in family style. The leader serves the food, and sees that the boys observe the same delightful table life in camp as at home.
Grace at Meals
Grace should be said before each meal, either silently or audibly. In the morning the hymn on the following page is sung by the boys at Camp Becket, followed with bowed heads in silent prayer:
MORNING PRAYER HYMN FOR BOYS' CAMPS
To be sung at morning meal Words and Music by H. W. Gibbon.
Morning Gracious Giver of all good, Thee we thank for rest and food. Grant that all we do or say In Thy service be this day.
Noon Father for this noonday meal We would speak the praise we feel, Health and strength we have from Thee, Help us, Lord, to faithful be.
Night Tireless guardian of our way, Thou hast kept us well this day. While we thank Thee, we request Care continued, pardon, rest. -Camp Wawayanda.
Go abroad upon the paths of Nature, And when all its voices whisper, and its silent things Are breathing the deep beauty of the world— Kneel at its ample altar.-Bryant.
CHAPTER X—THE CAMP FIRE
HOW TO BUILD A CAMP FIRE PREVENT SPREAD OF FIRE FOREST FIRE LAWS HOW TO LIGHT A FIRE STORY TELLING MARSHMALLOW TOASTS AND CORN ROASTS A STORY, "HOW MEN FOUND THE GREAT SPIRIT"
There is an impalpable, invisible, softly stepping delight in the camp fire which escapes analysis. Enumerate all its charms, and still there is something missing in your catalogue. —W. C. Gray in "Camp Fire Musings."
"I cannot conceive of a camp that does not have a big fire! Our city houses do not have it, not even a fireplace. The fireplace is one of the greatest schools the imagination has ever had or ever can have. It is moral, and it always gives a tremendous stimulus to the imagination, and that is why stories and fire go together. You cannot tell a good story unless you tell it before a fire. You cannot have a complete fire unless you have a good story-teller along."  Anyone who has witnessed a real camp fire and participated in its fun, as well as seriousness, will never forget it. The huge fire shooting up its tongue of flame into the darkness of the night, the perfect shower of golden rain, the company of happy boys, and great, dark background of piney woods, the weird light over all, the singing, the yells, the stories, the fun, then the serious word at the close, is a happy experience long to be remembered.
[Footnote 1: Dr. G. Stanley Hall, "Camp Conference Report," p. 40.]
To Build a Fire
There are ways and ways of building camp fires. An old Indian saying runs, "White man heap fool, make um big fire—can't git near! Injun make um little fire—git close! Uh! good!" Make it a service privilege for a tent of boys to gather wood and build the fire. This should be done during the afternoon. Two things are essential in the building of a fire—kindling and air. A fire must be built systematically. First, get dry, small dead branches, twigs, fir branches and other inflammable material. Place these upon the ground. Be sure that air can draw under the pile and up through it. Next place some heavier branches in tripod form over the kindling, then good-sized sticks, and so on until you have built the camp fire the required size. In many camps it is considered an honor to light the fire.
Kerosene oil may be poured upon the kindling, or old newspapers used in lighting the fire.
An interesting account of "How to Build a Fire by Rubbing Sticks," by Ernest Thompson-Seton, will be found in "Boy Scouts of America," page 84.
Be sure to use every precaution to prevent the spreading of fire. This may be done by building a circle of stone around the fire, or by digging up the earth, or by wetting a space around the fire. Always have buckets of water near at hand.
Things to remember:
First, It is criminal to leave a burning fire;
Second, Always put out the fire with water or earth.
Be sure to get a copy of the law of your State regarding Forest Fires, and if a permit is necessary, secure it before building a fire.
To Light a Match
Kephart, in his book on "Camping and Woodcraft" (page 88), says, "When there is nothing dry to strike it on, jerk the head of the match forward through the teeth. Face the wind. Cup your hands, backs toward wind. Remove right hand just long enough to strike match on something very close by, then instantly resume former position. Flame of match will run up the stick instead of blowing away from it."
The camp fire is a golden opportunity for the telling of stories—good stories told well. Indian legends, war stories, ghost stories, detective stories, stories of heroism, the history of fire, a talk about the stars. Don't drag out the telling of a story. Talk it in boy language. Avoid technical terms. Make the story live.
College songs always appeal to boys. Let some leader start up a song in a natural way, and soon you will have a chorus of unexpected melody and harmony. As the fire dies down, let the songs be of a more quiet type, like "My Old Kentucky Home," and ballads of similar nature.
When the embers are glowing is the time for toasting marshmallows. Get a long stick sharpened to a point, fasten a marshmallow on the end, hold it over the embers, not in the blaze, until the marshmallow expands. Oh, the deliciousness of it! Ever tasted one? Before roasting corn on the cob, tie the end of each husk firmly with string. Soak in water for about an hour. Then put into the hot embers. The water prevents the corn from burning and the firmly tied husks enable the corn to be steamed and the real corn flavor is retained. In about twenty minutes the corn may be taken from the fire and eaten. Have a bowl of melted butter and salt on hand. Also a pastry brush to spread the melted butter upon the corn. Try it.
A Good Story
For an example of a good story to be told around the camp fire, this Indian tale by Professor H. M. Burr, of the Springfield Training School, is given:
HOW MEN FOUND THE GREAT SPIRIT
"In the olden time, when woods covered all the earth except the deserts and the river bottoms, and men lived on the fruits and berries they found and the wild animals which they could shoot or snare; when they dressed in skins and lived in caves, there was little time for thought. But as men grew stronger and more cunning and learned how to live together, they had more time to think and more mind to think with.
"Men had learned many things. They had learned that cold weather followed hot, and spring followed winter, and that the sun got up in the morning and went to bed at night. They saw that the great water was kindly when the sun shone, but when the sun hid its face and the wind blew upon it, it grew black and angry and upset their canoes. They found that knocking flints together or rubbing dry sticks would light the dry moss and that the flames, which would bring back summer in the midst of winter and day in the midst of night, were hungry and must be fed, and when they escaped devoured the woods and only the water could stop them.
"These and many other things men learned, but no one knew why it all was or how it came to be. Men began to wonder—and that was the beginning of the path which led to the Great Spirit.
"In the ages when men began to wonder there was born a boy whose name was 'Wo,' which meant in the language of his time 'Whence.' As he lay in his mother's arms, she loved him and wondered, 'His body is of my body, but from whence comes the life—the spirit which is like mine and yet not like it?' And his father, seeing the wonder in the mother's eyes, said: 'Whence came he from?' And there was no one to answer, and so they called him 'Wo,' to remind them that they knew not from whence he came.
"As Wo grew up, he was stronger and swifter of foot than any of his tribe. He became a mighty hunter. He knew the ways of all the wild things, and could read the signs of the season. As he grew older they made him a chief and listened while he spoke at the council board, but Wo was not satisfied. His name was a question, and questioning filled his mind.
"From whence did he come? Whither was he going? Why did the sun rise and set? Why did life burst into leaf and flower with the coming of the spring? Why did the child become a man and the man grow old and die?
"The mystery grew upon him as he pondered. In the morning he stood on a mountain top and, stretching out his hands, cried: 'Whence?' At night he cried to the moon: 'Whither?' He listened to the soughing of the trees and the song of the brook and tried to learn their language. He peered eagerly into the eyes of little children, and tried to read the mystery of life. He listened at the still lips of the dead, waiting for them to tell him whither they had gone.
"He went about among his fellows silent and absorbed, always looking for the unseen and listening for the unspoken. He sat so long silent at the council board that the elders questioned him. To their questioning he replied, like one awakening from a dream:
"'Our fathers since the beginning have trailed the beasts of the woods. There is none so cunning as the fox, but we can trail him to his lair. Though we are weaker than the great bear and buffalo, yet by our wisdom we overcome them. The deer is more swift of foot, but by craft we overtake him. We cannot fly like a bird, but we snare the winged one with a hair. We have made ourselves many cunning inventions by which the beasts, the trees, the wind, the water, and the fire become our servants.
"'Then we speak great swelling words: How great and wise we are! There is none like us in the air, in the wood, or in the water!
"'But the words are false. Our pride is like that of a partridge drumming on his log in the wood before the fox leaps upon him. Our sight is like that of the mole burrowing under the ground. Our wisdom is like a drop of dew upon the grass. Our ignorance is like the great water which no eye can measure.
"'Our life is like a bird coming out of the dark, fluttering for a heart-beat in the tepee and then going forth into the dark again. No one can tell us whence it comes or whither it goes. I have asked the wise men, and they cannot answer; I have listened to the voice of the trees and wind and water, but I do not know their tongue; I have questioned the sun and the moon and the stars, but they are silent.
"'But to-day, in the silence before the darkness gives place to light, I seemed to hear a still small voice within my breast, saying to me: "Wo, the questioner, rise up like the stag from his lair; away, alone, to the mountain of the sun. There thou shalt find that which thou seekest."
"'I go, but if I fall by the trail another will take it up. If I find the answer I will return.'
"Waiting for none, Wo left the council of his tribe and went his way toward the mountain of the sun. For six days he made his way through the trackless woods, guided by the sun by day and the stars by night. On the seventh he came to the great mountain—the mountain of the sun—on whose top, according to the tradition of his tribe, the sun rested each night. All day long he climbed, saying to himself: 'I will sleep to-night in the tepee of the sun and he will tell me whence I come and whither I go.'
"But as he climbed the sun seemed to climb higher and higher. As he neared the top a cold cloud settled like a night bird on the mountain. Chilled and faint with hunger and fatigue, Wo struggled on. Just at sunset he reached the top of the mountain, but it was not the mountain of the sun, for many days' journey to the west the sun was sinking in the Great Water.
"A bitter cry broke from Wo's parched lips. His long trail was useless. There was no answer to his questions. The sun journeyed farther and faster than men dreamed, and of wood and waste and water there was no end. Overcome with misery and weakness, he fell upon a bed of moss with his back toward the sunset and the unknown.
"And Wo slept, although it was unlike any sleep he had ever known before, and as he slept he dreamed. He was alone upon the mountain waiting for the answer. A cloud covered the mountain, but all was silent. A mighty wind rent the cloud and rushed roaring through the crags, but there was no voice in the wind. Thunder pealed, lightning flashed, but he whom Wo sought was not there.
"In the hush that followed the storm Wo heard a voice low and quiet, but in it all the sounds of earth and sky seemed to mingle—the song of the bird, the whispering of the trees, and the murmuring of the brook.
"'Wo, I am He whom thou seekest; I am the Great Spirit; I am the All-Father. Ever since I made man of the dust of the earth and so child of the earth and brother to all living, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, thus making him My son, I have waited for a seeker who should find Me. In the fullness of time thou hast come, Wo, the questioner, to the Answerer.
"'Thy body is of the earth and to earth returns; thy spirit is Mine; it is given thee for a space to make according to thy will; then it returns to Me better or worse for thy making.
"'Thou hast found Me because thy heart was pure and thy search for Me tireless. Go back to thy tribe and be to them the voice of the Great Spirit. From henceforth I will speak to thee and the seekers that come after thee, in a thousand voices and appear in a thousand shapes. I will speak in the voices of the wood and streams and of those you love. I will appear to you in the sun by day and the stars by night. When thy people and Mine are in need and wish for the will of the Great Spirit, then shall My spirit brood over thine and the words that thou shalt speak shall be My words.'
"And Wo awoke, facing the east and the rising sun. His body was warmed by its rays. A great gladness filled his soul. He had sought and found, and prayer came to him like the song to the bird:
"'O Great Spirit, Father of my spirit, the sun is Thy messenger, but Thou art brighter than the sun. Drive Thou the darkness before me. Be Thou the light of my spirit.'
"As Wo went down the mountain and took the journey back to the home of his people his face shone, and the light never seemed to leave it, so that men called him 'He of the shining face.'
"When Wo came back to his tribe, all who saw his face knew that he had found the answer, and they gathered again about the council fire to hear. As Wo stood up and looked into the eager faces in the circle of the fire, he remembered that the Great Spirit had given him no message, and for a moment he was dumb. Then the words of the Great Spirit came to him again: 'When thy people and Mine shall need to know My will, My spirit shall brood over thine and the words that thou shalt speak shall be My words.' Looking into the eager faces of longing and questioning, his spirit moved within him and he spoke:
"'I went, I sought, I found the Great Spirit, who dwells in the earth as your spirits dwell in your bodies. It is from Him the spirit comes. We are His children. He cares for us more than a mother for the child at her breast, or the father for the son that is his pride. His love is like the air we breathe: it is about us; it is within us.
"'The sun is the sign of His brightness, the sky of His greatness, and mother-love and father-love, and the love of man and woman are the signs of His love. We are but children; we cannot enter into the council of the Great Chief until we have been proved, but this is His will, that we love one another as He loves us; that we bury forever the hatchet of hate; that no man shall take what is not his own and the strong shall help the weak.'
"The chiefs did not wholly understand the words of Wo, but they took a hatchet and buried it by the fire, saying: 'Thus bury we hate between man and his brother,' and they took an acorn and put it in the earth, saying: 'Thus plant we the love of the strong for the weak.' And it became the custom of the tribe that the great council in the spring should bury the hatchet and plant the acorn.
"Every morning the tribe gathered to greet the rising sun, and, with right hands raised and left hands upon their hearts, prayed: 'Great Spirit, hear us; guide us today; make our wills Thy will, our ways Thy way.'
"And the tribe grew stronger and greater and wiser than all the other tribes—but that is another story." —Association Seminar, December, 1910.
Camp-Fire Musings-William C. Gray. Fleming H. Revell Company, $1.00 net. A book full of the spirit of the woods and of camp life.
In Camp with Boys—G. W. Hinckley. Central Maine Pub. Co., $1.00.
The Shadowless Man—Adelbert Von Chamisso. Frederick Warne & Co., $1.00 net.
Mystery and Detective Stories, six volumes. Review of Reviews Co.
CHAPTER XI—TRAMPS, HIKES, AND OVER-NIGHT TRIPS
AN OLD TRAMPER'S ADVICE MAP READING SHOE WISDOM THE PACK THE "LEAN-TO" OR SHACK BED MAKING A HOT STONE WRINKLE NIGHT WATCHERS OBSERVATION PRACTICE CAMERA SNAP SHOTS CAMP LAMP HANDY THINGS TO MAKE.
Afoot and light-hearted I take to the open road Healthy, free, the world before me, The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose. -Whitman.
An Old Tramper's Advice
It is an excellent thing for the boys to get away from the camp routine for a few days, and walk "the long brown path," stopping overnight, doing their own cooking, building their "lean-to" or shelter, and roughing it. Walking is probably one of the best all-round cures for the ills of civilization. Several things should be remembered when one goes on a hike. First, avoid long distances. A foot-weary, muscle-tired, and temper-tried, hungry group of boys surely is not desirable. There are a lot of false notions about courage, and bravery, and grit, that read well in print but fail miserably in practice, and long hikes for boys is one of the most glaring of these notions. Second, have a leader who will set a good, easy pace, say about three miles an hour, prevent the boys from excessive water drinking, and assign the duties of pitching camp, etc. Third, observe these two rules given by an old woodsman: (1) Never walk over anything you can walk around; (2) Never step on anything that you can step over. Every time you step on anything you lift the weight of your body. Why lift extra weight when tramping? Fourth, carry with you only the things absolutely needed, and roll in blanket and poncho, army style.
Before starting on a hike, study carefully the road maps. The best maps are those of the United States Geological Survey, made on a scale of two inches to the mile, and costing five cents each. The map is published in atlas sheets, each sheet representing a small quadrangular district. Send to the Superintendent of Documents, at Washington, D. C., for a list.
A mountaineer in Tennessee said: "We measure miles with a coonskin, and throw in the tail for good measure." A better way is to purchase the Universal Map Measure, costing $1.50 (imported and sold by Dame, Stoddard Co., 374 Washington Street, Boston, Mass.), which accurately measures the distance upon the Government Survey Maps.
For tramping the boy needs the right kind of a shoe, or the trip will be a miserable failure. A light-soled or light-built shoe is not suited for mountain work, or even for an ordinary hike. The feet will blister and become "road-weary." They must be neither too big nor too small nor too heavy, and be amply broad to give the toes plenty of room. The shoe should be water-tight. A medium weight, high-topped lace shoe is about right. Bathing the feet at the springs and streams along the road will be refreshing, if not indulged in too frequently. (See chapter on "Health and Hygiene" for care of the feet and proper way of walking.)
It is well to carry a spare shirt hanging down the back with the sleeves tied round the neck. Change when the shirt you are wearing becomes too wet with perspiration.
The most practical and inexpensive pack is the one manufactured for the Boy Scouts of America. Price, sixty cents. It is about 14 by 20 inches square, and 6 inches thick, made of water-proof canvas, with shoulder straps, and will easily hold everything needed for a tramping trip.
A few simple remedies for bruises, cuts, etc., should be taken along by the leader (see chapter on "Simple Remedies"). You may not need them, and some may poke fun at them, but as the old lady said: "You can't always sometimes tell." Amount and kind of provisions must be determined by the locality and habitation.
Reach the place where you are going to spend the night in plenty of time to build your "lean-to," and make your bed for the night. Select your camping spot, with reference to water, wood, drainage, and material for your "lean-to." Choose a dry, level place, the ground just sloping enough to insure the water running away from your "lean-to" in case of rain. In building your "lean-to," look for a couple of good trees standing from eight to ten feet apart with branches from six to eight feet above the ground. By studying the illustration below, you will be able to build a very serviceable shack, affording protection from the dews and rain. While two or more boys are building the shack, another should be gathering firewood, and preparing the meal, while another should be cutting and bringing in as many soft, thick tips of hemlock or balsam boughs as possible, for the roof of the shack and the beds. How to thatch the "lean-to" is shown in this illustration.
If the camp site is to be used for several days, two "lean-tos" may be built facing each other, about six feet apart. This will make a very comfortable camp, as a small fire can be built between the two, thus giving warmth and light.
On the floor of your "lean-to" lay a thick layer of the "fans" or branches of balsam fir or hemlock, with the convex side up, and the butts of the stems toward the foot of the bed. Now thatch this over with more "fans" by thrusting the butt ends through the first layer at a slight angle toward the head of the bed, so that the soft tips will curve toward the foot of the bed, and be sure to make the head of your bed away from the opening of the "lean-to" and the foot toward the opening. Over this bed spread your rubber blanket with rubber side down, your sleeping blanket on top, and you will be surprised how soft, springy, and fragrant a bed you have, upon which to rest your "weary frame," and sing with the poet:
Then the pine boughs croon me a lullaby, And trickle the white moonbeams To my face on the balsam where I lie While the owl hoots at my dreams. -J. George Frederick.
What God puts in the blood is eliminated slowly and we are all impregnated with a love for the natural life which is irresistible. That was a great saying of the boy who was taken from the city for the first time on an all-night outing. Snugly tucked up in his blankets he heard the wind singing in the pines overhead. As the boy looked up, he asked, "Wasn't God blowing His breath down at us?"—Dr. Lilburn.
If the night bids fair to be cold, place a number of stones about six or eight inches in diameter next the fire, so they will get hot. These can then be placed at the feet, back, etc., as needed, and will be found good "bed warmers." When a stone loses its heat it is replaced near the fire and a hot one is taken. If too hot, wrap the stone in a shirt or sweater or wait for it to cool off.
Boys desire adventure. This desire may be gratified by the establishment of night watchers, in relays of two boys every two hours. Their imaginations will be stirred by the resistless attraction of the camp-fire and the sound of the creatures that creep at night.
Many boys have excellent eyes but see not, and good ears but hear not, all because they have not been trained to observe or to be quick to hear. A good method of teaching observation while on a hike or tramp is to have each boy jot down in a small notebook or diary of the trip the different kinds of trees, birds, animals, tracks; nature of roads, fences; peculiar rock formation, smells of plants, etc., and thus be able to tell what he saw or heard to the boys upon his return to the permanent camp or to his home.
One of the party should take a Brownie No. 2 or small folding kodak. Photos of the trip are always a great pleasure and a memory reviver. A practical and convenient method of carrying small folding cameras is described in "Forest and Stream." A strap with a buckle having been attached to an ordinary leather belt is run through the loops at the back of the camera-case. The camera may be pushed around the belt to the point where it will be least in the way.
A very convenient lamp to use on a hike is the Baldwin Camp Lamp, made by John Simmons Co., 13 Franklin Street, New York City. (Price, $1.00.) It weighs only five ounces when fully charged with carbide, and is but 4-3/4 inches high. It projects a strong light 150 feet through the woods. A stiff wind will not blow it out. It can be worn comfortably in your hat or belt.
The "Rocky Mountain Searchlight," made of a discarded tomato can, a candle, and a bit of wire for a handle, is a camp product that will be found to be very useful in an emergency.
The can is carried lengthwise, with the wire handle run through a hole in the closed end on through the entire length of the can and out the open end. Do not wrap the handle wire around the can. It will slip off. Two cuts, crossing each other, make the candle opening, with the cut edges bent inward. The candle is pushed upward as it burns down, the flame being kept in the middle of the can. The cut edges prevent it from falling out until the last hold is melted away. The "Searchlight" gives good service when hung in the tent or on a nearby tree, but is especially valuable in lighting up a rough path on a rainy, windy night.
The camp hanger shown in the illustration can be hung from the ridgepole of the tent, and is particularly useful when from two to four persons occupy the tent. It can be raised and lowered at will by attaching the hanger to a pulley arrangement. The hanger may be made of wood in any length. Ordinary coat hooks are fastened to the side with screws. A common screw-eye is used for the line at the top. A snap hook attached to the rope facilitates its removal at will.
A boy of ingenuity can make a number of convenient things. A good drinking cup may be made from a piece of birch bark cut in parallelogram shape, and twisted into pyramid form, and fastened with a split stick. (See illustrations on opposite page.) A flat piece of bark may serve as a plate. A pot lifter may be made from a green stick about 18 inches long, allowing a few inches of a stout branch to remain. By reversing the same kind of stick and driving a small nail near the other end or cutting a notch, it may be used to suspend kettles over a fire. A novel candlestick is made by opening the blade of a knife and jabbing it into a tree, and upon the other upturned blade putting a candle. A green stick having a split end which will hold a piece of bread or meat makes an excellent broiler. Don't pierce the bread or meat. Driving a good-sized green stake into the ground at an angle of 45 degrees and cutting a notch in which may be suspended a kettle over the fire, will provide a way of boiling water quickly.
For suggestions in building a camp-fire and cooking on hikes, see chapter on "Cooking on Hikes." The bibliography for the whole subject of Hikes, including cooking, is on page 153.
CHAPTER XII—COOKING ON HIKES
BUILDING A COOKING FIRE FIRE BY SUN GLASS GRIDDLE CAKES BROILED BACON CREAMED SALMON SALMON ON TOAST BAKED POTATOES BAKED FISH FROGS' LEGS EGGS COFFEE COCOA SAMPLE MENU RATION LIST DISH WASHING
Take two or three stones to build a fireplace; a stick first shaved and then whittled into shavings; a lighted match, a little blaze, some bark, dry twigs and a few small sticks added; then with the griddle placed over the fire, you are ready to cook the most appetizing griddle cakes. After the cakes are cooked, fry strips of bacon upon the griddle; in the surplus fat fry slices of bread, then some thinly sliced raw potatoes done to a delicious brown and you have a breakfast capable of making the mouth of a camper water.
Another way of building a fire: Place two green logs side by side, closer together at one end than the other. Build fire between. On the logs over the fire you can rest frying pan, kettle, etc. To start fire have some light, dry wood split up fine. When sticks begin to blaze add a few more of larger size and continue until you have a good fire.
When the sun shines a fire may be started by means of a small pocket sun or magnifying glass. Fine scrapings from dry wood or "punk tinder" will easily ignite by the focusing of the sun dial upon it, and by fanning the fire and by adding additional fuel, the fire-builder will soon have a great blaze.
Beat together one egg, tablespoonful of sugar, cup of new milk, or condensed milk diluted one-half. Mix in enough self-raising flour to make a thick cream batter. Grease the griddle with rind or slices of bacon for each batch of cakes.
Slice bacon thin. Remove the rind which makes the slices curl up. Or, gash the rind with a sharp knife if the boys like "cracklings." Fry on griddle or put on the sharp end of a stick and hold over the hot coals, or, better yet, remove the griddle and put a clean flat rock in its place. When the rock is hot lay the slices of bacon on it and broil. Keep turning the bacon so as to brown it on both sides. Cut into dice.
Heat about a pint of salmon in one-half pint milk, season with salt and pepper and a half teaspoonful of butter.
Salmon on Toast
Drop slices of stale bread into smoking-hot lard. They will brown at once. Drain them. Heat a pint of salmon, picked into flakes, season with salt and pepper and put into it a tablespoonful of butter. Stir in one egg, beaten light, with three tablespoonfuls evaporated milk not thinned. Pour mixture on the fried bread.
Wash potatoes and dry well; bury them deep in a good bed of live coals, cover them with hot coals until well done. They will take about forty minutes to bake. When you can pass a sharpened hardwood sliver through them, they are done, and should be raked out at once. Run the sliver through them from end to end, and let the steam escape and use immediately, as a roast potato quickly becomes soggy and bitter.
Dig a hole one foot and a half deep. Build a fire in it, heaping up dry sticks until there is an abundance of fuel. After an hour, take out the coals, clear the hole of ashes, lay green corn husks on the hot bottom of the hole. Soak brown paper in water and wrap around the fish. Lay it in the hole, cover with green corn husks, covered in turn with half an inch of earth. Build a fire over it and keep burning for an hour. Then remove and you have something delicious and worth the time taken to prepare.
Clean fish well. Small fish should be fried whole, with the backbone severed to prevent curling up; large fish should be cut into pieces, and ribs cut loose from backbone so as to lie flat in pan. Rub the pieces in corn meal or powdered bread crumbs, thinly and evenly (that browns them). Fry in plenty of very hot fat to a golden brown, sprinkling lightly with pepper and salt just as the color turns. If fish has not been wiped dry, it will absorb too much grease. If the frying fat is not very hot when fish are put in they will be soggy with it.
After skinning frogs, soak them an hour in cold water, to which vinegar has been added, or put them for two minutes into scalding water that has vinegar in it. Drain, wipe dry, and cook. To fry: Roll in flour seasoned with salt and pepper, and fry, not too rapidly, preferably in butter or oil. Water cress is a good relish with them. To grill: Prepare three tablespoonfuls melted butter, one-half teaspoonful salt, and a pinch or two of pepper, into which dip the frog legs, then roll in fresh bread crumbs and broil for three minutes on each side.
Raise water to boiling point. Place eggs in carefully. Boil steadily for three minutes if you prefer them soft. If you want them hard-boiled, put them in cold water, bring to a boil, and keep it up for twenty minutes. The yolk will then be mealy and wholesome.
Melt some butter or fat in frying pan, when it hisses drop in eggs carefully. Fry them three minutes.
First stir the eggs up with a little condensed cream and a pinch of salt and after putting some butter in the frying pan, stir the eggs in it, being careful not to cook them too long.
First put in the frying pan sufficient diluted condensed milk which has been thinned with enough water to float the eggs when the milk is hot; drop in the carefully opened eggs and let them simmer three or four minutes. Serve the eggs on slices of buttered toast, pouring on enough of the milk to moisten the toast.
For every cup of water allow a tablespoonful of ground coffee, and one extra for the pot. Heat water to boiling point first, add coffee, boil five minutes, settle with one-fourth cup cold water and serve. Some prefer to put the coffee in a small muslin bag, tied loose, and boil for five minutes longer.
Allow a teaspoonful of cocoa for every cup of boiling water. Mix the powdered cocoa with hot water or hot milk to a creamy paste. Add equal parts of boiling water and boiled milk, and sugar to taste. Boil two or three minutes.
SAMPLE MENU FOR AN OVER-NIGHT AND A DAY HIKE OR TRAMP
Griddle cakes with Karo Syrup or brown sugar and butter; Fried bacon and potatoes; Bread, coffee, preserves.
Creamed salmon on toast; Baked potatoes; Bread; Pickles; Fruit.
Fried eggs; Creamed or chipped beef; Cheese; Bread; Cocoa
These recipes have been tried out. Biscuit and bread-making have been purposely omitted. Take bread and crackers with you from the camp. "Amateur" biscuits are not conducive to good digestion or happiness. Pack butter in small jar. Cocoa, sugar and coffee in small cans or heavy paper, also salt and pepper. Wrap bread in a moist cloth to prevent drying up. Bacon and dried or chipped beef in wax paper. Pickles can be purchased put up in small bottles. Use the empty bottle as a candlestick.
Ration List for six boys, three meals
2 lbs. bacon (sliced thin), 1 lb. butter, 1 doz. eggs, 1/2 lb. cocoa, 1/2 lb. coffee, 1 lb. sugar, 3 cans salmon, 24 potatoes, 2 cans condensed milk, 1 small package self-raising flour, Salt and pepper.
Small griddle or tin "pie plate" (5 cents each), Small stew pan, Small coffee pot, Small cake turner, Large spoon, Teaspoons, Knives and forks, Plates and cups, Matches and candles.
First fill the frying pan with water, place over fire and let it boil. Pour out water and you will find that it has practically cleaned itself. Clean the griddle with sand and water. Greasy knives and forks may be cleaned by jabbing a couple of times into the ground. After all grease is gotten rid of, wash in hot water and dry with cloth. Don't use the cloth first and get it greasy.
Be sure to purchase Horace Kephart's excellent book on "Camp Cookery," $1.00, Outing Publishing Co., or Association Press. It is filled with practical suggestions.
"Camp and Trail"—Stewart Edward White. Doubleday, Page & Company, $1.25 net. Full of common sense and of special value to those contemplating long tramps and wilderness travel. Several chapters on "Horseback Travel"
"Out-of-Doors"—M. Ellsworth Olsen, Ph.D. Pacific Press Publishing Co., 60 cents. A book permeated with a wholesome outdoor spirit.
The Field and Forest Book—Dan Beard. Charles Scribner's Sons, $2.00. Written in "Beardesque" style, filled with his inimitable illustrations and crammed with ideas.
The Way of the Woods-Edward Breck. G. P. Putnam's Sons, $1.75 net. Simple, terse, free from technical terms, and calculated to give the novice a mass of information. Written for Northeastern United States and Canada, but of interest for every camper.
CHAPTER XIII—HEALTH AND HYGIENE
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION HOSPITAL TENT AND EQUIPMENT PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTS PULSE RATE THE TONGUE TEMPERATURE PAIN SURGICAL SUPPLIES MEDICAL STORES SIMPLE REMEDIES FIRST AID TO THE INJURED DRILLS HEALTH TALKS RED CROSS SOCIETY PREVENTION FROM DROWNING PERSONAL HYGIENE BIBLIOGRAPHY
Better to hunt on fields for health unbought Than fee the doctor for a nauseous draught. The wise, for cure, on exercise depend; God never made his work for man to mend. —Dryden
A boy should be examined by his family physician before going to camp in order that he may receive the greatest good from the camp life and be safeguarded from physical excess. An examination blank like that shown on the next page is used in many of the large camps. When the boy arrives in camp the physician or physical director examines the boy. Take his height, weight, lung capacity, condition of heart, lungs, condition of muscles, whether hard, medium or soft, and state of digestion. For this purpose you will need a wet spirometer, measuring rod, stethoscope and platform scales. A second blank with carbon duplicate, is kept of every boy.
Give dates of first examination on arrival and final examination before departure from camp. The original is given to the boy to take home and the carbon copy is retained by the camp, filed in alphabetical order. Most remarkable gains have been made by boys, particularly in lung capacity, height, and hardening of muscles. The active life of the camp is not conducive as a rule to great gain in weight.
Each tent leader should be given the important facts of the examinations of the boys in his tent, so that there may be intelligent cooperation between the physician, or physical director, the tent leader, and the boy in securing health efficiency.
AVERAGE PHYSICAL TYPES FOR BOYS OF 5 TO 16 YEARS (Compiled from the measurements of 5,476 school children.)
—-Lengths (Inches)—- Age Weight Height Height Span of Breadth Breadth Breadth Sitting Arms Head Chest Waist 16 116.38 64.45 33.55 66.25 5.95 9.85 9.15 15 103.29 62.25 32.15 63.15 5.90 9.30 8.65 14 87.41 59.45 30.70 60.00 5.85 8.95 8.25 13 78.32 57.10 29.60 57.50 5.80 8.70 7.95 12 72.55 55.25 28.95 55.30 5.80 8.50 7.70 11 64.89 53.10 28.20 53.40 5.75 8.25 7.45 10 61.28 51.55 27.60 51.20 5.75 8.00 7.20 9 55.15 49.55 26.80 49.10 5.70 7.80 7.10 8 50.90 47.75 26.00 47.00 5.65 7.65 6.95 7 46.85 45.55 25.20 45.00 5.65 7.45 6.75 6 42.62 43.55 24.20 42.60 5.60 7.25 6.55 5 39.29 41.60 23.30 40.35 5.60 7.15 6.50
Girth Strength Age Chest Girth of Chest Lung Right Left Vitality Depth Head Expansion Capacity Forearm Forearm Coefficient (cu in) Strength Strength 16 6.60 21.55 3.45 191.40 73.28 65.22 35.58 15 6.30 21.45 3.30 161.00 63.47 54.30 26.09 14 5.95 21.30 3.35 140.12 55.81 50.70 21.97 13 5.65 21.10 3.25 123.58 49.69 45.07 18.28 12 5.60 21.00 3.05 111.33 43.29 40.56 15.55 11 5.45 20.85 2.90 100.74 39.09 36.30 13.33 10 5.25 20.60 2.75 90.02 32.42 30.94 10.84 9 5.20 20.65 2.55 81.03 28.91 25.90 9.34 8 5.10 20.55 2.35 70.43 23.38 20.96 7.34 7 5.10 20.45 1.80 60.48 20.19 18.78 5.05 6 5.05 20.25 1.65 50.89 15.36 12.53 4.02 5 4.90 20.15 1.35 40.60 10.76 10.38 2.61 Copyright by Wm. W. Hastings, Ph.D.
If a boy is ill (minor aches and pains which are frequently only growing pains, excepted), isolate him from the camp, so that he may have quiet and receive careful attention.
A tent, with fly and board floor, known as the "Hospital Tent" or "Red Cross Tent," should be a part of the camp equipment. There may be no occasion for its use, but it should be ready for any emergency. The physician may have his office in this tent. Boys should not be "coddled;" at the same time it must not be forgotten that good, sympathetic attention and nursing are two-thirds responsible for speedy recovery from most ills.
A spring cot, mattress, pillow, blankets, a good medicine cabinet, alcohol stove for boiling water, cooking food, and sterilizing instruments; pans, white enameled slop jar, pitcher, cup, pail; a table, a folding camp reclining chair (Gold Medal Camp Furniture Company), and a combination camp cot and litter (Gold Medal Brand) will make up the equipment of the tent.
The information and suggestions given in this chapter are the accumulation of many years' experience in boys' camps. The technical information is vouched for by competent physicians who have examined the manuscript.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: This chapter was written in 1911. Many observations and suggestions are obsolete, if not dangerous or illegal.]
Every man in charge of a boys' camp should have a knowledge of certain physiological facts, so as to be able to make a fair diagnosis of pain and disease. The pulse, taken at the wrist, is a fair index of the condition of the body. In taking the pulse-beat, do so with the fingers, and not with the thumb, as the beating of the artery in the thumb may confuse. Pulse rate is modified with age, rest, exercise, position, excitements, and elevation. High elevation produces a more rapid pulse. The normal rate of boys in their teens is about 80 to 84 beats per minute. An increase not accounted for by one of the above reasons usually means fever, a rise of 6 beats in pulse usually being equivalent to a rise of 1 degree. Often more important than the rate, however, is the quality of the pulse. Roughly, the feebler the pulse, the more serious the condition of the individual. Irregularity in the rate may be a serious sign, and when it is noticed a doctor should be immediately called. Failure to find the artery should not necessarily cause uneasiness, as by trying on himself, the director may see that the taking of the pulse is often a difficult undertaking.
The tongue is a very misleading guide to the patient's condition, and no definite rule about its appearance can be laid down. Other signs, such as temperature, general conditions, localization of pain, etc., are more accurate, and to the total result of such observations the appearance of the tongue adds little.
The normal temperature of the human body by mouth is about 98.4 degrees. Variations between 98 degrees and 99 degrees are not necessarily significant of disease. A reliable clinical thermometer should be used. Temperature is generally taken in the mouth. Insert the bulb of the thermometer well under the boy's tongue. Tell him to close his lips, not his teeth, and to breathe through his nose. Leave it in the mouth about three or four minutes. Remove, and, after noting temperature, rinse it in cold water, dry it with a clean, towel, and shake the mercury down to 95 degrees. It will then be ready for use next time. Never return a thermometer to its case unwashed.
Pain is an indication that there is something wrong with the body that should receive attention. Some boys are more sensitive to pain than others, particularly boys of a highly strung, delicate, nervous nature. Most people, however, think too much of their pains. Most pains to which boys fall heir are due to trouble in the stomach or intestines, or to fevers. Many pains that boys feel mean very little. They are often due to a sore or strained muscle or nerve. A hot application or massage will often bring relief.
Sharply localized pain, except as the result of external injury, is not common among healthy boys, and, if found, particularly in the well-known appendix area, and if accompanied by other disquieting signs (temperature, pulse, etc.), should receive medical attention.
In a general way, any abdominal pain that does not yield in 24 hours to rest in bed with application of external heat, should call for the advice of a physician. Any severe attack of vomiting or diarrhea, accompanied by temperature, and not immediately traceable to some indiscretion in diet, is cause for study, and if improvement does not soon show itself, a physician should be called.
Pains in the extremities, particularly joints, if not clearly showing signs of improvement in two or three days, should also be the object of a physician's visit, as a fracture near a joint, if not correctly treated early, may result in permanent deformity.
The camp physician, or director, if he himself assumes the medical responsibilities, should enforce the rule that all boys who do not have a daily movement of the bowels see him, and he should always be ready to receive such cases and give them the necessary treatment.
The drawings by Albert G. Wegener illustrate in a general way what the trouble is when one feels a distinct, persistent pain.
Among healthy boys, in camp, thoracic pains, other than those due to muscular strain, are uncommon, but when severe, especially if accompanied by a rise of temperature (over 99.5 degrees) and not readily succumbing to rest in bed, should be investigated by a physician.
The accompanying diagrams indicate what ailment may be looked for if there is a persistent pain. (Adapted from Butler; Diagnosis.)
1. Disease of bone. Tumor or abscess in chest. Weakening of the aorta. Stomach trouble.
2. Catarrh , or cancer or ulcer of stomach. Disease of spinal column. Inflammation of pancreas.
3. Lack of blood. Neuralgia of rib nerves. Pneumonia. Enlarged glands. Disease of chest wall. Disease of back-bone. Shingles.
4. Liver disease. Weakness of abdominal aorta. Heart disease.
5. Disease of diaphragm or large intestines.
6. Heart disease. Large intestines. Locomotor ataxia .
7. Pleurisy. Violent vomiting. Coughing.
8. Colic. Gravel. Movable kidney. Enlarged spleen. Dyspepsia. Lack of blood. Debility.
9. Sharp abdominal pains indicate the following: Ulcer or cancer of stomach Disease of intestines. Lead colic. Arsenic or mercury poisoning. Floating kidney. Gas in intestines. Clogged intestines. Appendicitis. Inflammation of bowels. Rheumatism of bowels. Hernia. Locomotor ataxia . Pneumonia. Diabetes.
10. Neuralgia. Clogged intestines. Abdominal tumor. Kidney colic. Tumor or abscess of thigh bone. Appendicitis if pain is in right leg.
11. Lack of blood. Hysteria. Epilepsy. Disease of bladder. Nervous breakdown.
12. Foreign substance in ear. Bad teeth. Eye strain. Disease of Jaw bone. Ulcer of tongue.
13. Nervous breakdown. Epilepsy. Tumor or break in brain. Cranial neuralgia. Disease of neck bones. Adenoids. Ear disease. Eye strain. Bad teeth.
14. Spinal trouble.
15. Disease of stomach. Weakening of aorta.
16. Hand and arm pains indicate: Heart disease. Enlarged spleen. Clogged large intestines.
17. Nervous breakdown.
18. Eye strain. Disease of nasal cavity. Lack of blood. Dyspepsia. Constipation. Rheumatism of scalp. Nervous breakdown.
19. Bad teeth. Ear inflammation. Cancer of upper Jaw. Neuralgia of Jaw nerve.
20. Bad teeth. Neuralgia of Jaw nerve.
21. Clogged large intestines. Ulcer of stomach.
22. Lumbago. Neuralgia. Debility. Fatigue. Weakness of abdominal aorta.
23. Girdle sensation indicates disease or injury of spinal cord.
24. Disease of testicles. Excessive sex abuse. Ulcer or cancer rectum. Piles. Disease of hip-joint. Neuralgia. Sciatica.
25. Kidney disease. Neuralgia.
26. Intestines clogged. Cancer or ulcer of rectum. Locomotor ataxia. Abscess in back. Sciatica (if in one leg only).
27. Cramps due to over exercise. Diabetes. Hysteria.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: Catarrh: Inflammation of mucous membranes in nose and throat.]
[Transcriber's Footnote 2: Ataxia: Loss of coordinated muscular movement.]
The epidemic chiefly to be feared in summer camps is typhoid fever, and boys coming from cities where that disease is prevalent should be carefully watched. Care in sanitation minimizes the likelihood of such a disease springing up in the camp. Other infections, such as mumps, conjunctivitis, etc., should be carefully isolated, and all precautions taken to prevent their spread.
A fairly common event may be toward evening to find a boy with a headache and a temperature perhaps of 102 degrees. This will probably be all right in the morning after a night's rest and perhaps the administration also of a cathartic.
The importance of a visit to the dentist before coming to camp cannot be over-estimated. Every one knows the torture of a toothache, and realizes how unbearable it must be for a boy away from home and among other boys, sympathetic, of course, but busy having a good time, and with only a few patent gums to relieve the misery, and the dentist perhaps not available for two days. Parents cannot have this point too forcibly thrust upon them, as by even a single visit to a competent dentist all the sufferings of toothache may usually be prevented.
The following list of surgical supplies will be found necessary. The quantity must be determined by the size of the camp, and the price by the firm from whom purchased.
One-half dozen assorted gauze bandages, sizes one to three inches, 10 cents each. Two yards sterilized plain gauze in carton, 20 cents a yard. One roll three-inch adhesive plaster, $1.00. One paper medium size safety pins, 10 cents. One paper medium size common pins, 5 cents. Four ounces sterilized absorbent cotton in cartons, 20 cents. One-half dozen assorted egg-eyed surgeon's needles, straight to full curve, 50 cents. One card braided silk ligature, assorted in one card (white), about 30 cents. One hundred ordinary corrosive sublimate tablets, 25 cents. Small surgical instrument set, comprising (F. H. Thomas Co., Boston, Mass., $3.50). 2 scalpels Forceps Director Probe Curette Scissors
One Hypodermic Syringe, all metal, in metal case, $1.50. One Fountain Syringe (for enemata and ears). One one-minute clinical thermometer in rubber case, $1.25. Get best registered instrument. One number nine soft rubber catheter, 25 cents. Small bottle collodion with brush. One-quarter pound Boric acid powder, 25 cents. Four ounces Boric acid ointment, 50 cents. One-quarter pound Boric acid crystals, 25 cents. Carbolic Acid, 95 cents. Hypodermic tablets, cocaine hydro-chlorate, 1-1/8 grain, making in two drachms sterile water or one per cent solution. (To be used by Physician only.) Alcohol, 80 per cent. Sulpho Napthol. Iodoform gauze. Chloroform liniment.
[Transcriber's Footnote 1: collodion: Flammable, colorless or yellowish syrupy solution of pyroxylin, ether, and alcohol, used as an adhesive to close small wounds and hold surgical dressings, in topical medications, and for making photographic plates.]
With the above list the ingenious man can perform practically every surgical operation that he would care to undertake.
For "First Aid" demonstration work you will need a number of Red Cross Outfits. 25 cents each. (31 cents postpaid.)
(Tablets to be used hypodermically should be used only by a physician.)
Quinine Sulphate, gr. 5. Useful in malarial regions. Give 15-20 gr. at time of expected chill. Better stay away from malarial country. No place for a camp.
Calomel, gr. 1/4, 200 at 10 cents per C. Take one tablet every 30 minutes or every hour, for eight doses in all cases where bowels need thorough cleaning out.