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Camp Life in the Woods and the Tricks of Trapping and Trap Making
by William Hamilton Gibson
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[Footnote *: From the "Hat Cap and Fur Trade Review."]

[Page 284] Notwithstanding all these advertised prices, the young trapper often experiences great difficulty in a profitable disposal of his furs. Like every other business, the fur trade runs in its regular grooves, and the average furrier will often pay an experienced professional five dollars for a skin for which he would not offer a dollar to an amateur. This certainly seems discouraging, but the knowledge of the fact is calculated to prevent greater discouragement.

We often see fancy prices advertised by fur dealers for first-class skins; but when the furs are sent, only a few are selected as "prime," the rest being rejected as worthless, or perhaps meeting with a meagre offer far below the regular rates. In this way the dealers have the opportunity of choice selection without incurring any risk. Many a young trapper has been thus disappointed, and has seen his small anticipated fortune dwindle down to very small proportions.

The fur trade is supplied through regular professional channels; and in giving our advice to the novice, we would recommend as the most satisfactory and profitable plan that he should make his sales to some local hunter or trapper, who has had experience with the fur trade, and who is satisfied to pay a fair price for the various skins with the probability of selling at an advance, and thus realizing a profit.

In nearly every trapping locality such men are to be found, and although the prices earned may be below the market rates, the amateur takes none of the speculative risks of the business, and should be willing to take lower prices on this account.

AMERICAN FUR SKINS—THEIR USES AT HOME AND ABROAD.

In the early history of fur apparel, its use was determined by climate; to-day, and especially in this country, it is regulated by the caprice of fashion. The mink for many years took the lead in the list of fashionable furs, but has of late been superseded by the introduction of the fur seal. The most choice and costly of our American furs at the present day is the Silver Fox. When highly dressed they are worth from 10 to 50 guineas each in the European market. They are principally bought by the Russians and Chinese.

The skins of the Red Fox are purchased by the Chinese, Greeks, Persians, and other Oriental nations. They are made into linings for robes, etc., and ornamented with the black fur of the paws which is set on in spots or waves. The fur of the [Page 285] Beaver was formerly highly prized in the manufacture of hats and yielded a large portion of the profits of the Fur Companies, constituting the largest item in value among furs. Cheaper materials have since been substituted in making hats, and the demand for this purpose has been greatly reduced. By a new process the skin is now prepared as a handsome fur for collars and gauntlets, and its fine silky wool has been successfully woven. The soft, white fur from the belly of the animal, is largely used in France for bonnets.

Raccoon skins are the great staple for Russia and Germany, where, on account of their durability and cheapness, they are in demand for linings for coats, etc. Among the Bear skins, those of the black and grizzly are extensively used for military caps, housings, holsters, sleigh robes, etc.

The fur of the Lynx is soft, warm and light, and is commonly dyed of a beautiful shining black. It is used for the facings and linings of cloaks, chiefly in America.

The Fisher yields a dark and full fur which is largely used in fashionable winter apparel.

The skin of the Marten, is richly dyed and utilized in choice furs and trimmings.

The Mink, like the two foregoing, belongs to the same genus as the Russian Sable, and its fur so much resembles the latter as to be sometimes mistaken for it. It is one of fashion's furs, and the hair of the tail is sometimes used in the manufacture of artist's pencils.

The Muskrat produces the fur most worn by the masses, and is largely exported into Germany, France and England. It is estimated that over six millions of muskrat skins are annually taken in America, and of that number one-half are used in Germany alone.

The skin of the Otter is at present classed among the leading fashionable furs in this country. They are dyed of a deep purplish black color, and are made into sacques, muffs, etc. It is also used by the Russians, Greeks and Chinese. It is mostly an American product, but is also procured to some extent in the British Isles from a smaller variety of the species.

The skins of the Wolf are chiefly used for sleigh robes and such purposes. The fur of the Rabbit is mainly employed in the manufacture of felt, and is also utilized for lining and trimming. The business of breeding rabbits for their fur has been introduced into the United States, and large numbers have been successfully raised in Danbury, Conn., for felting purposes connected with the manufacture of hats.

[Page 286] The fur of the Wolverine or Glutton, finds a market for the most part in Germany, where it is used for trimmings and cloak linings.

The Skunk furnishes the fur known as Alaska Sable, which forms one of our staple pelts, many thousands being annually exported to Poland and the adjacent provinces.

The Badger yields a valuable and fashionable fur, which is also extensively used in the manufacture of artist's brushes; a good "badger blender" forming a valuable accessory to a painter's outfit. Shaving brushes by the thousand are annually made from the variegated hair of the badger.

The Opossum yields a fur in very common use among the masses, and the skins of the domestic Cat are utilized to a considerable extent in the manufacture of robes, mats, etc. The fur of the Puma and Wild Cat are also employed in this form, and may often be seen handsomely mounted and hanging on the backs of sleighs on our fashionable thoroughfares. Among the small game the skins of Squirrels are used for linings, and the soft, velvety fur of the Mole is manufactured into light robes, and very fine hats, and in theatrical paraphernalia is sometimes employed for artificial eyebrows.

Full descriptions of the color of the various furs will be found in our lengthy illustrated chapter on our American animals.



[Page 289]

A

Adirondack experiences with mosquitoes, 256. Advice to the Novice on the sale of Furs, 283. Air-tight Jar, for butter, &c., 236. Alaska Sable, 286.—See also Skunk. Alcohol, its use and abuse, 257. Alum—used in waterproofing, 249. "Amateur Trapping," 225. AMBER, OIL OF, used in the art of Trapping, 152. AMERICAN FUR SKINS.—Table of values, 284. Their uses at Home and Abroad, 284. American Lion.—See Puma. Amputation, self inflicted, as a means of escape with captured animals, 144. To prevent, 144, 145. Ancient uses of Furs, 278. ANISE, OIL OF.— Its use in the art of trapping, 152. As bait for fish, 240. Annual yield of Furs throughout the world, 281. Apparatus for stretching skins, 273. Arrows, poisoned, 26. Arrow Traps, 23, 25. Artificial Eyebrows of Mole Fur, 286. ART OF TRAPPING, 148. ASSAFOETIDA.— Its use by the Trapper, 151. As scent bait for fish, 240. ASTOR, JOHN JACOB, and the Fur Trade, 281. Astringent Preparations, use of, in drying Skins, 273, 276.

B

BADGER, THE,— Nature and habits of, 175. Skinning the, 177. Trapping the, 175. Uses of Fur, 286. Value of Fur, 284. Bags, Waterproof, for food, 236. Baiting the Steel Trap, 143. Baits for fishing, 240. Baits, scent, 149. Bait, Trapping without, 148. BARK SHANTY.— Hints on, 266. Details of construction, 245. Bark-Stone.—See Castoreum. Bark-Stone composition.—See Castoreum. "Barque."—See Birch Bark Canoe. Barrel Hoops used in canoe building, 264. BARREL TRAPS, 125, 127, 133. Basket for the shoulders, 234, 236. Basswood-bark canoes, 264. Bateaux, 264. BAT FOWLING NET, 70. Baking, recipe for, 253. Bay Lynx.—See Wild Cat. Beans as food, 235. BEAR.— Nature and habits of, 168, 227. Trapping the, 168. Traps for, 17, 29, 143. Various species of, 168. Directions for removing skin, 172. Use of skin, 285. Value of skin, 284. "Bear Tamer," 137, 142. "Bear Chasing," dangers of the sport, 170. [Page 290] Bear Grease, 171. Bear Meat, to roast, 233. " " to dry, 237. BEAVER.— Nature and habits of, 177. Trapping the, 177. Skinning the, 182. Skin, to tan, 277. Use of fur, 285. Value of skin, 284. BEDS AND BEDDING, 248. Bed, spring, 248. " hammock, swinging, 249. Bed clothes, 249. BIG HORN, the, 220. As food, 220, 238. Nature and habits of, 220. Trapping the, 220. BIRCH BARK CANOE, remarks on, 226. Directions for making, 261. Bird-Catching Net, 70. BIRD LIME, 97. Masticated Wheat used as, 99. Recipe for making, 98. Used in capture of Puma, 35. Used for capture of Humming Bird, 99. Used in making Fly-paper, 136. Used with an Owl as decoy, 98. With paper cone, as a Crow trap, 96. BIRD TRAPS, 65. " Box, 88, 90. 91. BIRD WHISTLE, 72. BISON.—See Buffalo. Black Fly.—See "Punkey." Blanket, woollen, 250. Rubber, 236. Use of, 250. Block-tin, used for kettles, &c., 235. Blossom, utilized as a trap, 99. Blow-gun, used in the capture of Humming Bird, 99. BOARD FLAP, the, 130. BOARD STRETCHERS, 273. BOATS, remarks on, 226. Manufacture of, 259. The dug-out, or log canoe, 259. The birch-bark canoe, 261. The bateau, 264. The scow, 267. The flat-bottomed boat, 267. Boiled Mush, 232. " to fry, 232. Boiling water used in bending wood, 268, 272. Book I. TRAPS FOR LARGE GAME, 17. II. SNARES OR NOOSE TRAPS, 39. III. TRAPS FOR FEATHERED GAME, 65. IV. MISCELLANEOUS TRAPS, 103. V. HOUSEHOLD TRAPS, 125. VI. STEEL TRAPS AND THE ART OF TRAPPING, 137. VII. THE CAMPAIGN, 225. VIII. THE TRAPPER'S MISCELLANY, 255. Boots, hints on, 228. Grease for, 228. Bottle Lantern, 241. " Match Safe, 234. BOW STRETCHER, for skins, 274. BOW Traps, 23, 25, 116. BOWL TRAPS, 135, 136. Box Bird Traps, 55, 88, 90, 91. BOX DEAD FALL, 128. Box Hut, used in Pickerel fishing, 241. BOW OWL TRAP, 88. BOX PIT-FALL, 131. BOX SNARES, 55, 56. BOX TRAP, the, 103. Two modes of setting, 105. Box Traps, 55, 56, 88, 90, 91, 103, 106, 109, 110. BOX TRAP, pendent, 91. Brandy on a trapping campaign, 257. Brass wire nooses, 41. Brick Trap, 66. Broiling, recipes for, 233. Brook Trout, fishing through the ice, 240. " To cook deliciously, 232. Bruises, ointment for, 255. Buckskin gloves, in handling traps, 149. Building the camp fire, 233. Buffalo, the, 220. As food, 221, 238, How hunted and trapped, 221. Building boats, 259. Butternut log, for canoe, 239. Butter, to keep on a campaign, 236.

C

Cage traps for birds, 76. " " mice, 134. Call Birds, how used, 72. CAMPAIGN LIFE IN THE WILDERNESS, 225. CAMPAIGN, PLAN OF, 225. Camp fire, 228. To build, 233. Camp Kettle, 235. " Knife, 235. " Stove, 228, 235. Canada Grouse, 238. " Lynx.—See Lynx. " Moose.—See Moose. Candles, in camp, 227. " Novel way of using, 218. [Page 291] Canned vegetables, 236. CANOES, remarks on, 226. " Basswood-bark, 264. " Birch-bark, directions for building, 261. " Hemlock bark, 264. " Log.—See Dug-out. " Spruce bark, 264. Canton flannel bags, for bed clothes, 249. Canvass-back Duck, as food, 239. Canvas bags, waterproof, 236. Caps, percussion, used in lighting fire, 234. CAPTURE OF ANIMALS, 154. CARPETING TENTS, 250. CASTOREUM, or Barkstone, 150. How obtained, 150. How used.—See Beaver. CASTOREUM COMPOSITION, 150. Cat, domestic, use of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. Cat, wild.—See Wild Cat. Caulking boats, 261, 266. Caution in baiting steel traps, 113. Caution in handling steel traps, 149. Chill, remedy for, 257. Chimney-fire in log shanty, 245. Chip as a plate, 232. Chip, for a frying pan, 230, 232. Chloride of Lime, as an antidote, 152. Choosing a trapping ground, 225. Cicely, Sweet, as scent bait in fishing, 240. Cities built up by the fur trade, 281. CLAP NET, 72. Clearing tents and shanties from insects, 230. Climate and fur apparel, 284. CLOG, THE, 146. Cloth for tent making, 247. " Waterproof preparation for, 247. Clothing, hints on, 228. Coasting on the Indian sled, 270. Cock of the plains, 238. Coffee, 236. Coffee-pot, 235. Cold, remedy for, 257. Combination camp-knife, 235. COMMON BOX TRAP, 103. Compass, pocket, 227. Compound scent-bait, 150, 153. Concealing steel traps, 229. Cone of paper as a trap, 96. Corrall, African trap, 34. COOKING UTENSILS FOR A CAMPAIGN, 230, 235. Coon.—See Raccoon. COOP TRAP, 67. " For large game, 33. Cotton drilling, used for making tents, 247. " Waterproof preparation for, 247. "Cotton Tail."—See Rabbit. Cougar.—See Puma. Cow's udder, as fish bait, 240. Crackers as food, 236. Crow trap, 96. CUMMIN, used in trapping, 152. Cup, portable, 231. CURING SKINS, 272. Current price list of American furs, 284.

D

Dark lantern, used by bird catchers, 71. Deer hunters, 217. DEAD-FALLS, 17, 29, 107, 111, 113. " Box, 128. " For large game, 17. " How set for the fox, 113. " Stone, 29. " Weighted harpoon, 26. " With figure four trap, 114. Dead fish, valuable in making trails, 153. Decoys, 72, 76, 94. Decoy traps, 72, 76, 94. " Whistle, 74. " Owl used as, 98. DEER, 124. As food, 233, 237, 238. How to skin the, 219. Hunting at night, 217, 218. Luminosity of eyes at night, 217, 218. Natural characteristics of, 214. Salt as bait for, 218. Season for hunting, 218. Trapping the, 214, 215. Various modes of hunting, 217. Various species of, 215. Deer lick, the, 215. Deer meat, to dry, 237. Deer meat, to roast, 233. Delmonico outdone, 232. Detecting the direction of the wind by the finger, 217. Devices used in connection with the steel trap, 144, 147. Devils' Lantern, 241. Diet of the Trapper, 230. "DOUBLE ENDER," the, 109. Double traps, 57, 109, 110, 129. DOWN FALL, the, 26. Dressing for fur skins, 273, 276. Dressing for leather, 228. Dressing skins for market, 272. " Home use, 276. Dried fish, 237. Dried venison, 237. Drilling, as tent material, 247. " Waterproof preparation for, 247. [Page 292] Drinking cup, portable, 231. Drying skins, 272, 273, 276. Ducks, various species of, 239. As food, 239. To cook deliciously, 233. DUCK TRAPS, 94, 95. "DUG-OUT," THE, hints on, 226. Detailed directions for making, 259.

E

Eels, oil prepared from, 151. Elk.—See Moose. "Ephraim."—See Bear. Escaping from the mosquitoes, 255. Exports of furs, 281, 285. Extemporized frying pan, 232. "Toaster," 233. Extract of beef, Liebig's, 236. Extravagance in fur apparel, 279.

F

False bottom traps, 127, 131, 133. Fashion and fur, 279, 283, 285. FEATHERED GAME, TRAPS FOR, 65. Felt, use of rabbit-fur in making, 286. FENNEL, OIL OF, used in trapping, 152. FENUGREEK, OIL OF, used in trapping, 152. FIGURE FOUR SNARE, 61. FIGURE FOUR TRAP, 107. " Used with Dead-Fall, 114. Finger, as a weather vane, 217. Fire, to build, 227. " To light without matches, 234. " With powder and cap, 234. " Without "anything," 235. Fire arms, 227. " Oil for, 227. Fire bottle, 241. Fire Hat for night hunting, 218. Fire-proof preparations for tents, 247. Fish, to bake, 232. To dry, 237. To fry, 233. FISHER MARTEN.— How to trap the animal, 194. Its nature and habits, 194. Its common mode of release from capture, 144. Method of skinning, 195. Use of skin, 285. Value of skin, 284. FISH-HOOK, trap for ducks, 95. Fishing, hints on, 239. At night, 239. Through the ice, 240. Various baits, 240. With tip-up. 240. For pickerel, 240. Fishing tackle, 227, 240, 241. Fish lantern, 241. FISH OIL, used in the art of trapping, 151. How obtained, 151. Fish, scent baits for, 240. Spearing, 239. Fish traps, 120, 241. Flat bottomed boats, 264, 267. Flat bottomed sled.—See Toboggan Flat stone, as a frying pan, 232. Flower, converted into a trap, 99. Fly, black.—See "Punkey." FLY-PAPER, to make, 136. Fly Tent, the, 246. Fly traps, 136. Food, portable, 230. FOOD AND COOKING UTENSILS, 230. "FOOLS' CAP" TRAP FOR CROWS, 96. Forks, 235. Fortunes founded on peltry, 281. FOWLING NET, the, 70. Fox.— Nature and habits of, 154. Trapping the, 154. Trapped by a dead-fall, 111, 113. Varieties of, 154. Directions for skinning, 158.—See also Red and Silver Fox. "Fox fire," used in capture of deer, 218. Fritters, pork, to cook, 231. Frying pan, 231, 235. " An extemporized, 232. Fur Market, eccentricities of, 283. Furs, ancient uses of, 278. Annual yield throughout the world, 281. Furs, best season for, 147. "Home," 281. Sale of, by Hudson's Bay Company, 281. "Shipping," 281. Table of market values, 282. Fur skins, to cure for market, 272. To tan, 276. Hints on selling for profit, 283. Various uses of, 285. FUR TRADE, OBSERVATIONS ON, 278. Immensity of, 281.

G

Game, protected from wolves, 237. GAROTTE TRAP, 114. Gloves to be used in trapping, 149. Glutton.—See Wolverine. [Page 293] Gnats, 230, 256. Painful effects of their bites, 256. Remedies for their bites, 255. Driven away by the "Smudge," 230. Gnat, black.—See "Punkey." Goose trap, 75. GOPHER.— Nature and habits of, 205. Trapping the, 205. Traps for, 119, 120, 40. Directions for skinning, 206. Grappling iron, the, 146. Grease for boots and shoes, 228. "Great Bear Tamer," the, 142. GRIZZLY BEAR.— Nature and habits of, 169. Trapping the, 169. Traps for, 17, 142. Use of fur, 285. Ground plan of trapping lines, 228. Ground, selection for trapping, 225, GROUND SNARES, 44. Grouse, as food, 233, 238. Bait for, 42. Oil of, for fire arms, 227. Peculiarities of, 42. Snares for, 39. To cook deliciously, 233. Various species of, 238. GUN TRAP, 20.

H

Hair Nooses, 41. Half tent, 246. Hammocks, 250, Hammock bed, 249. Handling steel traps, caution in, 149. Hanging bed, 249. Hare.—See Rabbit. HARPOON TRAP of Africa, 26. Hat Brim, portable, 258. Netting attachment for, 258. Hat lantern for night hunting, 218. Hawk snare, 43. HAWK TRAP, 93. Head lantern used in deer hunting, 218. HEAD NET, 257. HEDGE NOOSES, 41. Hemlock bark canoes, 264. Hemlock boughs, as bedding, 250. Hemp, used in caulking boats, 261, 266. "Hiding" steel traps, 229. High top boots, 228. Hints on baiting the steel trap, 143. Hints on selection of trapping ground, 225. Hints on skinning animals, 272. Hints on trapping, 148. Hints on plans of trapping lines, 228. Hints on sale of furs, 283. Hippopotamus trap, 26. Historical items relating to furs and the fur trade, 278. Hoe cake, to cook, 232. Hogs carried off by bears, 170. Hog's liver used as fish bait, 240. "Home Furs," 281. HOME-MADE BOAT, 264. Honey as bait, 19, 31, 170. Hook trap for ducks, 95. Hopo, African trap, 34. Hoop nooses, 40. HOOP STRETCHER for skins, 275. Horse hair nooses, to make, 41. Hot drink for chills, 257. HOUSEHOLD TRAPS, 125. House Tent, 247. How to select a steel trap, 138. HOW TO TRAP, 153. Hudson Bay Company, origin of, 280. Sales of, 281, 282. Humming bird, killed by concussion, 99. " Snare, 99. " Trap, 99. " Various modes of capture, 99. Hunting the deer, 217. Hunting from trees, 218. HUT, LOG.—See Log Shanty.

I

Implements required on a trapping campaign, 227. Improved springle, 60. INDIAN CANOE.—See BIRCH BARK CANOE. Indian meal, as food, 231. INDIAN SLEDGE.—See Toboggan. INDIAN SNOW SHOE, 268. India-rubber blanket, 236. How used, 250. INSECT OINTMENTS, 255. Insect bites, remedies for, 255. " Sores resulting from, 257. Insects, to drive out from tent or shanty, 230, 256. Intemperance, 257.

J

Jack knife, a valuable tool, 227. Jar, as a trap, 135. [Page 294] Jar, air-tight, for butter, 236. "Jerked Venison," 231. JOHN JACOB ASTOR, and the fur trade, 281. Johnny cake, to cook, 232.

K

Kettle, camp, 235. Knapsack, 234. Directions for making, 236. Knife, a necessary implement, 227. Knife, the combination camp, 235. Knives, table, 235.

L

Lake trout, fishing for, 240. To cook deliciously, 232. Lantern for the head, used by deer hunters, 218. Lantern used by bird catchers, 71. Lantern trap for fish, 241. Large game, traps for, 17. LAVENDER, used in the art of trapping, 152. Leather preservative, 228. "Le Chat."—See Lynx. Lemonade, 236. Lens, to light fire with, 234. Lever for setting large steel traps, 142. Liebig's extract of beef, 236. Light, the trapper's, 227. Light for the head in night hunting, 218. Light home-made boat, 264. Lime, chloride of, as a disinfectant, 152. Liniment for wounds and bruises, 255. " Insect bites, 255. Linseed oil, used as bird lime, 98. Lion, American.—See Puma. LIST OF PRICES OF AMBRICAN FURS, 284. Liver, as fish bait, 240. LOG CABIN.—See Log Shanty. Log Canoe.—See Dug-Out. LOG COOP TRAP, 33. LOG SHANTY, hints on, 226, 229. Detailed directions for building, 244. Site for building, 244, 287. To clear of gnats and mosquitoes, 230. Lucifer Matches.—See Matches. "Luxuries," 234. LYNX, THE CANADIAN, 164. Natural characteristics of, 164. Trapping the, 164. Traps for, 17, 20, 23, 29, 33, 35, 141. LYNX.— Directions for skinning, 166. Use of skin, 285. Value of skin, 284.

M

Mackinaw and the Fur Trade, 281. Mallard Duck as food, 239. " to Cook.—See Duck. MARKET VALUE OF FUR SKINS, 281. Marmot.—See Woodchuck. MARTEN:— Nature and habits of, 192. Trapping the, 192. Its common mode of escape, 144. Directions for removing skin, 194. How to tan the Skin, 277. Value and use of skin, 284, 285. Mastic Varnish used in water-proofing, 234. MATCHES, 227. Bottle used for carrying, 234. To render water-proof, 234. Meal, Indian, as food, 231. Meat, to dry, 237. "MEDICINES," OR SCENT BAITS, 149. Menagerie Whistle, 74. Merganser, the, as food, 239, To cook.—See Duck. MIDGETS, 256. Painful effect of their bites, 256. Driven away by the "Smudge," 230. Ointments for bites, 255. Serious effects of bites on the intemperate, 257. MINK:— Nature and habits of, 189. Trapping the, 189. Traps for, 43, 141. Its common mode of escape from the steel trap, 144. Directions for skinning, 191. To tan skin of, 277. Extensive use of skins in America, 281. Uses of skin, 285. Value of skin, 284. MISCELLANEOUS hints on trapping, 148. MISCELLANY, the Trapper's, 255, MISCELLANEOUS TRAPS, 103. MOLE, 207. Beauty of fur, 209, 211. Life and habits of, 207. Trapping the, 119, 210. Traps for, 119, 120, 140. Varieties of, 211. Directions for skinning.—See Gopher. Use of fur, 286. [Page 295] Montreal and the Fur Trade, 281. MOOSE:— Nature and habits of, 219. Trapping the, 220. "Yards," 220. Flesh as food, 220, 223, 238. How to skin the animal, 220. Moose meat, to roast, 233. " Meat to dry, 237. MOSQUITOES, 230. Painful effects of their bites, 257. Ointments for bites, 255. Driven away by the "Smudge," 230. Adirondack experiences with, 255, 256. Head-net, 257. Serious effects of bites on the intemperate, 257. Mouse Traps, 124, 130, 131, 134, 135. Mud Stick or Pusher, 267. Mush, to boil, 232. to fry, 232. MUSK:— Its use in the art of trapping, 151. How obtained, 151. MUSKRAT:— Nature and habits of, 182. Pit-fall Trap for, 133. Spearing the, 183. Trapping the, 182. Traps for, 43, 107, 110, 111, 114, 133, 141. Its common mode of release, 144. Extensive use of skins in America, 281. Skin, to remove, 185. To tan, 277. Use of, 286. Value of, 284. Muscovy Duck as food, 239. To cook.—See Duck. Musquaw.—See Bear.

N

Natural Advantages utilized by the Trapper, 149. Natural History. Necessity of its study in the art of Trapping, 148. Neatsfoot Oil for Fire Arms, 227. NET:— " Bat fowling, 70. " Bird catching, 70. " Clap, 72. " Decoy, 72. " Fish, use of, 241. Net for the head, 257. " Fowling, 70. Net traps, 70, 73, 75, 80, 83, 85. For Tiger, Puma, or Wild Cat, 35. Spring, 80. The upright, 85. Wild Duck, 94. Wild Goose, 175. Netting attachment for Hat brim, 258. NEWHOUSE TRAP, THE, 138. Night-hunting, 217, 218. Night-fishing, 239. Nooses:— Horse hair, 41. In hedge, 42. On hoops, 40. On string, 40. NOOSE TRAPS, 39. Nooses, wire, 41. Northwest Fur Company, 280. Nutting in Mid-winter, 212.

O

Oar-locks, simple, 266. Oat-meal as food, 236. OBSERVATIONS ON THE HISTORY OF FURS AND THE FUR TRADE, 278. Oil, Fish.— Used in trapping, 151. How obtained, 151. Oil of Amber.— Used in the art of trapping, 152. Oil of Ambergris.— Used in the art of trapping, 152. Oil of Anise:— Its use in the art of trapping, 152. Oil of Cinnamon:— Its use in the art of trapping, 152. Oil of Fennel:— Its use in the art of trapping, 152. Oil of Fenugreek:— Its use in the art of trapping, 152. Oil of Lavender:— Its use in the art of trapping, 152. Oil of Rhodium:— Its use by trappers, 151. Oil of Skunk:— Its use by trappers, 151. Oil:— For fire arms, 227. For light, 227. Oil of Partridge:— Its use, 227. Oil of Pennyroyal:— For insect bite, 255. [Page 296] Ointment for Bruises and Wounds, 255. OINTMENT FOR INSECT BITES, 255. OLD-FASHIONED SPRINGLE, 58. Olive Oil in cooking, 236. OPOSSUM, 201. Nature and habits of, 202. Trapping the, 201. Hunting the, 202. Directions for skinning, 203. Uses of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. OTTER:— Nature and habits of, 202. Trapping the, 186. Directions for skinning, 189. How to tan the skin, 277. Use of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. OWL TRAP, 88. Owl:— Used in connection with bird lime as decoy, 98.

P

Paint as a water-proof covering, 236. Painter, the.—See Puma. Panther, the.—See Puma. Paper Cone used as a trap, 96. Partridge, 42, 238. As food, 238. Fat for fire arms, 227. Snares, 39, etc. To cook deliciously, 233. Peltry:— Fortunes founded on, 281. Cities built up on, 281. PENDENT BOX, BIRD TRAP, 91. Pennyroyal for insect bites, 255. Pepper Tea as a remedy, 257. Percussion Cap used in lighting lire, 234. Peshoo, the.—See Lynx. Phosphorescent wood used in night-hunting, 218. Phosphorus lantern for catching fish, 241. Pickerel fishing, 240. " Spearing, 241. " Trap for, 121. " To cook, 233. Pigeon Net-trap, 72. Pigs carried off by Bears, 170. Pine Log Canoe.—See Dug-out. Pinnated Grouse, 238. Pitch for stopping leaks, 261, 264, 266. PIT-FALL TRAPS.— For large game, 31. For small game, 125, 127, 131. Barrel, 127. Box, 131. For Muskrat, 133. PLAN OF TRAPPING CAMPAIGN, 225. Plates, substitutes for, 232, 235. Platform snare. 61. Poachers, or trap robbers, 229. POACHER'S SNARE, 48. Pocket compass, 227. POCKET HAT BRIM, 258. " Sun-glass, 234. Poisoned arrows, 26. POISONING, 222. Pop-corn as bait for Quail, 54. Portable boats, 259. Portable food & cooking utensils, 230, 235. Portable drinking cup, 231. Hat brim, 258. " With netting attached, 258. Snares, 50, 52. Stove, 228, 235. Pork as food, 231. " Fritters, 251. " " To make, 232. "Possum."—See Opossum. Potatoes as food, 235. Pouched Rat.—See Gopher. Powder used in lighting fire, 234. Prairie Hen, 238. Prairie Whistle, 74. Precautions in handling steel traps, 156. PREFACE, 3. Preparation of skins for market, 272. Preserve jar used as trap, 135. Price Current of American Furs, 284. Prime fur, best season for, 147. Prof. Blot outdone in cooking, 232. Profit in selling furs, 233. PRONGHORN Antelope, 221. Nature and habits of, 221. How hunted and trapped, 221, 238. Provisions, to protect from Wolves, 237. Ptarmigan, to cook, 233. Trap for, 75. How hunted and trapped, 239. Various species of, 230. PUMA:— Bait for, 20, 31, 32, 163. Nature and habits of, 161. Peculiarities of, 20. Traps for, 17, 20, 23, 29, 31, 33, 141. Trapping the, 161. Directions for skinning, 164. Use of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. Pumice Stone, used in finishing skins, 276. "PUNKEY."— Description of the Insect, 256. Severity of bites, 256. Ointment for bites, 255. Serious effects of bites on the intemperate, 257. [Page 297] Punk Tinder, used in lighting fire, 234. "Pusher."—See Mud stick. Putty, for stopping leaks, 261.

Q

Quail, bait for, 40, 54. " Snares, 39, 40, 41, etc. To cook deliciously, 233. Quotations of the Fur Market, 284.

R

RABBIT:— As food, 238. Bait for, 203. How to skin, 204. Nature and habits of, 203. Salt as bait for, 109, Traps for, 43, 64, 103. Use of fur, 286. Value of fur, 284. Varieties of, 203. RACCOON:— As a pet, 173. Nature and habits of, 172. Trapping the, 172. Traps for, 110, 116, 141. Hunting the, 172. Directions for skinning, 175. How to tan the skin, 277. Use of the fur, 285. Value of the fur, 284. Rat:— Snares for, 43. Trapping the, 125. Traps for, 43, 125, 127, 128, 131, 138. Rations for a Campaign, 230. Raw Furs.—See Furs. Recipe for insect ointments, 255. Boot grease, 228. For cooking, 230. For curing skins, 272. For tanning skins, 276. Red Fox.—See Fox. Red Fox.— Value of skin, 284. Use of skin, 285. Red Pepper Tea as a remedy, 257. Red Squirrel.—See Squirrel. Remedies for insect bites, 255. For chills, 257. Requisites of a good steel trap, 138. " For snaring, 39. " For a good trapping ground, 225. " For a trapping campaign, 227. Revolver, 227. Reynard outwitted by a dead-fall, 111, 113. RHODIUM, Oil of:— Its use by the trapper, 151. Rice as food, 236. Rifle and Shot Gun combined, 227. Oil for, 227. RIFLE TRAP, 20. Roasting, recipes for, 233. Rocky Mountain Sheep.—See Big Horn. "Roughing it," 230. Rubber blanket, 236. How used, 250. Ruffed Grouse.—See Partridge. Rum on a trapping campaign, 257.

S

Sage Cock, the, 238. Sale of furs by the Hudson's Bay Company, 282. Salmon, spearing, 239. " Spear, 239. Salmon Trout, spearing, 239. Salmon, to cook deliciously, 232. Salt as bait for Deer, 218. As bait for Rabbit, 109. Salt Lick, the, 218. Sandpaper used in softening skins, 276. Salt Pork as food, 231. SCENT BAITS, 149. " Compound, 150, 153. Scented baits for birds, 240. Scented baits for fish, 240. Season for Deer hunting, 218. Scow, 267. Season for trapping, 147. Selection of trapping ground, 225. Self-amputation as a means of escape with captured animals, 144. Self-amputation, to prevent, 144, 145. Self-raising flour, 235. SELF-SETTING TRAPS, 110, 125, 127, 131. SHANTY:— Bark.—See Bark Shanty. "Home."—See Log Shanty. Log.—See Log Shanty. Sheeting as tent material, 247. Water-proof, preparation for, 247. Shellac Varnish used in water-proofing, 234. SHELTER:—The trapper's remarks on, 226. Shelter tent, 247. Details of construction, 242. Shingle stretchers for skins, 274. [Page 298] "Shipping furs," 281. SHOOTING AND POISONING, 222. Shot-gun Trap, 20. Shot-gun combined with rifle, 267. Shoulder basket, 234, 226. SIEVE TRAP, 65. Silver Fox, 154. Value of skin, 284, 285. Skinning animals, hints on, 272. Skins:— Stretchers for, 273. To dry, 272, 276. To soften, 276, 277. To tan, 276. Value of, 284. Use of, 285. SKUNK, 195. Adventure with, 196. As food, 238. Nature and habits of, 195. Trapping the, 195. Traps for, 43, 111, 114, 141. To eradicate odor of, 152, 198. Oil of, used in trapping, 151. Directions for skinning, 198. Use of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. Sled, Indian.—See Toboggan. SLIDING POLE, 145. Slippery Elm used for bird-lime, 98. "Small Game" as food, 237. Smell, acute sense of, in animals, 148. Smoking the steel trap, 128. Smouldering birch bark to drive away insects, 230. Smudge, the, 230, 256. SNARE.— Box, 55. Double box, 56. Fig. Four, 62. Hawk, 43. Hedge, 42. Hoop, 40. Humming-bird, 99. Knotted string, 52, 53, 54. Pasteboard box, 56. Platform, 61. Poacher's, 48. Portable, 48, 50, 52. Quail, 53. Rat, 43. "Simplest," 52. Springle, 58, 60. Stovepipe, 120. Tree, 42. Triangle, 42. Twitchup, 43. Wood Chuck, 43. SNARES, OR NOOSE TRAPS, 37. Snaring, requisites for, 39. Snow Grouse, the, 238. SNOW-SHOES, 267. Snow-shoe race, 267. Softening skins, 276, 277. Sores resulting from insect bites, 257. Soups, recipes for, 236. Spearing fish, 239, 241. Spearing Muskrats, 183. Spider for cooking, 233. Spoons, 235. Spring-bed, 249. SPRINGLE, 58, 60. Spring-net Traps, 80. Spring-pole, the, 144. Spring, to temper, 84. Spruce Bark Canoes, 264. Spruce boughs as bedding, 250. Spruce Grouse, 238. SQUIRRELS, 211. As food, 238. Nature and habits of, 211. Traps for, 43, 103, 106, 107, 110, 116, 128, 140. Various species of, 213. To cook, 233. Use of skins, 286. STEEL TRAPS, 137. Caution in handling, 149. Concealing in the woods, 229, Various modes of setting, 144. Requisite number for a campaign, 227. To set for rats, 128. To select judiciously, 138. Requisites of, 138. Hints on baiting, 143. Steel Trap spring, to set with lever, 142. STEEL TRAPS AND THE ART OF TRAPPING, 137. Still hunting, 217. Stimulants, 257. Stone Dead-fall, 29. Storing traps in the woods, 229. Stove, portable, 228, 235. Stovepipe fish-trap, 120. St. Paul, Minn., and the Fur Trade, 281. STRETCHERS FOR SKINS, 273. Strychnine poisoning, 222. Sucker wire nooses, 41. Sugar of lead used in water-proofing, 247. Sun-glass, 234, 235, Sweet Cicely as bait for fish, 240. SWEET FENNEL.— Oil used in trapping, 152, Sweet Oil and Tar Ointment for insect bites, 255. Swinging bed, 249.

[Page 299] T

Table knife and bowl trap, 135. Table showing sale of furs by Hudson Bay Company, 282. Tallow, mutton, as ointment, 255. Tame Geese as decoys, 75. TANNING SKINS, 276. Mixtures, 276, 277, 278. With the hair on, 276. Simple, 278. Tar and Sweet Oil ointment for insect bites, 255. Tar for water-proofing, 264. Tea, 236. " Red pepper, as a remedy, 257. Teal Ducks as food, 239. To cook.—See Duck. "Telescope" Drinking Cup, 231. Tempering iron spring, 84. TENTS, 246. House-tent, 246. Fly-tent, 247. Half-tent, 247. Shelter-tent, 247. Materials, 247. Water-proof preparation for, 247. Fire-proof preparation for, 247. To carpet with spruce, 250. To clear of gnats and musquitoes, 230. TENT CARPETING, 250. Thimble used with bowl as Mouse trap, 136. Tiger captured with bird lime, 35. Tiger trap, 31. Tinder, 234. Tip-ups, 240. Toaster, an extemporized, 233. TOBOGGAN, OR INDIAN SLEDGE, 269. Tools required on a trapping campaign, 227. Tools required for canoe building, 259. Torch for the head, used in night hunting, 218. "Touch-wood " used in lighting fire, 234. Trail. The.— Its value to the trapper, 153. Various modes of making, 153. TRAP.— Arrow, 23, 25. Barrel. 125, 127. Bird, 65, 70, 73, 75, 88, 90, 91, 96. Bow, 23, 25, 116. Bowl, 135. Box, 55, 56, 88, 90, 91, 103, 106, 109, 110. Brick, 66. Cage, 76, 134. Cob house, 67. Coon, 110, 116, 141. Coop, 33, 67, 70. Crow, 96. Dead-fall, 17, 107, 111. Decoy, 72, 76, 94. Double ender, 109. Down-fall, 26. Duck, 94, 95. Fish, 120. Fish hook, 95. Fly, 136. Fool's-cap, 96. Garotte, 114. Gun, 20. Harpoon, 26. Hawk, 42, 93. Hook, 95. Jar, 135. Mole, 119, 120. Mouse, 130, 131, 134, 135. Net, 70, 73, 75, 80, 83, 85. Owl, 88. Partridge, 43, etc. Pendent Box, 91. Pitfall, 11, 125, 127, 131. Ptarmigan, 75. Quail, 39, 40, 41, 53. Rabbit, 43, 64, 103. Rat, 43, 125, 127, 128, 131, 138. Rifle, 20. Self-setting, 110, 125, 127, 131. Sieve, 65. Spring net, 80, 83, 85. Steel, 140. The "Newhouse," 140. Tree, 42, 91. Upright net, 85. Wild Duck, 94, 95. Wild Goose, 75. Woodchuck, 43. Trapper's beds and bedding, 248. " Cooking utensils, 230. " Diet, 230. TRAPPER'S MISCELLANY, 255. " Shelter, 226, 242. " Sled.—See Toboggan. TRAPPING, art of, 148. Season for, 147. Miscellaneous hints on, 148. Campaign, plan of, 225. Tools and other requisites, 227. Ground, selection of, 225. Valuable suggestions on, 228. Trapping Lines, 226. Trap robbers, 220. Traps for large game, 17. [Page 300] FOR FEATHERED GAME, 65. HOUSEHOLD, 125. Tree hunting, 218. Tree snare, 42. " Traps, 42, 91. TRIANGLE SNARE, 42. Trout, to cook deliciously, 232. Trumpet Creeper flower used as a trap, 99. Tumbler fly-trap, 136. Twitch-up, 43, 62. Poacher's, 48. Portable, 50. "Simplest," 52.

U

UPRIGHT NET TRAP, 85. " Snares 44, 58. Use and abuse of Alcohol, 257. Uses of fur skins, 285. Utensils for cooking, 230, 235.

V

Value of fur skins, table of, 262. Various uses of fur skins, 285. Varnish water-proof preparation for preserving matches, 234. Vegetables for food on a campaign, 235. " Canned, 236. Venison as food, 233, 237. To roast, 233. To preserve, 237. "Jerked," 237. Dried, 237.

W

Walking on the snow, 267. War in the fur trade, 281. Watch crystal as sun glass, 287. Water fowl as food, 239. Water-proof application for boats, 261, 264, 266. " Canvas bags, for food, 236. Match safe, 234. " Preparation, 236, 247, 266. " Varnish for matches, 234. Water traps, 110, 120. Wedge stretcher for skins, 274. Weighted harpoon trap, 26. Wheaten grits as trappers' food, 236. Wheat flour as food, 235. " Self-raising, 235. Wheel form of trapping lines, 229. Whiskey on a trapping campaign, 257. Whip lashes from Woodchuck hide, 204. Whistlebird, 74. White Birch Canoe, 261. White-wood log for Dug-out, 259. Widgeon, the, as food, 239. To cook.—See Duck. WILD CAT:— Nature and habits of, 167. Snares for, 43. Trapping the, 166. Skinning the, 168. Uses of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. Wild Duck, to cook, 233. Wild Duck, traps, 94, 95. Wild Goose as food, 239. Wild Goose to cook, 233. Wild Goose trap, 75. Wind, direction of, to detect by the finger, 217. Winged vermin, 255. Winter fishing, 240. Wire cage trap for birds, 76. " " For mice, 134. Wire nooses, 41. WOLF.— Nature and habits of, 158. Trapping the, 158. Poisoning the, 222. Traps for, 20, 141. To protect provisions from, 237. Varieties of, 158. Directions for skinning, 161. Use of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. WOLVERINE:— Nature and habits of, 199, 238. Trapping the, 199. Natural enemy to the Beaver, 200. Directions for skinning, 201. Use of skin, 286. Value of skin, 284. WOODCHUCK, 204. As food, 238. Nature and habits of, 204. Snare, 205. Trapping the, 204. Use of skin, 204. Smoked from its burrow, 205. Removing skin of, 205. Woodcock, to cook, 233. Wood Duck as food, 239. To cook.—See Duck. Woodland beds and bedding, 249. Wounds, ointment for, 255.

THE END

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