Cameos from English History, from Rollo to Edward II
by Charlotte Mary Yonge
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His army was unable to continue the pursuit, and in two days arrived at Durham, where the honest burghers had stored under outhouses all the wagons that had been left behind in the advance thirty-two days before, each with a little flag to show whose property it was. Tidings being brought that the Scots had gone to their own country, Edward turned his face southward, and, by the time he reached York, had had the mortification of losing all his horses, from the privations the poor creatures had undergone; while the discontent of his subjects found vent in ascribing all the misfortunes to Roger Mortimer's treachery—an additional crime of which he may fairly be acquitted. Edward continued at York all that autumn, apparently keeping aloof from his mother's court; or else it was her object to prevent him from perceiving the guilty counsels that there prevailed, and which resulted in the murder of his father. To York Sir John of Hainault fetched the young bride, his niece Philippa, and the marriage took place in the cathedral on St. Paul's Day, 1328, the two young people being then sixteen and fifteen years of age. Meantime, Robert Bruce, partially recovering, laid siege to Norham, and in the exhausted state of England it was decided to offer him peace, fully acknowledging his right to the throne, yielding up the regalia and the royal stone of Scotland, and uniting his son David with the little Princess Joan.

The nation were exceedingly angry at the peace, necessary as it was, and charged the disgrace upon Mortimer. They rose in tumult, and prevented the coronation-stone from being taken away, and they called the marriage a base alliance. Even Edward himself refused to be present with his young wife at the marriage of his little sister, which was to take place at Berwick. His mother tried to induce him to come, by arranging a joust; she had six spears painted splendidly for his use, others for his companions, and three hundred and sixty more for other English gentlemen; but he was resolved to keep his Philippa aloof from the company of Mortimer and his mother, and remained with her at Woodstock, notwithstanding all temptations to display.

Bruce was too ill to go to Berwick, but gave his son, then five years old, into the charge of Douglas and Randolph. The little bride, called by the Scots Joan Makepeace, was conducted by her mother and Mortimer with the most brilliant pomp.

Mortimer's display and presumption outdid even poor Piers Gaveston: he had one hundred and eighty knights in his own train alone, and their dress was so fantastically gay that the Scots jested on them, and made rhymes long current in the North:

"Longbeards, heartless, Gay coats, graceless, Painted hoods, witless, Maketh England thriftless."

Queen Isabel herself was wont to wear such a tower on her head, that doorways had to be altered to enable her to pass under them; and her expenses were so great, that no revenue was left to maintain her young daughter-in-law Philippa.

Henry, sometimes called Wryneck, Earl of Derby, brother of the rebel Thomas of Lancaster, and Thomas and Edmund, Earls of Norfolk and Kent, the youngest sons of Edward I., had begun bitterly to repent of having been deceived by this wicked woman. Even Adam Orleton had quarrelled with her for attempting to exact a monstrous bribe for making him Bishop of Winchester; but Mortimer was determined to keep up his power by violence. At a parliament at Salisbury, where the young King and Queen were presiding, he broke in with his armed followers, and carried them off in a sort of captivity to Winchester. The three Earls took up arms, but the Earls of Kent and Norfolk, who seem to have had their full share of the family folly, deserted Lancaster, and he was forced to make peace, after paying an immense fine.

Still Isabel and Mortimer felt their insecurity, or else they had such an appetite for treachery and murder, that they were driven on to commit further crimes. A report was set about that Edward of Caernarvon was still living in Corfe Castle, and one of his actual murderers, Maltravers, offered the unfortunate Edmund of Kent to convey letters from him to his brother; nay, it was arranged, for his further deception, that he should peep into a dungeon and behold at a distance a captive, who had sufficient resemblance to the late King to be mistaken for him in the gloom. Letters were written by the Earl and his wife to the imaginary prisoner, and entrusted to Maltravers, who carried them at once to Queen Isabel. A sufficient body of evidence having thus been procured for her purposes, the unfortunate Edmund was arraigned before the parliament at Winchester, when he confessed that the letters had been written by himself; and, further, that a preaching friar had conjured up a spirit on whose authority he believed his brother to be alive. He was found guilty of treason, and sentenced to death by persons who expected that his rank would save him; but the She-wolf of France was resolved on having his blood, and decreed that he should die the next day. Such was the horror at the sentence, that the headsman stole secretly away from Winchester to avoid performing his office, and for four long hours of the 13th of March, 1329, did Earl Edmund Plantagenet stand on the scaffold above the castle gate, waiting till some one could be found to put him to death, in the name of his own nephew and by the will of his mother's niece. He was only twenty-eight, and had four little children; and, in those dreary hours, what must not have been his hopes that the young Edward would awaken to a sense of the wickedness that was being perpetrated, so abhorrent to his warm and generous nature! But hopes were vain. Queen Isabel "kept her son so beset" all day, that no word could be spoken to him respecting his uncle, and at length a felon was sought out, who, as the price of his own pardon, dealt the death-stroke to the son of the great Edward.

After this act of intimidation, Mortimer's insolence went still farther, and England was fully sensible that the minion now reigning united all the faults of the former ones—the extravagance and rapacity of Gaveston, and the pride and violence of the Despensers; and as if to bring upon himself their very fate, he caused himself to be appointed Warden of the Marches of Wales, and helped himself to manor after manor of the Despenser property. His name and lineage were Welsh, and in memory of King Arthur he held tournaments which he called Round Tables, and made this display so frequent, that his own son Geoffrey became ashamed of them, and called him the King of Folly.

Meantime, the modest and innocent young court at Woodstock was made happy by the birth of the heir to the crown—a babe of such promise and beauty that even grave chroniclers pause to record his noble aspect, and the motherly fondness of the youthful Philippa, then only seventeen. Again Queen Isabel was obliged to trust her son out of the hands of herself and her minions. Her last brother, King Charles IV., was dead, leaving only daughters; and though she fancied the claim of her son Edward to the French crown to be nearer than that of Philippe, Count of Valois, the son of her father's brother, it was not convenient to press the assumption, and it was therefore resolved that young Edward should go to Amiens to perform his homage to Philippe. He was only fifteen days absent from England, and duly swore fealty to Philippe; the one robed in blue velvet and golden lilies, the other in crimson velvet worked with the English lions; but the pageant was a worthless ceremony, and the journey was chiefly important as bringing him to a full sense of the esteem in which his mother was held at home and abroad. Edward was nearly nineteen, and was resolved that he and his country should be held in unworthy bondage no longer. He confided his plans to Sir William Montacute, and they agreed to bring about the downfall of Mortimer at the next parliament, which was summoned to meet at Nottingham.

So suspicious were the Queen and her favorite, that they always travelled with a strong guard, and, on entering Nottingham Castle, the locks on all the gates were changed, and the keys were every night brought to the Queen, who hid them under her pillow. Edward himself was admitted, but with only four attendants; and the Earls of Lancaster and Hereford were not even allowed to lodge their followers in the town, but with insolent words were quartered a mile off, to their own great discontent and that of the country-folk.

Montacute meanwhile held counsel with Sir Robert Eland, the governor of the castle, who told him that far without the walls lay a cave, whence a subterraneous gallery led into the keep of Nottingham Castle. It was believed to have been made for a means of escape in the days of Danish inroads, and it was still practicable to lead a body of men through it. Montacute undertook the enterprise on the 19th of October, 1330. Whether the King crept through the passage, or only joined Montacute after he emerged on the stairs, is not certain; but together, and with a troop of armed men behind them, they broke into the room where Mortimer was consulting with the Earl of Lincoln, and seized upon his person. The Queen, nearly undressed, hurried out of the next room, and Edward stood behind the door, that she might not see him; but she guessed that he was present, and cried out piteously, "Fair son, have pity on gentle Mortimer!" Her cries were unheeded, and Mortimer was, in the early morning, sent off to the Tower of London, while all Nottingham rang with shouts of joy.

Edward broke up the parliament, and summoned a new one to meet at Westminster, where he called Mortimer to account for a tissue of such horrible crimes that one alone would have secured his condemnation. The Peers were asked what his sentence should be, and they all answered that he ought to die like his victim, Hugh le Despenser, who had not had a moment to speak in his own defence. Perhaps Edward dreaded to hear his mother's crimes disclosed, for he forbade the confession to be made known of two of the accomplices in his father's murder, and caused Mortimer to die a traitor's death at once at Tyburn—the inaugurating execution at that melancholy spot. This hasty sentence stood Mortimer's family in good stead; for, as there was no sentence of attainder, they continued to hold the earldom of March. Edward little thought that the grandson of his father's murderer would become the heir to his own throne.

The Pope wrote to Edward to intercede with him for his mother, but the exhortation was hardly needed, for he showed the most delicate and filial respect throughout for her name, and what truth and necessity compelled him to declare against her, he charged on the evil influence of Mortimer. Her grief and despair threw her into an absolute fit of madness at the time of Mortimer's execution, and she continued subject to fits of distraction for many years after. She was shut up in Risings Castle, and respectfully attended upon by a sufficient train; her son visited her from time to time, but she never saw any others of her family; and when, after twenty-eight years, she died, she chose to be buried in the church of the Gray Friars, at Newgate, where lay the remains of Mortimer.

While these events were taking place in England, one of the great spirits of the time was passing away at Cardross, in Scotland. Robert the Bruce lay on his death-bed, and, calling for his nobles, bade them swear fealty to his infant son, and appointed Randolph, Earl of Moray, as regent for the child; for Sir James Douglas he reserved a yet dearer, closer charge. Long ago, as he lay on his bed at Rachrin, had he vowed to go on pilgrimage to Jerusalem; but before he had given rest to his country, the deadly sickness had seized on him which was cutting him off in his fifty-fifth year. He therefore entreated that Douglas would carry his heart, to fulfil his vow, instead of himself, and that, making his way to Jerusalem, he would lay it finally in the Holy Sepulchre.

Weeping so that he could hardly speak, Sir James thanked his master for the inestimable honor, and vowed, on his faith as a knight, to do his bidding. Robert likewise gave his nobles a set of counsels for the defence of his kingdom, showing how truly he estimated its resources and method of warfare; for it is said that no reverse ever afterward befell the Scots but by their disregard of what they called "Good King Robert's Testament"—precepts he had obeyed all his life, and which stood nearly thus in old Scottish:

"On foot should be all Scottish war, By hill and moss themselves to ware; Let woods for walls be; bow and spear And battle-axe their fighting gear: That enemies do them na dreir, In strait places gar keep all store, And burn the plain land them before: Then shall they pass away in haste, When that they find nothing but waste; With wiles and wakening of the night. And mickle noise made on height; Then shall they turn with great affray, As they were chased with sword away. This is the counsel and intent Of Good King Robert's Testament."

With these fierce, though sagacious counsels, the hero of Scotland died on the 7th of June, 1329. He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, after his heart had been extracted and embalmed according to his command; but the dissolution of the convents made sad havoc among the royal tombs of Scotland, and two churches had risen and fallen above his marble tomb before it was discovered among the ruins in 1819, and his remains were found in a winding-sheet of cloth of gold, and the breastbone sawn through. Multitudes were admitted to gaze on them, and there were many tears shed, for, in the simple and beautiful words of Scott, "There was the wasted skull which once was the head that thought so wisely and boldly for his country's deliverance; and there was the dry bone which had once been the sturdy arm that killed Sir Henry de Bohun between the two armies at a single blow, the evening before the battle of Bannockburn."

The Bruce's heart was enclosed in a silver case, and hung round the neck of Douglas, who sailed at once on his pilgrimage, taking with him a retinue befitting the royal treasure that he bore. But on his way he landed in Spain, and esteeming that any war with any Saracen was agreeable to his vow, he offered his aid to King Alfonso, of Castile. But he was ignorant of the Moorish mode of fighting, and, riding too far in advance with his little band, was inclosed and cut off by the wheeling horsemen of the Moors. Still he might have escaped, had he not turned to rescue Sir William St. Clair, of Roslyn; but in doing this he was so entangled, that he saw no escape, and taking from his neck his precious charge, he threw it before him, shouting aloud, "Pass onward as thou wert wont! I follow, or die!" He followed, and died. His corpse was found on the battle-field lying over the heart of Bruce, and his friends, lifting up the body, bore it back again to his own little church of St. Bride of Douglas, where it lies interred; while the crowned and bleeding heart shines emblazoned on the shield of the great Douglas line, a memorial of the time and hearty love that knit together, through adversity and prosperity, the good King Robert and the good Lord James. The heart itself was given into the charge of Sir Simon Locard, of Lee, already the keeper of the curious talisman called the Lee Penny, brought by Earl David of Huntingdon from the East; but he did not deem it needful to carry his burthen to Jerusalem, and it was buried beneath the altar at Melrose Abbey, Sir Simon changed his name to Lockhart, and bore on his shield a heart with a fetterlock, on his crest a hand with a key, and for his motto, "Corda serrata pando."

Here, then, we close the first series of Cameos, during which we have seen the Norman conquerors gradually become English, and the kingdom take somewhat of its present form. In another volume we hope to show the long wars of the Middle Ages.


Acre, the siege of, Prince Edward there, its final conquest by the Saracens, Adela, William the Conqueror's daughter, married to Stephen of Blois, Adrian IV., Pope, Nicholas Brakespeare, an Englishman, his grant of Ireland to Henry II., Aelred, Abbot of Rivaux, his visit to King David of Scotland, death, Agatha, wife of Edward the Etheling, Alain Fergeant, married to William the Conqueror's daughter Constance, Alberic, friend of Robert Courtheuse, Albigenses, the war against, led by Simon de Montfort, Aldred, Archbishop of York, consecrates Bishop Wulstan, dies of grief, Alexander III., Pope, his support of Becket, Alexander III., of Scotland, at the coronation of Edward I., his character, his shocking death, troubles in Scotland after this, Alexis Comnenus, Greek Emperor, his conduct to the crusaders, Alfonso I. of Castile, William the Conqueror's daughter Matilda promised to, Alfred, Archbishop of York, crowns Harold king of England, Alfred Atheling, son of Ethelred the Unready, his expedition against Harold Harefoot, his murder, Alftrude, tradition of Hereward's love for, Algar, son of Earl Leofric, Alice of France, Richard Coeur de Lion bethrothed to, disputes about this, Alice of Louvain, second wife of Henry I. married secondly to William de Albini, Almayne, Henry of, son of Richard king of the Romans, joins the last crusade, his murder by the De Montforts, punishment of his murderers, Anjou, history of the Counts of, loss of, by the English to Philippe Auguste, Anjou, Charles, Comte d', joins the crusade of Louis IX, seizes the crown of the Two Sicilies, his conduct in the last crusade, at the death of Louis IX., Prince Edward's reply to him, Anselm, Archbishop: Bishop Wulstan assists at his consecration, his birth and parentage, enters the Abbey of Bec, the Archbishopric of Canterbury forced upon him, his collision with William Rufus, banished for life, returns on the death of Rufus, disputes with Henry I., again banished, his return, death and character, Ansgard, Alderman, his conference with William the Conqueror, Antioch, siege of, in the first crusade, Apulia, the Normans in, Aquitaine, acquired by Henry II's marriage with Eleanor, account of the duchy of, Arnulf, Count of Flanders, the foe of William Longsword, makes war against Richard the Fearless, Richard's generosity to him, Arques, Count d', his conspiracy against William the Conqueror, Arthur, King: history of his round table at Winchester, Arthur of Brittany, the joy at his birth, Richard I. acknowledges him heir, his residence at the court of Philippe Auguste, at the siege of Mirabeau, taken prisoner by King John, the parley between them, John's attempted cruelty, his murder by John, avenged by Philippe Auguste, Artois, Robert, Comte d', joins the crusade of Louis IX., insults Longespee, his impetuous character, killed at Mansourah, Ascalon, the crusaders at, Atheling, vide Etheling. Augustine, his dispute with the Welsh Church, Auvergne, Guy of, his cruel treatment and death, Avignon, the papal court removed to, Ayr, story of the barns of,

Bacon, Roger, account of, Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin, Count of Flanders, William the Conqueror's overtures to, Baldwin I. king of Jerusalem, Baldwin II. king of Jerusalem, Balliol, John, lays claim to the crown of Scotland, declared king, treated as a vassal by Edward I., humiliation of, and subsequent career, Bangor, slaughter of the monks of, Bannockburn, battle of, its results, Bards, the, account of, Barons, the, assembly of, to adopt the charter, their revolt, their meeting with King John at Runnymede, their war with King John, offer the crown to Louis the Lion, their demands at the Parliament of Westminster, the meeting of, in the Mad Parliament, their dispute with Henry III. referred to Louis IX., refuse Louis IX.'s decision, their war with the king, their discontent with Montfort, their proceedings against Gaveston, against the Despensers, Batalha in Portugal, account of the Abbey of, Battle Abbey, history of, the roll of, unsatisfactory compared with Domesday Book, Bayeux tapestry, description of the, Bec, Lanfranc abbot of, Anselm there, Beck, Anthony, Bishop of Durham, Edward I.'s envoy to Balliol, Edward I.'s message to, Becket, Gilbert a, legend of, Becket, Thomas a, birth of, his character and splendor, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, his humility, his quarrel with Henry II. on the privileges of the clergy, his reluctant consent to the Constitutions of Clarendon, the King's sentence against him, his acts at the Council of Northampton, his flight to the Continent, supported by the Pope, &c., retires to Pontigny, conference with King Henry II. at Montmirail, at Montmartre, the King's submission, his return to Canterbury, events of his martyrdom, fate of his murderers, his canonization, general honor paid to him, pilgrimages to his shrine, its spoliation by Henry VIII, summary of his character, Benefit of clergy, meaning of, Berengaria, Richard I.'s attachment to, their marriage, her death, Bernard, Count of Harcourt, the friend of William Longsword, his support of Richard the Fearless, Bertrade, marries Foulques IV. of Anjou, leaves him for Philippe I., Bertram de Born, the troubadour, laments Queen Eleanor's imprisonment, affronted by Richard I., his interview with Henry II., his laments for Richard I., his death, Dante's mention of him in the "Inferno," Berwick, Edward I.'s cruelty at, Bigod, Roger, Earl of Norfolk, his answers to Henry III., his opposition to the exactions of Edward I., Binning, his capture at Linlithgow, Bishops, dispute between King and Pope respecting the election of, Blanche of Castile, her marriage to Louis the Lion, death of, Blondel, discovers Richard I. in captivity, Blondeville, Ranulf de, his marriage to Constance of Brittany, Boemond, joins the first crusade, his conduct at the siege of Antioch, Bohun, Humphrey, Earl of Hereford, his opposition to Edward I., his success and high character, Bohun, Sir H., his encounter with King Robert Bruce, Boniface VIII., Pope, opposes Edward I.'s exactions on the clergy, death of, Border warfare with the Scots, Bosham, Herbert de, the friend of Archbishop Becket, Brand, Abbot of Peterborough, confers knighthood on Hereward, Braose, William de, King John's cruelties to, Bretons, their joy at the birth of Prince Arthur, their enmity to Richard I., Brien Boru, King of Ireland, Brihtric Meau, Queen Matilda's love for, her vengeance on his disdain, Brito, William, murderer of Becket, his armorial bearings, Britons, the, after the departure of the Romans, Bruce, the line of, history of, troubles of Scotland under, Bruce, Edward, besieges Stirling Castle, commands a division at Bannockburn, his invasion of Ireland, death, Bruce, Robert, lays claim to the crown of Scotland, Bruce, Robert, the younger, joins Wallace, lives in allegiance to Edward I., Bruce, Robert III., vacillation of his early conduct, his murder of the Red Comyn; revolts against Edward I.; coronation at Scone; his excommunication; his disaster at Methven; wanderings, and adventures; escape from the Lorns; defeats Aymer de Valence; his progress in the recovery of Scotland; his preparations to meet Edward II.; encounter with Sir Henry Bohun; his victory at Bannockburn; his invasion of Ireland; inroads upon England; recognised by the Pope; his right to the throne acknowledged by England; his dying injunctions and death; fate of his heart. Bruce, William, resigns the charge of Prince Arthur. Bungay, Friar, the associate of Friar Bacon. Burgh, Hubert de, governor of Prince Arthur; taken prisoner by the French; his defence of Dover; defeats the French fleet; his care of the minority of Henry III.; machinations against him; his imprisonment and escape; subsequent history. Burnel, Robert, Bishop, Edward I.'s chancellor. Bury St. Edmund's, assembly of the Barons at.

Cadwallader, the last of the Pendragons. Caen, the two abbeys founded at, by William the Conqueror and Matilda; Abbaye aux Dames at, William the Conqueror's eldest daughter becomes Abbess of; William the Conqueror buried at. Camp of refuge established in the Isle of Ely; the principal fugitives there; attacks on, by William the Conqueror; betrayed by the monks of Ely; cruelty to the captives taken there. Canterbury and York, jealousy between. Canterbury Cathedral, murder of Becket at; Henry II. does penance in; Becket's shrine at. Capet, Hugh, succeeds to the throne of France; supported by Richard the Fearless; importance of his recognition. Cardinals, the, choice of the Pope vested in. Carthage, Louis IX.'s camp at; his sickness and death there. Cecily, William the Conqueror's eldest daughter, becomes Abbess of Caen. Chalons, Count de, his treachery to Edward I. Charlemagne, receives the crown of the Holy Roman Empire; degeneracy of his descendants; overcome by the Northmen; the race of, retire to Lorraine. Charles Martel, exploits of. Charles the Simple, King of France; his contests with Rollo; cedes Neustria to him; Rollo marries his daughter. Charles IV., his conduct in Queen Isabel's quarrel with Edward II. Charter, the Great, adopted by the Barons; King John promises to grant it; his prevarication; its enactments; signed by John; annulled by Pope Innocent III.; the war of the Barons to obtain it; Henry III. made to agree to it; end of the wars about it; its acceptance by Henry III.; renewal of, by the Barons, under Edward I. Chateau Gaillard, the siege of. Christina, daughter of Edward Etheling; retires to a convent; becomes Abbess of Wilton. Christianity, conversion of the early French kings to; acceptance of, by the Vikings. Church and State, struggles between, in the eleventh century; theory of; adjustment of the disputes between; further disputes. Church building in the early Norman days. Church patronage, quarrel of the Barons with Innocent IV. respecting. Clapham, derivation of its name. Clare, Gilbert de, Earl of Gloucester, knighted by Montfort; secedes from the Barons; joins the last crusade; married to Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I.; death of. Clarendon, the Council and Constitutions of. Clement V., Pope, character of; excommunicates Bruce; gives absolution to Gaveston; elected Pope by the influence of Philippe IV.; gives up the Knights Templars to him; abolishes the Templars; his death. Clergy, the privileges of, Henry II.'s opposition to; Becket's support of. Clermont, council of, Peter the Hermit at. Coinage, the, Edward I.'s laws upon. Comyn, Earl of Durham, murder of, by the townsmen. Comyn the Red, his treachery to Robert Bruce; murdered by Bruce. Conge d'elire, origin of. Conrad, King of Burgundy, makes war upon Richard the Fearless. Conrade of Montferrat, his enmity to Richard I.; made King of Jerusalem; his assassination. Constance, daughter of William the Conqueror, account of. Constance of Brittany, her marriage with Geoffrey Plantagenet; has the care of Prince Arthur; her second marriage; is seized and imprisoned; her death. Constantinople, Robert the Magnificent at, Harold Hardrada's adventures there, Cordova, Emir of, King John's embassy to, Cressingham, Hugh, chancellor to Edward I., his expedition against Wallace, killed at the battle of Stirling, Crusades, the, remarks upon, the first led by Peter the Hermit, its disastrous end, followed by Godfrey de Bouillon and others, account of, the third account of, the last history of, the great abuse of them, Curfew bell, origin of, Cymry, the, original tribe of the Kelts, Cyprus, conquest of, by Richard Coeur de Lion, Damietta, the crusaders at, Danish conquest of England, effects of, David, Earl of Huntingdon, joins the third crusade, his adventures on his return home, David I. King of Scotland, a visitor of Henry I., swears fealty to Maude, his character, invades England in favor of Maude, defeated at the battle of the Standard, his sorrows and death, De Courcy, Sir John, made governor of Ireland, his government there, made Earl of Ulster, treachery against him, his imprisonment, undertakes the championship of England, privilege granted to him and his descendants, Despensers, the, favorites of Edward II., the Barons procure their banishment, their return, the King's bounty to them, their capture and execution, Des Roches, Guillaume, King John's promise to, respecting Prince Arthur, his remorse at the King's treachery, Des Roches, Peter, Bishop of Winchester, refuses to acknowledge the interdict, justiciary under Henry III., his intrigue against Hubert de Burgh, causes the death of the Earl of Pembroke, his dismissal and death, Divine service, decrees for, at the Synod of Mertoun, Domesday book, account of, Donald Bane seizes the crown of Scotland, Douglas Castle, contests in its recovery and defence, Douglas, Sir James, his first meeting with Bruce, 391; his constant adherence, recovers his castle from the English, his capture of Roxburgh Castle, chivalrous conduct to Randolph, his exploits on the Border, Bruce's dying injunction to, carries Bruce's heart to Spain, his death there, Dover besieged by Louis the Lion, the siege raised, battle of, Dublin University, foundation of, Dunbar, battle of,

Earl, derivation of title of, from the Danes, Edgar Atheling, son of Edward the Stranger, William the Conqueror's friendship for, account of him, proclaimed King of England, William the Conqueror's conduct to, efforts of Malcolm III. in his favor, renounces his claim to the crown of England, his subsequent career, his death and character, Edgar of Scotland restored to the throne, Edinburgh Castle captured from the English, Edith, wife of Edward the Confessor, character of, Edith of the Swan neck finds the body of Harold, Edith, daughter of Margaret of Scotland, marries Henry I., changes her name to Matilda or Maude, See Maude. Ediva, mother of Hereward, Edmund Ironside, his two sons, Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred the Unready, his gentle nurture in Normandy, comes to his brother's court in England, his character, &c., why called the Confessor, instance of his gentleness, his Norman propensities, visited by Duke William of Normandy, founds Westminster Abbey, death and burial there, his desire to leave his crown to William of Normandy, conversation with Harold on his death-bed, William the Conqueror's friendship for, Henry III.'s devotion to, translation of his remains, Edward I., his marriage to Eleanor of Castile, his character, his conduct in taking the oath to the acts of Oxford, his robbery of the Templars, conduct at the siege of Northampton and the battle of Lees, delivers himself up to the Barons, his escape from Herford, rescues his father at the battle of Evesham, joins Louis IX. in the last Crusade, his embarkation, arrives at Acre, attempted assassination there, returns to England, his tomb in Westminster Abbey, Coronation of, his treatment of the Jews his laws, parliaments, prosperity of the kingdom in the early part of his reign, respect shown him on the continent, account of his daughters, deterioration of his character in his later years, death of his Queen Eleanor; claims to be Lord paramount of Scotland; the claim acknowledged; invades Scotland; deposes Balliol and gets himself acknowledged King; his rage against Wallace; wins the battle of Falkirk; cruelty to Wallace; duped by Philippe IV.; is distressed for funds; seizure of ecclesiastical property; imposes the "evil toll,"; marriage with Margaret of France; grants the right of taxation to his subjects; his vengeance on Abp. Winchelsea; rage at Bruce's revolt; his vow against the Scots; arrives at Carlisle; cruelty to Bruce's brothers; his last injunctions and death; his dread of Gaveston's influence over his son. Edward II., appointed regent in his father's absence; ceremony of his knighthood; his appearance and character; influence of friends over him; his inordinate attachment to Piers Gaveston; neglects his father's injunctions respecting Scotland; his marriage to Isabel of France; the nobles demand Gaveston's dismissal; his coronation; disputes with his nobles respecting Gaveston; his expedition against Bruce; his defeat at Bannockburn; his attachment to the Despensers; discontent of his subjects; his queen's complaints against him; her invasion of England; his wanderings and capture; deposition; captivity and ill-treatment; his murder in Berkeley Castle; his monument in Gloucester Cathedral. Edward III., his march to the Border; account of his warfare there; his narrow escape from Douglas; causes Mortimer's arrest and execution; his respectful conduct to Queen Isabel. Edward the Atheling, his infant son Edgar; his daughters; Edward, son of Edmund Ironside; his marriage; owned as Etheling. Edwin, grandson of Earl Leofric; enemy of Harold; submits to the conqueror; and is betrothed to his daughter Matilda; joins the Camp of Refuge; is killed in combat. Eghelemar, Bp. of Elmham. Eghelsie, Bp. of Selsey. Eghelwin. Bp. of Durham, joins the Camp of Refuge; dies in captivity. Egypt, crusade in, under William Longespee the Elder; under Louis IX.. Eleanor of Aquitaine, married to Henry II.; evils resulting from this; not the murderess of Fair Rosamond; kept in captivity by her husband; her dislike to Constance of Brittany; beseiged at Mirabeau by Prince Arthur; intercedes for Prince Arthur; dies of grief at Fontevraud. Eleanor of Castille, married to Edward I.; accompanies him to the Holy Land; sucks the poison from his wounds; her death; the crosses erected to her memory. Eleanor of Provence, married to Henry III.; vituperative ballads made on her; her unpopularity; her spirited conduct in the Barons' war. Elgiva, William the Conqueror's daughter, representation of, in the Bayeaux tapestry. Ely, Isle of, the Camp of Refuge established there. Emma, daughter of the Count of Paris, betrothed to Richard the Fearless. Emma, daughter of Richard the Fearless, wife of Ethelred the Unready and Knut; invites her sons to claim the throne of England. Emperors of the West, their influence on the election of Popes; deprived of this by the Lateran Council; their struggle to regain it. England, effects of the Danish conquest upon; sad state of, under William Rufus; granted to France by Pope Innocent III.; a fief of Rome; the laws of, adhered to by the Norman kings; ignored by Henry II., prosperity of, in the early part of Edward the First's reign; increase of learning in; discontented state of, under Edward II.. Ermengarde, mother of St. Anselm. Espriota, wife of William Longsword. Estates, inquisition into, by Edward I.. Etheling, account of the family of; meaning of the term. Ethelred the Unready, husband of Emma, daughter of Richard the Fearless; father of Edward the Confessor. Eustace, Count de Mantes, events of his visit to Edward the Confessor. Eustace de Blois, son of Stephen; his excesses and death. Evesham, battle of. Evil Toll, the, imposed by Edward I.; opposition to, by the barons; results in the right of self-taxation. Exchequer, supposed derivation of. Eystein, son of Magnus, King of Norway; his discussion with his brother Sigurd; his conduct as King of Norway.

Fair Rosamond, history of. Falaise, William the Conqueror born at; Prince Arthur in captivity there. Falkirk, battle of. Fescamp, Abbey of, Richard the Fearless buried there. Fitzadhelm, William, Governor of Ireland. Fitzosborn, William, the chief friend of William the Conqueror; his counsel to William on Harold's usurpation; his charge at Hastings. —— Roger, imprisoned by William the Conqueror. Fitzpiers, Geoffrey, Grand Justiciary under King John. Fitz-Richard, Gilbert, his noble conduct. Fitzurse, Reginald, murderer of Becket; his arms. Fitzwalter, Lord, King John's outrage upon; the Barons make him their general. Flambard, Ralph; made Bp. of Durham by William Rufus; his subsequent career. Flemings, the, settlement of, in Pembrokeshire. Folliott, Gilbert, Bp. of London, his disappointment at Becket's promotion; supports the king against Becket; the pope's reproof to him; his excommunication. Fontevraud, the burial-place of Henry II.; of Richard I. and Joan of Sicily; of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Forest laws, the grievance of, under William the Conqueror; their severity increased by William Rufus; mitigated by Magna Charta. Foulques I., le Roux, Count of Anjou. Foulques II., le Bon, Count of Anjou. Foulques III., Ferra, Count of Anjou; his violent crimes and penances. Foulques IV., le Rechin, Count of Anjou; events of his marriage with Bertrade. Foulques V., Count of Anjou; joins the crusade; becomes King of Jerusalem. Franks, the conversion of their early kings to Christianity. France, the Northmen in; becomes a kingdom. Franco, Abp., intercedes with the Northmen for Rouen; his influence over Rollo. Frederick II., struggle between, and Pope Innocent IV.; deposed by Council of Lyons. Frithric, Abbot of St. Alban's, his opposition to William the Conqueror; joins the Camp of Refuge, and dies there.

Gael, the, a Keltic tribe. Gascony, seized by Philippe IV. Gastinois, countess de, accused of murdering her husband; vindicated by Ingelger. Gattorm, brother of St. Olaf, story of his childhood. Gaveston, Piers, account of; Edward of Caernarvon's attachment to; banished by Edward I.; returns on the accession of Edward II.; his vanity and advancement; his affronts to the nobles; they demand his dismissal; the king obliged to banish him; his recall; union of nobles against him; his surrender; his mock trial and death. Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, his war and personal combat with Duke William. Geoffrey, Grisegonelle, Count of Anjou; legend of his name. Geoffrey Martel, Count of Anjou. Geoffrey, son of Foulques V., Count of Anjou. Geoffrey of Anjou, his appearance and character; married to Empress Maude; origin of his surname Plantagenet; death. Geoffrey le Barbu, Count of Touraine. Geoffrey, third son of Henry II., married to Constance of Brittany; rebels against his father; his death. Geoffrey of Lincoln, son of Fair Rosamond, his fidelity to his father; becomes Abp. of York and Chancellor; driven abroad by King John, and dies there. Geoffroi de la Tour and the lion. Gerbervi, Robert Courtheuse besieged by his father there. Germain, St., effect of his preaching in Wales. Gifford, Walter, Count of Longueville, besieges Arques. Gillow, makes known to Duke William the conspiracy against him. Gisele, the wife of Rollo. Gisors, the elm of, conferences under; description of. Glanville, Ranulf de, Chancellor and Grand Justiciary to Henry II. Godfrey de Bouillon, his noble character; conduct of, at the siege of Antioch; at Jerusalem; chosen King of Jerusalem; dies, and is buried there. Godiva, Lady, probably date of the tradition of. Godstow, Fair Rosamond retires to. Godwin, Earl of Wessex; traditions respecting his origin; his services to Knut; has Harold Harefoot crowned king; his treachery to Alfred Atheling; policy toward Edward the Confessor; characters of his sons; is driven into exile; his reconciliation to Edward; death and character. Goodwin sands, origin of. Gourdon, Adam de, the outlaw. Gourdon, Bertrand de, cause of death of Richard I. Goutran, his accusation against the Countess de Gastinois; overcome by Ingelger. Gray, John de, elected Abp. of Canterbury; his election declared null by the Pope, refuses to acknowledge the Interdict; his advice to King John. Gregory VII., Pope, his struggle with Henry IV. of Germany. Grosteste, Robert, Bp. of Lincoln, history of; his contest with the Pope for the rights of the Church; his death. Gryffyth, King of Wales. Gualo, the Pope's legate; takes charge of the minority of Henry III. Guerrin de Lire, abbot of Malmesbury. Guibert, the Antipope. Guimond of St. Leufroi, his noble rebuke of William the Conqueror. Gundred, doubts as to her being the daughter of William the Conqueror. Gundulf, Bp. of Rochester, his answer to William Rufus; supports Anselm against the King; warns Rufus against hunting in the New Forest. Guy of Burgundy, his conspiracy against William of Normandy. Guy of Flanders, treachery to, by Phillipe IV.; Edward I.'s alliance with; his death in prison. Gyda, wife of Earl Godwin. Gyrtha, his advice to his brother Harold; death at Hastings. Gytha, mother of Harold, her advice to her son.

Hainault, Sir John of, heads Queen Isabel's invasion of England; accompanies Edward III. to the Border; marriage of Edward III. to his niece. Hako, grandson of Earl Godwin, hostage to William of Normandy. Halfdan, brother of St. Olaf, story of his childhood. Haro, supposed origin of the cry. Harold Bluetooth, his support of Richard the Fearless. Harold Hardrada, Tostig seeks his alliance against Harold of England; stories of his childhood, succeeds to the crown of Norway; accepts Tostig's invitation to invade England; Killed at Stamford bridge. Harold Harefoot, crowned King of England. Harold Harfagre, King of Norway. Harold, son of Earl Godwin; his character; his popularity with the king and people; hopes to secure the crown, becomes prisoner to William of Normandy, his oath to assist him to the crown of England; conversation at the death-bed of Edward the Confessor, is crowned King of England, defeats Harold Hardrada at Stamford Bridge; marches south to oppose William of Normandy; his entrenchment at Heathfield; wounded in the battle of Hastings; his body found by Edith; his burial at Waltham, tradition of surviving the battle of Hastings, his proceedings with the Welsh. Harthaknut becomes King of England; revenges his brother's wrongs; sends for his brother Edward from Normandy; his sudden death. Hasting the Sea-king at Rouen; his exploits; his interview with Rolf, settlement in France. Helie de la Fleche, conduct to, of William Rufus; his claim to the county of Maine. Helie de St. Saen, friend of Robert Courtheuse. Henry I., Beauclerc, fourth son of William the Conqueror; his interview with his father on his death-bed; ill-treated by his brothers; secures the crown on the death of William Rufus; suspicion that he murdered Rufus; his disputes with Anselm; marries Edith of Scotland; Robert Courtheuse renounces his English rights in his favor, invades Normandy; his misery at the shipwreck of his son; his great abilities and learning; marries Alice of Louvain; declares his daughter Maude his successor, marries her to Geoffrey Plantagenet; remorse of his latter years; his death. Henry II., Fitz-Empress, birth of; his training by the Earl of Gloucester; accession to the throne; marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine; large dominions, activity and appearance; his opposition to the privileges of the clergy; quarrels with Becket on this subject, condemns Becket to forfeit his property; his proceedings at the Council of Northampton; conferences with Becket at Montmirail and Montmartre; complication of the quarrel; submits to Becket, his hasty imprecation against Becket; his grief at Becket's murder; conditions of his pardon, his penance at Becket's tomb; invades Ireland; the native princes submit to him; his crimes, his marriage the root of his misfortunes, his family; rebellion of his sons; arrogance of his son Henry; his conduct to his queen; conference with his sons at Limoges; excites his son Richard to rebellion, last interview with Phillippe Auguste, grief at the treachery of his son John, his miserable death and burial, his proceedings in Brittany respecting Prince Arthur, ignores the Old English laws. Henry III., coronation of, made to agree to Magna Charta, his guardians during his minority, his character, foreign favourites at his court, his extravagance, poverty and rapacity, his dispute with Simon de Montfort, swears to keep the Great Charter, his dispute with the Barons, referred to Louis IX., his position after the battle of Lewes, his death. Henry VIII., his spoliation of Becket's shrine. Henry I., of France, William of Normandy placed under his protection. Henry IV., of Germany, his struggle with Pope Gregory VII., appoints an antipope. Henry V., of Germany marries Matilda, daughter of Henry Beauclerc, strange stories about. Henry VI., of Germany, his conduct to Richard I.. Henry de Blois made Bp. of Winchester, besieged at Winchester by Maude, consecrates Becket Abp. of Canterbury, his generous support of Becket. Henry Plantagenet, eldest son of Henry II., his marriage with Margaret of France, coronation of, in his father's lifetime, rebels against his father, his arrogance to his father, dispute with his brother Richard, his unhappy death. Henry, son of David I. of Scotland, his character. Hereward le Wake, parentage of, attacks the Normans on his estate, establishes the Camp of Refuge, his prowess and courage, his principal followers, attacked by William the Conqueror at the Camp of Refuge, his exploits there, makes peace with William, tradition of his love for Alftrude, his latter days and death, valued by William the Conqueror. Herluin, Count of Montreuil, the ally of William Longsword, suspected of causing his death, killed by the Danes. Herve de Montmarais, his proceedings in Ireland. Hilary, Bp. of Chichester, supports Henry II. against Becket, his ex-communication. Hilda, mother of Rolf Ganger. Hildebrand frees the Pope from the subjection of the Emperor. See Gregory VII. Hildegarde, wife of Foulques III., Count of Anjou. Holy Land, the position of the Christians there at the last Crusade, its colonization by the Latins unsuccessful. Holy Roman Empire, the, its foundation, Charlemagne the first Emperor, its extent, France falls away from it. Hospitallers and Templars, their jealousy of each other, valor of the Hospitallers at the fall of the Acre, their settlement at the Isle of Rhodes. Houghton, Lord, his poem on the fate of the Templars. Howell Dha, the Lawgiver of Wales. Hugh the White, Count of Paris, his daughter betrothed to Richard the Fearless. Hugh the Wolf, Earl of Chester, his friendship for Anselm, retires to a monastery, his conduct as a Lord Marcher.

Ingelger, the legend of, becomes first Count of Anjou. Ingulf of Croyland, his recollections of Queen Edith. Innocent III., Pope, nominates Stephen Langton Abp. of Canterbury, places England under an interdict, annuls Magna Charta, interferes against the crown of England being given to Louis the Lion, his death. Innocent IV., Pope, his exactions on England, contests with Frederick II., his exactions on the clergy, interference with the English Church, quarrel with the English Barons respecting Church patronage, Bp. Grosteste opposes his encroachments, his death. Inquisition into estates by Edward I.. Interdict, the, of England, by Pope Innocent III.. Ireland, depredations of the pirates in, the slave-trade with, stopped by Bps. Wulstan and Lanfranc, confusion of its early history, its conversion to Christianity, inroads of the Northmen, Pope Adrian IV. grants it to Henry II., invaded by Strong bow, submission of, to Henry II., regulations for the Church, granted to John Lackland as his inheritance, invasion of, by Edward and Robert Bruce. Isabelle of Angouleme engaged to Hugh de Lusignan, marries King John, her contempt for her husband, marries Hugh de Lusignan, her reputation for sorcery. Isabel of France, her marriage to Edward II., her complaints against Gaveston, report of her aiding the escape of the younger Mortimer, complains to the King of France of her treatment; goes to the French court; her affection for Mortimer; invades England; her successes against her husband; her conduct with Mortimer; cruelty to the Earl of Kent; her pleading for Mortimer; despair at his execution; her death. Italian clergy thrust into the English Church; hatred of the English to these. Ivo de Grantmesnil, friend of Robert Courtheuse. Ivo Taillebois, Lord of Spalding; his overbearing conduct; his expeditions against Hereward; taken prisoner by him; his outrages on Croyland Abbey; banished by William Rufus.

Jerusalem, Robert the Magnificent at; emotion of the first Crusaders at beholding it; the slaughter there, at its capture from the infidels; King Richard's grief at his inability to take it. Jews, the persecution of, under Henry III; their treatment by Edward I. Joan, sister of Richard I., Queen of Sicily, dispute with King Tancred about; takes charge of Berengaria; dies, and is buried with her brother. Joan of Acre, birth of; marriage of, to Gilbert de Clare; her second marriage to Ralph de Monthermer; character; her sudden death. John Lackland, Ireland given him as his inheritance; his unworthy conduct there; reason of his name; his father's affection for him; turns traitor to his father; his conduct respecting Richard's captivity; Richard's generous pardon to him; bequeaths him the crown; his marriage to Isabelle of Angouleme; his promises respecting Prince Arthur; imprisons him at Falaise; his parley with him there and attempted cruelty; murders Prince Arthur; summoned by Philippe Auguste to answer for this; his French fiefs declared forfeit; conquered from him by Philippe; his Queen's contempt for him; his dispute with the Pope about the election to the See of Canterbury; his reply to the threat of an interdict; excommunicated; deposed; his embassy to the Emir of Cordova; submission to the Pope; yields himself a vassal to Rome; his outrageous exactions; the Barons revolt against these; promises to grant the Great Charter; attempts to cajole the Barons; signs the Charter; his rage, and efforts to annul it; his war with the Barons; contest with Louis the Lion and the Barons; loss of his treasure at the Wash; his despair and death. Joinville, Sieur de, accompanies Louis IX. on his crusade; his bravery at Mansourah; is taken prisoner; opposes Louis's second crusade; his notices of Louis IX. Joppa, the Crusaders at. Judith, wife of Earl Waltheof; her perfidy to her husband. Jumieges, Abbey of, restored by William Longsword.

Kelts, the history of. Kent, Edmund, Earl of, Queen Isabel's treachery and cruelty to. Kent, the men of, their treaty with William the Conqueror. Kings lost in battle, legends of their survival. Kirkpatrick, his share in the murder of the Red Comyn. Knut, husband of Emma, daughter of Richard the Fearless; legends respecting his murder of Ulf.

Lacy, Hugo, made Governor of Ireland; his murder. Lacy, Hugo de (2d), made Governor of Ireland by King John; his treachery to De Courcy. Lancaster, Earl of, Gaveston's nickname for; unites with other nobles against Gaveston; his part in the downfall and death of Gaveston; his discontent toward Edward II; his proceeding against the Despensers; his arrest and execution; his character. Lanfranc, the first rise of; his reputation at Rome; becomes Abp. of Canterbury; his esteem for Wulstan; William the Conqueror's friendship for; commanded by William the Conqueror to crown Rufus King of England; favors the views of Gregory VII; his death. Langley, Walter, Bp. of Lichfield, reproves Edward of Caernarvon; his imprisonment. Langston, Simon, brother of the abp. Langton, Stephen, nominated by the Pope Abp. of Canterbury; refused by King John; acknowledged by John; takes possession of the see; forbids John's violence; his support of Magna Charta against the Pope; gets the Barons to adopt it; his mission to Rome on behalf of it and the Barons. Lateran Council, the, exactions of. Laws of England, adhered to by the Norman Kings; ignored by Henry II; their violation by King John; Edward I's code of. Lay investiture of bishops, disputes about their settlement, Leofric, Earl of Mercia, assists Edward the Confessor against Godwin, his death, Leofric, father of Hereward, . Leofwyn, his advice to his brother Harold, death at Hastings, Leopold of Austria at the siege of Acre, his banner insulted by Richard, his quarrel with Richard at Ascalon, seizes Richard on his return, Lewes, the battle of, its results, Lillebonne, the parliament at, Limoges, meeting of Henry II. and his sons at, Lincoln, the fair of, Linlithgow, the capture of, from the English, Lion, anecdote of its faithfulness, Lockhard, origin of the name of, London, becomes the Royal residence under the Danes, preserves its rights at the Norman Conquest, submits to William the Conqueror, Longchamp, William, Bp. of Ely, chancellor, arrogant character of, his disgrace, Longespee, William, son of Fair Rosamond, history of, his death, Longespee, William, the second son of the above, joins Richard Plantagenet's crusade, gets a grant from the Pope for it, joins the crusade of St. Louis, his advice to Robert d'Artois, killed at Mansourah, Lords Marchers of Wales, the, Lorn, John of, Bruce's combat with, his pursuit of Bruce, is captured and imprisoned, Lothaire, son of Louis IV., companion of Richard the Fearless, becomes hostage for his father, succeeds to the throne of France, his treachery to Richard the Fearless, Richard's victory over him, Louis l'eveille of France sheltered by Henry I., Louis IV. of France, carries off Richard the Fearless, declares war against the Normans, is taken prisoner, his death, Louis VI., le Jeune, why so named, Louis VII., divorced from Eleanor of Aquitaine, his support of Becket, turns against him at Montmirail, their reconciliation, his tributes to Becket's memory, excites Henry II.'s sons to rebellion. Louis IX., becomes King of France, takes the cross, his embarkation, arrival at Damietta, at the battle of Mansourah, his encampment there, taken captive by the Saracens, his conduct to the Memelukes, release and return, the dispute between Henry III. and his Barons referred to him, again takes the Cross, joined by Prince Edward of England, his expedition against Tunis, his expedition against Tunis, his disasters at Carthage, his sickness there, last hours and death, his character, Louis Philippe's chapel on this spot of his death, Louis the Lion, his marriage to Blanche of Castile, the crown of England offered to him, interference of the Pope against this, his invasion of England, the Barons' suspicious of him, his various contests, concludes a peace and returns home, 285. Lusignan, Guy de, King of Jerusalem, Lusignan, Hugh de, Count de la Marche, engaged to Isabelle of Angouleme, takes part with Prince Arthur, imprisoned by King John, marries Isabelle after John's death, Lusignan, de, legend of the house of, the family favored by Henry III., See Valence de. Lyons, council of, the English deputies at, deposes Frederick II.,

Macmorogh Dermod, King of Leinster, his outrage and reverses, gets assistance from Strongbow and others, Madoc, the story of, Mad Parliament, the, meeting of, at Oxford, its acts declared void by Louis IX., Magna Charta. See Charta. Magnus, King of Norway, gives his kingdom to Harold Hardrata, Mahometans, contract between the Saracenic and Turkish, Malachy, King of Meath, legends of, Malcolm III. of Scotland, his kindness to the Etheling family, his marriage to Margaret, his character and reverence for his wife, manner of his death, troubles in Scotland after this, Malek el Afdal, Saladin's brother, his courtesy to Richard I., Malek el Kamel, sultan, opposes the Egyptian Crusaders, his generosity, Mamelukes, the, revolt of, in St. Louis's crusade, Mansourah, contests at, in the first Egyptian crusade, battle of, in St. Louis's crusade, horrors of encampment there, Mantes, the insurrection at, William the Conqueror's fatal accident at, March of Wales, the, under the Normans, Margaret, daughter of Edward the Etheling; marries Malcolm III. of Scotland; her beneficial influence on Scotland and the Scottish Church; her death. Margaret, the infant Queen of Scotland, death of. Marguerite of Provence, Queen of France, character of; accompanies St. Louis on his crusade; her sad position at Damietta. Marguerite of France, her marriage to Edward I.; her character. Marlborough, the parliament of. Marmion of Fontenaye, William the Conqueror's champion at his coronation. Maine, loss of, by England to Philippe Auguste. Martin, abbot of Jumieges, his advice to William Longsword. Matilda of Anjou, married to William the Etheling; retires to a nunnery. Matilda of Boulogne, wife of Stephen of Blois. Matilda of Flanders, her marriage to William the Conqueror; founds the Abbaye aux Dames at Caen; her help toward the invasion of England; works the Bayeux tapestry; her coronation; character; her affection for Robert Courtheuse; her death; her husband's tender love for. Matilda of Huntingdon, married to David I. of Scotland. Matilda, daughter of William the Conqueror, betrothed to Edwin; her touching death. Matilda, daughter of Henry I., marries Henry V., of Germany. See Maude. Maude, the good queen, her support of Abp. Anselm; her character and death. Maude, or Matilda, daughter of Henry I.; married to Henry V., of Germany; Henry declares her his heir; married secondly to Geoffrey Plantagenet; her pride and haughtiness; deprived by Stephen of the English crown; her cause increases in strength; proclaimed queen; her disdainful manners; her reverses at Winchester; besieged by Stephen at Oxford; escapes over the snow; retires to Anjou. Maulac, Pierre de, aids in the murder of Prince Arthur; his further cruelties. Melisende, Princess of Jerusalem; marries Foulques V. of Anjou. Melusine of Lusignan, legend of. Mercia, earldom of. Mertoun, the Synod of. Messina, Richard Coeur de Lion at. Methven, battle of. Milesians, the, myths concerning. Mirabeau, siege of, by Prince Arthur. Mitton, the Chapter of, the combat so called. Molay, Jacques de, grand master of the Templars; his trial; his cruel treatment and death. Monteil, Adhemar de, Bp. of Puy, takes the Cross at the Council of Clermont. Montfort, Guy, lawless conduct of; murders Henry d'Almayne; his excommunication and subsequent fate. Montfort, Henry, lawless conduct of; his death at the battle of Evesham; ballad lore version of his fate. Montford, Simon, the elder, history of; his death. Montford, Simon, the younger, marries a sister of Henry III.; his popularity; the king's jealousy of him; his dispute with the king; his conduct in taking the oath to the Acts of Oxford; in the Barons' war; his behavior in prosperity; violence and lawlessness of his sons; his death at the battle of Evesham; his noble character; fate of his family. Montford, Simon (3d), his conduct at the siege of Northampton; his lawless conduct; sacks Winchester; his escape from Kenilworth; murders Henry D'Almayne. Montgomery, Roger, messenger of Duke William of Normandy. Monthermer, Ralph de, his marriage to Joan of Acre. Montmirail, conference between Henry II. and Becket at. Morkar, the grandson of Leofric; the enemy of Harold; submits to William the Conqueror; joins the Camp of Refuge; ends his life in captivity. Morogh O'Brien, King of Ireland; sends William Rufus oak for Westminster Hall. Mortimer, Roger, at the battle of Lewes; aids the escape of Prince Edward from Hereford. Mortimer, Roger, senior and junior, join the Barons against the Despensers; taken prisoners by Edward II.; sentenced to perpetual imprisonment; death of the elder in the Tower. Mortimer, Roger, the younger, his escape from the Tower; Queen Isabel's affection for him; anger of the nation at his display and presumption; his arrest at Nottingham; execution at Tyburn. Morville, Hugh, murderer of Becket; his armorial bearings.

Neustria, the district in France conquered by Rollo; ceded to him by the king; afterward termed Normandy. New Forest, formation of, by William the Conqueror; Richard, son of Robert Courtheuse, killed there; death of William Rufus in. Nicaea, Robert the Magnificent dies at; the crusading army at. Norham, conference at, respecting the Crown of Scotland. Norman Barons, their character at the accession of Duke William. Normandy, origin of its name; sad state of, under William Rufus; its troubles under Robert Courtheuse; invasion and conquest of, by Henry I.; lost to the English by John. Normans, the, character of; their exploits in Apulia; put in possession of English estates; beneficial effect of this on the English race; their opinion of Hereward; their rapacity in England; support the popes against the emperors. Northampton, council of, proceedings against Becket at; besieged by the Barons. Northmen, the, account of; their character as pirates; as settlers; gave the name to Normandy; change in their character; their inroads on Ireland. See Normans. Northumbria, the earldom of.

O'Connor, Roderick. King of Ireland; his opposition to the invaders. Odo, Bp. of Bayeux, joins William the Conqueror in his invasion of England; commands the reserve at Hastings; representation of him in the Bayeux tapestry; his disgrace and imprisonment; released by Robert Courtheuse; takes the Cross; blesses the unlawful marriage of Philippe I. Olaf, St., his prophecies of his young brothers; his death in battle. Olaf Scotkonung, King of Sweden, his charge of Edmund Ironside's children. Olaf Trygvesson in Ireland. Oraric of Meath, treachery of. Orleton, Adam, Bp. of Hereford, his enmity to Edward II.; his answer to Queen Isabel; his quarrel with her. Osborn, Counte De Breteuil, murder of. Osgood, Clapa, the Dane, gives the name to Clapham. Osmund de Centeville, his fidelity to Richard the Fearless. Otho, Emperor of Germany, makes war against Richard the Fearless. Otho, the Pope's legate, tumult against, at Oxford. Ottoboni, Cardinal, preaches the Crusade in France and England. Oxford, Mande besieged at, by Stephen; escapes from, over the snow; meeting of the Mad Parliament at; its acts declared void by Louis IX.

Pallium, the, Anselm's dispute with William Rufus about. Pandulfo, the Pope's legate, King John's submission to; takes charge of Henry III. in his minority. Parliament, the, of Westminster; the Mad, of Oxford; those under Edward I.; increase of its power through the right of self-taxation. Patriarch, the, of Rome, acknowledged by the conquering tribes. Paschall II., Pope, Anselm consults. Pelagian heresy, the, in Wales. Pembroke, Richard, Earl of, assassination of. Pembroke, William, Earl of, has Henry III. crowned; appointed his governor during his minority. Percy, legend of the origin of the name. Peter the Hermit, his appearance at the Council of Clermont; leads the first Crusade; defection of, at the siege of Antioch; sings mass at the Holy Sepulchre. Pevensey, landing of the Normans at. Philippa of Hainault, Edward III.'s first meeting with; her marriage to him. Philippe I. of France, refuses to aid William the Conqueror's invasion of England; aids Robert Courtheuse against his father; supports the insurrection at Mantes; his connection with Bertrade, wife of Foulques of Anjou. Philippe August, his birth and early character; his accession to the throne of France; agrees to join Richard Coeur de Lion in a crusade; his last meeting with Henry II.; sets out with Richard on the Crusade; his intended treachery; his jealousy of Richard; returns home; his conduct respecting Richard's captivity; conduct toward Prince Arthur; quarrel with King John; summons John to answer for the murder of Prince Arthur; invades his French fiefs; wins back Normandy, Anjou, &c., from the English; England granted to him by the Pope. Philippe III., his father's last advice to him; gives up the Crusade. Philippe IV., character of; his deceit to Edward I.; his treachery to the Count of Flanders; persecution of Boniface VIII.; causes the election of Clement V.; his proceedings against the Templars; his death. Plantagenet, Richard. See Richard. Poer, Roger le, chaplain to Henry I., Bp. of Salisbury. Poitiers, Alfonse, Count de, at the Crusade of St. Louis; left as a hostage. Pontigny, Becket retires to; driven from thence. Pope, the, rescued from the Lombards by Charlemagne; signification of the word; early power of; becomes head of the Western Church; atrocities attending the election of, the election of, transferred from the emperor to the cardinals; the struggle to regain this, Purkiss carries the body of William Rufus to Winchester; his descendants still living in the New Forest.

Ralph Flambard, Bishop of Durham, the friend of Rufus; incites Robert Courtheuse against Henry I. Randolf de Brock, enemy of Becket; assists his murderers. Randolph, Thomas, his reply to Robert Bruce; gives him his allegiance; captures Edinburgh Castle; his exploits in border warfare; appointed regent of Scotland. Raoul, Bp. of Durham, at the battle of the Standard. Raymond le Gros, friend of Strongbow; his exploits in Ireland; made Protector of the kingdom. Raymond of Toulouse joins the first crusade; his conduct at the siege of Jerusalem. Reginald, elected Abp. of Canterbury; his election declared null by the Pope; Rhodes, conquered by the Hospitallers. Rich, Edmund, Abp. of Canterbury, character of; exposes the treachery of Des Roches; his retirement and death. Richard, Apb. of Canterbury, character of. Richard Coeur de Lion, second son of Henry II., betrothed to Alice of France; his love of Languedoc; rebels against his father; his dispute with his brother Henry; origin of his surname; agrees to join Philippe Auguste in a crusade; disputes respecting his betrothal to Alice of France; his attachment to Berengaria; does homage to Philippe; his last interview with his father; remorse at his father's death; his preparations for the crusade; joins with Philippe; instances of his violent nature; his dispute with Tancred of Sicily; his conquest of Cyprus; his marriage to Berengaria; gallantry at Acre, exploits in the march from Acre; quarrel with Leopold of Austria; his grief at being unable to take Jerusalem; his daring courage at Joppa, a truce signed with Saladin; sets out on his return home; his adventures by the way, capture and imprisonment; discovered by Blondel; his release and return home; his dispute with Constance of Brittany; besieges the castle of Chaluz, manner of his death there. Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, undertakes a crusade; its results; elected King of the Romans; takes the oath to the acts of Oxford; taken prisoner at Lewes; his death. Richard, son of Robert Courtheuse, killed in the New Forest. Richard the Fearless, son of William Longsword and Espriote; succeeds to the dukedom, carried off by Louis IV. his escape, does homage for his duchy; his betrothal; the wars against him, attempts at his assassination; his victory over Lothaire; his character; death, piety, etc. Richard the Good, succeeds his father Richard the Fearless; his character; his protection of the sons of Ethelred. Richard, son of Richard the Good. Richard, William the Conqueror's second son, early death of. Robert, Bp. of Hereford, the friend of St. Wulstan. Robert, count of Eu, joins William the Conqueror in his invasion of England. Robert, Count of Paris. Robert Courtheuse, William the Conqueror's eldest son; his dispute with his brothers at L'aigle; his rebellion against his father; his mother's affection for him; encounters his father in battle; his war with William Rufus; takes the cross; superiority of his character to his brothers'; mortgages his dukedom to Rufus; his conduct at the siege of Antioch; declines being King of Jerusalem; his friendship with Edgar Atheling; his marriage; gives up his rights to Henry I.; Henry's intrigues against him, ; is taken prisoner; imprisoned in Cardiff castle, ; his last years and death. Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of Henry I.; espouses the cause of the Empress Maude; is taken prisoner; exchanged for Stephen; his staunch support of Maude; his learning. Robert the Magnificent, his character; resolves on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land; declares his son (William the Conqueror) his heir, his pilgrimage and death. Rochester, the siege of, by King John. Rockingham, the convocation at. Roderick Maur, the Welsh prince. Roger, Abp. of York, the enemy of Becket; his excommunication, his jealousy of the Abp. of Canterbury, Rognwald, earl, father of Rolf Ganger, Rolf Ganger, origin of his name, outlawed for piracy, attacks Rouen , his rude generosity, interview with Hasting, conquests in France, Neustria (Normandy) ceded to him, tradition of his homage to the King of France, embraces Christianity, his government of Normandy, his history very doubtful, Rollo, the French name for Rolf, Roll of Battle Abbey, account of, Roman Empire, the, decay of, Rome, England a fief of Rosamund Clifford, history of, Rouen attacked by Rolf Ganger, its surrender, made the capital of the territory, William Longsword buried at, besieged by the enemies of Richard the Fearless, the Abp. of, excommunicates William the Conqueror, Roxburgh, capture of, by Sir James Douglas, Rudel, Jauffred, the troubadour, the story of, Runnymede, the Great Charter signed at, Ryes, Hubert de, his service to Duke William,

Sailors' quarrel between France and England, St. Laurence, Sir Almeric de, brother in arms of Sir John de Courcy, his exploits in Ireland, St. Mahe, the sea-fight at, St. Patrick, the conversion of Ireland by, St. Thomas's hospital, named after Archbishop Becket, Saladin obtains supreme power in Palestine, his courtesies to Richard I., Salisbury, John of, the friend of Becket, exiled by Henry II., Samson le Breton, messenger of Queen Matilda, Saracen Arabs, the, character of, Savoy palace, the, origin of, Saxons, the, held in no favor at Rome, cause of their ruin at the Conquest, their derision of the Normans, Scandinavia, the nurse of the Teuton race, Scotland, depredations of the pirates in, its troubles after the death of Malcolm III., decay of the kings of, the troubles of, following the death of Alexander III., claims to the crown of, referred to Edward I., Edward I. claims to be Lord paramount, harsh government of, under Edward I., the troubles of, under the Bruce dynasty, the strength of, under Robert Bruce, peace concluded with, by England, Scottish Church, the, reformed by Queen Margaret, Scott, Michael, the wizard, account of, Septs, system of, in Ireland, Sepulchre, the Holy, the crusaders at, Sewell, Abp. of York, his opposition to the encroachments of Rome, Ship, the White, story of the wreck of, Sigurd the Crusader, visitor to Henry I., his career, his discussion with his brother Eystein, his sad fate, Simon, Earl of Northampton, son of Matilda of Scotland, his character, his contempt for his brother Waltheof, his repentance and death, Siward Biorn, Earl of Northumbria, assists Edward the Confessor against Godwin, his death, Sonnac, Guillaume de, in the Egyptian crusade, Stamford Bridge, battle of, Standard, the, battle of, Stapleton, Walter, Bp. of Exeter, his murder at Paul's Cross, Stephen, Count of Blois, married to William the Conqueror's daughter Adela, takes the Cross, his character, Stephen (II.) of Blois, favorite of Henry I., swears fealty to Maude, his proceedings on the death of Henry I., obtains possession of England and Normandy, his good qualities, taken prisoner at Lincoln, regains his liberty, besieges Maude at Oxford, retains the throne unmolested, his death, Stephen, King of Hungary, his charge of Edmund Ironside's children, his character, Stigand, Abp., his absence from the coronation of Harold, suspicion of, by the Court of Rome, his deposition, Stiklestad, battle of, Stirling, battle of, siege of, siege of the castle by Edward Bruce, Randolph's conduct at, Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, his invasion of Ireland, Henry II. makes him seneschal, and governor, his death, Swend, quarrel of, with Harold Hardrada, Sweyne, son of Earl Godwin, his character and crimes, Sybil, daughter of Helie de la Fleche, marries Foulques V. of Anjou, Sybilla, wife of Robert Courtheuse,

Taillefer, the minstrel knight at Hastings, Tancred de Hauteville, the kingdom of the Two Sicilies founded by his sons. Tancred joins the first Crusade; his prowess at Antioch; at Jerusalem. Tancred of Sicily, disputes between him and Richard Coeur de Lion; Prince Arthur betrothed to his daughter. Templars, the Knights, jealousy between them and the Hospitallers; their valor at the fall of Acre; their proceedings afterward; given up by Clement V. to Philippe IV.; their arrest and the accusations against them; their order abolished by the Pope; persecution of, in different kingdoms; their character and fate. Temple, the, in London, history of. Teuchebray, battle of. Teutons, the, reared in Scandinavia; their law regarding land. Theobald, Count de Blois, favorite of Henry I. Thibaut, Count de Chartes, his treachery toward Richard the Fearless; his submission to him. Thorer the Silent, son of Earl Rognwald. Thorold, Abbot of Malmesbury, appointed to Peterborough; his expedition against Hereward; is taken prisoner. Thurstan, Abp. of York. Torfrida, wife of Hereward. Torguatus, ancestor of the Anjou family. Tostig, son of Earl Godwin; becomes Earl of Northumbria; banished by Harold; becomes his bitter enemy; invites Harold Hardrada to invade England; his interview with his brother Harold; is killed at Stamford Bridge. Touraine, loss of, by the English to France. Tracy, William, the murderer of Becket; his armorial bearings. Triefels, castle of, Richard Coeur de Lion immured in. Troubadours, the, account of; their lament for Coeur de Lion. Tunis, Louis IX.'s expedition against. Tunstan the White, standard-bearer at Hastings. Turges, the Dane, King of Ireland. Turks, the, character of; the first crusade directed against them. Turlogh, King of Ireland. Tynte family, origin of their name and armorial bearings. Tyrrell, Walter, alone with Rufus at his death in the New Forest.

Ulf, Earl Godwin's brother-in-law, legends respecting. Ulfnoth, father of Earl Godwin; remains in captivity till death. Ulfnoth son of Earl Godwin, hostage to William of Normandy. Urban II., Pope, elected by the cardinals; presides at the Council of Clermont; urges the first crusade.

Val des Dames, the battle of. Valence de, the English cognomen of the Lusignan family. Valence, Aymar de, his contest with Bruce; his pursuit of him; defeated by Bruce at Loudon Hill; Gaveston's nick-name for him; unites with other nobles against Gaveston; his character; his conduct at the death of Gaveston; sent by Edward II. to Scotland against Bruce. Valence, William de, half-brother to Henry III., opposition between him and the Barons. Varangian guard, the. Vikings, the, account of.

Wakefield, Peter, of his prediction to King John; John's cruelty to him. Wales, early history of. Walkelyn, Bishop of Winchester, grant of timber to him by William the Conqueror. Wallace, William, history of; declares against Edward I.; wins the battle of Stirling; assumes the title of Governor; defeated at the battle of Falkirk; his betrayal and execution. Wallingford Castle, Maude escapes to. Walsingham, our Lady of, origin of the church of. Walter, Hubert, Abp. of Canterbury, account of. Walter l'Espee at the battle of the Standard. Walter the Penniless joins the first crusade. Waltham Abbey, Harold and his brothers buried at. Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Siward Biorn; rejects submission to William the Conqueror; perfidious conduct of his wife; executed at Winchester. —— son of Matilda of Scotland, character of; becomes abbot of Melrose; his meeting with King Stephen; elected Bp. of St. Andrew's. Warrenne, John de, Earl of Surrey, his sword his title to his estate; his expedition against Wallace; his conduct at the battle of Stirling. —— Isabel, her appeal to Henry III. Wash, the, loss of King John's treasure at. Welsh, the, a Keltic tribe; their fierce internal quarrels; their position under the Saxon and Norman kings. Wessex, the earldom of. Western Church, the, degeneration of, after the Crusades. Western Empire, the, break up of. Westminster Abbey, foundation of, by Edward the Confessor; Henry III.'s benefactions to; its appearance temp. Edward I. Westminster Hall, the oak for the roof sent from Ireland. White Ship, the story of the wreck of. William the Conqueror, son of Robert the Magnificent, acknowledged his father's heir; his accession; early conspiracies against him; defeats the rebels; his war with Anjou; marriage with Matilda of Flanders; founds the Abbey of St. Stephen at Caen; his grave and burial there; his visit to Edward the Confessor; Edward leaves the crown of England to him; Harold becomes his prisoner; obtains an oath of assistance from him; receives tidings of Harold's coronation; summons a parliament at Lillebonne; prepares for the invasion of England; lands at Pevensey; his appearance at the battle of Hastings; his victory there; his coronation; his mode of satisfying his followers; attacks the Camp of Refuge; makes peace with Hereward; his high character; his principal friends; his many disappointments; character of his wife; of his daughters; of his sons; rebellion of Robert Courtheuse against him; his grief at Queen Matilda's death; his fatal accident at Mantes; interview with his sons on his death-bed; leaves the crown of England to William Rufus; his death; history of the submission of London to him; his dealings with the Welsh. William Rufus, his father's love for him; interview with his father on his death-bed; he nominates him successor to the crown of England; his oppression of the Church and people; rapine under him in England and Normandy; his remorse at his sacrilege; makes Anselm Abp. of Canterbury; his war with his brother Robert; his disputes with Anselm; exiles him for life; his friend Ralph Flambard; increases the severity of the Forest laws; his dream the night before his death; his death in the New Forest; burial at Winchester; relics of his death still remaining; doubts by whom he was killed; his conduct to Helie de la Fleche. William Etheling, eldest son of Henry I.; marries Matilda of Anjou; drowned in the White Ship. William Fitzosborne de Breteuil, his proceedings on the death of Rufus. William of Scotland, captivity of; purchases his freedom. William, son of Rollo, his father leaves him his dukedom; surnamed Longsword; his character; father of Richard the Fearless; his base murder; burial at Rouen. William, son of Robert Courtheuse; given in charge of Helie de St. Saen; his career and early death. Winchelsea, Robert, Abp. of Canterbury, opposes Edward I.'s exactions on the Clergy; their reconciliation; holds the Synod of Mertoun; Edward's vengeance on him; his death and character; his denunciations of Gaveston. Winchester, the council of; burial of Rufus at; Maude besieged there; sacking of, by Simon de Montfort. Wolves' heads, the tribute of, from Wales. Woodstock, Fair Rosamond at. Worcester cathedral, rebuilt by Wulstan. Wulstan, the last Saxon bishop, account of; chosen Bp. of Worcester; his conduct at the council of Winchester; legend of his staff at the Confessor's tomb; retains his bishopric; rebuilds his cathedral; his death; William the Conqueror's friendship for him. Wych, Richard, Bp. of Chichester, history of; his good works and death.

York and Canterbury, jealousy between.

Zoe, Empress of Constantinople, her love for Harold Hardrada.


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