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Burroughs' Encyclopaedia of Astounding Facts and Useful Information, 1889
by Barkham Burroughs
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EGG PUDDING.—It is made chiefly of eggs. It is nice made thus:—Beat well seven eggs; mix well with 2 ozs. of flour, pint and a half of milk, a little salt; flavor with nutmeg, lemon juice, and orange-flour water. Boil 1-1/4 hours in a floured cloth. Serve with wine sauce sweetened.

EXCELLENT FAMILY PLUM PUDDING.—Grate three-quarters of a pound of a stale loaf, leaving out the crusts; chop very fine three-quarters of a pound of firm beef suet (if you wish your pudding less rich, half a pound will do); mix well together with a quarter of a pound of flour; then add a pound of currants, well washed and well dried; half a pound of raisins, stoned, and the peel of a lemon, very finely shred and cut; four ounces of candied peel, either lemon, orange or citron, or all mingled (do not cut your peel too small or its flavor is lost); six ounces of sugar, a small teaspoonful of salt, three eggs, well beaten; mix all thoroughly together with as much milk as suffices to bring the pudding to a proper consistency, grate in a small nutmeg, and again stir the mixture vigorously. If you choose, add a small glass of brandy. Butter your mold or basin, which you must be sure to fill quite full, or the water will get in and spoil your handiwork; have your pudding cloth scrupulously clean and sweet, and of a proper thickness; tie down securely, and boil for seven or even eight hours.

EXTRA PUDDING.—Cut light bread into thin slices. Form into the shape of a pudding in a dish. Then add a layer of any preserve, then a slice of bread, and repeat till the dish is full. Beat four or five eggs, and mix well with a pint of milk; then pour it over the bread and preserve, having previously dusted the same with a coating of rice flour. Boil twenty-five minutes.

FIG PUDDING.—Procure one pound of good figs, and chop them very fine, and also a quarter of a pound of suet, likewise chopped as fine as possible; dust them both with a little flour as you proceed—it helps to bind the pudding together; then take one pound of fine bread crumbs, and not quite a quarter of a pound of sugar; beat two eggs in a teacupful of milk, and mix all well together. Boil four hours. If you choose, serve it with wine or brandy sauce, and ornament your pudding with blanched almonds. Simply cooked, however, it is better where there are children, with whom it is generally a favorite. We forgot to say, flavor with a little allspice or nutmeg, as you like; but add the spice before the milk and eggs.

GELATINE PUDDING.—Half box gelatine dissolved in a large half pint boiling water, when cold stir in two teacups sugar, the juice of three lemons, the whites of four eggs beaten to a froth, put this in a mold to get stiff, and with the yolks of these four eggs, and a quart of milk make boiled custard, flavor with vanilla, when cold pour the custard round the mold in same dish.

GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.—One quart of scalded gooseberries; when cold rub them smooth with the back of a spoon. Take six tablespoonfuls of the pulp, half a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound of melted butter, six eggs, the rind of two lemons, a handful of grated bread, two tablespoonfuls of brandy. Half an hour will bake it.

GROUND RICE PUDDING.—Boil one pint of milk with a little piece of lemon peel, mix quarter pound of rice, ground, with half pint milk, two ounces sugar, one ounce butter, add these to the boiling milk. Keep stirring, take it off the fire, break in two eggs, keep stirring, butter a pie dish, pour in the mixture and bake until set.

ICE PUDDING.—Put one quart of milk in a stew pan with half pound of white sugar, and stick of vanilla, boil it ten minutes, mix the yolks of ten eggs with a gill of cream, pour in the milk, then put it back again into the stew pan, and stir till it thickens (do not let it boil), strain it into a basin and leave it to cool. Take twelve pounds of ice, add two pounds of salt, mix together, cover the bottom of a pail, place the ice pot in it and build it around with the ice and salt, this done pour the cream into the pot, put on the cover, and do not cease turning till the cream is thick, the mold should be cold, pour in the cream, 3 or 4 pieces of white paper, wetted with cold water, are placed on it before the cover is placed on. Cover with ice till wanted, dip in cold water and turn out, fruit may be put in when put in the mold.

INDIAN PUDDING.—Indian meal, a cupful, a little salt, butter, 1 oz.; molasses 3 ozs., 2 teaspoonfuls of ginger, or cinnamon. Put into a quart of boiling milk. Mix a cup of cold water with it; bake in a buttered dish 50 minutes.

KIDNEY PUDDING.—If kidney, split and soak it, and season that or the meat. Make a paste of suet, flour and milk; roll it, and line a basin with some; put the kidney or steak in, cover with paste, and pinch round the edge. Cover with a cloth and boil a considerable time.

LEMON DUMPLINGS.—Two tablespoonfuls of flour; bread crumbs, 1/2 lb.; beef suet, 6 ozs.; the grated rind of a large lemon, sugar, pounded, 4 ozs.; 4 eggs well beaten, and strained, and the juice of three lemons strained. Make into dumplings, and boil in a cloth one hour.

LEMON PUDDING.—Three tablespoons powdered crackers, eight tablespoons sugar, six eggs, one quart milk, butter size of an egg, the juice of one lemon and grated rind. Stir it first when put in oven.

MACARONI PUDDING.—Take an equal quantity of ham and chicken, mince fine, half the quantity of macaroni which must be boiled tender in broth, two eggs beaten, one ounce butter, cayenne pepper and salt to taste, all these ingredients to be mixed thoroughly together, put in molds and boil two hours.

MARROW PUDDING.—Pour a pint of cream boiling hot on the crumbs of a penny loaf, or French roll; cut 1 lb. of beef marrow very thin; beat 4 eggs well; add a glass of brandy, with sugar and nutmeg to taste, and mix all well together. It may be either boiled or baked 40 or 50 minutes; cut 2 ozs. of citron very thin, and stick them all over it when you dish it up.

Another way.—Blanch 1/2 lb. of almonds; put them in cold water all night; next day beat them in a mortar very fine, with orange or rose water. Take the crumbs of a penny loaf, and pour on the whole a pint of boiling cream; while it is cooling, beat the yolks of four eggs, and two whites, 15 minutes; a little sugar and grated nutmeg to your palate. Shred the marrow of the bones, and mix all well together, with a little candied orange cut small; bake, etc.

MEAT AND POTATO PUDDING.—Boil some mealy potatoes till ready to crumble to pieces; drain; mash them very smooth. Make them into a thickish batter with an egg or two, and milk, placing a layer of steaks or chops well-seasoned with salt and pepper at the bottom of the baking dish; cover with a layer of batter, and so alternately, till the dish is full, ending with batter at the top. Butter the dish to prevent sticking or burning. Bake of a fine brown color.

NESSELRODE PUDDING.—Prepare a custard of one pint of cream, half a pint of milk, the yolks of six eggs, half a stick of vanilla, one ounce of sweet almonds, pounded, and half a pound of sugar; put them in a stewpan over a slow fire, and stir until the proper consistence, being careful not to let it boil; when cold, add a wine-glass of brandy; partially freeze, and add two ounces of [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'rasins'] raisins and half a pound of preserved fruits, cut small. Mix well, and mold. (Basket shape generally used.)

POTATO PUDDING.—Take 1/2 lb. of boiled potatoes, 2 ozs. of butter, the yolks and whites of two eggs, a quarter of a pint of cream, one spoonful of white wine, a morsel of salt, the juice and rind of a lemon; beat all to a froth; sugar to taste. A crust or not, as you like. Bake it. If wanted richer, put 3 ozs. more butter, sweetmeats and almonds, and another egg.

PRINCE OF WALES PUDDING.—Chop four ounces of apples, the same quantity of bread crumbs, suet, and currants, well washed and picked; two ounces of candied lemon, orange, and citron, chopped fine; five ounces pounded loaf sugar; half a nutmeg, grated. Mix all together with four eggs. Butter well and flour a tin, put in the mixture, and place a buttered paper on the top, and a cloth over the paper. If you steam it the paper is sufficient. It will take two hours boiling. When you dish it, stick cut blanched almonds on it, and serve with wine sauce.

PUDDING.—One cup sugar, half cup milk, one egg, two tablespoons melted butter, two cups flour, two teaspoons baking powder, a little nutmeg, bake in a dish and when sent to the table, put raspberry jam under same with wine sauce.

BAKED PUDDING.—Three tablespoonfuls of Oswego Prepared Corn to one quart of milk. Prepare, and cook the same as Blanc-Mange. After it is cool, stir up with it thoroughly two or three eggs well beaten, and bake half an hour. It is very good.

BOILED PUDDING.—Three tablespoonfuls of Oswego Prepared Corn to one quart of milk. Dissolve the corn in some of the milk, and mix with it two or three eggs, well beaten, and a little salt. Heat the remainder of the milk to near boiling, add the above preparation, and boil four minutes, stirring it briskly. To be eaten warm with a sauce. It is delicious.

QUEEN PUDDING.—One pint of bread crumbs, one quart milk, one cup sugar, yolks four eggs, a little butter, bake half an hour, then put over the top a layer of fruit, then white of eggs beaten to a froth with sugar; to be eaten cold with cream.

PLAIN RICE PUDDING.—Wash and pick some rice; throw among it some pimento finely pounded, but not much; tie the rice in a cloth and leave plenty of room for it to swell. When done, eat it with butter and sugar, or milk. Put lemon peel if you please.

It is very good without spice, and eaten with salt and butter.

ANOTHER.—Put into a very deep pan half a pound of rice washed and picked; two ounces of butter, four ounces of sugar, a few allspice pounded, and two quarts of milk. Less butter will do, or some suet. Bake in a slow oven.

RICH RICE PUDDING—Boil 1/2 lb. of rice in water, with a bit of salt, till quite tender; drain it dry; mix it with the yolks and whites of four eggs, a quarter of a pint of cream, with 2 ozs. of fresh butter melted in the latter; 4 ozs. of beef suet or marrow, or veal suet taken from a fillet of veal, finely shred, 3/4 lb. of currants, two spoonfuls of brandy, one of peach-water, or ratafia, nutmeg, and a grated lemon peel. When well mixed, put a paste round the edge, and fill the dish. Slices of candied orange, lemon, and citron, if approved. Bake in a moderate oven.

RICE PUDDING WITH FRUIT—Swell the rice with a very little milk over the fire; then mix fruit of any kind with it (currants, gooseberries, scalded, pared, and quartered apples, raisins, or black currants); put one egg into the rice to bind it; boil it well, and serve with sugar.

ROMAN PUDDING—Oil a plain tin mold, sprinkle it with vermicelli, line it with a thin paste; have some boiled macaroni ready cut in pieces an inch long; weigh it, and take the same weight of Parmesan cheese, grated; boil a rabbit, cut off all the white meat in slices, as thin as paper, season with pepper, salt, and shalot; add cream sufficient to moisten the whole, put it into the mold, and cover it with paste; bake in a moderate oven for an hour, turn the pudding out of the mold, and serve it with a rich brown gravy.

SAGO PUDDING—Boil 4 ozs. of sago in water a few minutes; strain, and add milk, and boil till tender. Boil lemon peel and cinnamon in a little milk, and strain it to the sago. Put the whole into a basin; break 8 eggs; mix it well together, and sweeten with moist sugar; add a glass of brandy, and some nutmeg; put puff paste round the rim of the dish, and butter the bottom. Bake three quarters of an hour.

SPANISH PUDDING—To one pint of water, put two ounces of butter, and a little salt, when it boils add as much flour as will make it the consistency of hasty pudding. Keep it well stirred, after it is taken off the fire and has stood till quite cold, beat it up with three eggs, add a little grated lemon peel and nutmeg, drop the butter with a spoon into the frying pan with boiling lard, fry quickly, put sugar over them when sent to the table.

SUET DUMPLINGS—Shred 1 lb. of suet; mix with 1-1/4 lbs. flour, 2 eggs beaten separately, a little salt, and as little milk as will make it. Make it into two small balls. Boil 20 minutes. The fat of loins or necks of mutton finely shred makes a more delicate dumpling than suet.

SUET PUDDING—Take six spoonfuls of flour, 1 lb. of suet, shred small, 4 eggs, a spoonful of beaten ginger, a spoonful of salt, and a quart of milk. Mix the eggs and flour with a pint of milk very thick, and with the seasoning, mix in the rest of the milk with the suet. Boil two hours.

TAPIOCA PUDDING.—Put 1/4 lb. of tapioca into a sauce pan of cold water; when it boils, strain it to a pint of new milk; boil till it soaks up all the milk, and put it out to cool. Beat the yolks of four eggs, and the whites of two, a tablespoonful of brandy, sugar, nutmeg, and 2 ounces of butter. Mix all together; put a puff paste round the dish, and send it to the oven. It is very good boiled with melted butter, wine and sugar.

VERMICELLI PUDDING.—Boil 4 ounces of vermicelli in a pint of new milk till soft, with a stick or two of cinnamon. Then put in half a pint of thick cream, 1/4 lb. of butter, the same of sugar, and the yolks of 4 eggs. Bake without paste in an earthen dish.

Another.—Simmer 2 ounces of vermicelli in a cupful of milk till tender; flavor it with a stick or two of cinnamon or other spice. Beat up three eggs, 1 ounce of sugar, half a pint of milk and a glass of wine. Add to the vermicelli. Bake in a slow oven.



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HOW TO PUT UP PICKLES AND MAKE CATSUPS

HOW TO PICKLE BEET ROOTS.—Beet roots are a very pretty garnish for made dishes, and are thus pickled. Boil the roots till they are tender, then take off the skins, cut them in slices, gimp them in the shape of wheels, or what form you please, and put them into a jar. Take as much vinegar as you think will cover them, and boil it with a a little mace, a race of ginger sliced, and a few slices of horseradish. Pour it hot upon your roots and tie them down.

CHOW-CHOW.—Two quarts of small white onions, two quarts of gherkins, two quarts of string beans, two small cauliflowers, half a dozen ripe, red peppers, one-half pound mustard seed, one-half pound whole pepper, one pound ground mustard, and, as there is nothing so adulterated as ground mustard, it's better to get it at the druggist's; twenty or thirty bay leaves (not bog leaves, as some one of the ladies facetiously remarked), and two quarts of good cider, or wine vinegar. Peel the onions, halve the cucumbers, string the beans, and cut in pieces the cauliflower. Put all in a wooden tray, and sprinkle well with salt. In the morning wash and drain thoroughly, and put all into the cold vinegar, except the red peppers. Let boil twenty minutes slowly, frequently turning over. Have wax melted in a deepish dish, and, as you fill and cork, dip into the wax. The peppers you can put in to show to the best advantage. If you have over six jars full, it's good to put the rest in a jar and eat from it for every dinner. Some add a little turmeric for the yellow color.

CORN, GREEN, PICKLING.—When the corn is a little past the tenderest roasting ear state, pull it, take off one thickness of the husk, tie the rest of the husk down at the silk end loosely, place the ears in a clean cask compactly together, and put on a brine to cover them of about two-thirds the strength of meat pickle. When ready to use in winter, soak in cold water over night, and if this does not appear sufficient, change the water and freshen still more. Corn, prepared in this way, is excellent, very much resembling fresh corn from the stalk.

INDIAN PICKLE.—One gallon of the best vinegar, quarter of a pound of bruised ginger, quarter of a pound of shalots, quarter of a pound of flour of mustard, quarter of a pound of salt, two ounces of mustard seed, two ounces of turmeric, one ounce of black pepper, ground fine, one ounce of cayenne. Mix all together, and put in cauliflower sprigs, radish pods, French beans, white cabbage, cucumber, onions, or any other vegetable; stir it well two or three days after any fresh vegetable is added, and wipe the vegetable with a dry cloth. The vinegar should not be boiled.

HOW TO PICKLE MUSHROOMS.—Buttons must be rubbed with a bit of flannel and salt; and from the larger take out the red inside, for when they are black they will not do, being too old. Throw a little salt over, and put them into a stewpan with some mace and pepper; as the liquor comes out, shake them well, and keep them over a gentle fire till all of it be dried into them again; then put as much vinegar into the pan as will cover them, give it one warm, and turn all into a glass or stone jar. They will keep two years, and are delicious.

PICKLE SAUCE.—Slice green tomatoes, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, and green peppers. Let all stand covered with salt over night. Wash, drain and chop fine. Be careful to keep as dry as possible. To two quarts of the hash, add four tablespoons of American mustard seed and two of English; two tablespoonfuls ground allspice, one of ground cloves, two teaspoonfuls of ground black pepper, one teaspoonful of celery seed. Cover with sharp vinegar, and boil slowly an hour. Put away in stone jar, and eat when wanted.

PICKLED EGGS.—At the season of the year when eggs are plentiful, boil some four or six dozen in a capacious saucepan, until they become quite hard. Then, after carefully removing the shells, lay them in large-mouthed jars, and pour over them scalding vinegar, well seasoned with whole pepper, allspice, a few races of ginger, and a few cloves or garlic. When cold, bung down closely, and in a month they are fit for use. Where eggs are plentiful, the above pickle is by no means expensive, and is a relishing accompaniment to cold meat.

HOW TO PICKLE RED CABBAGE.—Slice it into a colander, and sprinkle each layer with salt; let it drain two days, then put it into a jar, with boiling vinegar enough to cover it, and put in a few slices of beet-root. Observe to choose the purple red-cabbage. Those who like the flavor of spice will boil some pepper-corns, mustard-seed, or other spice, whole, with the vinegar. Califlower in branches, and thrown in after being salted, will color a beautiful red.

ANOTHER.—Choose a sound large cabbage; shred it finely, and sprinkle it with salt, and let it stand in a dish a day and night. Then boil vinegar (from a pint) with ginger, cloves, and cayenne popper. Put the cabbage into jars, and pour the liquor upon it when cold.

SPICED TOMATOES.—Eight pounds tomatoes, four pounds of sugar, one quart vinegar, one tablespoon each of cloves, cinnamon and allspice, make a syrup of the sugar and vinegar. Tie the spice in a bag and put, in syrup, take the skins off the tomatoes, and put them in the syrup, when scalded through skim them out and cook away one-half, leave the spices in, then put in your tomatoes again and boil until the syrup is thick.

TOMATO LILLY.—Prepare one peck of green tomatoes by slicing and laying them in a jar over night, with a little salt, than chop them and cook in water until you think them sufficiently tender then take them up in a colander and drain nicely, then take two large cabbages, chop and cook same as tomatoes, then chop six green peppers and add one quart vinegar, put all in kettle together and boil a short time; add fresh vinegar and spice with one ounce each cinnamon and cloves, one pound sugar and half pint molasses. Onions can be used instead of cabbage if preferred.

HOW TO PICKLE WALNUTS.—When a pin will go into them, put a brine of salt and water boiled, and strong enough to bear an egg, being quite cold first. Let them soak six days; then change the brine, let them stand six more; then drain, and pour over them in a jar a pickle of the best vinegar, with plenty of pepper, pimento, ginger, mace, cloves, mustard-seed and horseradish; all boiled together, but cold. To every hundred of walnuts put six spoonfuls of mustard-seed, and two or three heads of garlic or shalot, but the latter is least strong. In this way they will be good for several years, if closely covered. They will not be fit to eat under six months. This pickle makes good ketchup.

A GOOD KETCHUP.—Boil one bushel of tomatoes until soft enough to rub through a sieve. Then add to the liquid a half gallon of vinegar, 1-1/2 pints salt, 2 ounces of cloves, 1/4 pound allspice, 3 ounces good cayenne pepper, five heads of garlic, skinned and separated, 1 pound of sugar. Boil slowly until reduced to one-half. It takes about one day. Set away for a week, boil over once, and, if too thick, thin with vinegar; bottle and seal as for chow-chow. HOW TO KEEP KETCHUP TWENTY YEARS.—Take a gallon of strong stale beer, 1 lb. of anchovies, washed from the pickle; 1 lb. of shalots, 1/2 oz. of mace, 1/2 oz. of cloves, 1/4 oz. whole pepper, 1/2 oz. of ginger, 2 quarts of large mushroom flaps, rubbed to pieces; cover all close, and simmer till it is half wasted, strain, cool, then bottle. A spoonful of this ketchup is sufficient for a pint of melted butter.

MUSHROOM KETCHUP.—Sprinkle mushroom flaps, gathered in September, with common salt, stir them occasionally for two or three days; then lightly squeeze out the juice, and add to each gallon bruised cloves and mustard seed, of each, half an ounce; bruised allspice, black pepper, and ginger, of each, one ounce; gently heat to the boiling point in a covered vessel, macerate for fourteen days, and strain; should it exhibit any indication of change in a few weeks, bring it again to the boiling point, with a little more spice.

OYSTER KETCHUP:—Beard the oysters; boil them up in their liquor; strain, and pound them in a mortar; boil the beards in spring water, and strain it to the first oyster liquor; boil the pounded oysters in the mixed liquors, with beaten mace and pepper. Some add a very little mushroom ketchup, vinegar, or lemon-juice; but the less the natural flavor is overpowered the better; only spice is necessary for its preservation. This oyster ketchup will keep perfectly good longer than oysters are ever out of season.

TOMATO KETCHUP.—Put them over the fire crushing each one as you drop it into the pot; let them boil five minutes; take them off, strain through a colander, and then through a sieve, get them over the fire again as soon as possible, and boil down two-thirds, when boiled down add to every gallon of this liquid one ounce of cayenne pepper, one ounce of black pepper, one pint vinegar, four ounces each of cinnamon and mace, two spoonfuls salt.

VERY FINE WALNUT KETCHUP.—Boil a gallon of the expressed juice of green tender walnuts, and skim it well; then put in 2 lbs. of anchovies, bones and liquor, 2 lbs. shalots, 1 oz. each of cloves, mace, pepper, and one clove of garlic. Let all simmer till the shalots sink; then put the liquor into a pan till cold; bottle and divide the spice to each. Cork closely, and tie a bladder over. It will keep twenty years, but is not good the first. Be very careful to express the juice at home; for it is rarely unadulterated, if bought.

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HOW TO ROAST, BOIL, OR BROIL POULTRY

HOW TO ROAST CHICKENS.—Pluck carefully, draw and truss them, and put them to a good fire; singe, dust, and baste them with butter. Cover the breast with a sheet of buttered paper; remove it ten minutes before it is enough; that it may brown. A chicken will take 15 to 20 minutes. Serve with butter and parsley.

HOW TO BOIL CHICKENS.—Fasten the wings and legs to the body by threads tied round. Steep them in skim milk two hours. Then put them in cold water, and boil over a slow fire. Skim clean. Serve with white sauce or melted butter sauce, or parsley and butter.—Or melt 1 oz. of butter in a cupful of milk; add to it the yolk of an egg beat up with a little flour and cream; heat over the fire, stirring well.

GEESE (A LA MODE).—Skin and bone the goose; boil and peel a dried tongue, also a fowl; season with pepper, salt and mace, and then roll it round the tongue; season the goose in the same way, and lay the fowl and tongue on the goose, with slices of ham between them. Beef marrow rolled between the fowl and the goose, will greatly enrich it. Put it all together in a pan, with two quarts of beef gravy, the bones of the goose and fowl, sweet herbs and onion; cover close, and stew an hour slowly; take up the goose; skim off the fat, strain, and put in a glassful of good port wine, two tablespoonfuls of ketchup, a veal sweetbread cut small, some mushrooms, a piece of butter rolled in flour, pepper and salt; stew the goose half an hour longer; take up and pour the ragout over it. Garnish with lemon.

HOW TO ROAST PIGEONS.—Take a little pepper and salt, a piece of butter, and parsley cut small; mix and put the mixture into the bellies of the pigeons, tying the necks tight; take another string; fasten one end of it to their legs and rumps, and the other to a hanging spit, basting them with butter; when done, lay them in a dish, and they will swim with gravy.

HOW TO BOIL PIGEONS.—Wash clean; chop some parsley small; mix it with crumbs of bread, pepper, salt and a bit of butter; stuff the pigeons, and boil 15 minutes in some mutton broth or gravy. Boil some rice soft in milk; when it begins to thicken, beat the yolks of two or three eggs, with two or three spoonfuls of cream, and a little nutmeg; mix well with a bit of butter rolled in flour.

HOW TO BROIL PIGEONS.—After cleaning, split the backs, pepper and salt them, and broil them very nicely; pour over them either stewed or pickled mushrooms, in melted butter, and serve as hot as possible.

SCALLOPED COLD CHICKENS..—Mince the meat very small, and set it over the fire, with a scrape of nutmeg, a little pepper and salt, and a little cream, for a few minutes, put it into the scallop shells, and fill them with crumbs of bread, over which put some bits of butter, and brown them before the fire. Veal and ham eat well done the same way, and lightly covered with crumbs of bread, or they may be put on in little heaps.

HOW TO ROAST TURKEY.—The sinews of the legs should be drawn whichever way it is dressed. The head should be twisted under the wing; and in drawing it, take care not to tear the liver, nor let the gall touch it.

Put a stuffing of sausage-meat; or, if sausages are to be served in a dish a bread stuffing. As this makes a large addition to the size of the bird, observe that the heat of the fire is constantly to that part; for the breast is often not done enough. A little strip of paper should be put on the bone to hinder it from scorching while the other parts roast. Baste well and froth it up. Serve with gravy in the dish, and plenty of bread-sauce in a sauce-tureen. Add a few crumbs, and a beaten egg to the stuffing of sausage-meat.

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SAUCES FOR MEATS, FISH, ETC.

ANCHOVY SAUCE.—Chop one or two anchovies, without washing, put to them some flour and butter, and a little water; stir it over the fire till it boils once or twice. If the anchovies are good, they will dissolve.

ESSENCE OF ANCHOVIES.—Take two dozen of anchovies, chop them, and without the bone, but with some of their liquor strained, add to them sixteen large spoonfuls of water; boil gently till dissolved, which will be in a few minutes—when cold, strain and bottle it.

APPLE SAUCE..—Pare, core, and quarter half a dozen good sized apples, and throw them into cold water to preserve their whiteness. Boil them in a saucepan till they are soft enough to mash—it is impossible to specify any particular time, as some apples cook much more speedily than others. When done, bruise them to a pulp, put in a piece of butter as large as a nutmeg, and sweeten them to taste. Put into saucepan only sufficient water to prevent them burning. Some persons put the apples in a stone jar placed in boiling water; there is then no danger of their catching.

APPLE SAUCE FOR GOOSE OR ROAST PORK.—Pare, core, and slice some apples, and put them in a strong jar, into a pan of water. When sufficiently boiled, bruise to a pulp, adding a little butter, and a little brown sugar.

A SUBSTITUTE FOR CREAM.—Beat up the whole of a fresh egg in a basin, and then pour boiling tea over it gradually to prevent its curdling; it is difficult from the taste, to distinguish it from rich cream.

BECHAMEL SAUCE.—Put a few slices of ham into a stew-pan, a few mushrooms, two or three shalots, two cloves, also a bay leaf and a bit of butter. Let them stand a few hours. Add a little water, flour and milk or cream; simmer forty minutes. Scalded parsley, very fine may be added.

BREAD SAUCE.—Break three-quarters of a pound of stale bread into small pieces, carefully excluding any crusty and outside bits, having previously simmered till quite tender, an onion, well peeled and quartered in a pint of milk. Put the crumbs into a very clean saucepan, and, if you like the flavor, a small teaspoonful of sliced onion, chopped, or rather minced, as finely as possible. Pour over the milk, taking away the onion simmered in it, cover it up, and let it stand for an hour to soak. Then, with a fork, beat it quite smooth, and seasoned with a very little powdered mace, cayenne and salt to taste, adding one ounce of butter; give the whole a boil, stirring all the time, and it is ready to serve. A small quantity of cream added at the last moment, makes the sauce richer and smoother. Common white pepper may take the place of cayenne, a few peppercorns may be simmered in the milk, but they should be extracted before sending to table.

BREAD SAUCE.—Grate some old bread into a basin; pour boiling new milk over it; add an onion with five cloves stuck in it, with pepper and salt to taste. Cover it and simmer in a slow oven. When enough, take out the onion and cloves; beat it well, and add a little melted butter. The addition of cream very much improves this sauce.

CAPER SAUCE.—Melt some butter, chop the capers fine, boil them with the butter. An ounce of capers will be sufficient for a moderate size sauce-boat. Add, if you like, a little chopped parsley, and a little vinegar. More vinegar, a little cayenne, and essence of anchovy, make it suitable for fish.

As a substitute for capers, some use chopped pickled gherkins.

ESSENCE OF CELERY.—Soak the seeds in spirits of wine or brandy; or infuse the root in the same for 24 hours, then take out, squeezing out all the liquor, and infuse more root in the same liquor to make it stronger. A few drops will [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'flvor'] flavor broth, soup, etc.

CELERY SAUCE.—Wash well the inside leaves of three heads of celery; cut them into slices quarter inch thick, boil for six minutes, and drain; take a tablespoonful of flour, two ounces of butter, and a teacupful of cream; beat well, and when warm, put in the celery and stir well over the fire about twelve minutes. The sauce is very [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'goood'] good for boiled fowl, etc.

COCOA SAUCE.—Scrape a portion of the kernel of a Cocoa nut, adding the juice of three lemons, a teaspoonful of the tincture of cayenne pepper, a teaspoonful of shallot vinegar, and half a cupful of water. Gently simmer for a few hours.

EGG SAUCE.—Boil two eggs hard, half chop the whites, put in the yolks, chop them together, but not very fine, put them with 1/4 lb. of good melted butter.

EGG SAUCE.—Four eggs boiled twelve minutes, then lay them in fresh water, cold, pull off the shells, chop whites and yolks separately, mix them lightly, half pint melted butter, made in proportion of quarter pound of butter, to a large tablespoon flour, four of milk and hot water, add powdered mace or nutmeg, to be eaten with pork, boiled, or poultry, use chicken gravy or the water the chicken were boiled in.

HORSERADISH SAUCE.—Perhaps a good receipt for horseradish sauce, which is so excellent with both hot and cold beef, but which we do not always see served up with either. Two tablespoonfuls of mustard, the same of vinegar, three tablespoonfuls of cream or milk and one of pounded white sugar, well beaten up together with a small quantity of grated horseradish. This is, of course, to be served up cold.

MINT SAUCE.—Pick, mash and chop fine green spearmint, to two tablespoons of the minced leaves, put eight of vinegar, adding a little sugar. Serve cold.

MINT SAUCE.—Wash fresh gathered mint; pick the leaves from the stalks; mince them very fine, and put them into a sauce-boat with a teaspoonful of sugar and four tablespoonfuls of vinegar. It may also be made with dried mint or with mint vinegar.

ONION SAUCE.—Peel the onions, and boil them tender; squeeze the water from them, then chop them, and add to them butter that has been melted, rich and smooth, as will be hereafter directed, but with a little good milk instead of water; boil it up once, and serve it for boiled rabbits, partridge, scrag, or knuckle of veal, or roast mutton. A turnip boiled with the onions makes them milder.

QUIN'S FISH SAUCE.—Half a pint of mushroom pickle, the same of walnut, six long anchovies pounded, six cloves of garlic, three of them pounded; half a spoonful of cayenne pepper; put them into a bottle, and shake well before using. It is also good with beefsteaks.

SAUCE FOR COLD PARTRIDGES, MOOR-GAME, ETC.—Pound four anchovies and two cloves of garlic in a mortar; add oil and vinegar to the taste. Mince the meat, and put the sauce to it as wanted.

SAUCE FOR DUCKS.—Serve a rich gravy in the dish; cut the breast into slices, but don't take them off; cut a lemon, and put pepper and salt on it, then squeeze it on the breast, and pour a spoonful of gravy over before you help.

SAUCE FOR FOWL OF ANY SORT.—Boil some veal gravy, pepper, salt, the juice of a Seville orange and a lemon, and a quarter as much of port wine as of gravy; pour it into the dish or a boat.

SAUCE FOR HOT OR COLD ROAST BEEF.—Grate, or scrape very fine, some horseradish, a little made mustard, some pounded white sugar and four large spoonfuls of vinegar. Serve in a saucer.

SAUCE FOR SALMON.—Boil a bunch of fennel and parsley chop them small, and put into it some good melted butter. Gravy sauce should be served with it; put a little brown gravy into a saucepan, with one anchovy, a teaspoonful of lemon pickle, a tablespoonful of walnut pickle, two spoonfuls of water in which the fish was boiled, a stick of horseradish, a little browning, and salt; boil them four minutes; thicken with flour and a good lump of butter, and strain through a hair sieve.

SAUCE FOR SAVOURY PIES.—Take some gravy, one anchovy, a sprig of sweet herbs, an onion, and a little mushroom liquor; boil it a little, and thicken it with burnt butter, or a bit of butter rolled in flour; add a little port wine, and open the pie, and put it in. It will serve for lamb, mutton, veal or beef pies.

SAUCE FOR A TURKEY.—Open some oysters into a basin, and wash them in their own liquor, and as soon as settled pour into a saucepan; add a little white gravy, a teaspoonful of lemon pickle; thicken with flour and butter; boil it three or four minutes; add a spoonful of thick cream, and then the oysters; shake them over the fire till they are hot, but do not let them boil.

SAUCE FOR WILD FOWL.—Simmer a teacupful of port wine, the same quantity of good meat gravy, a little shalot, a little pepper, salt, a grate of nutmeg and a bit of mace, for ten minutes; put in a bit of butter and flour, give it all one boil, and pour it through the birds. In general they are not stuffed as tame, but may be done so if liked.

FRENCH TOMATO SAUCE.—Cut ten or a dozen tomatoes into quarters, and put them into a saucepan, with four onions, sliced, a little parsley, thyme, a clove, and a quarter of a pound of butter; then set the saucepan on the fire, stirring occasionally for three-quarters of an hour; strain the sauce through a horse-hair sieve, and serve with the directed articles.

TOMATO SAUCE.—Take 12 tomatoes, very red and ripe; take off the stalks, take out the seeds, and press out the water. Put the expressed tomatoes into a stewpan, with 1-1/2 ozs. of butter, a bay leaf, and a little thyme; put it upon a moderate fire, stir it into a pulp; put into it a good cullis, or the top of broth, which will be better. Rub it through a search, and put it into a stewpan with two spoonfuls of cullis; put in a little salt and cayenne.

ANOTHER.—Proceed as above with the seeds and water. Put them into a stewpan, with salt and cayenne, and three tablespoonfuls of beef gravy. Set them on a slow stove for an hour, or till properly melted. Strain, and add a little good stock; and simmer a few minutes.

WHITE SAUCE.—One pound of knuckle of veal, or any veal trimmings, or cold white meat, from which all brown skin has been removed; if meat has been cooked, more will be required. It is best to have a little butcher's meat fresh, even if you have plenty of cold meat in the larder; any chicken bones greatly improve the stock. This should simmer for five hours, together with a little salt, a dozen white peppercorns, one or two small onions stuck with cloves, according to taste, a slice or two of lean ham, and a little shred of celery and a carrot (if in season) in a quart of water. Strain it, and skim off all the fat; then mix one dessert-spoonful of flour in a half pint of cream; or, for economy's sake, half milk and half cream, or even all good new milk; add this to the stock, and if not salt enough, cautiously add more seasoning. Boil all together very gently for ten minutes, stirring all the time, as the sauce easily burns and very quickly spoils. This stock, made in large quantities, makes white soup; for this an old fowl, stewed down, is excellent, and the liquor in which a young turkey has been boiled is as good a foundation as can be desired.

ECONOMICAL WHITE SAUCE.—Cut up fine one carrot, two small onions, and put them into a stewpan with two ounces of butter, and simmer till the butter is nearly absorbed. Then mix a small teacupful of flour in a pint of new milk, boil the whole quietly till it thickens, strain it, season with salt and white pepper or cayenne, and it is ready to serve. Or mix well two ounces of flour with one ounce of butter; with a little nutmeg, pepper and salt; add a pint of milk, and throw in a strip of lemon peel; stir well over the fire till quite thick, and strain.

WINE SAUCE.—One and 1/2 cups sugar, three quarters cup of wine, a large spoonful flour, and a large piece of butter.



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HOW TO MAKE SOUPS ... AND BROTHS

ARTICHOKE SOUP.—Take Jerusalem artichokes according to the quantity of soup required to be made, cut them in slices, with a quarter of a pound of butter, two or three onions and turnips, sliced into a stewpan, and stew over a very slow fire till done enough, and thin it with good veal stock. Just before you serve, at the last boil, add a quarter of a pint of good cream. This is an excellent soup. Season to taste with a little salt and cayenne. As it is necessary to vary soups, we shall give you a few to choose from according to season and taste. All brown soups must be clear and thin, with the exception of mock turtle, which must be thickened with flour first browned with butter in a stewpan. If the flour is added without previous browning, it preserves a raw taste that by no means improves the flavor.

ASPARAGUS SOUP.—Three or four pounds of veal cut fine, a little salt pork, two or three bunches of asparagus and three quarts of water. Boil one-half of the asparagus with the meat, leaving the rest in water until about twenty minutes before serving; then add the rest of the asparagus and boil just before serving; add one pint of milk; thicken with a little flour, and season. The soup should boil about three hours before adding the last half of the asparagus.

BEEF BROTH.—Put two pounds of lean beef, one pound of scrag of veal, one pound of scrag of mutton, sweet herbs, and ten peppercorns, into a nice tin saucepan, with five quarts of water; simmer to three quarts, and clear from the fat when cold. Add one onion, if approved.

Soup and broth made of different meats are more supporting, as well as better flavored.

To remove the fat, take it off, when cold, as clean as possible; and if there be still any remaining, lay a bit of clean blotting or cap paper on the broth when in the basin, and it will take up every particle.

BEEF SOUP.—Cut all the lean off the shank, and with a little beef suet in the bottom of the kettle, fry it to a nice brown; put in the bones and cover with water; cover the kettle closely; let it cook slowly until the meat drops from the bones; strain through a colander and leave it in the dish during the night, which is the only way to get off all the fat. The day it is wanted for the table, fry as brown as possible a carrot, an onion, and a very small turnip sliced thin. Just before taking up, put in half a tablespoonful of sugar, a blade of mace, six cloves, a dozen kernels of allspice, a small tablespoonful of celery seed. With the vegetables this must cook slowly in the soup an hour; then strain again for the table. If you use vermicelli or pearl barley, soak in water.

DR. LIEBIG'S BEEF TEA.—When one pound of lean beef, free from fat, and separated from the bones, in a finely-chopped state in which it is used for mince-meat, or beef-sausages, is uniformly mixed with its own weight of cold water, slowly heated till boiling, and the liquid, after boiling briskly for a minute or two, is strained through the towel from the coagulated albumen and the fibrine, now become hard and horny, we obtain an equal weight of the most aromatic soup, of such strength as cannot be obtained even by boiling for hours from a piece of flesh. When mixed with salt and the other additions by which soup is usually seasoned, and tinged somewhat darker by means of roasted onions, or burnt bread, it forms the very best soup which can, in any way, be prepared from one pound of flesh.

BROWN GRAVY SOUP.—Shred a small plate of onions, put some dripping into a frying-pan and fry the onions till they are of a dark brown; then, having about three pounds of beef cut up in dice, without fat or bone, brown that in a frying-pan. Now get a sauce-pan to contain about a gallon, and put in the onions and meat, with a carrot and a turnip cut small, and a little celery, if you have it; if not, add two seeds of celery; put three quarts, or three and a half quarts of water to this, and stir all together with a little pepper and salt; simmer very slowly, and skim off what rises; in three or four hours the soup will be clear. When served, add a little vermicelli, which should have previously been boiled in water; the liquid should be carefully poured off through a sieve. A large quantity may be made in the same proportions. Of course, the meat and onions must be stirred whilst frying, and constantly turned; they should be of a fine brown, not black, and celery-seed will give a flavor, it is so strong.

CARROT SOUP.—Put some beef bones, with four quarts of the liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef has been boiled, two large onions, a turnip, pepper and salt into a sauce-pan, and stew for three hours. Have ready six large carrots, scraped and cut thin, strain the soup on them, and stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair sieve or coarse cloth, then boil the pulp with the soup, which is to be as thick as pea-soup. Use two wooden spoons to rub the carrots through. Make the soup the day before it is to be used. Add cayenne. Pulp only the red part of the carrot, and not the yellow.

CLAM SOUP.—Cut salt pork in very small squares and fry light brown; add one large or two small onions cut very fine, and cook about ten minutes; add two quarts water and one quart of raw potatoes, sliced; let it boil; then add one quart of clams. Mix one tablespoonful of flour with water, put it with one pint of milk, and pour into the soup, and let it boil about five minutes. Butter, pepper, salt. Worcestershire sauce to taste.

[Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'GROUTONS'] CROUTONS.—These are simply pieces of bread fried brown and crisp, to be used in soups.

GAME SOUPS.—Cut in pieces a partridge, pheasant, or rabbit; add slices of veal, ham, onions, carrots, etc. Add a little water, heat a little on slow fire, as gravy is done; then add some good broth, boil the meat gently till it is done. Strain, and stew in the liquor what herbs you please.

GAME SOUP.—In the season for game, it is easy to have good game soup at very little expense, and very nice. Take the meat from off the bones of any cold game left, pound it in a mortar and break up the bones, and pour on them a quart of any good broth, and boil for an hour and a half. Boil and mash six turnips, and mix with the pounded meat, and then pass them through a sieve. Strain the broth, and stir in the mixture of meat and turnips which has been strained through the sieve; keep the soup-pot near the fire, but do not let it boil. When ready to dish the soup for table, beat the yolks of five eggs very lightly, and mix with them half a pint of good cream. Set the soup on to boil, and, as it boils, stir in the beaten eggs and cream, but be careful that it does not boil after they are stirred in, as the egg will curdle. Serve hot.

JULIENNE SOUP.—Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into the soup-kettle; stir until melted. Cut three young onions small; fry them a nice brown; add three quarts of good clear beef-stock, a little mace, pepper and salt; let it boil an hour; add three young carrots and three turnips cut small, a stalk of celery cut fine, a pint of French beans, a pint of green peas; let this boil two hours; if not a bright, clear color, add a spoonful of soy. This is a nice summer soup.

LOBSTER SOUP.—One large lobster or two small ones; pick all the meat from the shell and chop fine; scald one quart of milk and one pint of water, then add the lobster, one pound of butter, a teaspoonful of flour, and salt and red pepper to taste. Boil ten minutes and serve hot.

MOCK TURTLE SOUP.—One soup-bone, one quart of turtle beans, one large spoonful of powdered cloves, salt and pepper. Soak the beans over night, put them on with the soup-bone in nearly six quarts of water, and cook five or six hours. When half done, add the cloves, salt and pepper; when done, strain through a colander, pressing the pulp of the beans through to make the soup the desired thickness, and serve with a few slices of hard-boiled egg and lemon sliced very thin. The turtle beans are black and can only be obtained from large groce.

OYSTER SOUP.—Take one quart of water, one teacup of butter, one pint of milk, two teaspoons of salt, four crackers rolled fine, and one teaspoon of pepper; bring to full boiling heat as soon as possible, then add one quart of oysters; let the whole come to boiling heat quickly and remove from the fire.

OYSTER SOUP.—Pour one quart of boiling water into a skillet; then one quart of good rich milk; stir in one teacup of rolled cracker crumbs; season with pepper and salt to taste. When all come to boil, add one quart of good fresh oysters; stir well, so as to keep from scorching; then add a piece of good sweet butter about the size of an egg; let it boil up once, then remove from the fire immediately; dish up and send to table.

OX TAIL SOUP.—Take two ox tails and two whole onions, two carrots, a small turnip, two tablespoonfuls of flour, and a little white pepper; add a gallon of water, let all boil for two hours; then take out the tails and cut the meat into small pieces, return the bones to the pot for a short time, boil for another hour, then strain the soup, and rinse two spoonfuls of arrow-root to add to it with the meat cut from the bones, and let all boil for a quarter of an hour.

SCOTCH BROTH.—Take one-half teacup barley, four quarts cold water; bring this to the boil and skim; now put in a neck of mutton and boil again for half an hour, skim well the sides of the pot also; have ready two carrots, one large onion, a small head of cabbage, one bunch parsley, one sprig of celery top; chop all these fine, add your chopped vegetables, pepper and salt to taste. This soup takes two hours to cook.

SOUP AND BOUILLE.—Stew a brisket of beef with some turnips, celery, leeks and onions, all finely cut. Put the pieces of beef into the pot first, then the roots, and half a pint of beef gravy, with a few cloves. Simmer for an hour. Add more beef gravy, and boil gently for half an hour.

ROYAL SOUP.—Take a scrag or knuckle of veal, slices of undressed gammon of bacon, onions, mace, and a small quantity of water; simmer till very strong, and lower it with a good beef broth made the day before, and stewed till the meat is done to rags. Add cream, vermicelli, almonds and a roll.

VARIOUS SOUPS.—Good soups may be made from fried meats, where the fat and gravy are added to the boiled barley; and for that purpose, fat beef steaks, pork steaks, mutton chops, etc. should be preferred, as containing more of the nutritious principle. When nearly done frying, add a little water, which will produce a gravy to be added to the barley broth; a little wheat flour should be dredged in also; a quantity of onions, cut small, should also be fried with the fat, which gives the soup a fine flavor, assisted by seasoning, etc.

Soups may be made from broiled meats. While the fat beef steak is doing before the fire, or mutton chop, etc., save the drippings on a dish, in which a little flour, oatmeal, with cut onions, etc., are put.

GRAND CONSOMME SOUP.—Put into a pot two knuckles of veal, a piece of a leg of beef, a fowl, or an old cock, a rabbit, or two old partridges; add a ladleful of soup, and stir it well; when it comes to a jelly, put in a sufficient quantity of stock, and see that it is clear; let it boil, skimming and refreshing it with water; season it as the above; you may add, if you like, a clove of garlic; let it then boil slowly or simmer four or five hours; put it through a towel, and use it for mixing in sauces or clear soups.

JULIENNE SOUP.—Take some carrots and turnips, and turn them riband-like; a few heads of celery, some leeks and onions, and cut them in lozenges, boil them till they are cooked, then put them into clear gravy soup. Brown thickening.—N.B. You may, in summer time, add green peas, asparagus tops, French beans, some lettuce or sorrel.

SOUP AND SOUPS.—It is not at all necessary to keep a special fire for five hours every day in order to have at dinner a first course of soup. Nor need a good, savory, nutritious soup for a family of five cost more than 10 cents. There is no use hurling any remarks about "swill-pails." Every housekeeper who knows anything of her kitchen and dining-room affairs, knows there are usually nice clean fragments of roasts and broils left over, and that broth in which lamb, mutton, beef, and fowls have been boiled is in existence, and that twice a week or so there is a bowl of drippings from roasted meats. All these when simmered with rice, macaroni, or well-chosen vegetables, and judiciously seasoned, make good soups, and can be had without a special fire, and without sending to the butcher's for special meats.

We name a few of the soups we make, and beg leave to add that they are pretty well received. We make them in small quantities, for nobody with three additional courses before him wants to eat a quart of soup, you know!

1.—One pint of good gravy, three cups boiling water, a slice of turnip, and half an onion cut in small bits, two grated crackers. Simmer half an hour.

2.—On ironing day cut off the narrow ends from two or three sirloin steaks, chop them into morsels and put in a stewpan with a little salt, a tablespoonful of rice and a pint of cold water, and simmer slowly for three hours. Then add water enough to make a quart of soup, a tablespoonful of tomato catsup, and a little browned flour mixed with the yolk of an egg.

3.—Pare and slice very thin four good sized potatoes, pour over them two cups of boiling water, and simmer gently until the potatoes are dissolved. Add salt, a lump of nice butter, and a pint of sweet milk with a dust of pepper. Let it boil up once, and serve. You wouldn't think it, but it is real good, and children cry for it.

4.—One pint meat broth, one pint boiling water, slice in an onion, or a parsnip, or half a turnip—or all three if liked—boil until the vegetables are soft, add a little salt if needed, and a tablespoonful of Halford sauce.

5.—Let green corn, in the time of green corn, be grated, and to a pint of it put a pint of rich milk, a pint of water, a little butter, salt and pepper. Boil gently for fifteen or twenty minutes.

SPLIT PEA SOUP.—Take beef bones or any cold meats, and two pounds of corned pork; pour on them a gallon of hot water, and let them simmer three hours, removing all the scum. Boil one quart of split peas two hours, having been previously soaked, as they require much cooking: strain off the meat and mash the peas into the soup; season with black pepper, and let it simmer one hour; fry two or three slices of bread a nice brown, cut into slices and put into the bottom of the tureen, and on them pour the soup.

TOMATO SOUP.—Boil chicken or beef four hours; then strain; add to the soup one can of tomatoes and boil one hour. This will make four quarts of soup.

TOMATO SOUP WITHOUT MEAT.—One quart of tomatoes, one quart of water, one quart of milk. Butter, salt and pepper to taste. Cook the tomatoes thoroughly in the water, have the milk scalding (over water to prevent scorching). When the tomatoes are done add a large teaspoonful of salaratus, which will cause a violent effervescence. It is best to set the vessel in a pan before adding it to prevent waste. When the commotion has ceased add the milk and seasoning. When it is possible it is best to use more milk than water, and cream instead of butter. The soup is eaten with crackers and is by some preferred to oyster soup. This recipe is very valuable for those who keep abstinence days.

TURKEY SOUP.—Take the turkey bones and cook for one hour in water enough to cover them; then stir in a little dressing and a beaten egg. Take from the fire, and when the water has ceased boiling add a little butter with pepper and salt.

VEAL GRAVY.—Put in the stewpan bits of lard, then a few thin slices of ham, a few bits of butter, then slices of fillet of veal, sliced onions, carrots, parsnips, celery, a few cloves upon the meat, and two spoonfuls of broth; set it on the fire till the veal throws out its juices; then put it on a stronger fire till the meat catches to the bottom of the pan, and is brought to a proper color; then add a sufficient quantity of light broth, and simmer it upon a slow fire till the meat is well done. A little thyme and mushrooms may be added. Skim and sift it clear for use.

VEAL SOUP.—To a knuckle of veal of 6 pounds, put 7 or 9 quarts of water; boil down one-half; skim it well. This is better to do the day before you prepare the soup for the table. Thicken it by rubbing flour, butter, and water together. Season with salt and mace. When done [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'and'] add one pint new milk; let it just come to a boil; then pour into a soup dish, lined with macaroni well cooked.

VEGETABLE SOUP.—Pare and slice five or six cucumbers; and add to these as many cos lettuces, a sprig or two of mint, two or three onions, some pepper and salt, a pint and a half of young peas and a little parsley. Put these, with half a pound of fresh butter, into a saucepan, to stew in their own liquor, near a gentle fire, half an hour, then pour two quarts of boiling water to the vegetables, and stew them two hours; rub down a little flour into a teacupful of water, boil it with the rest twenty minutes, and serve it.

VERMICELLI SOUP.—Boil tender 1/2 lb. of vermicelli in a quart of rich gravy; take half of it out, and add to it more gravy; boil till the vermicelli can be pulped through a sieve. To both put a pint of boiling cream, a little salt, and 1/4 lb. of Parmesan cheese. Serve with rasped bread. Add two or three eggs, if you like.

BROWN VERMICELLI SOUP.—Is made in the same manner, leaving out the eggs and cream, and adding one quart of strong beef gravy.

* * * * *

HOW TO COOK VEGETABLES

HOW TO BOIL ARTICHOKES.—If the artichokes are very young, about an inch of the stalk can be left; but should they be full grown, the stalk must be cut quite close. Wash them well and put them into strong salt and water to soak for a couple of hours. Pull away a few of the lower leaves, and snip off the points of all. Fill a saucepan with water, throw some salt into it, let it boil up, and then remove the scum from the top; put the artichokes in, with the stalks upward, and let them boil until the leaves can be loosened easily; this will take from thirty to forty minutes, according to the age of the artichokes. The saucepan should not be covered during the time they are boiling. Rich, melted butter is always sent to the table with them.

NEW MODE TO DRESS ASPARAGUS.—Scrape the grass, tie it up in bundles, and cut the ends off an even length. Have ready a saucepan, with boiling water, and salt in proportion of a heaped saltspoonful to a quart of water. Put in the grass, standing it on the bottom with the green heads out of the water, so that they are not liable to be boiled off. If the water boils too fast, dash in a little cold water. When the grass has boiled a quarter of an hour it will be sufficiently done; remove it from the saucepan, cut off the ends down to the edible part, arrange it on a dish in a round pyramid, with the heads toward the middle of the dish, and boil some eggs hard; cut them in two, and place them round the dish quite hot. Serve melted butter in a sauce-tureen; and those who like it rub the yoke of a hard egg into the butter, which makes a delicious sauce to the asparagus.

HOW TO BOIL ASPARAGUS.—Scrape the asparagus; tie them in small bunches; boil them in a large pan of water with salt in it; before you dish them up toast some slices of bread, and then dip them in the boiling water; lay the asparagus on the toasts; pour on them rich melted butter, and serve hot.

RAGOUT OF ASPARAGUS.—Cut small asparagus like green peas; the best method is to break them off first; then tie them in small bunches to cut, boil them till half done; then drain them, and finish with butter, a little broth, herbs, two cloves, and a sprig of savory. When done, take out the cloves, herbs, etc., mix two yolks of eggs, with a little flour, and broth, to garnish a first course dish. But if you intend to serve it in a second course mix cream, a little salt, and sugar.

FRENCH BEANS, A LA CREME.—Slice the beans and boil them in water with salt. When soft, drain. Put into a stewpan two ounces of fresh butter, the yolks of three eggs, beaten up into a gill of cream, and set over a slow fire. When hot, add a spoonful of vinegar, simmer for five minutes.

TO PRESERVE FRENCH BEANS FOR WINTER.—Pick them young, and throw into a little wooden keg a layer of them three inches deep; then sprinkle them with salt, put another layer of beans, and do the same as high as you think proper, alternately with salt, but not too much of this. Lay over them a plate, or cover of wood, that will go into the keg, and put a heavy stone on it. A pickle will rise from the beans and salt. If they are too salt, the soaking and boiling will not be sufficient to make them pleasant to the taste.

STEWED BEANS.—Boil them in water in which a lump of butter has been placed; preserve them as white as you can; chop a few sweet herbs with some parsley very fine; then stew them in a pint of the water in which the leaves have been boiled, and to which a quarter of a pint of cream has been added; stew until quite tender, then add the beans, and stew five minutes, thickening with butter and flour.

HOW TO BOIL BROCCOLI.—Peel the thick skin of the stalks, and boil for nearly a quarter of an hour, with a little bit of soda, then put in salt, and boil five minutes more. Broccoli and savoys taste better when a little bacon is boiled with them.

HOW TO BOIL CABBAGE.—Cut off the outside leaves, and cut it in quarters; pick it well, and wash it clean; boil it in a large quantity of water, with plenty of salt in it; when it is tender and a fine light green, lay it on a sieve to drain, but do not squeeze it, it will take off the flavor; have ready some very rich melted butter, or chop it with cold butter. Greens must be boiled the same way. Strong vegetables like turnips and cabbage, etc., require much water.

CABBAGE SALAD.—Three eggs well beaten, one cup of vinegar, two tablespoons of mustard, salt and pepper, one tablespoon of butter; let this mixture come to a boil, when cool add seven tablespoons of cream, half a head of cabbage shaved fine.

HOW TO BOIL CAULIFLOWERS.—Strip the leaves which you do not intend to use, and put the cauliflowers into salt and water some time to force out snails, worms, etc. Boil them twelve minutes on a drainer in plenty of water, then add salt, and boil five or six minutes longer. Skim well while boiling. Take out and drain. Serve with melted butter, or a sauce made of butter, cream, pepper and salt.

HOW TO FRY CAULIFLOWERS.—Wash as before. Boil twenty or thirty minutes; cut it into small portions, and cool. Dip the portions twice into a batter made of flour, milk and egg, and fry them in butter. Serve with gravy.

CUCUMBERS FOR IMMEDIATE USE.—Slice, sprinkle with salt; let them stand several hours, drain, and then put to them sliced onions, vinegar to cover them, and salt, pepper, etc. Cayenne pepper and ground mustard render them wholesome.

STEWED CELERY.—Wash and clean six or eight heads of celery, let them be about three inches long; boil tender and pour off all the water; beat the yolks of four eggs, and mix with half a pint of cream, mace and salt; set it over the fire with the celery, and keep shaking until it thickens, then serve hot.

COLD SLAW.—Half a head of cabbage cut very fine, a stalk of celery cut fine—or teaspoon of celery seed—or, a tablespoon of celery essence, four hard-boiled eggs, whites chopped very fine, a teaspoon of mustard, a tablespoon of butter and the yolks of the boiled eggs, salt and pepper, mix well; take an egg well beaten and stir in a cup of boiling vinegar, pour over and cover for a few minutes.

EGG-PLANT.—Slice the egg-plant an eighth of an inch in thickness, pare it, and sprinkle salt over it an hour before cooking; then drain off all the water, beat up the yolk of an egg, clip the slices first in the egg, and then in crumbs of bread; fry a nice brown. Serve hot, and free from fat.

HOW TO COOK EGG-PLANT.—Cut the egg-plant in slices half an inch thick, sprinkle a thin layer of salt between the slices, and lay them one over the other; and let them stand an hour. This draws out the bitter principal from the egg-plant, and also a part of the water. Then lay each slice in flour, put in hot fat and fry it brown on both sides. Or boil the egg-plant till tender, remove the skin, mash fine, mix with an equal quantity of bread or cracker crumbs, and salt, pepper and bake half an hour. This makes a delightful dish, and a very digestible one, as it has so little oily matter in it.

HOW TO BROIL MUSHROOMS.—Pare some large, open mushrooms, leaving the stalks on, paring them to a point; wash them well, and turn them on the back of a drying sieve to drain. Put into a stewpan two ounces of butter, some chopped parsley, and shalots, then fry them for a minute on the fire; when melted, place your mushroom stalks upward on a saucepan, then pour the butter and parsley over all the mushrooms; pepper and salt them well with black pepper put them in the oven to broil; when done, put a little good stock to them, give them a boil and dish them, pour the liquor over them, adding more gravy, but let it be put in hot.

HOW TO PICKLE ONIONS.—Take two quarts of the small white round onions. Scald them in very strong salt and water. Just let them boil. Strain, peel, place in jars; cover them with the best white wine vinegar. In two days pour all the vinegar off, and boil it half an hour, with a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, 1 oz. of ginger, 16 cloves, 1/2 oz. ground mustard, 2 ozs. mustard seed. When cold, pour upon the onions. Some persons prefer the vinegar boiling hot.

HOW TO FRICASSEE PARSNIPS.—Boil in milk till they are soft, then cut them lengthwise in bits two or three inches long, and simmer in a white sauce, made of two spoonfuls of broth, and a bit of mace, half a cupful of cream, a bit of butter, and some flour, pepper and salt.

HOW TO MASH PARSNIPS.—Boil them tender, scrape then mash them in a stewpan with a little cream, a good piece of butter, and pepper and salt.

HOW TO STEW PARSNIPS.—Boil them tender; scrape and cut into slices; put them into a saucepan with cream enough; for sauce, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a little salt; shake the saucepan often, when the cream boils, pour them into a dish.

HOW TO BOIL PEAS.—Peas should not be shelled long before they are wanted, nor boiled in much water; when the water boils, put them in with a little salt (some add a little loaf sugar, but if they are sweet of themselves, it is superfluous); when the peas begin to dent in the middle they are boiled enough. Strain, and put a piece of butter in the dish, and stir. A little mint should be boiled with the peas.

PUREE OF POTATOES.—This differs from mashed potatoes only in the employment of more milk and butter, and in the whole being carefully reduced to a perfectly smooth, thick, cream-like mixture. Where economy is a great object, and where rich dishes are not desired, the following is an admirable mode of mashing potatoes: Boil them till thoroughly done, having added a handful of salt to the water, then dry them well, and with two forks placed back to back beat the whole up until no lumps are left. If done rapidly, potatoes thus cooked are extremely light and digestible.

HOW TO BOIL POTATOES.—Boil in a saucepan without lid, with only sufficient water to cover them; more would spoil them, as the potatoes contain much water, and it requires to be expelled. When the water nearly boils pour it off, and add cold water, with a good portion of salt. The cold water sends the heat from the surface to the center of the potato, and makes it mealy. Boiling with a lid on often produces cracking.

NEW POTATOES.—Should be cooked soon after having been dug; wash well, and boil.

The Irish, who boil potatoes to perfection, say they should always be boiled in their jackets; as peeling them for boiling is only offering a premium for water to run through the potato, and rendering it sad and unpalatable; they should be well washed, and put into cold water.

NEW POTATOES.—Have them as freshly dug as may be convenient; the longer they have been out of the ground the less well-flavored they are. Well wash them, rub off the skins with a coarse cloth or brush, and put them into boiling water, to which has been added salt, at the rate of one heaped teaspoonful to two quarts. Let them boil till tender—try them with a fork; they will take from ten or fifteen minutes to half an hour, according to size. When done, pour away the water, and set by the side of the fire, with the lid aslant. When they are quite dry, have ready a hot vegetable dish, and in the middle of it put a piece of butter the size of a walnut—some people like more—heap the potatoes round it and over it, and serve immediately. We have seen very young potatoes, no larger than a marble, parboiled, and then fried in cream till they are of a fine auburn color; or else, when larger, boiled till nearly ready, then sliced and fried in cream, with pepper, salt, a very little nutmeg, and a flavoring of lemon juice. Both make pretty little supper dishes.

POTATOES ROASTED UNDER THE MEAT.—These are very good; they should be nicely browned. Half boil large mealy potatoes; put into a baking dish, under the meat roasting; ladle the gravy upon them occasionally. They are best done in an oven.

POTATO RIBBONS.—Cut the potatoes into slices, rather more than half an inch thick, and then pare round and round in very long ribbons. Place them in a pan of cold water, and a short time before wanted drain them from the water. Fry them in hot lard, or good dripping, until crisp and browned; dry them on a soft cloth, pile them on a hot dish, and season with salt and cayenne.

POTATO ROLLS.—Boil three lbs. of potatoes; crush and work them with two ozs. of butter and as much milk as will cause them to pass through a colander; take half a pint of yeast and half a pint of warm water; mix with the potatoes; pour the whole upon 5 lbs. of flour; add salt; knead it well; if too thick, put to it a little more milk and warm water; stand before the fire for an hour to rise; work it well and make it into rolls. Bake it half an hour.

POTATO RISSOLES.—Boil the potatoes floury; mash them, seasoning them with salt and a little cayenne; mince parsley very fine, and work up with the potatoes, adding eschalot, also chopped small. Bind with yolk of egg, roll into balls, and fry with fresh butter over a clear fire. Meat shred finely, bacon or ham may be added.

POTATO SAUTEES.—These are even more agreeable with meat than fried potatoes. Cold boiled potatoes are sliced up, and tossed up in a saucepan with butter, mixed with a little chopped parsley, till they are lightly browned. Pure goose or other dripping is by many cooks preferred to butter for this purpose.

POTATO SOUFFLES.—The delicious blistered potatoes are prepared as follows: The potatoes, if small, are simply cut in halves; if large, cut in three or more slices; these are fried in the usual way, but are taken out before they are quite done, and set aside to get cold; when wanted they are fried a second time, but only till they are of a light golden color, not brown.

TOMATOES.—Cut ripe tomatoes into slices, put them in a buttered dish with some bread crumbs, butter, pepper and salt, and bake till slightly brown on top.

FORCED TOMATOES.—Prepare the following forcemeat: Two ounces of mushrooms, minced small, a couple of shalots, likewise minced, a small quantity of parsley, a slice of lean ham, chopped fine, a few savory herbs, and a little cayenne and salt. Put all these ingredients into a saucepan with a lump of butter, and stew all together until quite tender, taking care that they do not burn. Put it by to cool, and then mix with them some bread crumbs and the well beaten yolks of two eggs. Choose large tomatoes, as nearly of the same size as possible, cut a slice from the stalk end of each, and take out carefully the seeds and juice; fill them with the mixture which has already been prepared, strew them over with bread and some melted butter, and bake them in a quick oven until they assume a rich color. They are a good accompaniment to veal or calf's head.

TO MASH TURNIPS.—Boil them very tender. Strain till no water is left. Place in a saucepan over a gentle fire, and stir well a few minutes. Do not let them burn. Add a little cream, or milk, or both, salt butter and pepper. Add a tablespoonful of fine sugar. Stir and simmer five minutes longer.

TO BOIL OR STEW VEGETABLE MARROW.—This excellent vegetable may be boiled as asparagus. When boiled, divide it lengthways into two, and serve it upon a toast accompanied by melted butter; or when nearly boiled, divide it as above, and stew gently in gravy like cucumbers. Care should be taken to choose young ones not exceeding six inches in length.

* * * * *



HOW TO CALCULATE.

PRACTICAL RULES, SHORT METHODS, AND PROBLEMS USED IN BUSINESS COMPUTATIONS.

Rapidity and accuracy in making estimates and in figuring out the result of business transactions is of the greatest necessity to the man of business. A miscalculation may involve the loss of hundreds or thousands of dollars, in many cases, while a slow and tedious calculation involves loss of time and the advantage which should have been seized at the moment. It is proposed in the following pages to give a few brief methods and practical rules for performing calculations which occur in every-day transactions among men, presuming that a fair knowledge of the ordinary rules of arithmetic has previously been attained.

ADDITION.

To be able to add up long columns of figures rapidly and correctly is of great value to the merchant. This requires not only a knowledge of addition, but in order to have a correct result, one that can be relied upon, it requires concentration of the mind. Never allow other thoughts to be flitting through the mind, or any outside matter to disturb or draw it away from the figures, until the result is obtained. Write the tens to be carried each time in a smaller figure underneath the units, so that afterwards any column can be added over again without repeating the entire operation. By the practice of addition the eye and mind soon become accustomed to act rapidly, and this is the art of addition. Grouping figures together is a valuable aid in rapid addition, as we group letters into words in reading.

862 538 / 674 843 / _ 2917

Thus, in the above example, we do not say 3 and 4 are 7 and 8 are 15 and 2 are 17, but speak the sum of the couplet, thus 7 and 10 are 17, and in the second column, 12 and 9 are 21. This method of grouping the figures soon becomes easy and reduces the labor of addition about one-half, while those somewhat expert may group three or more figures, still more reducing the time and labor, and sometimes two or more columns may be added at once, by ready reckoners.

Another method is to group into tens when it can be conveniently done, and still another method in adding up long columns is to add from the bottom to the top, and whenever the numbers make even 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50, write with pencil a small figure opposite, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, and then proceed to add as units. The sum of these figures thus set out will be the number of tens to be carried to the next column.

6^{2} 2 8 3 5^{2} 4^{1} 2 8 4 9 6 2 7^{2} 1 8^{2} 8 3^{2} 5 5 2 7 1^{1} 3 2^{1} 5 8 8 5 0 2 8



SHORT METHODS OF MULTIPLICATION.

For certain classes of examples in multiplication short methods may be employed and the labor of calculation reduced, but of course for the great bulk of multiplications no practical abbreviation remains. A person having much multiplying to do should learn the table up to twenty, which can be done without much labor.

To multiply any number by 10, 100, or 1000, simply annex one, two, or three ciphers, as the case may be. If it is desired to multiply by 20, 300, 5000, or a number greater than one with any number of ciphers annexed, multiply first by the number and then annex as many ciphers as the multiplier contains.

TABLE.

5 cents equal 1/20 of a dollar. 10 cents equal 1/10 of a dollar. 12-1/2 cents equal 1/8 of a dollar. 16-2/3 cents equal 1/6 of a dollar. 20 cents equal 1/5 of a dollar. 25 cents equal 1/4 of a dollar. 33-1/3 cents equal 1/3 of a dollar. 50 cents equal 1/2 of a dollar.

Articles of merchandise are often bought and sold by the pound, yard, or gallon, and whenever the price is an equal part of a dollar, as seen in the above table, the whole cost may be easily found by adding two ciphers to the number of pounds or yards and dividing by the equivalent in the table.

Example. What cost 18 dozen eggs at 16-2/3c per dozen?

6)1800 $3.00

Example. What cost 10 pounds butter at 25c per pound?

4)1000 ——- $2.50

Or, if the pounds are equal parts of one hundred and the price is not, then the same result may be obtained by dividing the price by the equivalent of the quantity as seen in the table; thus, in the above case, if the price were 10c and the number of pounds 25, it would be worked just the same.

Example. Find the cost of 50 yards of gingham at 14c a yard.

2)1400 ——- $7.00

When the price is one dollar and twenty-five cents, fifty cents, or any number found in the table, the result may be quickly found by finding the price for the extra cents, as in the above examples, and then adding this to the number of pounds or yards and calling the result dollars.

Example. Find the cost of 20 bushels potatoes at $1.12-1/2 per bushel.

8)2000 250 ——- $22.50

If the price is $2 or $3 instead of $1, then the number of bushels must first be multiplied by 2 or 3, as the case may be.

Example. Find the cost of 6 hats at $4.33-1/3 apiece.

3)600 4 ——— 24.00 2.00 ——— $26

When 125 or 250 are multipliers add three ciphers and divide by 8 and 4 respectively.

To multiply a number consisting of two figures by 11, write the sum of the two figures between them.

Example. Multiply 53 by 11. Ans. 583.

If the sum of the two numbers exceeds 10 then the units only must be placed between and the tens figure carried and added to the next figure to the left.

Example. Multiply 87 by 11. Ans. 957.

FRACTIONS.

Fractional parts of a cent should never be despised. They often make fortunes, and the counting of all the fractions may constitute the difference between the rich and the poor man. The business man readily understands the value of the fractional part of a bushel, yard, pound, or cent, and calculates them very sharply, for in them lies perhaps his entire profit.

TO REDUCE A FRACTION TO ITS SIMPLEST FORM.

Divide both the numerator and denominator by any number that will leave no remainder and repeat the operation until no number will divide them both.

Example. The simplest form of 36/45 is found by dividing by 9 = 4/5.

To reduce a whole number and a fraction, as 4-1/2, to fractional form, multiply the whole number by the denominator, add the numerator and write the result over the denominator. Thus, 4 X 2 = 8 + = 9 placed over 2 is 9/2.

TO ADD FRACTIONS.

Reduce the fractions to like denominators, add their numerators and write the denominator under the result.

Example. Add 2/3 to 3/4.

2/3 = 8/12, 3/4 = 9/12, 8/12 + 9/12 = 17/12 = 1-5/12. Ans.

TO SUBTRACT FRACTIONS.

Reduce the fractions to like denominators, subtract the numerators and write the denominators under the result.

Example. Find the difference between 4/5 and 3/4.

4/5 = 16/20, 3/4 = 15/20, 16/20-15/20 = 1/20. Ans.

TO MULTIPLY FRACTIONS.

Multiply the numerators together for a new numerator and the denominators together for a new denominator.

Example. Multiply 7/8 by 5/6.

7/8 x 5/6 = 35/48. Ans.

TO DIVIDE FRACTIONS.

Multiply the dividend by the divisor inverted.

Example. Divide 7/8 by 5/6.

7/8 X 6/5 = 42/40. Reduced to simple form by dividing by 2 is 21/20 = [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads '1^{1}'] 1-1/20. Ans.

TO MULTIPLY MIXED NUMBERS.

When two numbers are to be multiplied, one of which contains a fraction, first multiply the whole numbers together, then multiply the fraction by the other whole number, add the two results together for the correct answer.

Example. What cost 5-1/3 yards at 18c a yard?

18c 5-1/3 —- 18 x 5 = 90 18 x 1/3 = 6 —- 96c

When both numbers contain a fraction,

First, multiply the whole numbers together,

Second, multiply the, lower whole number by the upper fraction;

Third, multiply the upper whole number by the lower fraction;

Fourth, multiply the fractions together;

Fifth, add all the results for the correct answer.

Example. What cost 12-2/3 pounds of butter at 18-3/4c per pound?

18-3/4 12-2/3 ———- 18 X 12 = 216 12 x 3/4 = 9 18 X 2/3 = 12 3/4 X 2/3 = 6/12 = 1/2 ———- $2.37-1/2

Common fractions may often be changed to decimals very readily, and the calculations thereby made much easier.

TO CHANGE COMMON FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS.

Annex one or more ciphers to the numerator and divide by the denominator.

Example. Change 3/4 to a decimal. Ans. .75.

We add two ciphers to the 3, making it 300, and divide by 4, which gives us.75. In the same way 1/2 =.5, or 3/4 =.75, and so on. When a quantity is in dollars and fractions of a dollar, the fractions should always be thus reduced to cents and mills.

* * * * *

TWENTY THOUSAND THINGS WORTH KNOWING.

RELATIVE HARDNESS OF WOODS.

Taking shell bark hickory as the highest standard of our forest trees, and calling that 100, other trees will compare with it for hardness as follows:

Shell Bark Hickory 100 Pignut Hickory 96 White Oak 84 White Ash 77 Dogwood 75 Scrub Oak 73 White Hazel 72 Apple Tree 70 Red Oak 69 White Beech 65 Black Walnut 65 Black Birch 62 Yellow Oak 60 Hard Maple 56 White Elm 58 Red Cedar 56 Wild Cherry 55 Yellow Pine 54 [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'Chesnut'] Chestnut 52 Yellow Poplar 51 [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'Buternut'] Butternut 43 White Birch 43 White Pine 30

Timber intended for posts is rendered almost proof against rot by thorough seasoning, charring and immersion in hot coal tar.

The slide of Alpnach, extending from Mount Pilatus to Lake Lucerne, a distance of 8 miles, is composed of 25,000 trees, stripped of their bark, and laid at an inclination of 10 to 18 degrees. Trees placed in the slide rush from the mountain into the lake in 6 minutes.

The Alps comprise about 180 mountains, from 4,000 to 15,732 feet high, the latter being the height of Mount Blanc, the highest spot in Europe. The summit is a sharp ridge, like the roof of a house, consisting of nearly vertical granite rocks. The ascent requires 2 days, 6 or 8 guides are required, and each guide is paid 100 francs ($20.00). It was ascended by two natives, Jacques Belmat and Dr. Packard, August 8, 1786, at 6 a.m. They staid up 30 minutes, with the thermometer at 14 degrees below the freezing point. The provisions froze in their pockets; their faces were frost-bitten, lips swollen, and their sight much weakened, but they soon recovered on their descent. De Saussure records in his ascent August 2, 1760, that the color of the sky was deep blue; the stars were visible in the shade; the barometer sunk to 16.08 inches (being 27.08 in Geneva) the thermometer was 26-1/2 degrees, in the sun 29 degrees (being 87 degrees at Geneva). The thin air works the blood into a high fever, you feel as if you hardly touched the ground, and you scarcely make yourself heard. A French woman, Mademoiselle d'Angeville, ascended in September, 1840, being dragged up the last 1,200 feet by guides, and crying out: "If I die, carry me to the top." When there, she made them lift her up, that she might boast she had been higher than any man in Europe. The ascent of these awful solitudes is most perilous, owing to the narrow paths, tremendous ravines, icy barriers, precipices, etc. In many places every step has to be cut in the ice, the party being tied to each other by ropes, so that if one slips he may be held up by the rest, and silence is enforced, lest the noise of talking should dislodge the avalanches of the Aiguille du Midi. The view from the mountain is inexpressibly grand. On the Alps the limit of the vine is an elevation of 1,600 feet; below 1,000 feet, figs, oranges and olives are produced. The limit of the oak is 3,800 feet, of the [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'chesnut'] chestnut 2,800 feet,of the pine 6,500 feet, of heaths and furze to 8,700 and 9,700 feet; and perpetual snow exists at an elevation of 8,200 feet.

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