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Burroughs' Encyclopaedia of Astounding Facts and Useful Information, 1889
by Barkham Burroughs
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LEMON TARTS.—Pare the rinds of four lemons, and boil tender in two waters, and beat fine. Add to it 4 ounces of blanched almonds, cut thin, 4 ozs. of lump sugar, the juice of the lemons, and a little grated peel. Simmer to a syrup. When cold, turn into a shallow tin tart dish, lined with a rich thin puff paste, and lay bars of the same over, and bake carefully.

MACAROONS.—Blanch 4 ozs. of almonds, and pound with 4 spoonfuls of orange-flower water; whisk the whites of four eggs to a froth, then mix it, and 1 lb. of sugar, sifted with the almonds to a paste; and laying a sheet of wafer-paper on a tin, put it on in different little cakes, the shape of macaroons.

OATMEAL CUSTARD.—Take two teaspoons of the finest Scotch oatmeal, beat it up into a sufficiency of cold water in a basin to allow it to run freely. Add to it the yoke of a fresh egg, well worked up; have a pint of scalding new milk on the fire, and pour the oatmeal mixture into it, stirring it round with a spoon so as to incorporate the whole. Add sugar to your taste, and throw in a glass of sherry to the mixture, with a little grated nutmeg. Pour it into a basin, and take it warm in bed. It will be found very grateful and soothing in cases of colds or chills. Some, persons scald a little cinnamon in the milk they use for the occasion.

ORANGE CRUMPETS.—Cream, 1 pint; new milk, 1 pint; warm it, and put in it a little rennet or citric acid; when broken, stir it gently; lay it on a cloth to drain all night, and then take the rinds of three oranges, boiled, as for preserving, in three different waters; pound them very fine, and mix them with the curd, and eight eggs in a mortar, a little nutmeg, the juice of a lemon or orange, and sugar to your taste; bake them in buttered tin pans. When baked put a little wine and sugar over them.

ORANGE CUSTARDS.—Boil the rind of half a Seville orange very tender; beat it very fine in a mortar; add a spoonful of the best brandy, the juice of a Seville orange, 4 ozs. loaf sugar, and the yolks of four eggs; beat all together ten minutes; then pour in gradually a pint of boiling cream; keep beating them until they are cold; put them into custard cups, and set them in an earthen dish of hot water; let them stand until they are set, take out, and stick preserved oranges on the top, and serve them hot or cold.

POMMES AU RIZ.—Peel a number of apples of a good sort, take out the cores, and let them simmer in a syrup of clarified sugar, with a little lemon peel. Wash and pick some rice, and cook it in milk, moistening it therewith little by little, so that the grains may remain whole. Sweeten it to taste; add a little salt and a taste of lemon-peel. Spread the rice upon a dish, mixing some apple preserve with it, and place the apples upon it, and fill up the vacancies between the apples with some of the rice. Place the dish in the oven until the surface gets brown, and garnish with spoonfuls of bright colored preserve or jelly.

RASPBERRY CREAM.—Mash the fruit gently, and let it drain; then sprinkle a little sugar over, and that will produce more juice; put it through a hair sieve to take out the seeds; then put the juice to some cream, and sweeten it; after which, if you choose to lower it with some milk, it will not curdle; which it would if put to the milk before the cream; but it is best made of raspberry jelly, instead of jam, when the fresh fruit cannot be obtained.

RICE FRITTERS.—One pint of cooked rice, half cup of sweet milk, two eggs, a tablespoon of flour, and a little salt. Have the lard hot in the skillet, allow a tablespoon to each fritter, fry brown on each side, then turn same as griddle cakes. If you find the rice spatters in the fat, add a very little more flour. You can judge after frying one.

RICE CROQUETTES.—Make little balls or oblong rolls of cooked rice; season with salt, and pepper if you like; dip in egg; fry in hot lard.

RICE CUSTARDS.—Boil 3 pints of new milk with a bit of lemon-peel, cinnamon, and three bay leaves; sweeten; then mix a large spoonful of rice flour into a cup of cold milk, very smooth; mix it with the yolks of four eggs well beaten. Take a basin of the boiling milk, and mix with the cold that has the rice in it; add the remainder of the boiling milk; stir it one way till it boils; pour immediately into a pan; stir till cool, and add a spoonful of brandy, or orange-flower water.

RICE FLUMMERY.—Boil with a pint of new milk, a bit of lemon-peel, and cinnamon; mix with a little cold milk, as much rice flour as will make the whole of a good consistence, sweeten and add a spoonful of peach-water, or a bitter almond beaten; boil it, observing it does not burn; pour it into a shape or a pint basin, taken out the spice. When cold, turn the flummery into a dish, and serve with cream, milk, or custard round; or put a teacupful of cream into half a pint of new milk, a glass of white wine, half a lemon squeezed, and sugar.

ROCK CREAM.—Boil a teacupful of rice till quite soft in new milk and then sweeten it with sugar, and pile it on a dish, lay on it current jelly or preserved fruit, beat up the whites of five eggs with a little powdered sugar and flour, add to this when beaten very stiff about a tablespoon of rich cream and drop it over the rice.

STRAWBERRY AND APPLE SOUFFLE.—Stew the apple with a little lemon-peel; sweeten them, then lay them pretty high round the inside of a dish. Make a custard of the yolks of two eggs, a little cinnamon, sugar and milk. Let it thicken over a slow fire, but not boil; when ready, pour it in the inside of the apple. Beat the whites of the eggs to a strong froth, and cover the whole. Throw over it a good deal of pounded sugar, and brown it to a fine brown. Any fruit made of a proper consistence does for the walls, strawberries, when ripe, are delicious.

STRAWBERRY SHORT-CAKE.—First prepare the berries by picking; after they have been well washed—the best way to wash them is to hold the boxes under the faucet and let a gentle stream of water run over and through them, then drain, and pick them into an earthen bowl; now take the potato-masher and bruise them and cover with a thick layer of white sugar; now set them aside till the cake is made. Take a quart of sifted flour; half a cup of sweet butter; one egg, well beaten; three teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, and milk enough to make a rather stiff dough; knead well, and roll with a rolling-pin till about one inch thick; bake till a nice brown, and when done, remove it to the table; turn it out of the pan; with a light, sharp knife, cut it down lengthwise and crossways; now run the knife through it, and lay it open for a few moments, just to let the steam escape (the steam ruins the color of the berries); then set the bottom crust on the platter; cover thickly with the berries, an inch and a half deep; lay the top crust on the fruit; dust thickly with powdered sugar, and if any berry juice is left in the bowl, pour it round the cake, not over it, and you will have a delicious short-cake.

SNOW CREAM.—To a quart of cream add the whites of three eggs, cut to a stiff froth, add four spoonfuls of sweet wine, sugar to taste, flavor with essence of lemon. Whip all to a froth, and as soon as it forms take it off and serve in glasses.

STEWED FIGS.—Take four ounces of fine sugar, the thin rind of a large lemon, and a pint of cold water, when the sugar is dissolved, add one pound turkey figs, and place the stew-pan over a moderate fire where they may heat and swell slowly, and stew gently for two hours, when they are quite tender, add the juice of one lemon, arrange them in a glass dish and serve cold.

SPANISH CREAM.—Dissolve in 1/2 pint of rose-water, 1 oz. of isinglass cut small; run it through a hair sieve; add the yolks of three or four eggs, beaten and mixed with half a pint of cream, and two sorrel leaves. Pour it into a deep dish, sweeten with loaf sugar powdered. Stir it till cold, and put it into molds. Lay rings round in different colored sweetmeats. Add, if you like, a little sherry, and a lump or two of sugar, rubbed well upon the rind of a lemon to extract the flavor.

WHIPPED CREAM.—To one quart of good cream, put a few drops of bergamot water, a little orange-flower water, and 1/2 lb. of sugar. When it is dissolved, whip the cream to a froth, and take it up with a skimmer; drain on a sieve, and if for icing, let it settle half an hour before you put it into cups or glasses. Use that which drops into the dish under the sieve, to make it froth the better, adding two whites of eggs. Colored powdered sugar may, if you like, be sprinkled on the top of each.

ASPARAGUS OMELET.—Boil a dozen of the largest and finest asparagus heads you can pick; cut off all the green portion, and chop it in thin slices; season with a small teaspoonful of salt, and about one-fourth of that quantity of soluble cayenne. Then beat up six eggs in a sufficient quantity of new milk to make a stiffish batter. Melt in the frying-pan a quarter of a pound of good, clean dripping, and just before you pour on the batter place a small piece of butter in the center of the pan. When the dripping is quite hot, pour on half your batter, and as it begins to set, place on it the asparagus tops, and cover over with the remainder. This omelet is generally served on a round of buttered toast, with the crusts removed. The batter is richer if made of cream.

BUTTERED EGGS.—Beat four or five eggs, yolks and whites together, put a quarter of a pound of butter in a basin, and then put that in boiling water, stir it till melted, then pour the butter and the eggs into a sauce-pan; keep a basin in your hand, just hold the sauce-pan in the other over a slow part of the fire, shaking it one way, as it begins to warm; pour it into a basin, and back, then hold it again over the fire, stirring it constantly in the saucepan, and pouring it into the basin, more perfectly to mix the egg and butter until they shall be hot without boiling.

Serve on toasted bread; or in a basin, to eat with salt fish, or red herrings.

CORN-OYSTERS.—Take a half dozen ears of sweet corn (those which are not too old); with a sharp knife split each row of the corn in the center of the kernel lengthwise; scrape out all the pulp; add one egg, well beaten, a little salt, one tablespoonful of sweet milk; flour enough to make a pretty stiff batter. Drop in hot lard, and fry a delicate brown. If the corn is quite young, omit the milk, using as little flour as possible.

CHEESE OMELET.—Mix to a smooth batter three tablespoonfuls of fine flour, with half a pint of milk. Beat up well the yolks and whites of four eggs, a little salt, and a quarter of a pound of grated old English cheese. Add these to the flour and milk, and whisk all the ingredients together for half an hour. Put three ounces of butter into a frying-pan, and when it is boiling pour in the above mixture, fry it for a few minutes, and then turn it carefully; when it is sufficiently cooked on the other side, turn it on to a hot dish and serve.

IRISH STEW.—Take a loin of mutton, cut it into chops, season it with a very little pepper and salt, put it into a saucepan, just cover it with water, and let it cook half an hour. Boil two dozen of potatoes, peel and mash them, and stir in a cup of cream while they are hot; then line a deep dish with the potatoes, and lay in the cooked mutton chops, and cover them over with the rest of the potatoes; then set it in the oven to bake. Make some gravy of the broth in which the chops were cooked. This is a very nice dish.

IRISH STEW.—Cut off the fat of part of a loin of mutton, and cut it into chops. Pare, wash, and slice very thin some potatoes, two onions, and two small carrots; season with pepper and salt. Cover with water in a stew-pan, and stew gently till the meat is tender, and the potatoes are dissolved in the gravy. It may be made of beef-steaks, or mutton and beef mixed.

MACARONI, DRESSED SWEET.—Boil 2 ozs. in a pint of milk, with a bit of lemon peel, and a good bit of cinnamon, till the pipes are swelled to their utmost size without breaking. Lay them on a custard-dish, and pour a custard over them hot. Serve cold.

MACARONI, AS USUALLY SERVED.—Boil it in milk, or a weak veal broth, flavored with salt. When tender, put it into a dish without the liquor, with bits of butter and grated cheese, and over the top grate more, and put a little more butter. Put the dish into a Dutch oven, a quarter of an hour, and do not let the top become hard.

OMELET.—Six eggs beaten separately, beaten hard, two teaspoons of corn starch, two tablespoons milk, whites of eggs, put in slow at last. Fry in butter.

RUMBLED EGGS.—This is very convenient for invalids, or a light dish for supper. Beat up three eggs with two ounces of fresh butter, or well-washed salt butter; add a teaspoonful of cream or new milk. Put all in a saucepan and keep stirring it over the fire for nearly five minutes, until it rises up like scuffle, when it should be immediately dished on buttered toast.

POACHED EGGS.—Break an egg into a cup, and put it gently into boiling water; and when the white looks quite set, which will be in about three or four minutes, take it up with an egg slice, and lay it on toast and butter, or spinach. Serve them hot; if fresh laid, they will poach well, without breaking.

SAVORY POTATO-CAKES.—Quarter of a pound of grated ham, one pound of mashed potatoes, and a little suet, mixed with the yolks of two eggs, pepper, salt and nutmeg. Roll it into little balls, or cakes, and fry it a light brown. Sweet herbs may be used in place of ham. Plain potato cakes are made with potatoes and eggs only.

TOMATO TOAST.—Remove the stem and all the seeds from the tomatoes; they must be ripe, mind, not over ripe; stew them to a pulp, season with butter, pepper and salt; toast some bread (not new bread), butter it, and then spread the tomato on each side, and send it up to table, two slices on each dish, the slices cut in two; and the person who helps it must serve with two half-slices, not attempt to lift the top slice, otherwise the appearance of the under slice will be destroyed.

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HOW TO COOK FISH OF DIFFERENT KINDS

HOW TO CHOOSE ANCHOVIES.—They are preserved in barrels, with bay-salt; no other fish has the fine flavor of the anchovy. The best look red and mellow, and the bones moist and oily; the flesh should be high flavored, the liquor reddish, and have a fine smell.

BAKED BLACK BASS.—Eight good-sized onions chopped fine; half that quantity of bread crumbs; butter size of hen's egg; plenty of pepper and salt; mix thoroughly with anchovy sauce until quite red. Stuff your fish with this compound and pour the rest over it, previously sprinkling it with a little red pepper. Shad, pickerel and trout are good the same way. Tomatoes can be used instead of anchovies, and are more economical. If using them, take pork in place of butter, and chop fine.

BOILED WHITE FISH.—Lay the fish open; put it in a dripping pan with the back down; nearly cover with water; to one fish put two tablespoons salt, cover tightly and simmer (not boil) one-half hour; dress with gravy, butter and pepper; garnish with sliced eggs.

For sauce use a piece of butter the size of an egg, one tablespoon of flour, one half pint boiling water; boil a few minutes, and add three hard boiled eggs, sliced.

FRESH BROILED WHITE FISH.—Wash and drain the fish: sprinkle with pepper and lay with the inside down upon the gridiron, and broil over fresh bright coals. When a nice brown, turn for a moment on the other side, then take up and spread with butter. This is a very nice way of broiling all kinds of fish, fresh or salted. A little smoke under the fish adds to its flavor. This may be made by putting two or three cobs under the gridiron.

TO BOIL CODFISH.—If boiled fresh, it is watery; but it is excellent if salted, and hung for a day, to give it firmness. Wash and clean the fish well, and rub salt inside of it; tie it up, and put it on the fire in cold water; throw a handful of salt into the fish-kettle. Boil a small fish 15 minutes; a large one 30 minutes. Serve it without the smallest speck and scum; drain. Garnish it with lemon, horseradish, the milt, roe, and liver. Oyster or shrimp sauce may be used.

CHOWDER.—Five pounds of codfish cut in squares; fry plenty of salt pork cut in thin slices; put a layer of pork in your kettle, then one of fish; one of potatoes in thick slices, and one of onions in slices; plenty of pepper and salt; repeat as long as your materials last, and finish with a layer of Boston crackers or crusts of bread. Water sufficient to cook with, or milk if you prefer. Cook one-half hour and turn over on your platter, disturbing as little as possible. Clams and eels the same way.

CLAM FRITTERS.—Twelve clams chopped or not, one pint milk, three eggs, add liquor from clams; salt and pepper, and flour enough for thin batter. Fry in hot lard. CLAM STEW.—Lay the clams on a gridiron over hot coals, taking them out of the shell as soon as open, saving the juice; add a little hot water, pepper, a very little salt and butter rolled in flour sufficient for seasoning; cook for five minutes and pour over toast.

EELS, TO STEW.—Of the above fish, that of the "silver" kind is preferable to its congener, and, therefore, ought to be procured for all cuisine purposes. Take from three to four pounds of these eels, and let the same be thoroughly cleansed, inside and out, rescinding the heads and tails from the bodies. Cut them into pieces three inches in length each, and lay them down in a stew pan, covering them with a sufficiency of sweet mutton gravy to keep them seething over a slow fire, when introduced into the pan, for twenty minutes. Add to the liquor, before you place your eels into it, a quarter of an ounce of whole black pepper, quarter of an ounce of allspice, with one or two pieces of white ginger. Thicken with a light admixture of flour and butter, stirring it carefully round, adding thereto, at the same time, one gill of good port wine, and half a gill of sweet ketchup. Lemon-peel and salt may be added in accordance with your taste.

HOW TO KEEP FISH SOUND.—To prevent meat, fish, etc., going bad, put a few pieces of charcoal into the sauce-pan wherein the fish or flesh is to be boiled.

HOW TO RENDER BOILED FISH FIRM.—Add a little saltpetre to the salt in the water in which the fish is to be boiled; a quarter of an ounce to one gallon.

FISH BALLS.—Bone, cooked fresh, or salt fish, add double the quantity of mashed potatoes, one beaten egg, a little butter, pepper and salt to taste. Make in cakes or balls; dredge with flour and fry in hot lard.

POTTED FISH.—Take out the back-bone of the fish; for one weighing two pounds take a tablespoon of allspice and cloves mixed; these spices should be put into bags of not too thick muslin; put sufficient salt directly upon each fish; then roll in cloth, over which sprinkle a little cayenne pepper; put alternate layers of fish, spice and sago in an earthen jar; cover with the best cider vinegar; cover the jar closely with a plate and over this put a covering of dough, rolled out to twice the thickness of pie crust. Make the edges of paste, to adhere closely to the sides of the jar, so as to make it air-tight. Put the jar into a pot of cold water and let it boil from three to five hours, according to quantity. Ready when cold.

HOW TO BROIL OR ROAST FRESH HERRINGS.—Scale, gut and wash; cut off the heads; steep them in salt and vinegar ten minutes; dust them with flour, and broil them over or before the fire, or in the oven. Serve with melted butter and parsley.

Herrings are nice jarred, and done in the oven, with pepper, cloves, salt, a little vinegar, a few bay-leaves, and a little butter.

HOW TO FRY FRESH HERRINGS.—Slice small onions, and lay in the pan with the herrings; add a little butter, and fry them. Perhaps it is better to fry the onions separately with a little parsley, and butter or drip.

HOW TO POT HERRINGS.—Clean, cut off the heads, and lay them close in an earthen pot. Strew a little salt between every layer; put in cloves, mace, whole pepper, cayenne and nutmeg; fill up the jar with vinegar, water, and a quarter of a pint of sherry, cover, tie down; bake in an oven, and when cold pot it for use. A few anchovies and bay leaves intermixed will improve the flavor much.

BUTTERED LOBSTERS.—Pick the meat out, cut it, and warm with a little brown gravy, nutmeg, salt, pepper and butter, with a little flour. If done white, a little white gravy and cream.

CURRY OF LOBSTER.—Take them from the shells, and lay into a pan, with a small piece of mace, three or four spoonfuls of veal gravy, and four of cream; rub smooth one or two teaspoonfuls of curry-powder, a teaspoonful of flour, and an ounce of butter, simmer an hour; squeeze half a lemon in, and add salt.

LOBSTER CHOWDER.—Four or five pounds of lobster, chopped fine; take the green part and add to it four pounded crackers; stir this into one quart of boiling milk; then add the lobster, a piece of butter one-half the size of an egg, a little pepper and salt, and bring it to a boil.

HOW TO BOIL MACKEREL.—Rub them with vinegar; when the water boils, put them in with a little salt, and boil gently 15 minutes. Serve with fennel and parsley chopped, boil, and put into melted butter, and gooseberry sauce.

SALT MACKEREL.—Soak the fish for a few hours in lukewarm water, changing the water several times; then put into cold water loosely tied in cloths, and let the fish come to a boil, turning off the water once, and pouring over the fish hot water from the tea-kettle; let this just come to a boil, then take them out and drain them, lay them on a platter, butter and pepper them, and place them for a few moments in the oven. Serve with sliced lemons, or with any fish sauce.

HOW TO FRY OYSTERS.—Use the largest and best oysters; lay them in rows upon a clean cloth and press another upon them, to absorb the moisture; have ready several beaten eggs; and in another dish some finely crushed crackers: in the frying pan heat enough butter to entirely cover the oysters; dip the oysters first into the eggs, then into the crackers, rolling it or them over, that they may become well incrusted; drop into the frying pan and fry quickly to a light brown. Serve dry and let the dish be warm. A chafing dish is best.

OYSTER PATTIES.—Make some rich puff paste and bake it in very small tin patty pans; when cool, turn them out upon a large dish; stew some large fresh oysters with a few cloves, and a little mace and nutmeg; then add the yolk of one egg, boiled hard and grated; add a little butter, and as much of the oyster liquor as will cover them. When they have stewed a little while, take them off the pan and set them to cool. When quite cold, lay two or three oysters in each shell of puff paste.

OYSTERS, STEWED.—In all cases, unless shell oysters, wash and drain; mix half a cup of butter and a tablespoon of corn starch; put with the oysters in a porcelain kettle; stir until they boil; add two cups of cream or milk; salt to taste; do not use the liquor of the oysters in either stewing or escaloping.

OYSTERS STEWED.—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, then take them out, beard them, and strain the liquor carefully from the grit. Put into a stewpan an ounce of butter, with sufficient flour dredged in to dry it up; add the oyster liquor, and a blade of pounded mace, a little cayenne, and a very little salt to taste; stir it well over a brisk fire with a wooden spoon, and when it comes to the boil, throw in your oysters, say a dozen and a half or a score, and a good tablespoonful of cream, or more, if you have it at hand. Shake the pan over the fire, and let it simmer for one or two minutes, but not any longer, and do not let it boil, or the fish will harden. Serve in a hot dish, garnished with sippets of toasted bread. Some persons think that the flavor is improved by boiling a small piece of lemon-peel with the oyster liquor, taking it out, however, before the cream is added.

OYSTERS SCOLLOPED.—Beard and trim your oysters, and strain the liquor. Melt in a stewpan, with a dredging of flour sufficient to dry it up, an ounce of butter, and two tablespoonfuls of white stock, and the same of cream; the strained liquor and pepper, and salt to taste. Put in the oysters and gradually heat them through, but be sure not to let them boil. Have your scallop-shells buttered, lay in the oysters, and as much liquid as they will hold; cover them well over with bread-crumbs, over which spread, or drop, some tiny bits of butter. Brown them in the oven, or before the fire, and serve while very hot.

OYSTERS, TO PICKLE.—Take two hundred of the plumpest, nicest oysters to be had, open them, saving the liquor, remove the beards, put them, with the liquor, into a stewpan, and let them simmer for twenty minutes over a very gentle fire, taking care to skim them well. Take the stewpan off the fire, take out the oysters, and strain the liquor through a fine cloth, returning the oysters to the stewpan. Add to a pint of the hot liquor half an ounce of mace, and half an ounce of cloves; give it a boil, and put it in with the oysters, stirring the spice well in amongst them. Then put in about a spoonful of salt, three-quarters of a pint of white-wine vinegar, and one ounce of whole pepper, and let the oysters stand until they are quite cold. They will be ready for use in about twelve or twenty-four hours; if to be kept longer they should be put in wide-mouthed bottles, or stone jars, and well drawn down with bladder. It is very important that they should be quite cold before they are put into the bottles, or jars.

SALMON, TO BOIL.—Clean it carefully, boil it gently with salt and a little horse radish; take it out of the water as soon as done. Let the water be warm if the fish be split. If underdone it is very unwholesome. Serve with shrimp, lobster, or anchovy sauce, and fennel and butter.

SALMON, TO MARINATE.—Cut the salmon in slices; take off the skin and take out the middle bone; cut each slice asunder; put into a saucepan and season with salt, pepper, 6 cloves, a sliced onion, some whole chives, a little sweet basil, parsley, and a bay leaf; then squeeze in the juice of three lemons, or use vinegar. Let the salmon lie in the marinate for two hours; take it out; dry with a cloth; dredge with flour, and fry brown in clarified butter; then lay a clean napkin in a dish; lay the slices upon it; garnish with fried parsley.

SALT COD, TO DRESS.—Soak the cod all night in 2 parts water, and one part vinegar. Boil; and break into flakes on the dish; pour over it boiled parsnips, beaten in a mortar, and then boil up with cream, and a large piece of butter rolled in a bit of flour. It may be served with egg-sauce instead of parsnip, or boiled and served without flaking with the usual sauce.

All Salt Fish may be done in a similar way. Pour egg-sauce over it, or parsnips, boiled and beaten fine with butter and cream.

HOW TO BOIL STURGEON—Water, 2 quarts; vinegar, 1 pint; a stick of horseradish; a little lemon-peel, salt, pepper, a bay leaf. In this boil the fish; when the fish is ready to leave the bones, take it up; melt 1/2 lb. of butter; add an anchovy, some mace, a few shrimps, good mushroom ketchup, and lemon juice; when it boils, put in the dish; serve with the sauce; garnish with fried oysters, horseradish and lemon.

HOW TO BROIL STURGEON.—Cut slices, rub beaten eggs over them, and sprinkle them with crumbs of bread, parsley, pepper and salt; wrap them in white paper, and broil gently. Use for sauce, butter, anchovy and soy.

HOW TO DRESS FRESH STURGEON.—Cut slices, rub egg over them, then sprinkle with crumbs of bread, parsley, pepper, salt; fold them in paper, and broil gently. Sauce; butter, anchovy and soy.

HOW TO ROAST STURGEON.—Put a piece of butter, rolled in flour, into a stewpan with four cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, two onions, some pepper and salt, half a pint of water and a glass of vinegar. Set it over the fire till hot; then let it become lukewarm, and steep the fish in it an hour or two. Butter a paper well, tie it round, and roast it without letting the spit run through. Serve with sorrel and anchovy sauce.

TROUT, A-LA-GENEVOISE—Clean the fish well; put it into the stewpan, adding half champagne and half sherry wine. Season it with pepper, salt, an onion, a few cloves stuck in it, and a small bunch of parsley and thyme; put in it a crust of French bread; set it on a quick fire. When done take the bread out, bruise it and thicken the sauce: add flour and a little butter, and boil it up. Lay the fish on the dish, and pour the sauce over it. Serve it with sliced lemon and fried bread.

HOW TO BROIL TROUT—Wash, dry, tie it, to cause it to keep its shape; melt butter, add salt, and cover the trout with it. Broil it gradually in a Dutch oven, or in a common oven. Cut an anchovy small, and chop some capers. Melt some butter with a little flour, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and half a spoonful of vinegar. Pour it over the trout and serve it hot.

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HOW TO CHOOSE AND COOK GAME

HOW TO CHOOSE DUCKS—A young duck should have supple feet, breast and belly hard and thick. A tame duck has dusky yellow feet. They should be picked dry, and ducklings scalded.

HOW TO ROAST DUCKS.—Carefully pick, and clean the inside. Boil two or three onions in two waters; chop them very small. Mix the onions with about half the quantity of sage leaves, bread crumbs finely powdered, a spoonful of salt, and a little cayenne paper; beat up the yolk of an egg, and rub the stuffing well together. With a brisk fire roast about 35 minutes. Serve with gravy sauce.

HOW TO STEW DUCKS.—Lard two young ducks down each side the breast; dust with flour; brown before the fire; put into a stewpan with a quart of water, a pint of port wine, a spoonful of walnut ketchup, the same of browning, one anchovy, a clove of garlick, sweet herbs and cayenne pepper. Stew till they are tender, about half an hour; skim and strain, and pour over the duck.

HOW TO HASH PARTRIDGE.—Cut up the partridges as for eating; slice an onion into rings; roll a little butter in flour; put them into the tossing pan, and shake it over the fire till it boils; put in the partridge with a little port wine and vinegar; and when it is thoroughly hot, lay it on the dish with sippets round it; strain the sauce over the partridge, and lay on the onion in rings.

HOW TO POT PARTRIDGE.—Clean them nicely; and season with mace, allspice, white pepper and salt, in fine powder. Rub every part well; then lay the breast downward in a pan, and pack the birds as closely as you possibly can. Put a good deal of butter on them; then cover [Transcriber's note: the original reads "he pan"] the pan with a coarse flour paste and a paper over, tie it close, and bake. When cold, put the birds into pots, and cover with butter.

HOW TO ROAST PARTRIDGE.—Roast them like a turkey, and when a little under roasted, dredge them with flour, and baste them with butter; let them go to table with a fine froth; put gravy sauce in the dish, and bread sauce on the table.

HOW TO STEW PARTRIDGE.—Truss as for roasting; stuff the craws, and lard them down each side of the breast; roll a lump of butter in pepper, salt and beaten mace, and put them inside; sew up the vents; dredge them well and fry a light brown; put them into a stewpan with a quart of good gravy, a spoonful of sherry wine, the same of mushroom ketchup, a teaspoonful of lemon pickle, and a little mushroom powder, one anchovy, half a lemon, a sprig of sweet marjoram; cover the pan close, and stew half an hour; take out, and thicken the gravy; boil a little, and pour it over the partridge, and lay round them artichoke buttons, boiled, and cut in quarters, and the yolks of four hard eggs, if agreeable.

HOW TO ROAST PHEASANT.—Roast them as turkey; and serve with a fine gravy (into which put a very small bit of garlic) and bread sauce. When cold, they may be made into excellent patties, but their flavor should not be overpowered by lemon.

HOW TO ROAST PLOVERS.—Roast the green ones in the same way as woodcocks and quails, without drawing, and serve on a toast. Grey plovers may be either roasted or stewed with gravy, herbs and spice.

HOW TO FRICASSEE QUAILS.—Having tossed them up in a sauce-pan with a little melted butter and mushrooms, put in a slice of ham, well beaten, with salt, pepper, cloves and savory herbs; add good gravy, and a glass of sherry; simmer over a slow fire; when almost done, thicken the ragout with a good cullis, (i. e. a good broth, strained, gelatined, etc.) or with two or three eggs, well beaten up in a little gravy.

HOW TO ROAST QUAILS.—Roast them without drawing and serve on toast. Butter only should be eaten with them, as gravy takes off the fine flavor. The thigh and the back are the most esteemed.

HOW TO ROAST RABBITS.—Baste them with butter, and dredge them with flour; half an hour will do them at a brisk fire; and if small, twenty minutes. Take the livers with a bunch of parsley, boil them, and chop them very fine together; melt some butter, and put half the liver and parsley into the butter; pour it into the dish, and garnish the dish with the other half; roast them to a fine light brown.

HOW TO MAKE RABBIT TASTE LIKE A HARE.—Choose one that is young, but full grown; hang it in the skin three or four days; then skin it, and lay it, without washing, in a seasoning of black pepper and allspice in a very fine powder, a glass of port wine, and the same quantity of vinegar. Baste it occasionally for 40 hours, then stuff it and roast it as a hare, and with the same sauce. Do not wash off the liquor that it was soaked in.

HOW TO ROAST SNIPES—Do not draw them. Split them; flour them, and baste with butter. Toast a slice of bread brown; place it in the dish under the birds for the trail to drop on. When they are done enough, take up, and lay them on the toast; put good gravy in the dish. Serve with butter, and garnish with orange or lemon.

SNIPE PIE—Bone 4 snipes, and truss them. Put in their inside finely chopped bacon, or other forcemeat; put them in the dish with the breast downwards, and put forcemeat balls around them. Add gravy made of butter, and chopped veal and ham, parsley, pepper and shalots. Cover with nice puff paste; close it well to keep in the gravy. When nearly done, pour in more gravy, and a little sherry wine. Bake two or three hours.

HOW TO FRY VENISON—Cut the meat into slices, and make a gravy of the bones; fry it of a light brown, and keep it hot before the fire; put butter rolled in flour into the pan, and stir it till thick and brown; add 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar powdered, with the gravy made from the bones, and some port wine. Let it be as thick as cream; squeeze in a lemon; warm the venison in it; put it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

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HOW TO MAKE ICE CREAMS WATER-ICE AND JELLIES

TO MOLD ICES—Fill your mold as quickly as possible with the frozen cream, wrap it up in paper, and bury it in ice and salt, and let it remain for an hour or more to harden. For dishing, have the dish ready, dip the mold in hot water for an instant, wipe it, take off the top and bottom covers, and turn it into the dish. This must be done expeditiously. In molding ices, it is advisable not to have the cream too stifly frozen before putting it into the mold.

ICE CREAM—Take two quarts milk, one pint cream, three eggs beaten very light, and two teaspoons of arrowroot; boil in one-half pint milk, strain eggs, arrow-root, and flavor to suit, then freeze.

GINGER ICE CREAM—Bruise six ounces of the best preserved ginger in a mortar; add the juice of one lemon, half a pound of sugar, one pint of cream. Mix well; strain through a hair sieve; freeze. One quart.

ITALIAN ICE CREAM—Rasp two lemons on some sugar, which, with their juice, add to one pint of cream, one glass of brandy, half a pound of sugar; freeze. One quart.

LEMON ICE CREAM—Take one pint of cream, rasp two lemons on sugar; squeeze them, and add the juice with half a pound of sugar. Mix; freeze. One quart.

PINE-APPLE ICE CREAM—Take one pound of pineapple, when peeled, bruise it in a marble mortar, pass it through a hair sieve, add three-quarters of a pound of powdered sugar, and one pint of cream. Freeze.

RASPBERRY AND CURRANT ICE CREAM—Take one pound of raspberries, half a pound of red currants, three-quarters of a pound of sugar, and one pint of cream. Strain, color and freeze. One quart.

STRAWBERRY ICE CREAM—Take two pounds of fresh strawberries, carefully picked, and, with a wooden spoon, rub them through a hair sieve, and about half a pound of powdered sugar, and the juice of one lemon; color with a few drops of prepared cochineal; cream, one pint; then freeze. This will make a reputed quart. When fresh strawberries are not in season take strawberry jam, the juice of two lemons, cream, to one quart. Color, strain, and freeze. Milk may be substituted for cream, and makes good ices. If too much sugar is used, the ices will prove watery, or, perhaps not freeze at all.

VANILLA ICE CREAM—Pound one stick of vanilla, or sufficient to flavor it to palate, in a mortar, with half a pound of sugar; strain through a sieve upon the yolks of two eggs, put it into a stewpan, with half a pint of milk; simmer over a slow fire, stirring all the time, the same as custard; when cool add one pint of cream and the juice of one lemon; freeze. One quart.

CHERRY WATER-ICE—One lb. cherries, bruised in a mortar with the stones; add the juice of two lemons, half a pint of water, one pint of clarified sugar, one glass of noyeau, and a little color; strain; freeze. One quart.

LEMON WATER-ICE.—Take two lemons, and rasp them on sugar, the juice of six lemons, the juice of one orange, one pint of clarified sugar, and half a pint of water. Mix; strain through a hair sieve; freeze. One quart.

MELON WATER-ICE.—Half a lb. of ripe melon pounded in a mortar, two ounces of orange-flower water, the juice of two lemons, half a pint of water and one pint of clarified sugar; strain; freeze. One quart.

STRAWBERRY OR RASPBERRY WATER-ICE.—One pound of scarlet strawberries or raspberries, half a pound currants, half a pint of water, one pint of clarified sugar, and a little color; strain and freeze. One quart.

APPLE JELLY.—Cut the apples and boil in water to cover, boil down, then strain, and take a pound of sugar to a pint of juice, then boil fifteen minutes hard.

APPLE JELLY.—Cut off all spots and decayed places on the apples; quarter them, but do not pare or core them; put in the peel of as many lemons as you like, about two to six or eight dozen of the apples; fill the preserving-pan, and cover the fruit with spring water; boil them till they are in pulp, then pour them into a jelly-bag; let them strain all night, do not squeeze them. To every pint of juice put one pound of white sugar; put in the juice of the lemons you had before pared, but strain it through muslin. You may also put in about a teaspoonful of essense of lemon; let it boil for at least twenty minutes; it will look redder than at first; skim it well at the time. Put it either in shapes or pots, and cover it the next day. It ought to be quite stiff and very clear.

APPLE JELLY.—Prepare twenty golden pippins; boil them in a pint and a half of water from the spring till quite tender; then strain the liquor through a colander. To every pint put a pound of fine sugar; add cinnamon, grated orange or lemon; then boil to a jelly.

ANOTHER.—Prepare apples as before, by boiling and straining; have ready half an ounce of isinglass boiled in half a pint of water to a jelly; put this to the apple-water and apple, as strained through a coarse sieve; add sugar, a little lemon-juice and peel; boil all together, and put into a dish. Take out the peel.

CALF'S FOOT LEMON JELLY—Boil four quarts of water with three calf's feet, or two cow heels, till half wasted; take the jelly from the fat and sediment, mix with it the juice of a Seville orange and twelve lemons, the peels of three ditto, the whites and shells of twelve eggs, sugar to taste, a pint of raisin wine, 1 oz. of coriander seeds, 1/4 oz. of allspice, a bit of cinnamon, and six cloves, all bruised, after having mixed them cold. The jelly should boil fifteen minutes without stirring; then clear it through a flannel bag.

CHERRY JELLY.—Cherries, 5 lbs.; stone them; red currants, 2 lbs.; strain them, that the liquor may be clear; add 2 lbs. of sifted loaf sugar, and 2 ozs. of isinglass.

CHOCOLATE CARAMEL—One pint milk, half pound butter, half pound Cadbury's chocolate, three pounds sugar, two spoons vanilla. Boil slowly until brittle.

CURRANT JELLY, RED OR BLACK—Strip the fruit, and in a stone jar stew them in a saucepan of water or on the fire; strain off the liquor, and to every pint weigh 1 lb. of loaf sugar; put the latter in large lumps into it, in a stone or China vessel, till nearly dissolved; then put it into a pre-serving-pan; simmer and skim. When it will jelly on a plate put it in small jars or glasses.

GREEN GOOSEBERRY JELLY—Place the berries in hot water on a slow fire till they rise to the surface; take off; cool with a little water, add also a little vinegar and salt to green them. In two hours drain, and put them in cold water a minute; drain, and mix with an equal weight of sugar; boil slowly 20 minutes; sieve, and put into glasses.

ICELAND MOSS JELLY—Moss, 1/2 to 1 oz.; water, 1 quart. Simmer down to 1/2 pint. Add fine sugar and a little lemon juice. It may be improved with 1/4 ounce of isinglass. The moss should first be steeped in cold water an hour or two. ISINGLASS JELLY—Boil one ounce of isinglass in a quart of water, with 1/4 ounce of Jamaica pepper-corns or cloves, and a crust of bread, till reduced to a pint. Add sugar. It keeps well, and may be taken in wine and water, milk, tea, soup, etc.

LEMON JELLY CAKE—Take four eggs, one cup sugar, butter the size of an egg, one and a half cups flour, half cup sweet milk, two teaspoons of baking powder. Jelly.—One grated lemon, one grated apple, one egg, one cup sugar, beat all together, put in a tin and stir till boils.

LEMON JELLY—Take one and a half packages of gelatine, one pint cold water, soak two hours, then add two teacups sugar, one pint boiling water; stir all together, add the juice of two lemons or one wineglass wine, strain through a cloth, and put in a mold.

ORANGE JELLY—It may be made the same as lemon jelly, which see. Grate the rind of two Seville and of two China oranges, and two lemons; squeeze the juice of three of each, and strain, and add to the juice a quarter of a pound of lump sugar, a quarter of a pint of water, and boil till it almost candies. Have ready a quart of isinglass jelly made with two ounces; put to it the syrup, boil it once up; strain off the jelly, and let it stand to settle as above, before it is put into the mold.

QUINCE JELLY—Cut in pieces a sufficient quantity of quinces; draw off the juice by boiling them in water, in which they ought only to swim, no more. When fully done drain, and have ready clarified sugar, of which put one spoonful to two of the juice; bring the sugar to the souffle; add the juice, and finish. When it drops from the skimmer it is enough; take it off, and pot it.

JELLY OF SIBERIAN CRABS—Take off the stalks, weigh and wash the crabs. To each one and a half pounds, add one pint of water. Boil them gently until broken, but do not allow them to fall to a pulp. Pour the whole through a jelly-bag, and when the juice is quite transparent weigh it; put it into a clean preserving-pan, boil it quickly for ten minutes, then add ten ounces of fine sugar to each pound of juice; boil it from twelve to fifteen minutes, skim it very clean, and pour into molds.

SIBERIAN CRAB-APPLE JELLY—Mash the crab apples, take off steins and heads, put in pot, cover with water, let them boil to a pulp, then turn them in a flannel bag, and leave all night to strain, then add one pound of sugar to a pint of juice, boil ten to fifteen minutes, skim and put in jelly glasses.

SIBERIAN CRAB JELLY—Fill a large flannel bag with crabs. Put the bag in a preserving-pan of spring water, and boil for about seven hours; then take out the bag, and fill it so that all the syrup can run through, and the water that remains in the pan; and to each pint of syrup add one pound of loaf sugar, and boil for about an hour, and it will be a clear, bright red jelly.

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Telegraph wires have to be renewed every five or seven years. The Western Union Telegraph Company exchange about one thousand tons of old wire for new every year. The new wire costs from seven to eight cents per pound, and for the old about one-eighth of a cent a pound is allowed.

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HOW TO SELECT AND COOK MEATS

HOW TO DRESS BACON AND BEANS—When you dress beans and bacon, boil the bacon by itself, and the beans by themselves, for the bacon will spoil the color of the beans. Always throw some salt into the water and some parsley nicely picked. When the beans are done enough, which you will know by their being tender, throw them into a colander to drain. Take up the bacon and skin it; throw some raspings of the bread over the top, and if you have a salamander, make it red hot, and hold it over it to brown the top of the bacon; if you have not one, set it before the fire to brown. Lay the beans in the dish, and the bacon in the middle on the top, and send them to table, with butter in a tureen.

CORNED BEEF—Make the following pickle: Water, 2 gallons; salt, 2-1/2 lbs.; molasses, 1/2 lb.; sugar, 1 lb.; saltpetre, 1-1/2 ozs.; pearlash, 1/4 oz. Boil all together; skim, and pour the pickle on about 25 lbs. of beef. Let it stay in a few days. Boil in plenty of water when cooked to remove the salt, and eat with it plenty of vegetables. It is nice to eat cold, and makes excellent sandwiches.

ROLLED BEEF—Hang three ribs three or four days; take out the bones from the whole length, sprinkle it with salt, roll the meat tight and roast it. Nothing can look nicer. The above done with spices, etc., and baked as hunters' beef is excellent.

BEEF, ROLLED TO EQUAL HARE—Take the inside of a large sirloin, soak it in a glass of port wine and a glass of vinegar mixed, for forty-eight hours; have ready a very fine stuffing, and bind it up tight. Roast it on a hanging spit; and baste it with a glass of port wine, the same quantity of vinegar, and a teaspoonful of pounded allspice. Larding it improves the look and flavor; serve with a rich gravy in the dish; currant-jelly and melted butter in tureens.

ROUND OF BEEF—Should be carefully salted and wet with the pickle for eight or ten days. The bone should be cut out first, and the beef skewered and tied up to make it quite round. It may be stuffed with parsley, if approved, in which case the holes to admit the parsley must be made with a sharp pointed knife, and the parsley coarsely cut and stuffed in tight. As soon as it boils, it should be skimmed: and afterwards kept boiling very gently.

BEEF STEAK, STEWED—Peel and chop two spanish onions, cut into small parts four pickled walnuts, and put them at the bottom of a stewpan; add a teacupful of mushroom ketchup, two teaspoonfuls of walnut ditto, one of shalot, one of chile vinegar, and a lump of butter. Let the rump-steak be cut about three-quarters of an inch thick, and beat it flat with a rolling-pin, place the meat on the top of the onions, etc., let it stew for one hour and a half, turning it every twenty minutes. Ten minutes before serving up, throw a dozen oysters with the liquor strained.

BEEF STEAK AND OYSTER SAUCE—Select a good, tender rump-steak, about an inch thick, and broil it carefully. Nothing but experience and attention will serve in broiling a steaks; one thing, however, is always to be remembered, never malt or season broiled meat until cooked. Have the gridiron clean and hot, grease it with either butter, or good lard, before laying on the meat, to prevent its sticking or marking the meat; have clear, bright coals, and turn it frequently. when cooked, cover tightly, and have ready nicely stewed oysters; then lay the steak in a hot dish and pour over some of the oysters. Serve the rest in a tureen. Twenty-five oysters will make a nice sauce for a steak.

FRICASSEE OF COLD ROAST BEEF—Cut the beef into very thin slices; shred a handful of parsley very small, cut an onion into quarters, and put all together into a stewpan, with a piece of butter, and some strong broth; season with salt and pepper, and simmer very gently a quarter of an hour; then mix into it the yolks of two eggs, a glass of port wine, and a spoonful of vinegar; stir it quickly, rub the dish with shalot, and turn the fricassee into it.

BRAWN—Clean a pig's head, and rub it over with salt and a little saltpetre, and let it lie two or three days; then boil it until the bones will leave the meat; season with salt and pepper, and lay the meat hot in a mold, and press and weigh it down for a few hours. Boil another hour, covering. Be sure and cut the tongue, and lay the slices in the middle, as it much improves the flavor.

CALF'S LIVER AND BACON—Cut the liver into slices, and fry it first, then the bacon; lay the liver in the dish, and the bacon upon it; serve it up with gravy, made in the pan with boiling water, thickened with flour and butter, and lemon juice; and, if agreeable, a little parsley and onion may be chopped into it, or a little boiled parsley strewed over the liver. Garnish with slices of lemon.

NICE FORM OF COLD MEATS—Remains of boiled ham, mutton, roast beef, etc., are good chopped fine with hard boiled eggs, two heads of lettuce, a bit of onion, and seasoned with mustard, oil, vinegar, and, if needed, more salt. Fix it smoothly in a salad dish, and adorn the edges with sprigs of parsley or leaves of curled lettuce. Keep by the ice or in a cool place until wanted.

FRIED HAM AND EGGS—Cut thin slices, place in the pan, and fry carefully. Do not burn. When done break the eggs into the fat; pepper slightly; keep them whole; do not turn them.

Ham rushers may be served with spinach and poached eggs.

TO COOK HAM—Scrape it clean. Do not put into cold nor boiling water. let the water become warm; then put the ham in. Simmer or boil lightly for five or six hours; take out, and shave the rind off. Rub granulated sugar into the whole surface of the ham, so long as it can be made to receive it. Place the ham in a baking-dish with a bottle of champagne or prime cider. Baste occasionally with the juice, and let it bake an hour in a gentle heat.

A slice from a nicely cured ham thus cooked is enough to animate the ribs of death.

Or, having taken off the rind, strew bread crumbs or raspings over it, so as to cover it; set it before the fire, or in the oven till the bread is crisp and brown. Garnish with carrots, parsley, etc. The water should simmer all the time, and never boil fast.

HAM AND CHICKEN, IN JELLY—This is a nice dish for supper or luncheon. make with a small knuckle of veal some good white stock. When cold, skim and strain it; melt it, and put a quart of it into a saucepan with the well beaten whites of three eggs; a dessert-spoonful of chili, or a tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar, and a little salt. Beat the mixture well with a fork till it boils; let it simmer till it is reduced to a little more than a pint; strain it; put half of it into a mold; let it nearly set. Cut the meat of a roast chicken into small thin pieces; arrange it in the jelly with some neat little slices of cold boiled ham, and sprinkle chopped parsley between the slices. When it has got quite cold, pour in the remainder of the jelly, and stand the mold in cold water, or in a cool place, so that it sets speedily. Dip the mold in boiling water to turn it out. Do not let it remain in the water more than a minute, or it will spoil the appearance of the dish. Garnish with a wreath of parsley.

LEG OF LAMB—Should be boiled in a cloth to look as white as possible; the loin fried in steaks and served round, garnished with dried or fried parsley; spinach to eat with it; or dressed separately or roasted.

LOIN OF MUTTON—Take off the skin, separate the joints with the chopper; if a large size, cut the chine-bone with a saw, so as to allow it to be carved in smaller pieces; run a small spit from one extremity to the other, and affix it to a larger spit, and roast it like the haunch. A loin weighing six pounds will take one hour to roast.

OBSERVATIONS ON MEAT—In all kinds of provisions, the best of the kind goes the farthest; it cuts out with most advantage, and affords most nourishment. Round of beef, fillet of veal, and leg of mutton, are joints of higher price; but as they have more solid meat, they deserve the preference. But those joints which are inferior may be dressed as palatably.

In loins of meat, the long pipe that runs by the bone should be taken out, as it is apt to taint; as also the kernels of beef. Do not purchase joints bruised by the blows of drovers.

Save shank bones of mutton to enrich gravies or soups.

When sirloins of beef, or loins of veal or mutton, come in, part of the suet may be cut off for puddings, or to clarify.

Dripping will baste anything as well as butter; except fowls and game; and for kitchen pies, nothing else should be used.

The fat of a neck or loin of mutton makes a far lighter pudding than suet.

Frosted meat and vegetables should be soaked in cold water two or three hours before using.

If the weather permit, meat eats much better for hanging two or three days before it is salted.

Roast-beef bones, or shank bones of ham, make fine peas-soup; and should be boiled with the peas the day before eaten, that the fat may be taken off.

BOILED LEG OF MUTTON—Soak well for an hour or two in salt and water; do not use much salt. Wipe well and boil in a floured cloth. Boil from two hours to two hours and a half. Serve with caper sauce, potatoes, mashed turnips, greens, oyster sauce, etc.

—> To preserve the gravy in the leg, do not put it in the water till it boils; for the sudden contact with water causes a slight film over the surface, which prevents the escape of the gravy, which is abundant when carved.

HOW TO HASH MUTTON.—Cut thin slices of dressed mutton, fat and lean; flour them; have ready a little onion boiled in two or three spoonfuls of water; add to it a little gravy and the meat seasoned, and make it hot, but not to boil. Serve in a covered dish. Instead of onion, a clove, a spoonful of current jelly, and half a glass of port wine will give an agreeable flavor of venison, if the meat be fine.

Pickled cucumber, or walnut cut small, warm in it for change.

HOW TO PREPARE PIG'S CHEEK FOR BOILING.—Cut off the snout, and clean the head; divide it, and take out the eyes and the brains; sprinkle the head with salt, and let it drain 24 hours. Salt it with common salt and saltpetre; let it lie nine days if to be dressed without stewing with peas, but less if to be dressed with peas, and it must be washed first, and then simmer till all is tender.

PIG'S FEET AND EARS.—Clean carefully, and soak some hours, and boil them tender; then take them out; boil some vinegar and a little salt with some of the water, and when cold put it over them. When they are to be dressed, dry them, cut the feet in two, and slice the ears; fry, and serve with butter, mustard and vinegar. They may be either done in batter, or only floured.

PORK, LOIN OF.—Score it, and joint it, that the chops may separate easily; and then roast it as a loin of mutton. Or, put it into sufficient water to cover it; simmer till almost enough; then peel off the skin, and coat it with yolk of egg and bread crumbs, and roast for 15 or 20 minutes, till it is done enough.

HOW TO PICKLE PORK.—Cut the pork in such pieces as will lie in the pickling tub; rub each piece with saltpetre; then take one part bay salt, and two parts common salt, and rub each piece well; lay them close in the tub, and throw salt over them.

Some use a little sal prunnella, and a little sugar.

PORK PIE, TO EAT COLD.—Raise a common boiled crust into either a round or oval form, which you choose, have ready the trimmings and small bits of pork cut off a sweet bone, when the hog is killed, beat it with a rolling-pin, season with pepper and salt, and keep the fat and lean separate, put it in layers quite close to the top, lay on the lid, cut the edge smooth, round, and pinch it; bake in a slow-soaking oven, as the meat is very solid. Observe, put no bone or water in the pork pie; the outside pieces will be hard if they are not cut small and pressed close.

HOW TO ROAST A LEG OF PORK.—Choose a small leg of fine young pork; cut a slit in the knuckle with a sharp knife; and fill the space with sage and onion chopped, and a little pepper and salt. When half done, score the skin in slices, but don't cut deeper than the outer rind.

Apple sauce and potatoes should be served to eat with it.

PORK, ROLLED NECK OF.—Bone it; put a forcemeat of chopped sage, a very few crumbs of bread, salt, pepper and two or three berries of allspice over the inside; then roll the meat as tight as you can, and roast it slowly, and at a good distance at first.

CHINE OF PORK.—Salt three days before cooking. Wash it well; score the skin, and roast with sage and onions finely shred. Serve with apple sauce.—the chine is often sent to the table boiled.

HOW TO COLLAR PORK.—Bone a breast or spring of pork; season it with plenty of thyme, parsley and sage; roll it hard; put in a cloth, tie both ends, and boil it; then press it; when cold, take it out of the cloth, and keep it in its own liquor.

PORK AS LAMB.—Kill a young pig of four or five months old: cut up the forequarter for roasting as you do lamb, and truss the shank close. The other parts will make delicate pickled pork; or steaks, pies, etc.

PORK SAUSAGES.—Take 6 lbs. of young pork, free from gristle, or fat; cut small and beat fine in a mortar. Chop 6 lbs. of beef suet very fine; pick off the leaves of a hand-full of sage, and shred it fine; spread the meat on a clean dresser, and shake the sage over the meat; shred the rind of a lemon very fine, and throw it, with sweet herbs, on the meat; grate two nutmegs, to which put a spoonful of pepper, and a large spoonful of salt: throw the suet over, and mix all well together. Put it down close in the pot; and when you use it, roll it up with as much egg as will make it roll smooth.

SAUSAGE ROLLS.—One pound of flour, half a pound of the best lard, quarter of a pound of butter, and the yolks of three eggs well beaten. Put the flour into a dish, make a hole in the middle of it, and rub in about one ounce of the lard, then the yolks of the eggs, and enough water to mix the whole into a smooth paste. Roll it out about an inch thick; flour your paste and board. Put the butter and lard in a lump into the paste, sprinkle it with flour, and turn the paste over it; beat it with a rolling-pin until you have got it flat enough to roll; roll it lightly until very thin; then divide your meat and put it into two layers of paste, and pinch the ends. Sausage rolls are now usually made small. Two pounds of sausage meat will be required for this quantity of paste, and it will make about two and a half dozen of rolls. Whites of the eggs should be beaten a little, and brushed over the rolls to glaze them. They will require from twenty minutes to half an hour to bake, and should be served on a dish covered with a neatly-folded napkin.

SPICED BEEF.—Take a round of an ox; or young heifer, from 20 to 40 lbs. Cut it neatly, so that the thin flank end can wrap nearly round. Take from 2 to 4 ounces salpetre, and 1 ounce of coarse sugar, and two handfuls of common salt. mix them well together and rub it all over. the next day salt it well as for boiling. Let it lie from two to three weeks, turning it every two or three days. Take out of the pickle, and wipe it dry. then take cloves, mace, well powdered, a spoonful of gravy, and rub it well into the beef. Roll it up as tightly as possible; skewer it, and tie it up tight. Pour in the liquor till the meat is quite saturated, in which state it must be kept.

STEWED BEEF.—Take five pounds of buttock, place it in a deep dish; half a pint of white wine vinegar, three bay leaves, two or three cloves, salt and pepper; turn it over twice the first day, and every morning after for a week or ten days. Boil half a pound or a quarter of a pound of butter, and throw in two onions, chopped very small, four cloves, and some pepper-corns; stew five hours till tender and a nice light brown.

HOW TO BOIL TONGUE.—If the tongue be a dry one, steep in water all night. Boil it three hours. If you prefer it hot, stick it with cloves. Clear off the scum, and add savory herbs when it has boiled two hours; but this is optional. Rub it over with the yolk of an egg; strew over it bread crumbs; baste it with butter; set it before the fire till it is of a light brown. When you dish it up, pour a little brown gravy, or port wine sauce mixed the same way as for venison. Lay slices of currant jelly around it.

HOW TO FRICASSEE TRIPE.—Cut into small square pieces. Put them into the stewpan with as much sherry as will cover them, with pepper, ginger, a blade of mace, sweet herbs and an onion. Stew 15 minutes. take out the herbs and onion, and put in a little shred of parsley, the juice of a small lemon, half an anchovy cut small, a gill of cream and a little butter, or yolk of an egg. Garnish with lemon.

HOW TO FRY TRIPE.—Cut the tripe into small square pieces; dip them in yolks of eggs, and fry them in good dripping, till nicely brown; take out and drain, and serve with plain melted butter.

VEAL CUTLETS, MAINTENON.—Cut slices about three quarters of an inch thick, beat them with a rolling-pin, and wet them on both sides with egg; dip them into a seasoning of bread crumbs, parsley, thyme, knotted marjoram, pepper, salt and a little nutmeg grated; then put them in papers folded over, and broil them; and serve with a boat of melted butter, with a little mushroom ketchup.

VEAL CUTLETS.—Another way.—Prepare as above, and fry them; lay into a dish, and keep them hot; dredge a little flour, and put a bit of butter into the pan; brown it, then pour some boiling water into it and boil quickly; season with pepper, salt and ketchup and pour over them.

ANOTHER WAY.—Prepare as before, and dress the cutlets in a dutch oven; pour over them melted butter and mushrooms.

FILLET OF VEAL.—Veal requires a good, bright fire for roasting. before cooking, stuff with a force-meat, composed of 2 ozs. of finely-powdered bread crumbs, half a lemon-peel chopped fine, half a teaspoonful of salt, and the same quantity of mixed mace and cayenne pepper, powdered parsley, and some sweet herbs; break an egg, and mix all well together. Baste your joint with fresh butter, and send it to table well browned. A nice bit of bacon should be served with the fillet of veal, unless ham is provided.

VEAL PATTIES.—Mince some veal that is not quite done with a little parsley, lemon-peel, a scrape of nutmeg, and a bit of salt; add a little cream and gravy just to moisten the meat; and add a little ham. do not warm it till the patties are baked.

VEAL PIE.—Take some of the middle, or scrag, of a small neck; season it; and either put to it, or not, a few slices of lean bacon or ham. If it is wanted of a high relish, add mace, cayenne, and nutmeg, to the salt and pepper; and also force-meat and eggs; and if you choose, add truffles, morels, mushrooms, sweet-bread, cut into small bits, and cocks'-combs blanched, if liked. Have a rich gravy ready, to pour in after baking. It will be very good without any of the latter additions.

COMMON VEAL PIE.—Cut a breast of veal into pieces; season with pepper and salt, and lay them in the dish. Boil hard six or eight yolks of eggs, and put them into different places in the pie; pour in as much water as will nearly fill the dish; put on the lid, and bake. Lamb Pie may be done this way.

STEWED VEAL.—Cut the veal as for small cutlets; put into the bottom of a pie-dish a layer of the veal, and sprinkle it with some finely-rubbed sweet basil and chopped parsley, the grated rind of one lemon with the juice, half a nut-meg, grated, a little salt and pepper; and cut into very small pieces [Transcriber's note: the original text reads 'peices'] a large spoonful of butter; then another layer of slices of veal, with exactly the same seasoning as before; and over this pour one pint of Lisbon wine and half a pint of cold water; then cover it over very thickly with grated stale bread; put this in the oven and bake slowly for three-quarters of an hour, and brown it. Serve it in a pie-dish hot.

BREAST OF VEAL STUFFED—Cut off the gristle of a breast of veal, and raise the meat off the bones, then lay a good force-meat, made of pounded veal, some sausage-meat, parsley, and a few shalots chopped very fine, and well seasoned with pepper, salt, and nutmeg; then roll the veal tightly, and sew it with fine twine to keep it in shape, and prevent the force-meat escaping; lay some slices of fat bacon in a stew-pan, and put the veal roll on it; add some stock, pepper, salt, and a bunch of sweet herbs; let it stew three hours, then cut carefully out the twine, strain the sauce after skimming it well, thicken it with brown flour; let it boil up once, and pour it over the veal garnish with slices of lemon, each cut in four. A fillet of veal first stuffed with force-meat can be dressed in the same manner, but is must first be roasted, so as to brown it a good color; and force-meat balls, highly seasoned, should be served round the veal.

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HOW TO MAKE PIES OF VARIOUS KINDS

BEEF-STEAK PIE—Prepare the steaks as stated under Beefsteaks, and when seasoned and rolled with fat in each, put them in a dish with puff paste round the edges; put a little water in the dish, and cover it with a good crust.

CHICKEN PIE—Cut the chicken in pieces, and boil nearly tender. Make a rich crust with an egg or two to make it light and puffy. Season the chicken and slices of ham with pepper, salt, mace, nutmeg, and cayenne. Put them in layers, first the ham, chicken, force-meat balls, and hard eggs in layers. Make a gravy of knuckle of veal, mutton bones, seasoned with herbs, onions, pepper, etc. Pour it over the contents of the pie, and cover with paste. Bake an hour.

COCOANUT PIE—Take a teacup of cocoanut, put it into a coffee-cup, fill it up with sweet milk, and let it soak a few hours. When ready to bake the pie, take two tablespoonfuls of flour, mix with milk, and stir in three-fourths of a cup of milk (or water); place on the stove, and stir until it thickens. Add butter the size of a walnut, while warm. When cool, add a little salt, two eggs, saving out the white of one for the top. Sweeten to taste. Add the cocoanut, beating well. Fill the crust and bake. When done, have the extra white beaten ready to spread over the top. Return to the oven and brown lightly.

CREAM PIE—Take eight eggs, eight ounces pounded sugar, eight ounces flour, put all together into a stew-pan with two glasses of milk, stir until it boils, then add quarter pound of butter, and quarter pound of almonds, chopped fine; mix well together, make paste, roll it out half an inch thick, cut out a piece the size of a teaplate, put in a baking tin, spread out on it the cream, and lay strips of paste across each way and a plain broad piece around the edge, egg and sugar the top and bake in a quick oven.

FISH PIE—Pike, perch and carp may be made into very savory pies if cut into fillets, seasoned and baked in paste, sauce made of veal broth, or cream put in before baking.

GAME PIE—Divide the birds, if large, into pieces or joints. They may be pheasants, partridges, etc. Add a little bacon or ham. Season well. Cover with puff paste, and bake carefully. Pour into the pie half a cupful of melted butter, the juice of a lemon, and a glass of sherry, when rather more than half baked.

GIBLET PIE—Clean the giblets well; stew with a little water, onion, pepper, salt, sweet herbs, till nearly done. Cool, and add beef, veal or mutton steaks. Put the liquor of the stew to the giblets. Cover with paste, and when the pie is baked, pour into it a large teacupful of cream. LAMB PASTY—Bone the lamb, cut it into square pieces; season with salt, pepper, cloves, mace, nutmeg, and minced thyme; lay in some beef suet, and the lamb upon it, making a high border about it; then turn over the paste close, and bake it. When it is enough, put in some claret, sugar, vinegar, and the yolks of eggs, beaten, together. To have the sauce only savory, and not sweet, let it be gravy only, or the baking of bones in claret.

SALMON PIE.—Grate the rind of one small lemon, or half a large one; beat the yolks of 2 eggs; 4 tablespoons of sugar; beat all together; add to this 1/2 pint of cold water, with 1-1/2 tablespoons of flour in it; rub smooth so there will be no lumps; beat the whites of two eggs to a stiff froth; stir this in your pie-custard before you put it in the pan. Bake with one crust, and bake slowly.

SALMON PIE—Grate the rind of a lemon into the yolks of three fresh eggs; beat for five minutes, adding three heaping tablespoonfuls of granulated sugar; after squeezing in the juice of the lemon add half a teacupful of water; mix all thoroughly, and place in a crust the same as made for custard pie; place in oven and bake slowly. Take the whites of the three eggs, and beat to a stiff froth, adding two tablespoonfuls of pulverized sugar, and juice of half a lemon; after the pie bakes and is cool, place the frosting on top, and put into a hot oven to brown.

MINCE-MEAT—There are various opinions as to the result of adding meat to the sweet ingredients used in making this favorite dish. Many housewives think it an improvement, and use either the under-cut of a well-roasted surloin of beef or a boiled fresh ox-tongue for the purpose. Either of these meats may be chosen with advantage, and one pound, after it has been cooked, will be found sufficient; this should be freed from fat, and well minced. In making mince-meat, each ingredient should be minced separately and finely before it is added to the others. For a moderate quantity, take two pounds of raisins (stoned), the same quantity of currants, well washed and dried, ditto of beef suet, chopped fine, one pound of American apples, pared and cored, two pounds of moist sugar, half a pound of candied orange-peel, and a quarter of a pound of citron, the grated rinds of three lemons, one grated nutmeg, a little mace, half an ounce of salt, and one teaspoonful of ginger. After having minced the fruit separately, mix all well together with the hand; then add half a pint of French brandy and the same of sherry. Mix well with a spoon, press it down in jars, and cover it with a bladder.

GOOD MINCE PIES.—Six pounds beef; 5 pounds suet; 5 pounds sugar; 2 ounces allspice; 2 ounces cloves; 3/4 pound cinnamon; 1/2 pint molasses; 1-1/4 pounds seedless raisins; 2 pounds currants; 1/2 pound citron chopped fine; 1 pound almonds, chopped fine; 2 oranges; 1 lemon-skin, and all chopped fine; 2 parts chopped apples to one of meat; brandy and cider to taste.

MOCK MINCE PIES.—One teacup of bread; one of vinegar; one of water; one of raisins; one of sugar; one of molasses; one half-cup of butter; one teaspoon of cloves; one of nutmeg; one of cinnamon. The quantity is sufficient for three pies. They are equally as good as those made in the usual way.

POTATO PASTY.—Boil and peel and mash potatoes as fine as possible; mix them with salt, pepper, and a good bit of butter. Make a paste; roll it out thin like a large puff, and put in the potato; fold over one half, pinching the edges. Bake in a moderate oven.

POTATO PIE.—Skin some potatoes and cut them in slices; season them; and also some mutton, beef, pork or veal, and a lump of butter. Put layers of them and of the meat. A few eggs boiled and chopped fine improves it.

VEAL AND HAM PIE.—Cut about one pound and a half of veal into thin slices, as also a quarter of a pound of cooked ham; season the veal rather highly with white pepper and salt, with which cover the bottom of the dish; then lay over a few slices of ham, then the remainder of the veal, finishing with the remainder of the ham; add a wineglassful of water, and cover with a good paste, and bake; a bay-leaf will be an improvement.

VINEGAR PIE.—Five tablespoons vinegar, five sugar, two flour, two water, a little nutmeg. Put in dish and bake.

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HOW TO MAKE PRESERVES OF VARIOUS KINDS

APPLE JAM.—Fill a wide jar nearly half full of water; cut the apples unpeeled into quarters, take out the core, then fill the jar with the apples; tie a paper over it, and put it into a slow oven. When quite soft and cool, pulp them through a sieve. To each pound of pulp put three-quarters of a pound of crushed sugar, and boil it gently until it will jelly. Put it into large tart dishes or jars. It will keep for five or more years in a cool, dry place. If for present use, or a month hence, half a pound of sugar is enough.

APPLE MARMALADE.—Scald apples till they will pulp from the core; then take an equal weight of sugar in large lumps, just dip them in water, and boil it till it can be well skimmed, and is a thick syrup, put to it the pulp, and simmer it on a quick fire a quarter of an hour. Grate a little lemon-peel before boiled, but if too much it will be bitter.

BARBERRY JAM.—The barberries for this preserve should be quite ripe, though they should not be allowed to hang until they begin to decay. Strip them from the stalks; throw aside such as are spotted, and for one pound of fruit allow eighteen ounces well-refined sugar; boil this, with about a pint of water to every four pounds, until it becomes white, and falls in thick masses from the spoon; then throw in the fruit, and keep it stirred over a brisk fire for six minutes only; take off the scum, and pour it into jars or glasses. Sugar four and a half pounds; water a pint and a quarter, boil to candy height; barberries four pounds; six minutes.

HOW TO PRESERVE BLACK CURRANTS.—Get the currants when they are dry, and pick them; to every 1-1/4 lbs. of currants put 1 lb. of sugar into a preserving pan, with as much juice of currants as will dissolve it; when it boils skim it, and put in the currants, and boil them till they are clear; put them into a jar, lay brandy paper over them, tie them down, and keep in a dry place. A little raspberry juice is an improvement.

CHERRY JAM.—Pick and stone 4 lbs. of May-duke cherries; press them through a sieve; then boil together half a pint of red currant or raspberry juice, and 3/4 lb. of white sugar, put the cherries into them while boiling; add 1 lb. of fine white sugar. Boil quickly 35 minutes, jar, and cover well.

CHERRY MARMALADE.—Take some very ripe cherries; cut off the stalks and take out the stones; crush them and boil them well; put them into a hand sieve, and force them through with a spatula, till the whole is pressed through and nothing remains but the skins; put it again upon the fire to dry; when reduced to half weigh it, and add an equal weight of sugar; boil again; and when it threads between the fingers, it is finished.

HOW TO PRESERVE CURRANTS FOR TARTS.—Let the currants be ripe, dry and well picked. To every 1-1/4 lbs. of currants put 1 lb. of sugar into a preserving pan with as much juice of currants as will dissolve it; when it boils skim it, and put in the currants; boil till clear; jar, and put brandy-paper over; tie down; keep in a dry place.

HOW TO PRESERVE GRAPES.—Into an air-tight cask put a layer of bran dried in an oven; upon this place a layer of grapes, well dried, and not quite ripe, and so on alternately till the barrel is filled; end with bran, and close air-tight; they will keep 9 or 10 months. To restore them to their original freshness, cut the end off each bunch stalk, and put into wine, like flowers. Or,

Bunches of grapes may be preserved through winter by inserting the end of the stem into a potato. The bunches should be laid on dry straw, and turned occasionally.

HOW TO PRESERVE GREEN GAGES.—Choose the largest when they begin to soften; split them without paring; strew upon them part of the sugar. Blanch the kernels with a sharp knife. Next day pour the syrup from the fruit, and boil it with the other sugar six or eight minutes gently; skim and add the plums and kernels. Simmer till clear, taking off the scum; put the fruit singly into small pots, and pour the syrup and kernels to it. To candy it, do not add the syrup, but observe the directions given for candying fruit; some may be done each way.

GREEN GAGE JAM.—Peel and take out the stones. To 1 lb. of pulp put 3/4 lb. loaf sugar; boil half an hour; add lemon juice.

TRANSPARENTLY BEAUTIFUL MARMALADE.—Take 3 lbs. bitter oranges; pare them as you would potatoes; cut the skin into fine shreds, and put them into a muslin bag; quarter all the oranges; press out the juice. Boil the pulp and shreds in three quarts of water 2-1/2 hours, down to three pints; strain through a hair sieve. Then put six pounds of sugar to the liquid, the juice and the shreds, the outside of two lemons grated, and the insides squeezed in; add three cents worth of isinglass. Simmer altogether slowly for 15 or 20 minutes.

TOMATO MARMALADE.—Take ripe tomatoes in the height of the season; weigh them, and to every pound of tomatoes add one pound of sugar. Put the tomatoes into a large pan or small tub, and scald them with boiling water, so as to make the skin peel off easily; When you have entirely removed the skin, put the tomatoes (without any water) into a preserving kettle, wash them, and add the sugar, with one ounce of powdered ginger to every three pounds of fruit, and the juice of two lemons, the grated rind of three always to every three pounds of fruit. Stir up the whole together, and set it over a moderate fire. Boil it gently for two or three hours; till the whole becomes a thick, smooth mass, skimming it well, and stirring it to the bottom after every skimming. When done, put it warm into jars, and cover tightly. This will be found a very fine sweetmeat.

HOW TO PRESERVE GREEN PEAS.—Shell, and put them into a kettle of water when it boils; give them two or three warms only, and pour them in a colander. Drain, and turn them out on a cloth, and then on another to dry perfectly. When dry bottle them in wide mouthed bottles; leaving only room to pour clarified mutton suet upon them an inch thick, and for the cork. Rosin it down; and keep in the cellar, or in the earth, as directed for gooseberries. When they are to be used, boil them till tender, with a bit of butter, a spoonful of sugar, and a bit of mint.

HOW TO PRESERVE GREEN PEAS FOR WINTER USE.—Carefully shell the peas; then place them in the canister, not too large ones; put in a small piece of alum, about the size of a horse-bean to a pint of peas. When the canister is full of peas, fill up the interstices with water, and solder on the lid perfectly air-tight, and boil the canisters for about twenty minutes; then remove them to a cool place, and by the time of January they will be found but little inferior to fresh, new-gathered peas. Bottling is not so good; at least, we have not found it so; for the air gets in, the liquid turns sour, and the peas acquire a bad taste.

HOW TO KEEP PRESERVES.—Apply the white of an egg, with a brush, to a single thickness of white tissue paper, with which covers the jars, lapping over an inch or two. It will require no tying, as it will become, when dry, inconceivably tight and strong, and impervious to the air.

QUINCES FOR THE TEA-TABLE.—Bake ripe quinces thoroughly; when cold, strip off the skins, place them in a glass dish, and sprinkle with white sugar, and serve them with cream. They make a fine looking dish for the tea-table, and a more luscious and inexpensive one than the same fruit made into sweetmeats. Those who once taste the fruit thus prepared, will probably desire to store away a few bushels in the fall to use in the above manner.

PICKLED PEARS.—Three pounds of sugar to a pint of vinegar, spice in a bag and boil, then cook the pears in the vinegar till done through.

BOILED PEARS.—Boil pears in water till soft, then add one pound of sugar to three pounds of fruit.

PICKLED CITRON.—One quart vinegar, two pounds sugar, cloves and cinnamon each one tablespoon, boil the citron tender in water, take them out and drain, then put them in the syrup and cook till done.

HOW TO PRESERVE RASPBERRIES.—Take raspberries that are not too ripe, and put them to their weight in sugar, with a little water. Boil softly, and do not break them; when they are clear, take them up, and boil the syrup till it be thick enough; then put them in again, and when they are cold, put them in glasses or jars.

RASPBERRY JAM.—One pound sugar to four pounds fruit, with a few currants.

SPICED CURRANTS.—Six pounds currants, four pounds sugar, two tablespoons cloves and two of cinnamon, and one pint of vinegar; boil two hours until quite thick.

STEWED PEARS—Pare and halve or quarter a dozen pears, according to their size; carefully remove the cores, but leave the sloths on. Place them in a clean baking-jar, with a closely fitting lid; add to them the rind of one lemon, cut in strips, and the juice of half a lemon, six cloves, and whole allspice, according to discretion. Put in just enough water to cover the whole, and allow half a pound of loaf-sugar to every pint. Cover down close, and bake in a very cool oven for five hours, or stew them very gently in a lined saucepan from three to four hours. When done, lift them out on a glass dish without breaking them; boil up the syrup quickly for two or three minutes; let it cool a little, and pour it over the pears. A little cochineal greatly enhances the appearance of the fruit; you may add a few drops of prepared cochineal; and a little port wine is often used, and much improves the flavor.

HOW TO PRESERVE WHOLE STRAWBERRIES—Take equal weights of the fruit and refined sugar, lay the former in a large dish, and sprinkle half the sugar in fine powder over, give a gentle shake to the dish that the sugar may touch the whole of the fruit; next day make a thin syrup with the remainder of the sugar, and instead of water allow one pint of red currant juice to every pound of strawberries; in this simmer them until sufficiently jellied. Choose the largest scarlets, or others when not dead ripe.

HOW TO PRESERVE STRAWBERRIES IN WINE—Put a quantity of the finest large strawberries into a gooseberry-bottle, and strew in three large spoonfuls of fine sugar; fill up with Madeira wine or fine sherry.

PRESERVED TOMATOES—One pound of sugar to one pound of ripe tomatoes boiled down; flavor with lemon.

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HOW TO BOIL, BAKE AND STEAM PUDDINGS

AMBER PUDDING—Put a pound of butter into a saucepan, with three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar finely powdered; melt the butter, and mix well with it; then add the yolks of fifteen eggs well beaten, and as much fresh candied orange as will add color and flavor to it, being first beaten to a fine paste. Line the dish with paste for turning out; and when filled with the above, lay a crust over, as you would a pie, and bake in a slow oven. It is as good cold as hot.

BAKED APPLE PUDDING—Pare and quarter four large apples; boil them tender with the rind of a lemon, in so little water, that when done, none may remain; beat them quite fine in a mortar; add the crumbs of a small roll, four ounces of butter melted, the yolks of five, and whites of three eggs, juice of half a lemon, and sugar to taste: beat all together, and lay it in a dish with paste to turn out.

BOILED APPLE PUDDING—Suet, 5 ozs.; flour, 8 ozs.; chop the suet very fine, and roll it into the flour. Make it into a light paste with water. Roll out. Pare and core 8 good sized apples; slice them; put them on the paste, and scatter upon them 4 lb. of sugar; draw the paste round the apples, and boil two hours or more, in a well floured cloth. Serve with melted butter sweetened.

SWISS APPLE PUDDING—Butter a deep dish; put into it a layer of bread crumbs; then a layer of finely chopped suet; a thick layer of finely chopped apples, and a thick layer of sugar. Repeat from the first layer till the dish is full, the last layer to be finger biscuits soaked in milk. Cover it till nearly enough; then uncover, till the top is nicely browned. Flavor with cinnamon, nutmeg, etc., as you please. Bake from 30 to 40 minutes.

APPLE AND SAGO PUDDING—Boil a cup of sago in boiling water with a little cinnamon, a cup of sugar, lemon flavoring; cut apples in thin slices, mix them with the sago; after it is well boiled add a small piece of butter: pour into a pudding dish and bake half an hour.

APPLE PUDDING—Pare and stew three pints of apples, mash them, and add four eggs, a quarter of a pound of butter, sugar and nutmeg, or grated lemon. Bake it on a short crust.

APPLE POTATOE PUDDING.—Six potatoes boiled and mashed fine, add a little salt and piece of butter, size of an egg, roll this out with a little flour, enough to make a good pastry crust which is for the outside of the dumpling, into this put peeled and chopped apples, roll up like any apple dumpling, steam one hour, eat hot with liquid sauce.

ARROW-ROOT PUDDING.—Take 2 teacupfuls of arrowroot, and mix it with half a pint of old milk; boil another half pint of milk, flavoring it with cinnamon, nutmeg or lemon peel, stir the arrowroot and milk into the boiling milk. When cold, add the yolks of 3 eggs beaten into 3 ozs. of sugar. Then add the whites beaten to a stiff broth, and bake in a buttered dish an hour. Ornament the tops with sweetmeats, or citron sliced.

AUNT NELLY'S PUDDING—Half a pound of flour, half pound of treacle, six ounces of chopped suet, the juice and peel of one lemon, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, two or three eggs. Mix and beat all together. Boil in a basin (previously well buttered) four hours.—For sauce, melted butter, a wine-glassful of sherry, and two or three tablespoonfuls of apricot jam.

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING.—Two quarts sweet milk; 1 pint New Orleans molasses; 1 pint Indian meal: 1 tablespoonful butter; nutmeg or cinnamon. Boil the milk; pour it over the meal and molasses; add salt and spice; bake three hours. This is a large family pudding.

BATTER, TO BE USED WITH ALL SORTS OF ROASTING MEAT.—Melt good butter; put to it three eggs, with the whites well beaten up, and warm them together, stirring them continually. With this you may baste any roasting meat, and then sprinkle bread crumbs thereon; and so continue to make a crust as thick as you please.

BATTER, FOR FRYING FRUIT, VEGETABLES, ETC.—Cut four ounces of fresh butter into small pieces, pour on it half a pint of barley water, and when dissolved, add a pint of cold water; mix by degrees with a pound of fine dry flour, and a small pinch of salt. Just before it is used, stir into it the whites of two eggs beaten to a solid froth; use quickly, that the batter may be light.

BEEF STEAK PUDDING.—Take some fine rump steaks; roll them with fat between; and if you approve a little shred onion. Lay a paste of suet in a basin, and put in the chopped steaks; cover the basin with a suet paste, and pinch the edges to keep the gravy in. Cover with a cloth tied close, let the pudding boil slowly for two hours.

BAKED BEEF STEAK PUDDING.—Make a batter of milk, two eggs and flour, or, which is much better, potatoes boiled and mashed through a colander; lay a little of it at the bottom of the dish; then put in the steaks very well seasoned; pour the remainder of the batter over them, and bake it.

BEEF STEAK PUDDING.—Prepare a good suet crust, and line a cake-tin with it; put in layers of steak with onions, tomatoes, and mushrooms, chopped fine, a seasoning of pepper, salt and cayenne, and half a cup of water before you close it. Bake from an hour and a half to two hours, according to the size of the pudding and serve very hot.

BLACK CAP PUDDING..—Make a batter with milk, flour and eggs; butter a basin; pour in the batter, and 5 or 6 ounces of well-cleaned currants. Cover it with a cloth well floured, and tie the cloth very tight. Boil nearly one hour. The currants will have settled to the bottom; therefore dish it bottom upwards. Serve with sweet sauce and a little rum.

OSWEGO BLANC MANGE.—Four tablespoonfuls or three ounces of Oswego prepared corn to one quart of milk. Dissolve the corn to some of the milk. Put into the remainder of the milk four ounces of sugar, a little salt, apiece of lemon rind, or cinnamon stick, and heat to near boiling. Then add the mixed corn, and boil (stirring it briskly) four minutes; take out the rind, and pour into a mold or cup, and keep until cold. When turned out, pour round it any kind of stewed or preserved fruits, or a sauce of milk and sugar.

NICE BLANC-MANGE.—Swell four ounces of rice in water; drain and boil it to a mash in good milk, with sugar, a bit of lemon peel, and a stick of cinnamon. Take care it does not burn, and when quite soft pour it into cups, or into a shape dipped into cold water. When cold turn it out, garnish with currant jelly, or any red preserved fruit. Serve with cream or plain custard.

BOILED BATTER PUDDING.—Three eggs, one ounce of butter, one pint of milk, three tablespoonfuls of flour, a little salt. Put the flour into a basin, and add sufficient milk to moisten it; carefully rub down all the lumps with a spoon, then pour in the remainder of the milk, and stir in the butter, which should be previously melted; keep beating the mixture, add the eggs and a pinch of salt, and when the batter is quite smooth, put into a well-buttered basin, tie it down very tightly, and put it into boiling water; move the basin about for a few minutes after it is put into the water, to prevent the flour settling in any part, and boil for one hour and a quarter. This pudding may also be boiled in a floured cloth that has been wetted in hot water; it will then take a few minutes less than when boiled in a basin. Send these puddings very quickly to table, and serve with sweet sauce, wine-sauce, stewed fruit, or jam of any kind; when the latter is used, a little of it may be placed round the dish in small quantities, as a garnish.

BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING..—Butter a dish well, lay in a few slices of bread and butter, boil one pint of milk, pour out over two eggs well beaten, and then over the bread and butter, bake over half hour.

SIMPLE BREAD PUDDING.—Take the crumbs of a stale roll, pour over it one pint of boiling milk, and set it by to cool. When quite cold, beat it up very fine with two ounces of butter, sifted sugar sufficient to sweeten it; grate in Haifa nutmeg, and add a pound of well-washed currants, beat up four eggs separately, and then mix them up with the rest, adding, if desired, a few strips of candied orange peel. All the ingredients must be beaten up together for about half an hour, as the lightness of the pudding depends upon that. Tie it up in a cloth, and boil for an hour. When it is dished, pour a little white wine sauce over the top.

CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDING.—Suet, chopped small, six ounces; raisins, stoned, etc., eight ounces; bread crumbs, six ounces; three eggs, a wine glass of brandy, a little nutmeg and cinnamon pounded as fine as possible, half a teaspoonful of salt, rather less than half pint milk, fine sugar, four ounces; candied lemon, one ounce; citron half an ounce. Beat the eggs and spice well together; mix the milk by degrees, then the rest of the ingredients. Dip a fine, close, linen cloth into boiling water, and put in a sieve (hair), flour it a little, and tie up close. Put the pudding into a saucepan containing six quarts of boiling water; keep a kettle of boiling water alongside, and fill up as it wastes. Be sure to keep it boiling at least six hours. Serve with any sauce; or arrow-root with brandy.

CHRISTMAS PUDDING.—Suet 1-1/2 lbs., minced small; currants, 1-1/2 lbs., raisins, stoned, 1/4 lb.; sugar, 1 lb.; ten eggs, a grated nutmeg; 2 ozs. citron and lemon peel; 1 oz. of mixed spice, a teaspoonful of grated ginger, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1 pint of milk, and a wine glassful of brandy. Beat first the eggs, add half the milk, beat all together, and gradually stir in all the milk, then the suet, fruit, etc., and as much milk to mix it very thick. Boil in a cloth six or seven hours.

COTTAGE PUDDING.—One pint sifted flour, three tablespoons melted butter, 2 eggs, one cup sweet milk, two teaspoonfuls cream tartar, one teaspoon soda, mix and bake.

CREAM PUDDING.—Cream, 1 pint; the yolks of seven eggs, seven tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, salt, and a small bit of soda. Rub the cream with the eggs and flour; add the rest, the milk last, just before baking, and pour the whole into the pudding dish. Serve with sauce of wine, sugar, butter, flavored as you like.

CRUMB PUDDING.—The yolks and whites of three eggs, beaten separately, one ounce moist sugar, and sufficient bread crumbs to make it into a thick but not stiff mixture; a little powdered cinnamon. Beat all together for five minutes, and bake in a buttered tin. When baked, turn it out of the tin, pour two glasses of boiling wine over it, and serve. Cherries, either fresh or preserved, are very nice mixed in the pudding.

DAMSON PUDDING.—Four or five tablespoonfuls of flour, three eggs beaten, a pint of milk, made into batter. Stone 1-1/2 lbs., of damsons, put them and 6 ozs. of sugar into the batter, and boil in a buttered basin for one hour and a half.

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