Burroughs' Encyclopaedia of Astounding Facts and Useful Information, 1889
by Barkham Burroughs
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Much has been said pro and con., upon the use of soap with the tooth-brush. My own experience and the experience of members of my family is highly favorable to the regular morning and evening use of soap. Castile or other good soap will answer this purpose. (Whatever is good for the hands and face is good for the teeth.) The slightly unpleasant taste which soap has when we begin to use it will soon be unnoticed.

TOOTH POWDERS.—Many persons, while laudably attentive to the preservation of their teeth, do them harm by too much officiousness. They daily apply to them some dentifrice powder, which they rub so hard as not only to injure the enamel by excessive friction, but to hurt the gums even more than by the abuse of the toothpick. The quality of some of the dentifrice powders advertised in newspapers is extremely suspicious, and there is reason to think that they are not altogether free from a corrosive ingredient. One of the safest and best compositions for the purpose is a mixture of two parts of prepared chalk, one of Peruvian bark, and one of hard soap, all finely powdered, which is calculated not only to clean the teeth without hurting them, but to preserve the firmness of the gums.

Besides the advantage of sound teeth for their use in mastication, a proper attention to their treatment conduces not a little to the sweetness of the breath. This is, indeed, often affected by other causes existing in the lungs, the stomach, and sometimes even in the bowels, but a rotten state of the teeth, both from the putrid smell emitted by carious bones and the impurities lodged in their cavities, never fails of aggravating an unpleasant breath wherever there is a tendency of that kind.

REMEDIES FOR TOOTHACHE.—1. One drachm of alum reduced to an impalpable powder, three drachms of nitrous spirits of ether—mix, and apply them to the tooth on cotton. 2. Mix a little salt and alum, equal portions, grind it fine, wet a little lock of cotton, fill it with the powder and put it in your tooth. One or two applications seldom fail to cure. 3. To one drachm of collodion add two drachms of Calvert's carbolic acid. A gelatinous mass is precipitated, a small portion of which, inserted in the cavity of an aching tooth, invariably gives immediate relief. 4. Saturate a small bit of clean cotton wool with a strong solution of ammonia, and apply it immediately to the affected tooth. The pleasing contrast immediately produced in some cases causes fits of laughter, although a moment previous extreme suffering and anguish prevailed. 5. Sometimes a sound tooth aches from sympathy of the nerves of the face with other nerves. But when toothache proceeds from a decayed tooth either have it taken out, or put hot fomentations upon the face, and hot drinks into the mouth, such as tincture of cayenne.

TO CURE WARTS.—Warts are formed by the small arteries, veins, and nerves united together, taking on a disposition to grow by extending themselves upward, carrying the scarf-skin along with them, which, thickening, forms a wart. Corns are a similar growth, brought about by the friction of tight boots and shoes. 1. Take a piece of diachylon plaster, cut a hole in the centre the size of the wart, and stick it on, the wart protruding through. Then touch it daily with aquafortis, or nitrate of silver. They may be removed by tying a string tightly around them. 2. Take a blacksmith's punch, heat it red hot and burn the warts with the end of it. When the burn gets well the warts will be gone forever. 3. Scrape down enough dry cobwebs to make a ball large enough to, or a little more than, cover the wart and not touch the flesh around the same; lay it on top of the wart, ignite it and let it be until it is all burnt up. The wart will turn white, and in a few days come out. 4. Pass a pin through the wart; apply one end of the pin to the flame of a lamp; hold it there until the wart fries under the action of the heat. A wart so treated will leave. 5. Dissolve as much common washing soda as the water will take up; wash the warts with this for a minute or two, and let them dry without wiping. Keep the water in a bottle and repeat the washing often, and it will take away the largest warts. 6. They may be cured surely by paring them down until the blood comes slightly and then rubbing them with lunar caustic. It is needless to say this hurts a little, but it is a sure cure. The hydrochlorate of lime applied in the same way will cure after several applications and some patience; so will strong good vinegar, and so it is said will milk weed. The cures founded upon superstitious practices, such as muttering some phrases over the excrescence, stealing a piece of beef, rubbing the wart therewith and then burying it under the leaves to await its decay, etc., etc., are all the remnants of a past state of ignorance and are of no use whatever. Warts are generally only temporary and disappear as their possessors grow up.

HOW TO CURE WHITE SWELLING.—Draw a blister on the inside of the leg below the knee; keep it running with ointment made of hen manure, by simmering it in hog's lard with onions; rub the knee with the following kind of ointment: Bits of peppermint, oil of sassafras, checkerberry, juniper, one drachm each; simmer in one-half pint neatsfoot oil, and rub on the knee three times a day.

HOW TO CURE WOUNDS.—Catnip steeped, mixed with fresh butter and sugar.

HOW TO CURE WHOOPING-COUGH.—Take a quart of spring water, put in it a large handful of chin-cups that grow upon moss, a large handful of unset hyssop; boil it to a pint, strain it off, and sweeten it with sugar-candy. Let the child, as often as it coughs, take two spoonfuls at a time.

HOW TO CURE WORMS IN CHILDREN.—1. Take one ounce of powdered snake-head (herb), and one drachm each of aloes and prickly ash bark; powder these, and to one-half teaspoonful of this powder add a teaspoonful of boiling water and a teaspoonful of molasses. Take this as a dose, night or morning, more or less, as the symptoms may require. 2. Take tobacco leaves, pound them up with honey, and lay them on the belly of the child or grown person, at the same time administering a dose of some good physic. 3. Take garden parsley, make it into a tea and let the patient drink freely of it. 4. Take the scales that will fall around the blacksmith's anvil, powder them fine, and put them in sweetened rum. Shake when you take them, and give a teaspoonful three times a day.

SCALDING OF THE URINE.—Equal parts of the oil of red cedar, and the oil of spearmint.

URINARY OBSTRUCTIONS.—Steep pumpkin seeds in gin, and drink about three glasses a day; or, administer half a drachm uva ursi every morning, and a dose of spearmint.

FREE PASSAGE OF URINE.—The leaves of the currant bush made into a tea, and taken as a common drink.

VENEREAL COMPLAINTS.—Equal parts of the oil of red cedar, combined with sarsaparilla, yellow dock and burdock made into a syrup; add to a pint of this syrup an ounce of gum guiaicum. Dose, from a tablespoonful to a wine-glass, as best you can bear.

HOW TO CURE SORE THROAT.—"One who has tried it" communicates the following sensible item about curing sore throat: Let each one of your half million readers buy at any drug store one ounce of camphorated oil and five cents' worth of chloride of potash. Whenever any soreness appears in the throat, put the potash in half a tumbler of water, and with it gargle the throat thoroughly; then rub the neck thoroughly with the camphorated oil at night before going to bed, and also pin around the throat a small strip of woolen flannel. This is a simple, cheap and sure remedy.

* * * * *


Acacia—Concealed love. Adonis Vernalis—Sorrowful remembrances. Almond—Hope. Aloe—Religious superstition. Alyssum, Sweet—Worth beyond beauty. Ambrosia—Love returned. Apple Blossom—Preference. Arbor Vitae—Unchanging friendship.

Bachelor's button—Hope in love. Balsam—Impatience. Begonia—Deformity. Bellflower—Gratitude. Belvidere, Wild (Licorice)—I declare against you. Blue Bell—I will be constant. Box—Stoical indifference. Briers—Envy. Burdock—Touch me not.

Cactus—Thou leavest not. Camellia—Pity. Candytuft—Indifference. Canterbury Bell—Gratitude. Cape Jessamine—Ecstasy; transport. Calla Lily—Feminine beauty. Carnation (Yellow)—Disdain. Cedar—I live for thee. China Aster—I will see about it. Chrysanthemum Rose—I love. Cowslip—Pensiveness. Cypress—Mourning. Crocus—Cheerfulness. Cypress and Marigold—Despair.

Daffodil—Chivalry. Dahlia—Forever thine. Daisy (Garden)—I partake your sentiment. Daisy (Wild)—I will think of it. Dandelion—Coquetry. Dead Leaves—Sadness. Dock—Patience. Dodder—Meanness. Dogwood—Am I indifferent to you?

Ebony—Hypocrisy. Eglantine—I wound to heal. Elder—Compassion. Endive—Frugality. Evening Primrose—Inconstancy. Evergreen—Poverty. Everlasting—Perpetual remembrance.

Fennel—Strength. Filbert—Reconciliation. Fir-tree—Elevation. Flux—I feel your kindness. Forget-me-not—True love; remembrance. Fox-glove—Insincerity. Furze—Anger. Fuchsia—Taste.

Gentian—Intrinsic worth. Geranium, Ivy—Your hand for the next dance. Geranium, Nutmeg—I expect a meeting. Geranium, Oak—Lady, deign to smile. Geranium, Rose—Preference. Geranium, Silver leaf—Recall. Gilliflower—Lasting beauty. Gladiolus—Ready; armed. Golden Rod—Encouragement. Gorse—Endearing affection. Gass—Utility.

Harebell—Grief. Hawthorn—Hope. Hazel—Recollection. Hartsease—Think of me. Heliotrope—Devotion. Henbane—Blemish. Holly—Foresight. Hollyhock—Fruitfulness. Hollyhock, White—Female ambition. Honeysuckle—Bond of Love. Honeysuckle, Coral—The color of my fate. Hyacinth—Jealousy. Hyacinth, Blue—Constancy. Hyacinth, Purple—Sorrow. Hydrangea—Heartlessness.

Ice plant—Your looks freeze me. Iris—Message. Ivy—Friendship; matrimony.

Jessamine, Cape—Transient joy; ecstasy. Jessamine, White—Amiability. Jessamine, Yellow—Grace; elegance. Jonquil—I desire a return of affection. Juniper—Asylum; shelter. Justitia—Perfection of loveliness.

Kalmia (Mountain Laurel)—Treachery. Kannedia—Mental beauty.

Laburnum—Pensive beauty. Lady's Slipper—Capricious beauty. Larch—Boldness. Larkspur—Fickleness. Laurel—Glory. Lavender—Distrust. Lettuce—Cold-hearted. Lilac—First emotion of love. Lily—Purity; modesty. Lily of the Valley—Return of happiness. Lily, Day—Coquetry, Lily, Water—Eloquence. Lily, Yellow—Falsehood. Locust—Affection beyond the grave. Love in a Mist—You puzzle me. Love Lies Bleeding—Hopeless, not heartless. Lupine—Imagination.

Mallow—Sweetness; mildness. Maple—Reserve. Marigold—Cruelty. Marjoram—Blushes. Marvel of Peru (Four O'clocks)—Timidity. Mint—Virtue. Mignonette—Your qualities surpass your charms. Mistletoe—I surmount all difficulties. Mock Orange (Syringa)—Counterfeit. Morning Glory—Coquetry. Maiden's Hair—Discretion. Magnolia, Grandiflora—Peerless and proud. Magnolia, Swamp—Perseverance. Moss—Maternal love. Motherwort—Secret love. Mourning Bride—Unfortunate attachment. Mulberry, Black—I will not survive you. Mulberry, White—Wisdom. Mushroom—Suspicion. Musk-plant—Weakness. Myrtle—Love faithful in absence.

Narcissus—Egotism. Nasturtium—Patriotism. Nettle—Cruelty; slander. Night Blooming Cereus—Transient beauty. Nightshade—Bitter truth.

Oak—Hospitality. Oats—Music. Oleander—Beware. Olive-branch—Peace. Orange-flower—Chastity. Orchis—Beauty. Osier—Frankness. Osmunda—Dreams.

Pansy—Think of me. Parsley—Entertainment; feasting. Passion-flower—Religious fervor; susceptibility. Pea, Sweet—Departure. Peach Blossom—This heart is thine. Peony—Anger. Pennyroyal—Flee away. Periwinkle—Sweet remembrances. Petunia—Less proud than they deem thee. Phlox—Our souls are united. Pimpernel—Change. Pink—Pure affection. Pink, Double Red—Pure, ardent love. Pink, Indian—Aversion. Pink, Variegated—Refusal. Pink, White—You are fair. Pomegranite—Fully. Poppy—Consolation. Primrose—Inconstancy.

Rhododendron—Agitation. Rose, Austrian—Thou art all that's lovely. Rose, Bridal—Happy love. Rose, Cabbage—Ambassador of love. Rose, China—Grace. Rose, Damask—Freshness. Rose, Jacqueminot—Mellow love. Rose, Maiden's Blush—If you do love me, you will find me out. Rose, Moss—Superior merit. Rose, Moss Rosebud—Confession of love. Rose, Sweet-briar—Sympathy. Rose, Tea—Always lovely. Rose, White—I am worthy of you. Rose, York and Lancaster—War. Rose, Wild—Simplicity. Rue—Disdain.

Saffron—Excess is dangerous. Sardonia—Irony. Sensitive Plant—Timidity. Snap-Dragon—Presumption. Snowball—Thoughts of Heaven. Snowdrop—Consolation. Sorrel—Wit ill (poorly) timed. Spearmint—Warm feelings. Star of Bethlehem—Reconciliation. Strawberry—Perfect excellence. Sumac—Splendor. Sunflower, Dwarf—Your devout admirer. Sunflower, Tall—Pride. Sweet William—Finesse. Syringa—Memory.

Tansy—I declare against you. Teazel—Misanthropy. Thistle—Austerity. Thorn Apple—Deceitful charms. Touch-me-not—Impatience. Trumpet-flower—Separation. Tuberose—Dangerous pleasures. Tulip—Declaration of love. Tulip, Variegated—Beautiful eyes. Tulip, Yellow—Hopeless love.

Venus' Flytrap—Have I caught you at last. Venus' Looking-glass—Flattery. Verbena—Sensibility. Violet, Blue—Love. Violet, White—Modesty.

Wallflower—Fidelity. Weeping Willow—Forsaken. Woodbine—Fraternal love.


Zennae—Absent friends.

* * * * *


The following masterpieces of elegiac eloquence are unsurpassed in the repertory of the English classics, for lofty and noble sentiment, exquisite pathos, vivid imagery, tenderness of feeling, glowing power of description, brilliant command of language, and that immortal and

seldom attained faculty of painting in the soul of the listener or reader a realistic picture whose sublimity of conception impresses the understanding with awe and admiration, and impels the mind to rise involuntarily for the time to an elevation out of and above the inconsequent contemplation of the common and sordid things of life.


The following grand oration was delivered by Hon. Robert G. Ingersoll on the occasion of the funeral of his brother, Hon. Eben C. Ingersoll, in Washington, June 2:

"My friends, I am going to do that which the dead oft promised he would do for me. The loved and loving brother, husband, father, friend, died where manhood's morning almost touches noon, and while the shadows were still falling towards the west. He had not passed on life's highway the stone that marks the highest point, but being weary for a moment he lay down by the wayside, and using his burden for a pillow fell into that dreamless sleep that kisses down the eyelids. Still, while yet in love with life and raptured with the world, he passed to silence and pathetic dust. Yet, after all, it may be best, just in the happiest, sunniest hour of all the voyage, while eager winds are kissing every sail, to dash against the unseen rock and in an instant to hear the billows roar, 'A sunken ship;' for whether in mid-sea or among the breakers of the farther shore, a wreck must mark at last the end of each and all, and every life, no matter if its every hour is rich with love, and every moment jeweled with a joy, will at its close become a tragedy as sad and deep and dark as can be woven of the warp and woof of mystery and death. This brave and tender man in every storm of life was oak and rock, but in the sunshine he was vine and flower. He was the friend of all heroic souls. He climbed the heights and left all superstitions far below, while on his forehead fell the golden dawning of a grander day. He loved the beautiful, and was with color, form and music touched to tears. He sided with the weak, and with a willing hand gave alms. With loyal heart, and with the purest hand he faithfully discharged all public trusts. He was a worshiper of liberty and a friend of the oppressed. A thousand times I have heard him quote the words, 'For Justice all place temple, and all seasons summer.' He believed that happiness was the only good, reason the only torch, justice the only worshiper, humanity the only religion, and love the priest. He added to the sum of human joy, and were everyone for whom he did some loving service to bring a blossom to his grave, he would sleep to-night beneath a wilderness of flowers. Life is a narrow vale between the cold and barren peaks of two eternities. We strive in vain to look beyond the heights. We cry aloud, and the only answer is the echo of our wailing cry. From the voiceless lips of the unreplying dead there comes no word, but the light of death. Hope sees a star, and listening love can hear the rustic of a wing, he who sleeps here when dying, mistaking the approach of death for the return of health, whispered with his latest breath, 'I am better now.' Let us believe, in spite of doubts and dogmas, and tears and fears, that these dear words are true of all the countless dead. And now, to you who have been chosen from among the many men he loved to do the last sad office for the dead, we give his sacred dust. Speech cannot contain our love. There was, there is, no gentler, stronger, manlier man."


Colonel Ingersoll upon one occasion was one of a little party of sympathizing friends who had gathered in a drizzling rain to assist the sorrowing friends of a young boy—a bright and stainless flower, cut off in the bloom of its beauty and virgin purity by the ruthless north winds from the Plutonian shades—in the last sad office of committing the poor clay to the bosom of its mother earth. Inspired by that true sympathy of the great heart of a great man, Colonel Ingersoll stepped to the side of the grave and spoke as follows:

"My friends, I know how vain it is to gild grief with words, and yet I wish to take from every grave its fear. Here in this world, where life and death are equal king, all should be brave enough to meet what all the dead have met. The future has been filled with fear, stained and polluted by the heartless past. From the wondrous tree of life the buds and blossoms fall with ripened fruit, and in the common bed of earth the patriarchs and babes sleep side by side. Why should we fear that which will come to all that is? We cannot tell; we do not know which is the greater blessing—life or death. We cannot say that death is not a good; we do not know whether the grave is the end of this life or the door of another, or whether the night here is not somewhere else a dawn. Neither can we tell which is the more fortunate, the child dying in its mother's arms, before its lips have learned to form a word, or he who journeys all the length of life's uneven road, taking the last slow steps painfully with staff and crutch. Every cradle asks us 'whence,' and every coffin 'whither?' The poor barbarian, weeping above his dead, can answer these questions as intelligently and satisfactorily as the robed priest of the most authentic creed. The tearful ignorance of the one is just as good as the learned and unmeaning words of the other. No man, standing where the horizon of life has touched a grave, has any right to prophesy a future filled with pain and tears. It may be that death gives all there is of worth to live. If those we press and strain against our hearts could never die, perhaps that love would wither from the earth. May be this common fate treads from out the paths between our hearts the weeds of selfishness and hate, and I had rather live and love where death is king, than have eternal life where love is not. Another life is naught, unless we know and love again the ones who love us here. They who stand with breaking hearts around this little grave need have no fear. The larger and the nobler faith in all that is and is to be, tells us that death, even at its worst, is only perfect rest. We know that through the common wants of life, the needs and duties of each hour, their grief will lessen day by day, until at last these graves will be to them a place of rest and peace, almost of joy. There is for them this consolation, the dead do not suffer. If they live again, their lives will surely be as good as ours. We have no fear; we are all the children of the same mother, and the same fate awaits us all. We, too, have our religion, and it is this: 'Help for the living; hope for the dead.'"

* * * * *


In 1492 America was discovered.

In 1848 gold was found in California.

Invention of telescopes, 1590.

Elias Howe, Jr., invented sewing machines, in 1846.

In 1839 envelopes came into use.

Steel pens first made in 1830.

The first watch was constructed in 1476.

First manufacture of sulphur matches in 1829.

Glass windows introduced into England in the eighth century.

First coaches introduced into England in 1569.

In 1545 needles of the modern style first came into use.

In 1527 Albert Durer first engraved on wood.

1559 saw knives introduced into England.

In the same year wheeled carriages were first used in France.

In 1588 the first newspaper appeared in England.

In 1629 the first printing press was brought to America.

The first newspaper advertisement appeared in 1652.

England sent the first steam engine to this continent in 1703.

The first steamboat in the United States ascended the Hudson in 1807.

Locomotive first used in the United States in 1830.

First horse railroad constructed in 1827.

In 1830 the first iron steamship was built.

Coal oil first used for illuminating purposes in 1836.

Looms introduced as a substitute for spinning wheels in 1776.

The velocity of a severe storm is 36 miles an hour; that of a hurricane, 80 miles an hour.

National ensign of the United States formally adopted by Congress in 1777.

A square acre is a trifle less than 209 feet each way.

Six hundred and forty acres make a square mile.

A "hand" (employed in measuring horses' height) is four inches.

A span is 10-7/8 inches.

Six hundred pounds make a barrel of rice.

One hundred and ninety-six pounds make a barrel of flour.

Two hundred pounds make a barrel of pork.

Fifty-six pounds make a firkin of butter.

The number of languages is 2,750.

The average duration of human life is 31 years.

* * * * *



Soups.—Chicken, 3 hours; mutton, 3-1/2 hours; oyster, 3-1/2 hours; vegetable, 4 hours.

Fish.—Bass, broiled, 3 hours; codfish, boiled, 2 hours; oysters, raw, 3 hours; oysters, roasted, 3-1/4 hours; oysters, stewed, 3-1/2 hours; salmon (fresh), boiled, 1-3/4 hours; trout, fried, 1-1/2 hours.

Meats.—Beef, roasted, 3 hours; beefsteak, broiled, 3 hours; beef (corned), boiled, 4-1/4 hours; lamb, roast, 2-1/2 hours; lamb, boiled, 3 hours; meat, hashed, 2-1/2 hours; mutton, broiled, 3 hours; mutton, roast, 3-1/4 hours; pig's feet, soused, 1 hour; pork, roast, 5-1/4 hours; pork, boiled, 4-1/2 hours; pork, fried, 4-1/4 hours; pork, broiled, 3-1/4 hours; sausage, fried, 4 hours; veal, broiled, 4 hours; veal, roast, 4-1/2 hours.

Poultry and game.—Chicken, fricasseed, 3-3/4 hours; duck (tame), roasted, 4 hours; duck (wild), roasted, 4-3/4 hours; fowls (domestic), roasted or boiled, 4 hours; goose (wild), roasted, 2-1/2 hours; goose (tame), roasted, 2-1/4 hours; turkey, boiled or roasted, 2-1/2 hours; venison, broiled or roasted, 1-1/2 hours.

Vegetables.—Asparagus, boiled, 2-1/2 hours; beans (Lima), boiled, 2-1/2 hours, beans (string), boiled, 3 hours; beans, baked (with pork), 4-1/2 hours; beets (young), boiled, 3-3/4 hours; beets (old) boiled, 4 hours; cabbage, raw, 2 hours; cabbage, boiled, 4-1/2 hours; cauliflower, boiled, 2-1/2 hours; corn (green), boiled, 4 hours; onions, boiled, 3 hours; parsnips, boiled, 3 hours; potatoes, boiled or baked, 3-1/2 hours; rice, boiled, 1 hour; spinach, boiled, 2-1/2 hours; tomatoes, raw or stewed, 2-1/2 hours; turnips, boiled, 3-1/2 hours.

Bread, Eggs, Milk, etc.—Bread, corn, 3-1/4 hours; bread, wheat, 3-1/2 hours; eggs, raw, 2 hours; cheese, 3-1/2 hours; custard, 2-3/4 hours; eggs, soft-boiled, 3 hours; eggs, hard-boiled or fried, 3-1/2 hours; gelatine, 2-1/2 hours; tapioca, 2 hours.

* * * * *


Following are one hundred and fifty topics for debate. The more usual form in their presentation is that of a direct proposition or statement, rather than that of a question. The opponents then debate the "affirmative" and "negative" of the proposition. It is well to be very careful, in adopting a subject for a debate, to so state or explain it that misunderstandings may be mutually avoided, and quibbles on the meaning of words prevented.


Which is the better for this nation, high or low import tariffs?

Is assassination ever justifiable?

Was England justifiable in interfering between Egypt and the Soudan rebels?

Is the production of great works of literature favored by the conditions of modern civilized life?

Is it politic to place restrictions upon the immigration of the Chinese to the United States?

Will coal always constitute the main source of artificial heat?

Has the experiment of universal suffrage proven a success? Was Grant or Lee the greater general?

Is an income-tax commendable?

Ought the national banking system to be abolished?

Should the government lease to stockgrowers any portion of the public domain?

Is it advisable longer to attempt to maintain both a gold and silver standard of coinage?

Which is the more important to the student, physical science or mathematics?

Is the study of current politics a duty?

Which was the more influential congressman, Blaine or Garfield?

Which gives rise to more objectionable idioms and localisms of language, New England or the West?

Was the purchase of Alaska by this government wise?

Which is the more important as a continent, Africa or South America?

Should the government interfere to stop the spread of contagious diseases among cattle?

Was Caesar or Hannibal the more able general?

Is the study of ancient or modern history the more important to the student?

Should aliens be allowed to acquire property in this country?

Should aliens be allowed to own real estate in this country? Do the benefits of the signal service justify its costs?

Should usury laws be abolished?

Should all laws for the collection of debt be abolished?

Is labor entitled to more remuneration than it receives?

Should the continuance of militia organizations by the several States be encouraged?

Is an untarnished reputation of more importance to a woman than to a man?

Does home life promote the growth of selfishness?

Are mineral veins aqueous or igneous in origin?

Is the theory of evolution tenable?

Was Rome justifiable in annihilating Carthage as a nation?

Which has left the more permanent impress upon mankind, Greece or Rome?

Which was the greater thinker, Emerson or Bacon?

Which is the more important as a branch of education, mineralogy or astronomy?

Is there any improvement in the quality of the literature of to-day over that of last century?

Should the "Spoils System" be continued in American politics?

Should the co-education of the sexes be encouraged?

Which should be the more encouraged, novelists or dramatists?

Will the African and Caucasian races ever be amalgamated in the United States?

Should the military or the interior department have charge over the Indians in the United States?

Which is of more benefit to his race, the inventor or the explorer?

Is history or philosophy the better exercise for the mind?

Can any effectual provision be made by the State against "hard times"?

Which is of the more benefit to society, journalism or the law?

Which was the greater general, Napoleon or Wellington?

Should the volume of greenback money be increased?

Should the volume of national bank circulation be increased?

Should the railroads be under the direct control of the government?

Is the doctrine of "State rights" to be commended?

Is the "Monroe doctrine" to be commended and upheld?

Is the pursuit of politics an honorable avocation?

Which is of the greater importance, the college or the university?

Does the study of physical science militate against religious belief?

Should "landlordism" in Ireland be supplanted by home rule?

Is life more desirable now than in ancient Rome?

Should men and women receive the same amount of wages for the same kind of work?

Is the prohibitory liquor law preferable to a system of high license?

Has any State a right to secede?

Should any limit be placed by the constitution of a State upon its ability to contract indebtedness?

Should the contract labor system in public prisons be forbidden?

Should there be a censor for the public press?

Should Arctic expeditions be encouraged?

Is it the duty of the State to encourage art and literature as much as science?

Is suicide cowardice?

Has our Government a right to disfranchise the polygamists of Utah?

Should capital punishment be abolished?

Should the law place a limit upon the hours of daily labor for workingmen?

Is "socialism" treason?

Should the education of the young be compulsory?

In a hundred years will republics be as numerous as monarchies?

Should book-keeping be taught in the public schools?

Should Latin be taught in the public schools?

Do our methods of government promote centralization?

Is life worth living?

Should Ireland and Scotland be independent nations?

Should internal revenue taxation be abolished?

Which is of greater benefit at the present day, books or newspapers?

Is honesty always the best policy?

Which has been of greater benefit to mankind, geology or chemistry?

Which could mankind dispense with at least inconvenience, wood or coal?

Which is the greater nation, Germany or France?

Which can support the greater population in proportion to area, our Northern or Southern States?

Would mankind be the loser if the earth should cease to produce gold and silver?

Is the occasional destruction of large numbers of people, by war and disaster, a benefit to the world?

Which could man best do without, steam or horse power?

Should women be given the right of suffrage in the United States?

Should cremation be substituted for burial?

Should the government establish a national system of telegraph?

Will the population of Chicago ever exceed that of New York?

Should the electoral college be continued?

Will the population of St. Louis ever exceed that of Chicago?

Should restrictions be placed upon the amount of property inheritable?

Which is more desirable as the chief business of a city—commerce or manufactures?

Which is more desirable as the chief business of a city—transportation by water or by rail?

Should the rate of taxation be graduated to a ratio with the amount of property taxed?

Will a time ever come when the population of the earth will be limited by the earth's capacity of food production?

Is it probable that any language will ever become universal?

Is it probable that any planet, except the earth, is inhabited?

Should the State prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcoholic liquors?

Should the government prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcoholic liquors?

Should the guillotine be substituted for the gallows?

Was Bryant or Longfellow the greater poet?

Should the jury system be continued?

Should the languages of alien nations be taught in the public schools?

Should a right to vote in any part of the United States depend upon a property qualification?

Can a horse trot faster in harness, or under saddle?

Should the pooling system among American railroads be abolished by law?

Is dancing, as usually conducted, compatible with a high standard of morality?

Should the grand jury system of making indictments be continued?

Which should be the more highly remunerated, skilled labor or the work of professional men?

Which is the more desirable as an occupation, medicine or law?

Should the formation of trade unions be encouraged?

Which has been the greater curse to man, war or drunkenness?

Which can man the more easily do without, electricity or petroleum?

Should the law interfere against the growth of class distinctions in society?

Which was the greater genius, Mohammed or Buddha?

Which was the more able leader, Pizarro or Cortez?

Which can to-day wield the greater influence, the orator or the writer?

Is genius hereditary?

Is Saxon blood deteriorating?

Which will predominate in five hundred years, the Saxon or Latin races?

Should American railroad companies be allowed to sell their bonds in other countries?

Should Sumner's civil rights bill be made constitutional by an amendment?

Does civilization promote the happiness of the world?

Should land subsidies be granted to railroads by the government?

Which is the stronger military power, England or the United States?

Would a rebellion in Russia be justifiable?

Should the theater be encouraged?

Which has the greater resources, Pennsylvania or Texas?

Is agriculture the noblest occupation?

Can democratic forms of government be made universal?

Is legal punishment for crime as severe as it should be?

Should the formation of monopolies be prevented by the State?

Has Spanish influence been helpful or harmful to Mexico as a people?

Which is of more importance, the primary or the high school?

Will the tide of emigration ever turn eastward instead of westward?

Should the art of war be taught more widely than at present in the United States?

Was slavery the cause of the American civil war?

Is life insurance a benefit?

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HOW TO MAKE 32 KINDS OF SOLDER.—1. Plumbers' solder.—Lead 2 parts, tin I part. 2. Tinmen's solder.—Lead 1 part, tin 1 part. 3. Zinc solder.—Tin 1 part, [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'lead 1 to parts'] lead 1 to 2 parts. 4. Pewter solder. Lead 1 part, bismuth 1 to 2 parts. 5. [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'Spelter soldier'] Spelter's solder.—Equal parts copper and zinc. 6. Pewterers' soft solder.—Bismuth 2, lead 4, tin 3 parts. 7. Another.—Bismuth 1, lead I, tin 2 parts. 8. Another pewter solder.—Tin 2 parts, lead 1 part. 9. Glaziers' solder.—Tin 3 parts, lead 1 part. 10. Solder for copper.—Copper 10 parts, zinc 9 parts. 11. Yellow solder for brass or copper.—- Copper 32 lbs., zinc 29 lbs., tin 1 lb. 12. Brass solder.—Copper 61.25 parts, zinc 38.75 parts. 13. Brass solder, yellow and easily fusible.—Copper 45, zinc 55 parts. 14. Brass solder, white.—Copper 57.41 parts, tin 14.60 parts, zinc 27.99 parts. 15. Another solder for copper.—Tin 2 parts, lead 1 part. When the copper is thick heat it by a naked fire, if thin use a tinned copper tool. Use muriate or chloride of zinc as a flux. The same solder will do for iron, cast iron, or steel; if the pieces are thick, heat by a naked fire or immerse in the solder. 16. Black solder.—Copper 2, zinc 3, tin 2 parts. 17. Another.—Sheet brass 20 lbs., tin 6 lbs., zinc 1 lb. 18. Cold brazing without fire or lamp. —Fluoric acid 1 oz., oxy muriatic acid 1 oz., mix in a lead bottle. Put a chalk mark each side where you want to braze. This mixture will keep about G months in one bottle. 19. Cold soldering without fire or lamp.—Bismuth 1/4 oz., quicksilver 1/4 oz., block tin filings 1 oz., spirits salts 1 oz., all mixed together. 20. To solder iron to steel or either to brass.—Tin 3 parts, copper 39-1/2 parts, zinc 7-1/2 parts. When applied in a molten state it will firmly unite metals first named to each other. 21. Plumbers' solder.—Bismuth 1, lead 5, tin 3 parts, is a first-class composition. 22. White solder for raised Britannia ware.—Tin 100 lbs., hardening 8 lbs., antimony 8 lbs. 23. Hardening for Britannia.—(To be mixed separately from the other ingredients.) Copper 2 lbs., tin 1 lb. 21. Best soft solder for cast Britannia ware.—Tin 8 lbs., lead 5 lbs. 25. Bismuth solder.—Tin 1, lead 3, bismuth 3 parts. 26. Solder for brass that will stand hammering.—Brass 78.26 parts, zinc 17.41 parts, silver 4.33 parts, add a little chloride of potassium to your borax for a flux. 27. Solder for steel joints.—Silver 19 parts, copper 1 part, brass 2 parts, Melt all together. 28. Hard solder.—Copper 2 parts, zinc 1 part. Melt together. 29. Solder for brass.—- Copper 3 parts, zinc 1 part, with borax. 30. Solder for copper.—- Brass 6 parts, zinc 1 part, tin 1 part, melt all together well and pour out to cool. 31. Solder for platina—Gold with borax. 32. Solder for iron.—The best solder for iron is good tough brass with a little borax.

N. B.—In soldering, the surfaces to be joined are made perfectly clean and smooth, and then covered with sal. ammoniac, resin or other flux, the solder is then applied, being melted on and smoothed over by a tinned soldering iron.

* * * * *


ALE TO MULL.—Take a pint of good strong ale, and pour it into a saucepan with three cloves and a little nutmeg; sugar to your taste. Set it over the fire, and when it boils take it off to cool. Beat up the yolks of four eggs exceedingly well; mix them first with a little cold ale, then add them to the warm ale, and pour it in and out of the pan several times. Set it over a slow fire, beat it a little, take it off again; do this three times until it is hot, then serve it with dry toast.

ALE, SPICED.—Is made hot, sweetened with sugar and spiced with grated nutmeg, and a hot toast is served in it. This is the wassail drink.

BEEF TEA.—Cut a pound of fleshy beef in thin slices; simmer with a quart of water twenty minutes, after it has once boiled and been skimmed. Season if approved.

BEEF TEA.—To one pound of lean beef add one and one-half tumblers of cold water; cut the beef in small pieces, cover, and let it boil slowly for ten minutes, and add a little salt after it is boiled. Excellent.

BEEF TEA.—Cut lean, tender beef into small pieces, put them into a bottle, cork and set in a pot of cold water, then put on the stove and boil for one hour. Season to taste.

BLACK CURRANT CORDIAL.—To every four quarts of black currants, picked from the stems and lightly bruised, add one gallon of the best whisky; let it remain four months, shaking the jar occasionally, then drain off the liquor and strain. Add three pounds of loaf sugar and a quarter of a pound of best cloves, slightly bruised; bottle well and seal.

BOSTON CREAM (A SUMMER DRINK).—Make a syrup of four pounds of white sugar with four quarts of water; boil; when cold add four ounces of tartaric acid, one and a half ounces of essence of lemon, and the whites of six eggs beaten to a stiff froth; bottle. A wine-glass of the cream to a tumbler of water, with sufficient carbonate of soda to make it effervesce.

CHAMPAGNE CUP.—One quart bottle of champagne, two bottles of soda-water, one liqueur-glass of brandy, two tablespoons of powdered sugar, a few thin strips of cucumber rind; make this just in time for use, and add a large piece of ice.

CHOCOLATE.—Scrape Cadbury's chocolate fine, mix with a little cold water and the yolks of eggs well beaten; add this to equal parts of milk and water, and boil well, being careful that it does not burn. Sweeten to the taste, and serve hot.

COFFEE.—Is a tonic and stimulating beverage, of a wholesome nature. Use the best. For eight cups use nearly eight cups of water; put in coffee as much as you like, boil a minute and take off, and throw in a cup of cold water to throw the grounds to the bottom; in five minutes it will be very clear.

Or, beat one or two eggs, which mix with ground coffee to form a ball; nearly fill the pot with cold water, simmer gently for half an hour, having introduced the ball; do not boil, or you will destroy the aroma.

COFFEE.—The following is a delicious dish either for summer breakfast or dessert: Make a strong infusion of Mocha coffee; put it in a porcelain bowl, sugar it properly and add to it an equal portion of boiled milk, or one-third the quantity of rich cream. Surround the bowl with pounded ice.

CURRANT WINE.—One quart currant juice, three pounds of sugar, sufficient water to make a gallon.

EGG GRUEL.—Boil eggs from one to three hours until hard enough to grate; then boil new milk and thicken with the egg, and add a little salt. Excellent in case of nausea.

LEMON SYRUP.—Pare off the yellow rind of the lemon, slice the lemon and put a layer of lemon and a thick layer of sugar in a deep plate; cover close with a saucer, and set in a warm place. This is an excellent remedy for a cold.

LEMONADE.—Take a quart of boiling water, and add to it five ounces of lump-sugar, the yellow rind of the lemon rubbed off with a bit of sugar, and the juice of three lemons. Stir all together and let it stand till cool. Two ounces of cream of tartar may be used instead of the lemons, water being poured upon it.

RASPBERRY VINEGAR.—Fill a jar with red raspberries picked from the stalks. Pour in as much vinegar as it will hold. Let it stand ten days, then strain it through a sieve. Don't press the berries, just let the juice run through. To every pint add one pound loaf sugar. Boil it like other syrup; skim, and bottle when cold.

SUMMER DRINK.—Boil together for five minutes two ounces of tartaric acid, two pounds white sugar, three lemons sliced, two quarts of water; when nearly cold add the whites of four eggs beaten to a froth, one tablespoonful of flour and half an ounce of wintergreen. Two tablespoonfuls in a glass of water make a pleasant drink; for those who like effervescence add as much soda as a ten-cent piece will hold, stirring it briskly before drinking.

BLACKBERRY SYRUP.—To one pint of juice put one pound of white sugar, one-half ounce of powdered cinnamon, one-fourth ounce mace, and two teaspoons cloves; boil all together for a quarter of an hour, then strain the syrup, and add to each pint a glass of French brandy.

TEA.—When the water in the teakettle begins to boil, have ready a tin tea-steeper; pour into the tea-steeper just a very little of the boiling water, and then put in tea, allowing one teaspoon of tea to each person. Pour over this boiling water until the steeper is a little more than half full; cover tightly and let it stand where it will keep hot, but not to boil. Let the tea infuse for ten or fifteen minutes, and then pour into the tea-urn, adding more boiling water, in the proportion of one cup of water for every teaspoon of dry tea which has been infused. Have boiling water in a water-pot, and weaken each cup of tea as desired. Do not use water for tea that has been boiled long. Spring water is best for tea, and filtered water next best.

ICED TEA A LA RUSSE.—To each glass of tea add the juice of half a lemon, fill up the glass with pounded ice, and sweeten.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BREAD.—In the composition of good bread, there are three important requisites: Good flour, good yeast, [and here let us recommend Gillett's Magic Yeast Cakes. They keep good for one year in any climate, and once used you will not do without it. All grocers keep it] and strength to knead it well. Flour should be white and dry, crumbling easily again after it is pressed in the hand.

A very good method of ascertaining the quality of yeast will be to add a little flour to a very small quantity, setting it in a warm place. If in the course of ten or fifteen minutes it raises, it will do to use.

When you make bread, first set the sponge with warm milk or water, keeping it in a warm place until quite light. Then mold this sponge, by adding flour, into one large loaf, kneading it well. Set this to rise again, and then when sufficiently light mold it into smaller loaves, let it rise again, then bake. Care should be taken not to get the dough too stiff with flour; it should be as soft as it can be to knead well. To make bread or biscuits a nice color, wet the dough over top with water just before putting it into the oven. Flour should always be sifted.

BROWN BREAD, for those who can eat corn-meal: Two cups Indian meal to one cup flour; one-half teacup syrup, 2-1/2 cups milk; 1 teaspoon salt; 3 teaspoons of Gillett's baking powder. Steam an hour and a half. To be eaten hot. It goes very nicely with a corn-beef dinner.

BROWN BREAD.—Stir together wheat meal and cold water (nothing else, not even salt) to the consistency of a thick batter. Bake in small circular pans, from three to three and a half inches in diameter, (ordinary tin pattypans do very well) in a quick, hot oven. It is quite essential that it be baked in this sized cake, as it is upon this that the raising depends. [In this article there are none of the injurious qualities of either fermented or superfine flour bread; and it is so palpably wholesome food, that it appeals at once to the common sense of all who are interested in the subject.]

BROWN BREAD—Take part of the sponge that has been prepared for your white bread, warm water can be added, mix it with graham flour (not too stiff).

BOSTON BROWN BREAD.—To make one loaf:—Rye meal unsifted, half a pint; Indian meal sifted, one pint; sour milk, one pint; molasses, half a gill. Add a teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little hot water; stir well, put in a greased pan, let it rise one hour, and steam four hours.

BOSTON BROWN BREAD.—One and one-half cups of graham flour, two cups of corn meal, one-half cup of molasses, one pint of sweet milk, and one-half a teaspoon of soda; steam three hours.

CORN BREAD.—One-half pint of buttermilk, one-half pint of sweet milk; sweeten the sour milk with one-half teaspoon of soda; beat two eggs, whites and yolks together; pour the milk into the eggs, then thicken with about nine tablespoons of sifted corn meal. Put the pan on the stove with a piece of lard the size of an egg; when melted pour it in the batter; this lard by stirring it will grease the pan to bake in; add a teaspoon of salt.

EXCELLENT BREAD.—Four potatoes mashed fine, four teaspoons of salt, two quarts of lukewarm milk, one-half cake Gillett's magic yeast dissolved in one-half cup of warm water, flour enough to make a pliable dough; mold with hands well greased with lard; place in pans, and when sufficiently light, it is ready for baking.

FRENCH BREAD.—With a quarter of a peck of fine flour mix the yolks of three and whites of two eggs, beaten and strained, a little salt, half a pint of good yeast that is not bitter, and as much milk, made a little warm, as will work into a thin light dough. Stir it about, but don't knead it. Have ready three quart wooden dishes, divide the dough among them, set to rise, then turn them out into the oven, which must be quick. Rasp when done.

GRAHAM BREAD.—For one loaf, take two cups of white bread sponge, to which add two tablespoons of brown sugar, and graham flour to make a stiff batter; let it rise, after which add graham flour sufficient to knead, but not very stiff; then put it in the pan to rise and bake.

ITALIAN BREAD.—Make a stiff dough, with two pounds of fine flour, six of white powdered sugar, three or four eggs, a lemon-peel grated, and two ounces of fresh butter. If the dough is not firm enough, add more flour and sugar. Then turn it out, and work it well with the hand, cut it into round long biscuits, and glaze them with white of egg.

RICE AND WHEAT BREAD.—Simmer a pound of rice in two quarts of water till soft; when it is of a proper warmth, mix it well with four pounds of flour, and yeast, and salt as for other bread; of yeast about four large spoonfuls; knead it well; then set to rise before the fire. Some of the flour should be reserved to make up the loaves. If the rice should require more water, it must be added, as some rice swells more than others.

SAGO BREAD.—Boil two lbs. of sago in three pints of water until reduced to a quart, then mix with it half a pint of yeast, and pour the mixture into fourteen lbs. of flour. Make into bread in the usual way.

STEAMED BREAD.—Two cups corn meal; 1 cup graham flour; 1/2 cup N. O. molasses; salt and teaspoonful of soda. Mix soft with sour milk, or make with sweet milk and Gillett's baking powder. Put in tight mold in kettle of water; steam three hours or more. This is as nice as Boston brown bread.

Use this receipt with flour instead of graham; add a cup of beef suet, and it makes a nice pudding in the winter. Eat with syrup or cream.

BISCUITS.—Mix a quart of sweet milk with half a cup of melted butter; stir in a pinch of salt, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder and flour enough for a stiff batter. Have the oven at a brisk heat. Drop the batter, a spoonful in a place, on buttered pans. They will bake in fifteen minutes.

CREAM BISCUITS.—Three heaping tablespoons of sour cream; put in a bowl or vessel containing a quart and fill two-thirds full of sweet milk, two teaspoons cream tartar, one teaspoon of soda, a little salt; pour the cream in the flour, mix soft and bake in a quick oven.

FRENCH BISCUITS.—Two cups of butter, two cups of sugar, one egg (or the whites of two), half a cup of sour milk, half a teaspoon of soda; flour to roll; sprinkle with sugar.

RYE BISCUITS.—Two cups of rye meal, one and a half cups flour, one-third cup molasses, one egg, a little salt, two cups sour milk, two even teaspoons saleratus.

SODA BISCUITS.—To each quart of flour add one tablespoon of shortening, one-half teaspoon of salt, and three and a half heaping teaspoons of Gillett's baking powder; mix baking powder thoroughly through the flour, then add other ingredients. Do not knead, and bake quickly. To use cream tartar and soda, take the same proportions without the baking powder, using instead two heaping teaspoons cream tartar and one of soda. If good they will bake in five minutes.

TEA BISCUITS.—One cup of hot water, two of milk, three tablespoons of yeast; mix thoroughly; after it is risen, take two-thirds of a cup of butter and a little sugar and mold it; then let it rise, and mold it into small cakes.

BANNOCKS.—One pint corn meal, pour on it boiling water to thoroughly wet it. Let it stand a few minutes; add salt and one egg and a little sweet cream, or a tablespoon melted butter. Make into balls and fry in hot lard.

BREAKFAST CAKES.—One cup milk, one pint flour, three eggs, piece butter size of an egg, two teaspoons cream tartar, one teaspoon soda, one tablespoon butter.

BUCKWHEAT CAKES.—One quart buckwheat flour, four tablespoons yeast, one tablespoon salt, one handful Indian meal, two tablespoons molasses, not syrup. Warm water enough to make a thin batter; beat very well and set in a warm place. If the batter is the least sour in the morning, add a little soda.

QUICK BUCKWHEAT CAKES.—One quart of buckwheat flour, one-half a teacup of corn meal or wheat flour, a little salt, and two tablespoons of syrup. Wet these with cold or warm water to a thin batter, and add, lastly, four good-tablespoons of Gillett's baking powder.

SPANISH BUNS.—Five eggs well beaten; cut up in a cup of warm new milk half a pound of good butter, one pound of sifted flour, and a wineglassful of good yeast; stir these well together; set it to rise for an hour, in rather a warm place; when risen, sift in half a pound of white sugar, and half a grated nutmeg; add one wineglass of wine and brandy, mixed, one wineglass of rose-water, and one cupful of currants, which have been cleaned thoroughly. Mix these well, pour it into pans, and set it to rise again for half an hour. Then bake one hour. Icing is a great improvement to their appearance.

BATH BUNS.—- Take 1 lb. of flour, put it in a dish, and make a hole in the middle, and pour in a dessert spoonful of good yeast; pour upon the yeast half a cupful of warm milk, mix in one-third of the flour, and let it rise an hour. When it has risen, put in 6 ozs. of cold butter, 4 eggs, and a few caraway seeds; mix all together with the rest of the flour. Put it in a warm place to rise. Flatten it with the hand on a pasteboard. Sift 6 ozs. of loaf sugar, half the size of a pea; sprinkle the particles over the dough; roll together to mix the sugar; let it rise in a warm place about 20 minutes. Make into buns, and lay on buttered tins; put sugar and 9 or 10 comfits on the tops, sprinkle them with water; bake in a pretty hot oven.

GRAHAM GEMS.—One quart of sweet milk, one cup syrup, one teaspoon soda, two teaspoons cream tartar, little salt; mix cream tartar in graham flour, soda in milk, and make it as stiff with the flour as will make it drop easily from the spoon into muffin rings.

BROWN GRIDDLE CAKES.—Take stale bread, soak in water till soft, drain off water through colander, beat up fine with fork, to one quart of the crumb batter, add one quart each milk and flour, and four eggs well beaten. Mix, bake in a griddle.

WHEAT GEMS.—One pint milk, two eggs, flour enough to make a batter not very stiff, two large spoons melted butter, yeast to raise them, a little soda and salt. Bake in gem irons.

JOHNNIE CAKE.—- One pint of corn meal, one teacup of flour, two eggs, one pint of sweet milk, one tablespoon of molasses, one tablespoon of melted butter, a little salt, one teaspoon of soda, one teaspoon of cream of tartar; bake in square tins.

MUSH.—Indian or oatmeal mush is best made in the following manner: Put fresh water in a kettle over the fire to boil, and put in some salt; when the water boils, stir in handful by handful corn or oatmeal until thick enough for use. In order to have excellent mush, the meal should be allowed to cook well, and long as possible while thin, and before the final handful is added.

FRIED MUSH.—When desired to be fried for breakfast, turn into an earthen dish and set away to cool. Then cut in slices when you wish to fry; dip each piece in beaten eggs and fry on a hot griddle.

MUFFINS.—One tablespoonful of butter, two tablespoons sugar, two eggs—stir altogether; add one cup of sweet milk, three teaspoons of baking powder, flour to make a stiff batter. Bake twenty minutes in a quick oven.

ENGLISH PANCAKES.—Make a batter of two teacups of flour, four eggs, and one quart of milk. Add, as a great improvement, one tablespoonful of brandy with a little nutmeg scraped in. Make the [Transcriber's Note: The original text reads 'sixe'] size of frying pan. Sprinkle a little granulated sugar over the pancake, roll it up, and send to the table hot.

POP OVERS.—Three cups of milk and three cups flour, three eggs, a little salt, one tablespoon melted butter put in the last thing; two tablespoons to a puff.

ROLLS.—To the quantity of light bread-dough that you would take for twelve persons, add the white of one egg well beaten, two tablespoons of white sugar, and two tablespoons of butter; work these thoroughly together; roll out about half an inch thick; cut the size desired, and spread one with melted butter and lay another upon the top of it. Bake delicately when they have risen.

FRENCH ROLLS.—One quart flour, add two eggs, one half-pint milk, tablespoon of yeast, kneed it well; let rise till morning. Work in one ounce of butter, and mold in small rolls. Bake immediately.

RUSKS.—Milk enough with one-half cup of yeast to make a pint; make a sponge and rise, then add one and a half cups of white sugar, three eggs, one-half cup of butter; spice to your taste; mold, then put in pan to rise. When baked, cover the tops with sugar dissolved in milk.

WAFFLES.—One quart of sweet or sour milk, four eggs, two-thirds of a cup of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt, three teaspoonfuls of baking-powder; flour enough to make a nice batter. If you use sour milk leave out the baking-powder, and use two teaspoons soda. Splendid.

YEAST.—In reference to yeast, we advise the use of Magic Yeast Cakes; it keeps good a year, and works quicker and better than other yeasts.

SUGGESTIONS IN MAKING CAKE.—It is very desirable that the materials be of the finest quality. Sweet, fresh butter, eggs, and good flour are the first essentials. The process of putting together is also quite an important feature, and where other methods are not given in this work by contributors, it would be well for the young housekeeper to observe the following directions:

Never allow the butter to oil, but soften it by putting in a moderately warm place before you commence other preparations for your cake; then put it into an earthen dish—tin, if not new, will discolor your cake as you stir it—and add your sugar; beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add the yolks of the eggs, then the milk, and lastly the beaten whites of the eggs and flour. Spices and liquors may be added after the yolks of the eggs are put in, and fruit should be put in with the flour.

The oven should be pretty hot for small cakes, and moderate for larger. To ascertain if a large cake is sufficiently baked, pierce it with a broom-straw through the center; if done, the straw will come out free from dough; if not done, dough will adhere to the straw. Take it out of the tin about fifteen minutes after it is taken from the oven (not sooner), and do not turn it over on the top to cool.

FROSTING.—One pint granulated sugar, moisten thoroughly with water sufficient to dissolve it when heated; let it boil until it threads from the spoon, stirring often; while the sugar is boiling, beat the whites of two eggs till they are firm; then when thoroughly beaten, turn them into a deep dish, and when the sugar is boiled, turn it over the whites, beating all rapidly together until of the right consistency to spread over the cake. Flavor with lemon, if preferred. This is sufficient for two loaves.

FROSTING, FOR CAKE.—One cup frosting-sugar, two tablespoons of water boiled together; take it off the stove, and stir in the white of one egg beaten to a stiff froth; stir all together well, then frost your cake with it, and you will never want a nicer frosting than this.

CHOCOLATE FROSTING.—Whites of two eggs, one and one-half cups of fine sugar, six great spoons of grated chocolate, two teaspoons of vanilla; spread rather thickly between layers and on top of cake. Best when freshly made. It should be made like any frosting.

ICING.—The following rules should be observed where boiled icing is not used:

Put the whites of your eggs in a shallow earthern dish, and allow at least a quarter of a pound or sixteen tablespoons of the finest white sugar for each egg. Take part of the sugar at first and sprinkle over the eggs; beat them for about half an hour, stirring in gradually the rest of the sugar; then add the flavor. If you use the juice of a lemon, allow more sugar. Tartaric and lemon-juice whitens icing. It may be shaded a pretty pink with strawberry-juice or cranberry syrup, or colored yellow by putting the juice and rind of a lemon in a thick muslin bag, and squeezing it hard into the egg and sugar.

If cake is well dredged with flour after baking, and then carefully wiped before the icing is put on, it will not run, and can be spread more smoothly. Put frosting on to the cake in large spoonfuls, commencing over the center; then spread it over the cake, using a large knife, dipping it occasionally in cold water. Dry the frosting on the cake in a cool, dry place.

ICE-CREAM ICING, FOR WHITE CAKE.—Two cups pulverized white sugar, boiled to a thick syrup; add three teaspoons vanilla; when cold, add the whites of two eggs well beaten, and flavored with two teaspoons of citric acid.

ICING, FOR CAKES.—Take ten whites of eggs whipped to a stiff froth, with twenty large spoonfuls of orange-flower water. This is to be laid smoothly on the cakes after they are baked. Then return them to the oven for fifteen minutes to harden the icing.

ICING.—One pound pulverized sugar, pour over one tablespoon cold water, beat whites of three eggs a little, not to a stiff froth; add to the sugar and water, put in a deep bowl, place in a vessel of boiling water, and heat. It will become thin and clear, afterward begin to thicken. When it becomes quite thick, remove from the fire and stir while it becomes cool till thick enough to spread with a knife. This will frost several ordinary-sized cakes.

ALMOND CAKE.—Take ten eggs, beaten separately, the yolks from the whites; beat the yolks with half a pound of white sugar; blanch a quarter of a pound of almonds by pouring hot water on them, and remove the skins; pound them in a mortar smooth; add three drops of oil of bitter almonds; and rose-water to prevent the oiling of the almonds. Stir this also into the eggs. Half a pound of sifted flour stirred very slowly into the eggs; lastly, stir in the whites, which must have been whipped to a stiff froth. Pour this into the pans, and bake immediately three-quarters of an hour.

COCOANUT CAKE.—Whip the whites of ten eggs, grate two nice cocoanuts, and add them; sift one pound of white sugar into half a pound of sifted flour; stir this well; add a little rose-water to flavor; pour into pans, and bake three-fourths of an hour.

COCOANUT DROPS.—One pound each grated cocoanut and sugar; four well beaten eggs; four tablespoonfuls of flour, mix well, drop on pan, and bake.

COCOANUT JUMBLES.—Take one cup butter, two cups sugar, three eggs well whipped, one grated cocoanut, stirred in lightly with the flour, which must be sufficient to stiffen to the required consistency. Bake one to know when enough flour is added.

COFFEE CAKE.—Take three eggs, two cups brown sugar, one cup strong coffee, quarter of cup of butter, three cups flour, one teaspoonful cream tartar, half teaspoonful each soda and ground cinnamon and cloves, half a nutmeg grated, one cup of raisins, stoned; beat butter and sugar to a cream, then add eggs beaten, coffee, flour sifted, and cream tartar, well mixed with it. Spices and raisins, then soda dissolved in sufficient warm water to absorb it. Thoroughly mix, and bake in round tins.

COOKIES.—Two cups bright brown sugar, one cup butter, half cup sweet milk, two eggs, one teaspoonful soda, flour enough to roll out.

COMPOSITION CAKE.—Five eggs, three cups sugar, two cups butter, five cups flour, one wine-glass brandy, one nutmeg grated, half pound each raisins and currants, three teaspoonfuls Gillett's baking powder.

CORN STARCH CAKE.—Two cups pulverized sugar, one cup butter, cup corn starch, two cups sifted flour, seven eggs (whites beaten very light), one teaspoon soda, two teaspoons cream tartar (or two teaspoons caking powder instead of soda and cream tartar), flavor with lemon. In putting this together, beat butter and sugar to a light cream, dissolve corn starch in a cup of sweet milk, leaving enough of the milk to dissolve the soda if it is used, put cream of tartar or baking powder in the flour, beat the whites of the eggs separate when the butter and sugar are ready, put all the ingredients together first, leaving the eggs and flour to the last.

CREAM CAKE.—Half pint cream, one tablespoon butter rubbed into one tablespoon flour. Put the cream on the fire. When it boils stir in the butter and flour mixed, add half a tea cup sugar, two eggs very light, flavor with vanilla. Spread between cakes, and frost or sugar top of cake to please fancy.

CINNAMON CAKE.—Take two cups of brown sugar, one cup of butter, three-quarters cup of milk, half cup of vinegar, four eggs, large tablespoon of cinnamon, four cups of flour, one teaspoon of soda, two teaspoons cream tartar, mix all but vinegar and soda, then add vinegar, then soda, bake in large tin or patty pans.

CURRANT CAKE.—Take two pounds of flour, half a pound of butter rubbed in the flour, half a pound of moist sugar, a few caraway seeds, three or four tablespoonfuls of yeast, and a pint of milk made a little warm. Mix all together, and let it stand an hour or two at the fire to rise; then beat it up with three eggs and a half pound of currants. Put it into a tin, and bake two hours in a moderate oven.

CUP CAKE.—Cream half a cup of butter, and four cups of sugar by beating; stir in five well-beaten eggs; dissolve one teaspoonful of soda in a cup of good milk or cream, and six cups of sifted flour; stir all well together, and bake in tins.

DELICATE CAKE.—Mix two cups of sugar, four of flour, half cup butter, half cup sweet milk, the whites of seven eggs, two teaspoons cream tartar, one teaspoon soda, rub the cream tartar in the flour and other ingredients, and flavor to suit the taste.

DELICIOUS SWISS CAKE.—Beat the yolks of five eggs and one pound of sifted loaf sugar well together; then sift in one pound of best flour, and a large spoonful of anise seed; beat these together for twenty minutes; then whip to a stiff froth the five whites, and add them; beat all well; then roll out the paste an inch thick, and cut them with a molded cutter rather small; set them aside till the next morning to bake. Rub the tins on which they are baked with yellow wax; it is necessary to warm the tins to receive the wax; then let them become cool, wipe them, and lay on the cakes. Bake a light brown.

DOUGHNUTS.—One and a half cup of sugar; half cup sour milk, two teaspoons soda, little nutmeg, four eggs, flour enough to roll out.

DROP CAKE.—- To one pint cream, three eggs, one pinch of salt, thicken with rye till a spoon will stand upright in it, then drop on a well buttered iron pan which must be hot in the oven.

DROP COOKIES.—Whites of two eggs, one large cup of milk, one cup of sugar, one-half cup of butter, two teaspoonfuls baking-powder, flavor with vanilla, rose, or nutmeg; flour enough for thick batter, beat thoroughly, drop in buttered pans, dust granulated sugar on top, and bake with dispatch.

FRUIT CAKE.—Take one pint each of sour milk and sugar, two eggs, half pint melted butter, two teaspoons even full of soda, dissolve in milk flour enough to roll out into shape, and fry in hot lard.

FRIED CAKES.—Three eggs, one cup of sugar, one pint of new milk, salt, nutmeg, and flour enough to permit the spoon to stand upright in the mixture; add two teaspoonfuls of Gillett's baking powder and beat until very light. Drop by the dessert-spoonful into boiling lard. These will not absorb a bit of fat, and are the least pernicious of the doughnut family.

FRUIT CAKE.—Take four pounds of brown sugar, four pounds of good butter, beaten to cream; put four pounds of sifted flour into a pan; whip thirty-two eggs to a fine froth, and add to the creamed butter and sugar; then take six pounds of cleaned currants, four pounds of stoned raisins, two pounds of cut citron, one pound of blanched almonds, crushed, but not pounded, to a paste—a large cup of molasses, two large spoonfuls of ground ginger, half an ounce of pounded mace, half an ounce of grated nutmeg, half an ounce of pounded and sifted cloves, and one of cinnamon. Mix these well together, then add four large wineglasses of good French brandy, and lastly, stir in the flour; beat this well, put it all into a stone jar, cover very closely, for twelve hours; then make into six loaves, and bake in iron pans. These cakes will keep a year, if attention is paid to their being put in a tin case, and covered lightly in an airy place. They improve by keeping.

GINGER DROP CAKE.—Cup each sugar, molasses, lard and boiling water, one teaspoon soda, half teaspoon cream tartar, stir in flour until it is as thick as cake, add sugar and salt.

GINGER SNAPS.—Take one cup each of sugar, molasses, butter, half cup sour milk, two teaspoons cream tartar, one teaspoon soda, flour enough to roll out, cut into size desired and bake.

GINGER SNAPS.—Two cups of New Orleans molasses, one cup of sugar, one of butter, one teaspoonful of soda, one of cloves, one of black pepper, and two tablespoons of ginger. These will keep good a month if you wish to keep them.

GRAHAM CAKES.—Half a cup of butter, one-half cup sugar, one egg, one teacup sour milk, one-half teaspoon soda. Make a stiff batter by adding graham flour.

GOOD GRAHAM CAKES.—Two cups sweet milk, one cup sweet cream, the white of one egg beaten to froth, half a spoonful of salt, dessert spoonful baking powder, stir in stiffened graham flour until quite thick, bake in muffin-rings or gem-tins, until well browned on top.

INDIAN BREAKFAST PATTIES.—To one pint of Indian meal add one egg, and a little salt, pour boiling water upon it, and fry brown immediately in pork fat. Cut open and put butter between, and send to the table hot.

JUMBLES.—Stir together till of a light brown color, one pound sugar, one-half pound butter, then add eight eggs beaten to a froth, add flour enough to make them stiff enough to roll out, flavor with lemon, cut in rings half an inch thick, bake in quick oven.

KISSES.—Beat the whites of four eggs to a froth, stir into them half pound powdered white sugar; flavor with lemon, continue to beat it until it will be in a heap; lay the mixture on letter-paper, in the size and shape of half an egg, an inch apart, then lay the paper on hard wood and place in the oven without closing it, when they begin to look yellowish take them out and let them cool three or four minutes, then slip a thin knife carefully under and turn them into your left hand, take another and join the two by the sides next the paper, then lay them in a dish handling them gently. They may be batted a little harder, the soft inside taken out and jelly substituted.

LIGHT FRUIT CAKE.—Take one cup butter, two cups sugar, four of flour, four eggs, one teaspoon cream tartar, half teaspoon soda, one cup sweet milk, one pound currants, half pound citron.

MARBLE CAKE, LIGHT PART.—One and a half cups white sugar, half cup butter, half cup sweet milk, one teaspoon cream tartar, half teaspoon soda, whites of four eggs, two and half cups flour.

DARK PART.—One cup brown sugar, half cup each molasses, butter and sour milk, one teaspoon cream tartar, one teaspoon soda, two and a half cups flour, yolks four eggs, half teaspoon cloves, allspice and cinnamon.

MOLASSES COOKIES.—Three cups New Orleans molasses, one cup butter, one-half cup lard, one heaped teaspoon soda, one tablespoon ginger, one cup hot water. Roll thick. Better after standing.

MUFFINS.—Take two cups flour, one cup milk, half cup sugar, four eggs, one-half teaspoon each of soda and cream tartar, one tablespoon butter. Bake in rings.

GRAHAM MUFFINS.—Mix one pint sweet milk, sift your flour, then take half pound each Graham and wheat flour, five or six spoonfuls melted butter, two half spoons baking powder. Bake in rings in very quick oven.

NUT CAKE.—Mix each two tablespoons of butter and sugar, two eggs, one cup milk, three cups flour, one teaspoon cream tartar, half teaspoon soda, pint of nuts or almonds. Nuts may be sliced or not as suits taste.

OAT CAKES.—Mix fine and coarse oatmeal in equal proportions; add sugar, caraway-seeds, a dust of salt to three pounds of meal, a heaping teaspoonful of carbonate of soda; mix all thoroughly together, then add enough boiling water to make the whole a stiff paste; roll out this paste quite thin, and sprinkle meal on a griddle. Lay the cakes on to bake, or toast them quite dry in a Dutch oven in front of the fire; they should not scorch, but gradually dry through.

ORANGE CAKE, THE MOST DELICATE AND DELICIOUS CAKE THERE IS.—Grated rind of one orange; two cups sugar; whites of four eggs and yolks of five; one cup sweet milk; one cup butter; two large teaspoonfuls baking powder, to be sifted through with the flour; bake quick in jelly tins. Filling: Take white of the one egg that was left; beat to a froth, add a little sugar and the juice of the orange, beat together, and spread between the layers. If oranges are not to be had, lemons will do instead.

PLAIN FRUIT CAKE.—One pound each butter beaten to a cream, sifted sugar, sifted flour, twelve eggs, whites and yolks, beaten separately. Two pounds currants, three pounds of stoned raisins chopped, one nutmeg, a little cinnamon and other spices, half pint wine and brandy mixed, one pound citron cut in slices and stuck in the batter after it is in the tin. Bake slowly two to three hours. PLAIN CAKE.—Flour, three-quarters of a pound; sugar, the same quantity; butter, four ounces; one egg and two tablespoonfuls of milk. Mix all together and bake.

PUFFS.—Two eggs beaten very light; one cup of milk, one cup of flour, and a pinch of salt. The gems should be heated while making the puffs,

which are then placed in a quick oven.

PLUM CAKE.—Six eggs well beaten, one pound of sugar, the same of flour, butter and currants, four ounces of candied peel, two tablespoonfuls of mixed spice. When it is all mixed, add one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, and one of tartaric acid. Beat it all up quickly and bake directly.

POUND CAKE.—Take four and a half cups flour, 3 cups each butter and sugar. Ten eggs, yolks and whites beaten separately. Mix.

PORK CAKE.—Take one pound salt pork chopped fine, boil a few minutes in half pint water, one cup molasses, two cups sugar, three eggs, two teaspoons soda, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg to taste, one pound raisins chopped fine, flour to make a stiff batter.

RICH SHORTBREAD.—Two pounds of flour, one pound butter, and quarter pound each of the following ingredients:—Candied orange and lemon peel, sifted loaf sugar, blanched sweet almonds and caraway comfits. Cut the peel and almonds into thin slices, and mix them with one pound and a half of flour and the sugar. Melt the butter, and when cool, pour it into the flour, mixing it quickly with a spoon. Then with the hands mix it, working in the remainder of the flour; give it one roll out till it is an inch thick, cut it into the size you wish, and pinch round the edges. Prick the top with a fork, and stick in some caraway comfits; put it on white paper, and bake on tins in a slow oven.

SEED CAKE.—Take half a pound of butter and three-fourths of a pound of sugar, creamed; three eggs, beaten lightly, and two tablespoonfuls of picked and bruised caraway seed; dissolve half a teaspoonful of soda in a cup of new milk; mix these well together until they are about the consistency of cream; then sift in two pounds of flour, mix well with a knife, and roll them out into thin cakes, about an inch in thickness. Bake in a quick oven.

SPONGE CAKE.—Take sixteen eggs; separate the whites from the yolks; beat them very lightly; sift into the yolks one pound of flour, adding a few drops of essence of almond or lemon, to flavor with; then add one pound and a quarter of pulverized loaf sugar; beat this well with a knife; then add the whites whipped to a stiff froth. Have ready the pans, and bake.

SPONGE CAKE, WHITE.—One and one-third coffee cups of sugar; one coffee cup flour; whites of ten eggs; beat eggs and sugar as if for frosting; add flour by degrees and bake.

SNOW CAKE.—Take one pound arrow-root, half pound white sugar, half pound butter, the whites of six eggs, flavor with lemon, beat the butter to a cream, stir in the sugar and arrow-root, whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, beat for twenty minutes. Bake one hour.

WASHINGTON CAKE.—One cup of sugar; 1/2 cup of butter; 1/2 cup sweet milk; 2 eggs; 2 cups flour; 2 teaspoons baking powder. Bake in layers as jelly cake. Jelly part: One pint of grated apples; 1 egg; 1 cup of sugar; grated rind and juice of one lemon; put in a vessel of some kind, and boil; put it on the cakes hot.

WAFFLES.—Take one quart milk, two eggs; beat the whites and yolks separately; four tablespoons melted butter, two teaspoons Gillett's baking powder, flour to make a stiff batter. Bake in waffle irons.

ALPINE SNOW.—Wash cup of rice, cook till tender in a covered dish to keep it white, when nearly done add cup rich milk, salt to taste, stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs, allow it to simmer for a moment, then place in a dish, beat the whites in two tablespoons fine sugar. Put the rice in little heaps upon the tin, intermingling with pieces of red jelly, eat with fine sugar and cream.

APPLE CHARLOTTE.—Take two pounds of apples, pare and core and slice them into a pan and add one pound loaf sugar, juice of three lemons and the grated rind of one, let these boil until they become a thick mass. Turn into a mould and serve it cold with thick custard or cream.

APPLE CREAM.—One cup thick cream, one cup sugar, beat till very smooth; then beat the whites of two eggs and add; stew apples in water till soft; take them from the water with a fork; steam them if you prefer. Pour the cream over the apples when cold.

APPLE CUSTARD.—Pare tart apples, core them, put them into a deep dish with a small piece of butter, and one teaspoon of sugar and a little nutmeg, in the opening of each apple, pour in water enough to cook them, when soft cool them and pour over an unbaked custard so as to cover them and bake until the custard is done.

APPLE FANCY.—Pare and core apples, stew with sugar and lemon peels, beat four eggs to a froth, add a cupful of grated bread crumbs, a little sugar and nutmeg, lay the apples in the bottom of a dish and cover with the bread crumbs, laying a few pieces of butter over the top, bake in a quick oven, when done turn out upside down on a flat dish, scatter fine sugar over the top of apples, boil potatoes and beat fine with cream, large piece butter and salt, drop on tin, make smooth on top, score with knife, lay a thin slice of butter on top, then put in oven till brown.

APPLE FRITTERS.—One pint milk, three eggs, salt to taste, as much flour as will make a batter, beat yolks and whites of eggs separately, add yolks to milk, stir in the whites when mixing the batter, have tender apples, pare, core, and cut in large thin slices, around the apple, to be fried in hot lard, ladle batter into spider, lay slice of apple in centre of each quantity of batter, fry light brown.

APPLE SNOW BALLS.—Pare six apples, cut them into quarters, remove the cores, reconstruct the position of the apples, introduce into the cavities one clove and a slice of lemon peel, have six small pudding cloths at hand and cover the apples severally in an upright position with rice, tying them up tight, then place them in a large saucepan of scalding water and boil one hour, on taking them up open the top and add a little grated nutmeg with butter and sugar.

ARROW-ROOT BLANC-MANGE.—Put two tablespoonfuls of arrow-root to a quart of milk, and a pinch of salt. Scald the milk, sweeten it, and stir in the arrow-root, which must first be wet up with some of the milk. Boil up once. Orange-water, rose-water or lemon-peel may be used to flavor it. Pour into molds to cool.

ARROW-ROOT CUSTARD.—Arrow-root, one tablespoonful; milk, 1 pint; sugar, 1 tablespoonful, and 1 egg. Mix the arrow-root with a little of the milk, cold; when the milk boils, stir in the arrow-root, egg and sugar, previously well beaten together. Let it scald, and pour into cups to cool. To flavor it, boil a little ground cinnamon in the milk.

ARROW-ROOT JELLY.—To a dessert-spoonful of the powder, add as much cold water as will make it into a paste, then pour on half a pint of boiling water, stir briskly and boil it a few minutes, when it will become a clear smooth jelly; a little sugar and sherry wine may be added for debilitated adults; but for infants, a drop or two of essence of caraway seeds or cinnamon is preferable, wine being very liable to become acid in the stomachs of infants, and to disorder the bowels. Fresh milk, either alone or diluted with water, may be substituted for the water.

BAKED APPLES.—Take a dozen tart apples, pare and core them, place sugar and small lump of butter in centre of each, put them in a pan with half pint of water, bake until tender, basting occasionally with syrup while baking, when done, serve with cream.

CHOCOLATE CREAM CUSTARD.—Scrape quarter pound chocolate, pour on it one teacup boiling water, and stand it by fire until dissolved, beat eight eggs light, omitting the whites of two, and stir them by degrees into a quart of milk alternately with the chocolate and three tablespoons of white sugar, put the mixture into cups and bake 10 minutes.

CHARLOTTE RUSSE.—Whip one quart rich cream to a stiff froth, and drain well on a nice sieve. To one scant pint of milk add six eggs beaten very light; make very sweet; flavor high with vanilla. Cook over hot water till it is a thick custard. Soak one full ounce Coxe's gelatine in a very little water, and warm over hot water. When the custard is very cold, beat in lightly the gelatine and the whipped cream. Line the bottom of your mold with buttered paper, and the sides with sponge cake or ladyfingers fastened together with the white of an egg. Fill with the cream, put in a cold place or in summer on ice. To turn out dip the mold for a moment in hot water. In draining the whipped cream, all that drips through can be re-whipped.

COCOA SNOW.—Grate the white part of a cocoanut and mix it with white sugar, serve with whipped cream, or not, as desired.

CREAM AND SNOW.—Make a rich boiled custard, and put it in the bottom of a dish; take the whites of eight eggs, beat with rose-water, and a spoonful of fine sugar, till it be a strong froth; put some milk and water into a stew-pan; when it boils take the froth off the eggs, and lay it on the milk and water; boil up once; take off carefully and lay it on the custard.

BAKED CUSTARDS.—Boil a pint of cream with some mace and cinnamon; and when it is cold, take four yolks and two whites of eggs, a little rose and orange-flower water, sack, nutmeg, and sugar to your palate. Mix them well, and bake it in cups.

Or, pour into a deep dish, with or without lining or rim of paste; grate nutmeg and lemon peel over the top, and bake in a slow oven about thirty minutes.

GOOSEBERRY CREAM.—Boil them in milk till soft; beat them, and strain the pulp through a coarse sieve. Sweeten cream with sugar to your taste; mix with the pulp; when cold, place in glasses for use.

IMPERIAL CREAM.—Boil a quart of cream with the thin rind of a lemon; stir till nearly cold; have ready in a dish to serve in, the juice of three lemons strained with as much sugar as will sweeten the cream; pour it into the dish from a large tea-pot, holding it high, and moving it about to mix with the juice. It should be made from 6 to 12 hours before it is served.

JUMBALLS.—Flour, 1 lb.; sugar, 1 lb.; make into a light paste with whites of eggs beaten fine; add 1/2 pint of cream; 1/2 lb. of butter, melted; and 1 lb. of blanched almonds, well beaten; knead all together, with a little rose-water; cut into any form; bake in a slow oven. A little butter may be melted with a spoonful of white wine and throw fine sugar over the dish.

LEMON PUFFS.—Beat and sift 1 pound of refined sugar; put into a bowl with the juice of two lemons, and mix them together; beat the white of an egg to a high froth; put it into the bowl; put in 3 eggs with two rinds of lemon grated; mix it well up, and throw sugar on the buttered papers; drop on the puffs in small drops, and bake them in a moderately heated oven.

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