The steering-gear rack (Fig. 165) by which the amount of helm is adjusted is made from a strip of brass cut with lugs which are bent up at right angles as illustrated. This need only be of thin sheet metal, as the strain is very small.
For running before the wind, separate lines are used, two in number, as illustrated, and the amount of helm is governed by the distance away from midships that the lead is moved. For instance, if the lead is placed amidships, the pull will simply keep the rudder dead straight, whereas if placed on the deck edge it will allow the maximum amount of angle.
Your bowsers can be made from pieces of toothbrush handle or from brass or German-silver wire. Very efficient bowsers can be made from aluminum tube cut in sections about 3/16 inch long, with three holes drilled in each piece around its periphery.
Plaited bobbin cotton should be used for the cordage, as it does not curl up when wet.
If you decide to fit the Braine steering gear, a spur or bumpkin, as it is termed, must be fitted to take the rubber centering line.
BOYS' DICTIONARY OF MARINE TERMS
Abaft. Behind; toward the stern.
Abeam. At right angles to the side and in horizontal plane.
Aft. Toward the stern.
After-body. Between amidships and stern.
Aloft. Overhead; on the yards or in the upper rigging.
Amidships. The middle part of a vessel.
Anchor. Instrument for holding vessels at rest in the water. Made of iron.
Athwart. Athwartships. Across; from side to side.
Ballast. Material used to load the ship, for stability or submerging purposes.
Barge. General name for vessels built for towing.
Bark. Three-masted vessel, square-rigged on the fore- and main-masts, and fore-and-aft rigged on the mizzen.
Barkentine. Three-masted vessel, square-rigged on the foremast and fore-and-aft on the main-and mizzen-masts.
Beam. The widest part of a vessel.
Bollards. Posts of timber on sides of docks, quays, etc., over which ropes are thrown for hauling vessels alongside.
Boom. The lower spar for a fore-and-aft sail.
Bow. Sides of fore part of boat: the right hand being the starboard bow, and the left hand the port bow.
Bowsprit. Pole projecting from stem forward, and taking forestays and bobstays.
Bridge-house. House built near bridge.
Brig. Vessel with two masts, both square-rigged but having a gaff mainsail.
Buoy. A floating object moored over a certain spot; generally a warning of danger.
Buoyancy. The capacity for floating which a boat possesses.
Cabin. Room for use of officers and passengers.
Capstan. Consists of a long drum revolving vertically and used for pulling in heavy lines. Sometimes used in connection with windlass to hoist anchor by hand.
Center of Gravity. Center of weight.
Coaming. Raised planking around hatchway of yacht to prevent water shipped in rough weather from getting below decks.
Cockpit. Formerly an apartment under lower gun-deck of warship, used as quarters for junior officers, and during a battle devoted to the surgeon and his assistants.
Cockswain. Person who steers a boat.
Compass. Instrument composed of one or more magnetic needles attached to a circular card which turns freely on the point of a steel cone or floats on a liquid. The upper surface of the card is divided into the 32 points of the compass. Used to find direction.
Craft. Usually denotes small size vessel, but may be applied to any kind.
Crane. Machine for hoisting and moving heavy equipment and material.
Cruiser. Boat intended for extended voyages. Used in connection with yachts, to distinguish from racing models.
Davit. Light crane on side of ship for lowering and lifting boats. Sometimes applied to projecting beam over which anchor is hoisted.
Displacement. Weight of ship and all on board when at sea. It is equal to the weight of the water displaced.
Dock. An excavation of large area for reception of vessels. Wet-dock for loading and unloading or dry-dock for building and repairing vessels.
Dock-yard. A place where ships are built and repaired.
Funnel. Large sheet-iron tube extending from the uptake high above the deck, through which smoke and gases pass.
Galley. The kitchen of a vessel.
Gangway. Sides of upper deck from main-mast to mizzen-mast, or from the former to the break of a poop or raised quarter-deck; also a passage for entering or leaving vessel.
Gross tonnage. Entire cubical capacity of ship, including every inclosed space and all room under deck from stem to stern-post, if closed in and usable.
Gunwale, gunnel. Upper part of sheer-strake, where it comes in contact with upper deck stringer.
Headlights. Lights carried at the masthead.
Head of the bowsprit. The forward end.
Hull. The entire structure of a vessel, exclusive of equipment.
Inboard. Within the ship.
Inner skin. Planking or plating covering the inside of frames.
Jack. Name given to various sails, ropes, etc.
Jib. Triangular sail carried on a stay reaching from the foremast head or from topmast to the jib-boom.
Keel. Backbone of a vessel in wooden ships. Composed of great lengths of timber connected to each other by scarfs. In steel ships usually a set of plates from stem to stern.
Even keel, uneven keel. Designates the manner in which ship floats. If balanced evenly in a fore-and-aft direction she is on even keel, if depressed at head or stern she is on uneven keel.
Keelson angle-bar. Any angle-bar used in the construction of a keelson.
Lanyards. Short lengths of rope used to tighten up davit-guys, awnings, etc.
Launching. Sliding a boat into the water from the building-berth.
Lee side. Opposite to the side on which the wind blows.
Lighter. Large craft used to bring cargo alongside or to lighten a grounded vessel.
List. When one side of a vessel lies deeper in the water than the other; caused by shifting cargo, etc.
Log. Apparatus used to determine speed of a vessel.
Main-mast. Principal mast of a ship; the second mast counting from bow to stern.
Marine engine. Engine especially designed for the propulsion of boats.
Mast. A long piece, or system of pieces, of timber, placed nearly perpendicularly to the keelson of a vessel to support the spars and gear by which the sails are set. In modern practice, steel masts are built by riveting rolled plates together.
Midships. Middle part of a ship.
Mizzen-mast. Third mast on a vessel with three or more masts.
Mizzen-sails. Sails carried on a mizzen-mast.
Mushroom Ventilator. Short cast-iron tube with movable iron rod passing through the center. A metal cup is fitted to the top of the rod, which may be lifted to permit air to enter, or closed to prevent water from entering. Generally fitted over cabins.
Navigation Bridge. Bridge used for taking observations or handling the ship in difficult situations.
Outboard. Outside the hull or beyond the gunwale.
Outlet cock. Any cock used to free a receptacle of water.
Paddle-wheels. Wheels fitted on each side of a paddle steamer in connection with the paddle-shaft, consisting of a cast-iron boss from which wrought-iron arms radiate, strengthened by rims and stays, and with a float attached to each arm.
Pawl. Small catch to prevent moving object from going beyond certain limit.
Pile. A piece of lumber or iron, together with others, driven into the bed of a river for the support of a pier, bridge, etc.
Pilot Bridge. Narrow thwartships platform, extending from side to side above a steamer's upper or bridge deck. Serves as a station for the pilot or officer of the watch.
Port. Opening in ship's side, in bulwark, etc.
Propeller-screw. Propeller in which blades are at an angle to the line of axis, similar to the threads of a screw.
Quarters. Men's positions when called to their duties, as during fire or boat drill; also living accommodations.
Quay. Artificial landing-place.
Raft. A collection of boards fastened together by ropes or chains, and capable of floating.
Ram. Massive projection under water at the bow of a warship. The ship is also called a ram.
Rat-line. Three-stranded cord, of which the ladder-like steps in lower rigging, topmast rigging, etc., are formed.
Rigging. Entire equipment of a ship's masts, spars, etc., with their standing and running ropes.
Rudder. A device for steering vessels. Hinged to the outside of the hull, usually at the stern.
Sail. A device of canvas and rope fastened to spars and rigging, and extended to catch the wind and drive the vessel.
Skiff. Long, lightly built boat sometimes used in rowing races.
Sloop. Vessel with one mast, having a jib-sail.
Spar. Any shaped piece of timber used as a mast, bowsprit, yard, etc., or intended for such use.
Stanchion. A stationary upright support.
Superstructure. Any structure above top full deck.
Tack. To change the direction of sailing due to wind.
Thwart. Seats are called thwarts when they extend from side to side of a boat, athwart when across.
Tonnage. Entire capacity or cubical contents of a vessel. One ton estimated at 100 cubic English feet.
Trawler. Fishing-vessel with ground-sweeping net.
Trim. Term indicating the state of a ship with regard to ballast; position of a vessel in the water with respect to horizontal.
Turtle-back. Top of wheel-house, forecastle, etc., formed like a turtle's back.
Upper Works. Same as freeboard when a vessel is loaded.
Uptake. Part connecting smokebox to funnel. Sometimes includes the smokebox.
Ventilator. Usually made of sheet iron in tubular forms, and arranged to expel foul air and permit the passage of fresh air to any part of a ship.
Vessel. Craft requiring a licensed master. (Boats do not).
Water ballast. Sea water let into double bottom or ballast-tank.
Water-Line. (Light) Submerging line of vessel without cargo.
Water-Line. (Load) Submerging line of vessel with full cargo.
Water-tight Compartment. Compartment with water-tight bulkhead at each end.
Winch. Machine used for loading or unloading cargo. Some are hand driven and some electrically driven.
Windlass. Special form of winch used to hoist anchor.
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Obvious punctuation errors repaired.
Page 128, "oppositite" changed to "opposite" (the opposite end of)
Page 131, N italicized to match rest of usage (center of the disk N)
Page 132, D italicized to match rest of usage (to the D valve previously)
Page 185, "deterimental" changed to "detrimental" (detrimental to the speed)