Between the Lines - Secret Service Stories Told Fifty Years After
by Henry Bascom Smith
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MANAHAN, Maltby House.

I assumed that if Martin wanted to reach Manahan, he would address him at the Maltby House, the telegraph office there was in my possession.

I at the same time had myself wired to as follows:

Baltimore, Md., Mch. 13, 1865.

I. K. Shaffer, Merchants Hotel, New York.

"Call on Martin immediately, I have his letter of 10th."

Manahan, Maltby House.

This wire was to be my introduction to Martin. I located Martin and Burnett & Funkhouser in Broad Street near Beaver. I did not call on him immediately, as I wanted him to get anxious to see me first.

To keep him quiet on Maddox, I had him wired as follows:

Washington, D. C., Mch. 14, 1865.

M. E. Martin, c/o Burnett & Funkhouser, New York.

"M. leaves here to-night, you can rest fully satisfied all is right."

J. F. MANAHAN, Willards Hotel.

Poor Manahan was asleep to all this use of his name, of course. Martin did get anxious. He wrote me the following note and sent it to Merchant's Hotel:

Mr. Shaffer:

Dear Sir.—Have despatch from Manahan that you will call and see me here. Will be in at half past eleven to twelve, half past twelve to one, and at half past one.

Either wait for me or leave your address.

Yours, &c., M. E. MARTIN.

I called but failed to find Martin, and later I received the following from him:

Mr. Shaffer:

I waited for you all the early part of the day, at B & F's, and then left a note for you, requesting you to leave your address.

Am unwell; if it is important you should see me before morning, please come up to my hotel, Gramercy Park House, if not, please meet me at B & F's, nine to nine thirty, t-morrow morning.

Yours truly, MARTIN.

I met him in the morning, as appointed. He was hungry to meet me, just as I wanted it.

I found Mr. Martin to be a man evidently well fitted for the job, in appearance tall, rather lank, energetic and gentlemanly. We visited off and on, nearly all day. He believed, from what I told him, that I and my friends were financially interested through Manahan. He explained his position as representing Mr. Trenholm, Secretary of the Confederate Treasury. He told how he had formerly run cotton through the lines on the Mississippi river.

Now that the tobacco had been seized, his plan was to press a claim upon our government, representing the tobacco to belong to Union people. He told me he had papers at his hotel which would corroborate him.

In the afternoon, nearly dark, we parted in the Howard House (then at the corner of Maiden Lane and Broadway) with the understanding that I was returning to Baltimore and Manahan, satisfied with his assurances.

My man (Mr. Kraft), who had been following me, to be handy if help was needed, and who had been watching for the signal to make the arrest, came to me hastily, thinking he might have missed the signal, but I assured him it was all right to let Martin go. I had a further purpose, I wanted to get the documents Martin had spoken of as being at his hotel.

Kraft and I dined at the old Lovejoy Hotel (then at the corner of Beekman Street and Park Row) and afterwards went up to the Gramercy Park Hotel, then quite a fashionable hostelry. We waited until Martin came out of the dining-room. He was in his dinner suit, and was quite a dude for such a raw-boned Southerner; he was surprised to see me again. I told him I wanted some further talk. I asked if we could not go to his room. After starting for up stairs I introduced my friend.

When in his room I informed him that my sole object was to obtain the information needed by the Government. Any man's face would be a study under such circumstances. Martin was game; his first question was: "Well, what is your name?" "Smith," I replied. "Oh, I mean your right name," he said. (There are some advantages in the name Smith, I really needed no alias.)

Martin thought a treat was "on him," and he paid it. I then invited him to show me the documents he had described when down town. I took possession of all. They gave a very good history of his doings on the Mississippi river, and his connection with the Confederate Treasury Department.

In answer to his question, I told him that I did not know what the government would do with him, but I was sure his proposed claim against the government would not be collectible, and perhaps he would be detained until the end of the war, to prevent a recurrence.

Pending my first call on Martin, I visited General Dix, commanding the Department of the East. He declined to endorse my order to make the arrest of Martin, unless I explained fully the case. Rather than do so, just at that time, I concluded to disregard courtesy and take my man away without his endorsement, which I did.

The "Gold Room" which was then more important than the Stock Exchange, was in Twenty-fourth Street, back of the Fifth Avenue Hotel; it was open evenings. I permitted Martin to send there for money, and to advise his friends that he would be away for a few days.

During the evening Mr. Martin said to me, "Last evening, when I was expecting you, waiting for you, I lay here reading Colonel Baker's book on the Secret Service. He had no case as slick as this. Smith, you were so frank and open, I would have told you anything you wanted to know."

I presume he was reading Baker's book to see how such cases as his were treated, not dreaming of an ocular demonstration so near at hand. At midnight we started for Baltimore.

The following from the Richmond "Whig" explains better, perhaps, than I can, just what Martin and the case meant, from the Confederate viewpoint:

(From the Richmond "Whig")

The Tobacco Transaction—A Prominent New York House Concerned.

"We have obtained the main facts of the great tobacco speculation, in reference to which there were so many rumors last week. It appears that an agent of a New York mercantile house, whose name it is deemed inexpedient to publish at this time, proposed to certain parties in this city to contract with them for the delivery of a specific quantity of manufactured tobacco at Fredericksburg, he undertaking for his principals to remove the tobacco from that point, with the implied consent of the United States authorities, provided the Confederate authorities would indicate their consent, in writing, to the proposed transaction. The tobacco was to be paid for on its delivery at Fredericksburg. The New York house was vouched for by an influential member of Congress, who had intimate business relations with the concern.

One of the Confederate bureaus became identified with the scheme, by reason of the representations which had been made to its officers, and by the prospect of advantageous results from the fulfillment of the proposed agreement by the parties on the other side.

The contract was accordingly entered into, "sealed, signed and delivered," with a satisfactory endorsement from the predecessor of the present Secretary of War, who was no doubt induced to believe that it was "all right." Nothing was said in the contract about bacon. The quid pro quo was money.

In execution of the contract on this side, about four thousand boxes of fine to extra manufactured tobacco were purchased here, at rates ranging from four dollars to seven dollars per pound, Confederate currency. Of this amount one thousand two hundred and seventy-three boxes, weighing one hundred and thirty-two thousand five hundred and seventy-eight pounds, and valued at seven hundred thousand dollars, were forwarded to Fredericksburg in charge of Dr. Rose, who was induced by assurances from Richmond, which he could not discredit, to act as consignee and custodian of the tobacco until delivered according to agreement. He was not in any sense, as we understand, a party to the contract. What became of the tobacco is known to our readers. Dr. Rose was carried off by the Yankees for engaging in contraband traffic.

The name of General Singleton has been connected with this transaction. We state on the authority of an officer of the bureau referred to that he has no lot nor part in it, directly or indirectly. The loss of the tobacco will fall upon the contractors here unless the New York parties to the contract will fulfill their obligations by indemnifying the bureau with which they contracted."

After action by Congress, President Lincoln endeavored to extend some relief to persons within the Confederacy who were Unionists at heart; they were to be encouraged by allowing them to work their products up to and through the lines. What was intended as a great beneficent proposition was seized upon by the Confederate government to help itself financially.

The following order will explain the experiences with cotton on the Mississippi river. I presume these orders drove Martin to turn his attention to tobacco in the east:

Headquarters, Major General Washburn, District West Tennessee. Memphis, May 10, 1864.

"The practical operation of commercial intercourse from this city with the States in rebellion, has been to help largely to feed, clothe, arm and equip our enemies."

* * * * *

"To take cotton, belonging to the Rebel Government to Memphis, and convert it into supplies and greenbacks, and return to the lines of the enemy, or place the proceeds to the credit of the Rebel Government, in Europe, is safe and easy.

"I have undoubted evidence that large amounts of cotton have been and are being brought here to be sold, belonging to the Rebel Government."

* * * * *

"It is therefore ordered, that on and after the 15th of May, 1864, the lines of the Army at Memphis be closed and no person be permitted to leave the city, except by river, without a special pass."

"By order of Major General C. C. WASHBURN."

A similar order was issued by Colonel Farrar, at Natchez, Miss., and by General Sherman at Vicksburg, in which they said:

"The amount of trade through the lines at all these points, with the isolated localities, where trade stores were situated, was estimated at not less than a half million dollars, daily."

On the 6th of March, 1864, General Roberts, with one thousand five hundred men, and with naval help, left Fortress Monroe for Fredericksburg. He captured and destroyed three hundred and eighty thousand dollars worth of tobacco.

Martin was the representative of the Confederate Treasury Department. I recovered his correspondence with Secretary Trenholm. It was understood that the proceeds of the sale of this tobacco was to go to Paris to help pay Confederate debts incurred there.


Secretary of War consulted about the extension of our territory to include the district between the Rappahannock and the Potomac rivers—Robert Loudan, alias Charles Veal, a boat burner and spy—A kidnapped colored boy.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Mch. 18, 1865.

Lieut. Smith:

I want to see you at the office this evening at 7.30.

The Secretary of War wants to see you in Washington, and you will have to go to-morrow morning.

Yours, &c., S. B. LAWRENCE, A. Adjutant General.

I do not remember what the Secretary wanted, but as the following order issued the next day, I assume it was to learn more of my purpose in the extended territory asked for:

War Department, Washington, D. C., Mch. 20, 1865.

Major W. H. Wiegel:

Provost Marshal at Baltimore is authorized to extend his operations into the region between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers known as the northern neck of Virginia.

(Signed) C. A. DANA, Asst. Secretary of War.

Headquarters, Department of Missouri, Office of Provost Marshal General, St. Louis, Mo., Mch. 21, 1865.

Provost Marshal General, Middle Department, Baltimore, Md.

Sir.—In October last, the Military Prisons of this city being in danger from the Rebel forces under Major General Sterling Price, it was deemed prudent by General Rosecrans, then in command of this Department, to transfer the occupants to the Alton Prison. While this transfer was in progress, one of the prisoners, Robert Loudan, alias Charles Veal, made his escape from the guards by cutting his irons and jumping from the boat into the river. He was then under sentence of death for being a spy and a boat burner.

Loudan was lately heard from at New Orleans, where it was reported he was in the custody of the Military authorities, by whom he was subsequently released for the want of sufficient evidence to hold him.

It is possible he has gone beyond our lines, but, if not, he would be likely to make for some of the large cities of the loyal States.

Loudan is a native of Philadelphia, where his wife now resides; height, about five feet eight inches; complexion, fair; large blue eyes constantly rolling and displaying a great deal of white; hair and whiskers, fair; square shoulders; usually wears a false moustache; wears his hat on the back of his head.

This office is charged with his execution, and will incur any amount of trouble to recapture him. If he is found within the limits of your jurisdiction, please secure and forward him to me or notify me of his arrest and I will send for him.

Very respectfully, Your obdt. servt., J. H. BAKER, Col. & Provost Marshal.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Mch. 31, 1865.

Special Order No. 55.

Lieut. H. B. Smith, 5th N. Y. H. Arty., Commanding Detective Corps, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps, will proceed to Washington, D. C., for the recovery of a colored boy, kidnapped from Norfolk, Virginia, and will report to the Provost Marshal of Washington, for any assistance he may require.

By command of Bvt. Brigadier General W. W. Morris.

WM. H. WIEGEL, Major & Actg. Provost Marshal.


The chase after the steamer "Harriet Deford," which was captured by pirates, supposedly to supply a means of escape to Jefferson Davis from the crumbling Confederacy—Captain Fitzhugh.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Apl. 5, 1865.


I have written to Commodore Dornin requesting him to send a small steamer in pursuit of the "Harriet Deford," if he has one ready, and to permit Lieut. Smith and his guard to accompany her.

If Commodore Dornin can not send a steamer I have written to Colonel Newport, to request him to place a tug at your disposal.

You will please see that Smith goes in Command with sufficient guard and ammunition. If you want a Howitzer, send to C. O. Fort McHenry, or let the steamer stop there and get it.

Very respy. your obdt. servt., SAMUEL B. LAWRENCE, A. Adjutant General.

To Major Wiegel.

Commandant's Office. Naval Station, Baltimore, Apl. 5, 1865.


I regret that I have no steamer in the proper condition to start off; if we had it would be furnished promptly.

Very respy. your obdt. servt, THOS A. DORNIN, Commodore.

To Col. Sam'l B. Lawrence, A. Adjutant General, Middle Department.

A report had reached us that the steamer "Harriet Deford," plying between the Patuxent river and Baltimore, had been captured by a gang of pirates, in Fair Haven bay, which is midway between the Patuxent river and the Severn river; the passengers were robbed and put ashore.

Richmond had fallen; Jefferson Davis was seeking to escape, and the theory, quickly arrived at, was that this steamer had been seized to furnish the means, perhaps, to run him to the Bahamas, or Bermuda.

The bay and its tributaries were alive with anxiety. In a very short time I was away in a tug. I put the guards below decks, in the coal-hole, where they were nearly smothered, until night came on.

Early in the evening we arrived at the mouth of Fair Haven bay. Our pilot did not know the harbor, but soon discovered he could not run his boat on the mere appearance of water. He ran us onto a bar, where we thumped and thumped, backed and poled off, and then ran onto another. We finally concluded to back off, go back to the Severn river and Annapolis, and wait for daylight.

When we arrived in the Severn, we found the shore and water full of alertness. We were hailed and threatened until our character was understood. To my delight I found there a large steamer, with two hundred men on, that Colonel Lawrence had sent down to support me. A landlubber feels better on a larger vessel, so I took my men on the steamer, and we started again for Fair Haven. We arrived there early in the morning.

My theory was that I could pick up some clue there to follow up, and events sustained me. I sauntered up from the dock towards a store. I met two men, and to my question, one of the men admitted he was pressed into service by the gang in the mouth of the Patuxent. He said the party had crossed the Potomac in a small sail boat, and compelled him to pilot them, to overhaul the "Harriet Deford." He said they steamed down the bay, after leaving Fair Haven. We held him, and at once ran on down the Chesapeake, to the mouth of the Potomac. We were then in Commodore Parker's territory, which he was covering clear across the bay with gunboats. Our duty was done, and we returned to Baltimore.

I learned afterwards that they ran the "Deford" into Mobjack bay, where she was burned, after first stripping her joiner work. I visited, and afterwards married, Aunt Mag, in the region of Mobjack bay, but never referred to the incident. I thought it might not bring up pleasant recollections. I have often wondered if some of the "Deford's" saloon trimmings might be in use in some of the houses there. Let us forget it.

The following account of the affair appeared in the New York papers under date April 6th, 1865, with big headline: "Another Pirate!"

"Baltimore, April 5th, 1865. A daring act of piracy was perpetrated at Fair Haven, Herring Bay, about fifty miles from this city, the Steamer Harriet Deford being seized by a company of Rebel soldiers in disguise. The Deford had scarcely left Fair Haven Wharf before a dozen or more of newly received passengers threw off their overcoats and drawing revolvers revealed to the astonished gaze of the passengers the uniforms of Rebel soldiers.

The passengers, about seventy in number, thirty being ladies, were ordered to the saloon and guards placed over them while the balance of the pirates proceeded to take command of the Steamer. Captain and officers were forced into obedience at the muzzle of the pirates' revolvers. One of the pirates assumed control of the wheel, the Pilot and Engineer being compelled to proceed to sea. Mr. A. Donnell, clerk of the Deford, believing that he had met the leader of the outlaws on a former occasion, accosted him as Captain Fitzhugh, when the latter acknowledged the recognition and said he was Captain of the Fifth Virginia Cavalry and acting under orders of superior officers. Under the persuasive eloquence of a revolver the clerk handed over to the pirates nearly twelve hundred dollars belonging to the owners of the Steamer and different firms in this City; which Fitzhugh carefully robbed.

When about a mile from Fair Haven, Fitzhugh compelled the Engineer to sound the steam whistle three times, in answer to which signal three boats containing thirty-two men put off from each side of the river and stood for the Steamer. The crews of these boats having been taken aboard, the Steamer was headed down Chesapeake Bay. On the way down Captain Leage, Captain Dayton, officer in charge of the Steamer and several old gentlemen with ladies and children, were placed on board of the Schooner Hiawatha, bound for this city. The balance of male passengers, Engineer, Fireman, and twenty colored freedmen were retained as prisoners.

The Deford was valued at fifty thousand dollars and had a cargo of tobacco, potatoes, grain, furs, &c., valued at eighty thousand dollars. Fitzhugh would not permit his men to rob passengers.

The captured Steamer is a fast sailer, having repeatedly made fourteen knots per hour. The intention of the pirates could not be learned, but it is supposed they will endeavor to run outside the Capes, transfer the cargo to a larger vessel, burn the Deford, and proceed to Nassau.

The paroled passengers arrived here this morning. One of them positively asserts that Jeff. Davis was among the party who came out in small boats, but no reliance whatever can be placed in the possibility of Jeff. having thus escaped from Richmond. The receipt of this news caused great excitement here, and measures looking to the defence of the Bay boats are being made.

A steamer has also been despatched to intercept the pirates before they reach the Capes."


Ordered to Northern Neck of Virginia the day before President Lincoln's assassination—Martin Van Buren Morgan's statement, and order for his disposal.

At this time in 1865 General Lee was about surrendering. All the people, North and South, were rejoicing at the prospect of peace, excepting those bitter, poisoned-with-their-own-venom conspirators hid away in dark corners, who were rehearsing for the closing scene.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Apl. 13, 1865.

Special Order No. 61.

1st Lieut. H. B. Smith, in accordance with instructions received from the Hon. Secretary of War, will proceed to that part of Virginia known as the Northern Neck, with two of his men, and prisoner, M. V. B. Morgan, for the purpose of arresting certain outlaws in that part of Virginia.

Military and Naval commanders will please give all assistance required.

By command of Bvt. Brigadier General W. W. Morris.

WM. H. WIEGEL, Major & Actg. Provost Marshal.

This was to be my first opportunity to set foot in the district I had been seeking to. I had intended to capture in detail every known blockade-runner, and lock them up until the end of the war, but now that the war was practically over, my purpose was to capture the contraband goods to be found hidden in hay stacks, barns, etc.

Martin Van Buren Morgan had been with these blockade-runners, and had himself been somewhat in their ways, so I had become satisfied he would serve me, for pay. An order was placed in my hands, to be used under certain conditions. If he proved loyal and valuable, it was not to be used. If he was not valuable, I could use it and send him north. If he proved disloyal, I had verbal instructions to use my own judgment as to his disposal. This was the order:

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Apl. 13, 1865.

Special Order No. 61.

2—M. V. B. Morgan, citizen prisoner, is hereby ordered to proceed north of Philadelphia, Pa., and remain during the war, provided he takes the oath of allegiance to the United States Government.

By command of Bvt. Brigadier General W. W. Morris.

WM. H. WIEGEL, Major & Actg. Provost Marshal.

Morgan's Statement.

"My name is Martin Van Buren Morgan. I was born in Palmyra, New York State. My father was named Irvin Morgan, my brother is named Francis Morgan. My father one year ago was in Nashville, Tenn. I was so young I can not remember when I lived in Palmyra; as far back as I can recollect I was in Oswego. When three years old we moved to Cleveland, Ohio. When about sixteen I moved to Wheeling with my mother. From Wheeling I ran on the river from Cincinnati to Pittsburg.

"In November, 1860, I was in Cleveland, Ohio. I voted for Abraham Lincoln. From Cleveland I went to Cincinnati, to Pittsburg, and then to Queen's County, Virginia, in January, 1861.

"On March 4th, 1861, I was still in Queen's County, Virginia. I did not vote in Virginia. Mr. Thompson took me to Virginia. I never belonged to any regiment in the South. I lived in Queen's County until last spring, lived there all the time. I worked there at farming and oystering. I own a little place of about ten acres. I worked for Mr. Richardson and Captain Baggs.

"Since last spring I have been living in Westmorland and Northumberland Counties. They ran me away from Queen's County. I lived near Union, in Northumberland. I used to oyster on the Wicomico River, &c.

"When the raid was made last June, on the Necks, I was there. They did not find my boat that I oyster with, as it was hauled up and covered with pine boughs. I remained hid. I saw a few colored soldiers. Have seen conscripting officers and I always ran away from them. Have never been to Richmond since 1861.

"I sent a letter by George Booth across the river and heard from my father the same way. The carrier who works from Rap—— to Potomac, is named James Wilds; I don't know the points he stops at. Charles or George Booth carries the mail across the Potomac.

"I addressed the letter I sent to my father to Nashville, Tenn. I have a brother in the Southern army; he belongs to the fourth Georgia regiment; he is a Captain. I received an answer to the letter I sent my father. I never wrote to him again, and have had no letter from him since.

"I left Northumberland County last August, and crossed over to the Maryland side. I came across in an oyster punt, at night. The boat belonged to me. I came over alone, brought nothing with me; landed on the Maryland side, at the barns, near Marshal's store, on the St. George's Island. Bennett and King live there.

"When I landed on the Maryland side, I saw Ben. King, Bennett, and Mr. Snyder, who all came to the barn. I went over to Maryland to get shoes and to dredge, but could get no work and had to come back. I also got some sugar; I got Ben. King to get it for me. I got one pair of shoes, one pound of coffee and one pound of sugar. This is all I could get. I paid five dollars for the shoes, seventy-five cents for the coffee and thirty cents for the sugar. I bought these things for Mrs. Kent: I was living with her. King has been driven off the Island. I stayed in Maryland a week and then paddled back to old Virginia, to old Virginia shore.

"About the 1st September I came to Maryland shore again, paddled over on a dark night, brought nothing over with me, again landed at the same place. I came over for stuff. Pickets were on the shore and I could not land, and had to put back. I carried over forty dollars in greenbacks.

"After about a week I went over again, taking over the same thing; nothing. I landed this time at Chicken Cock, above Smith's Creek, a leetle. I got my goods at Mr. Bean's. Mr. Bean keeps a store. I got a pair of boots for eight dollars, one pair pants for five dollars, one fine-tooth comb for fifteen cents, and also a bottle of hair oil at thirty or forty cents, and had three or four glasses of whiskey.

"I treated a Lieutenant and a Captain who were there from Piney Point. I had to lay in the bushes about two days, the weather being so rough I could not cross. I spent about thirty dollars.

"On last Monday night I came over again; came over alone, and in a canoe worth one hundred and fifty dollars; left the canoe on the beach. I bought this canoe about a week before I came over. I bought this canoe to run the blockade with. I was going to run Jews across for Mr. Dawson. Mr. Dawson lives at the head of Large Creek, Yocomico River. Colonel Claybrook, of Home Guard, lives on the road from Large Creek to Union Village.

"I saw in Northumberland County about three months since, Albert Klockgether, who gave me his address in Baltimore, and desired me, when I came over, to call and see him. Bill Hayden carried over Klockgether, in one of Dawson's boats.

"I left my boat near Britton's Bay, on the beach. Bill Hayden has been captured twice, and is now back in Virginia. I came to this city on the West River boat, and landed this afternoon. I bought this shirt I have on from Mr. Wm. Hudson, a blockade runner; paid him six dollars for it about three or four weeks since. I have heard that Hudson is now captured. Bought my hat for five dollars from the same one. I bought my satchel from Richard King, a blockade runner. I bought the revolver from a Jew in Virginia; paid twenty dollars for it.

"A man named Brown is a blockade runner. I heard that he brought over a load of Enfield rifles, in a sloop; the Home Guard are armed with them.

"A Jew named Rosenfield is connected between Wilmington and Canada and England, in running the blockade. A woman named Mrs. Hays, of Baltimore, was with Rosenfield; she had a trunk and satchel; she came over to Dawson's. She was coming from Richmond.

"Rosenfield said he was going back. I knew three Jews by sight, who have brought medicine across—I think from Eastern shore. I don't know their names.

"A Rebel officer, Captain Berry, came over to the Maryland side in full uniform, and came back again. I have seen him lots of times; he is stationed above Boler's, who lives at the ferry over the Rappahannock, about twenty miles from mouth of the river.

"They have large flat boats to carry over men, oxen, wagons, &c.—have two there now. This ferry is about fifty miles from Richmond. There is a large camp of Cavalry about eight miles from the ferry on the south side of the river. Gunboats can come up as far as Boler's. Captain Moon lives opposite the guard ship, on the Virginia side, at the windmill.

"Foster Maynard took the oath at Point Lookout, and is now conscript officer; he is a Captain. Maynard lives about one mile from King's Sail. King's Sail is on the Yocomico River.

"About two weeks since, Bill Hayden and Joe Cooper came over to Britton's Bay, to a little creek this side of the Bay, just above Piney Point; a white house is on the shore. The house right by the saw mill is the house they go to. They go to this house to buy goods to run the blockade with. I bought a little cutter from this place; bought over three sacks of salt, hats, caps, boots, shoes, and a jug of whiskey.

"Richard King, of Northumberland County, a blockade runner, comes to this side of the river and buys canoes and yawl boats. King has been over here for the last three weeks. About four weeks ago King got a canoe from Alexandria, and took it over to Dawson's and sold it to him. He came to Baltimore once, on a pungy.

"John Olison owns a pungy; dredges around St. George's. He lives on the Virginia side. Elias Steele, blockade runner, lives in Westmorland County. Captain Wm. Dawson lives at Large Creek.

"Union Village is where the mail comes. It comes every week (not certain). Mrs. Frank Lewis gave me the letter addressed to Mr. Steele, to give to Mr. Steele. (I never gave it to him.) Union Village is about eight miles from the beach. I found out that Mr. Steele had crossed the Potomac.

"I have seen large quantities of tobacco hid under corn shucks, and I know he has a large sum of money and a number of watches in his house (Dawson's house).

"At Dawson's house are the following persons: Mr. Dawson, Sr., Mrs. Dawson, Miss Dawson, Mrs. Nancy Clarke and her daughter, and Dawson, Jr. (a boy).

"There are two canoes at Dawson's."


I am introduced to General Grant—The assassination—Capture of Samuel B. Arnold, one of the conspirators, sent to Dry Tortugas—Arrested the Bransons and their household, uncovering Paine's pedigree, thereafter he was Lewis Paine Powell—Paine had my parole on his person when arrested— Paine hung.

The saddest day in our nation's history was Friday, April 14th, 1865. Early in the evening I was introduced to General Grant, in his private car; he was on his way from Washington to Philadelphia. The private car was standing on Howard just north of Camden Street. At that time the cars of through trains were hauled through Baltimore by horses up Howard, down Pratt to President Street, and to the depot.

Mr. Wm. G. Woodside, the paymaster of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, had asked me if I would like to be introduced to the General. We entered the car from the rear door. I do not remember there being any person in the car except the General and Mrs. Grant. It was understood in Washington that General Grant was to have accompanied the President to the theatre that evening.

We retired at about 10 o'clock, prepared to start the next morning, Saturday, the 15th, for the northern neck of Virginia, with Morgan, as outlined in the file preceding. Soon after retiring we were informed of the assassination. There is no word in the language to describe the shock I felt. I put on my clothes and did not take them off again until Wednesday, the 19th. Adjutant General Lawrence sent for me, and instructed me to abandon my trip to the Northern Neck.

The following telegram came early Saturday morning; in it Paine is described quite perfectly, but at that time I had no idea that he was the person described:

United States Military Telegram, Apl. 15, 1865.

The following is a description of the assassin of the Hon. W. H. Seward, Secretary of State, and Hon. Frederick W. Seward, Assistant Secretary. You will use every exertion in your power and call to your aid the entire force under your control to secure the arrest of the assassin.

Height 6-1/2 feet, black hair, thick, full, and straight. No beard, nor appearance of beard. Cheeks red on the jaws, and face moderately full. 22 or 23 years of age. Eyes, color not known, large eyes, not prominent. Brows not heavy, but dark. Face not large, but rather round. Complexion healthy. Nose straight and well formed. Medium sized mouth, small lip, thin upper lip, protrudes when he talks. Chin pointed and prominent. Head of medium size. Neck short and of medium length. Hands small and fingers tapering, showed no signs of hard labor. Broad shoulders, taper waist, straight figure, strong looking man; manner not gentlemanly, but vulgar.

Overcoat double breasted, color mixed of pink and grey spots, small; was a sack overcoat, pockets inside and on breast, with lapels or flaps. Pants, black, common stuff. New heavy boots. Voice small, inclined to tenor.

(Signed) N. S. JEFFRIES, A. P. M. G.

Headquarters, Middle Department 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Apl. 16, 1865.


I have some important intelligence, send Lieut. Smith to me at once.


To Colonel Woolley.

The information was about a letter that had been found in Booth's trunk, written from Hookstown, Md., from Samuel Arnold, showing his (Arnold's) complicity in the assassination.

I at once, with one of my men, Mr. Babcock, went to Hookstown. We avoided our pickets, traveled across country, and reached Arnold's home about noon. We sat down, as if to rest, on Arnold's porch, asking no questions, but waited to be questioned. A colored woman opened the door, and I asked her if she would give us something to eat, for money. She agreed and invited us into the sitting room, while she prepared something for us.

There was no white person about. We ate and visited, she questioning us about the murder, and we cautioning her. Finally, when we were about to leave, we told her we knew Mr. Arnold. She said he had gone away some days since to Old Point Comfort. Our purpose was accomplished. It is not necessary to say we hurried.

Everybody bound for Old Point had to get a pass at our office. A record was kept of each, together with the name of a person as reference. An examination of the register disclosed at once Samuel B. Arnold's name, vouched for by Mr. Wharton ("Wickey" Wharton), whom we knew; he was sutler at Old Point. We wired to him to know where Arnold was. He replied: "A clerk in my employ." We then wired for his arrest.

He was arrested and sent to Baltimore on the Bay Line boat, reaching Baltimore on the 18th.

The following was my order to go to Washington with him:

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, Apl. 18, 1865.

Lieut. H. B. Smith (in citizen's clothes) and officer Babcock, will accompany the officer in charge of S. B. Arnold, to Washington, to aid in securing Arnold's safe delivery. The duty performed they will return to these headquarters without delay.

By command of Bvt. Brigadier General Morris.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col. Chf. Staff Prov. Mar.

Arnold was sentenced to Dry Tortugas for life. Following is a copy of Arnold's letter, found in Booth's trunk:

Hookstown, Baltimore County, Md., March 27, 1865.

Dear John:

Was business so important that you could not remain in Baltimore till I saw you? I came in as soon as I could, but found you had gone to W——n. I called also to see Mike, but learned from his mother he had gone out with you, and had not returned. I concluded, therefore, he had gone with you.

How inconsiderate you have been. When I left you, you stated we would meet in a month or so. Therefore I made application for employment, an answer to which I shall receive during the week. I told my parents I had ceased with you.

Can I then, under existing circumstances, come as you requested? You know full well that the G——t suspicions something is going on there; therefore the undertaking is becoming more complicated. Why not, for the present desist, for various reasons? which, if you look into, you can readily see without my making any mention thereof to you. Nor anyone can censure me for my present course. You have been its cause, for how can I now come after telling them I had left you? Suspicion rests on me now, from my whole family, and even parties in the country. I will be compelled to leave home, anyhow, and how soon I care not.

None, no, not one, were more in favor of the enterprise than myself, and to-day would be there, had you not done as you have—by this, I mean, manner of proceeding.

I am, as you well know, in need. I am, you may say, in rags, whereas to-day I ought to be well clothed.

I do not feel right stalking about without means, and more from appearance a beggar. I feel my independence; but even all this would be, and was forgotten, for I was one with you. Time more propitious will arrive yet. Do not act rashly or in haste. I would prefer your first query, "Go and see how it will be taken at R——d," and ere long I shall be better prepared to again be with you. I dislike writing; would sooner verbally make known my views, yet you know writing causes me thus to proceed.

Do not in anger peruse this, weigh all I have said, and as a rational man and a friend, you cannot censure or upbraid my conduct. I sincerely trust this, nor naught else that shall or may occur, will ever be an obstacle to obliterate our former friendship and attachment.

Write me to Baltimore, as I expect to be in about Wednesday or Thursday, or, if you can possibly come on, I will Tuesday meet you in Baltimore at B——. Ever I subscribe myself,

Your friend, SAM.

Notwithstanding the opprobrium attaching to the name, Arnold, in American history, I have always looked upon this Arnold with some feelings of pity.

The following account of Paine's arrest is borrowed from Mr. Osborn H. Oldroyd's "Assassination of Abraham Lincoln":

The doorbell of Mrs. Surratt's house, No. 541 (now No. 604) H Street, N. W., was rung by Major H. W. Smith, in company with other officers, about eleven o'clock Monday night, the 17th. When the bell rang, Mrs. Surratt appeared at the window and said: "Is that you, Mr. Kirby"? The reply was that it was not Mr. Kirby, and to open the door. She opened the door, and was asked: "Are you Mrs. Surratt?" She said: "I am the widow of John H. Surratt." The officer added, "And the mother of John H. Surratt, Jr.?" She replied: "I am." Major Smith said: "I come to arrest you and all in your house, and take you for examination to General Augur's headquarters." No inquiry whatever was made as to the cause of arrest. Mr. R. C. Morgan, in the service of the War Department, made his appearance at the Surratt house a few minutes later, sent under orders to superintend the seizure of papers and the arrest of the inmates. While the officers were in the house a knock and ring were heard at the door, and Mr. Morgan and Captain Wermerskirch stepped forward and opened the door, and Lewis Payne stepped in with a pickax over his shoulder, dressed in a gray coat and vest and black trousers. As he had left his hat in the house of Secretary Seward, he had made one out of the sleeve of a shirt or the leg of a drawers, pulling it over his head like a turban. He said he wished to see Mrs. Surratt, and when asked what he came that time of night for, he replied he came to dig a gutter, as Mrs. Surratt had sent for him in the morning. When asked where he boarded, he said he had no boarding house, that he was a poor man, who got his living with the pick. Mr. Morgan asked him why he came at that hour of the night to go to work? He said he simply called to find out what time he should go to work in the morning. When asked if he had any previous acquaintance with Mrs Surratt, he answered, "No," but said that she knew he was working around the neighborhood and was a poor man, and came to him. He gave his age as twenty, and was from Fauquier County, Virginia, and pulled out an oath of allegiance, and on it was "Lewis Payne, Fauquier County, Virginia." Mrs. Surratt was asked whether she knew him, and she declared in the presence of Payne, holding up her hands: "Before God, I have never seen that man before; I have not hired him; I do not know anything about him." Mrs. Surratt said to Mr. Morgan: "I am so glad you officers came here to-night, for this man came here with a pickax to kill us."

From Mrs. Surratt's house Payne was taken to the provost marshal's office. Mrs. Surratt was informed that the carriage was ready to take her to the provost marshal's office, and she, with her daughter Annie, Miss Honora Fitzpatrick, and Miss Olivia Jenkins (the latter two boarded at the house), were driven away.

The telegram received on Saturday morning the 15th, giving a description of the person who tried to kill Secretary Seward, was quite accurate, considering it was made by persons under great excitement. The oath of allegiance which Paine pulled out of his pocket when arrested, was the document issued from our office. He had erased, however, the restriction which ordered that he was to "go north of Philadelphia and remain during the war."

Before telling of what I did after discovering Paine to be the person I had released on March 14th, I want you to read the account Mr. Oldroyd gives of his clumsily brutal attack on Secretary Seward:

"Lewis Payne (his real name was Lewis Thornton Powell), boarded at the Horndon House, corner Ninth and F Streets, where the Loan and Trust Building now stands, for two weeks, leaving there on the afternoon of April 14th. He paid his bill at four o'clock, and requested dinner before the regular time, and it was served to him.

Very little is known of his whereabouts from that time until 10 P. M., when he rang the bell of the Seward mansion, which stood on the ground now occupied by the Lafayette Opera House.

When the door was opened by the colored doorkeeper, Payne stepped in, holding a little package in his hand, saying that he had some medicine for Secretary Seward, sent by Dr. Verdi, which he was directed to deliver in person and give instructions how it was to be taken.

The doorkeeper informed him that he could not see Mr. Seward, but he repeated the words, saying he must see him. He talked very roughly for several minutes against the protest of the doorkeeper, who said he had positive orders to admit no one to the sick-chamber.

The doorkeeper finally weakened, thinking perhaps he was sent by Dr. Verdi, and let him ascend the stairs. When at the top, he met Mr. Frederick Seward, a son of the Secretary's to whom he told the object of his visit, but Mr. Seward told him that he could not see his father; that he was asleep, but to give him the medicine and he would take it to him. That would not do; he must see Mr. Seward; and then Mr. Seward said: "I am the proprietor here, and his son; if you cannot leave your message with me, you cannot leave it at all."

Payne started downstairs, and after taking a few steps, suddenly turned around and struck Mr. Frederick Seward, felling him to the floor. Sergeant George F. Robinson, acting as attendant nurse to Mr. Seward, was in an adjoining room, and on hearing the noise in the hall opened the door, where he found Payne close up to it. As soon as the door was opened, he struck Robinson in the forehead with a knife, knocking him partially down, and pressed past him to the bed of Mr. Seward, where he leaned over it and struck him three times in the neck with his dagger.

Mr. Seward had been out riding shortly before the fatal day, and had been thrown from his carriage with great violence, breaking an arm and fracturing his jaw. The physician had fixed up a steel mask or frame to hold the broken bones in place while setting. The assassin's dagger cut his face from the right cheek down to the neck, and but for this steel bandage, which deflected two of the stabs, the assassin might have accomplished his purpose.

The carriage disaster was after this night almost considered a blessing in disguise. Frederick Seward suffered intensely from a fracture of the cranium. The nurse attempted to haul Payne off the bed, when he turned and attacked him the second time. During this scuffle Major Augustus H. Seward, son of Secretary Seward, entered the room and clinched Payne, and between the two they succeeded in getting him to the door, when he broke away and ran downstairs and outdoors.

The colored doorkeeper ran after the police or guards when Frederick Seward was knocked down, and returned and reported that he saw the man riding a horse and followed him to I Street, where he was lost sight of.

In some way Payne's horse got away from him, for a little after one o'clock on the morning of the 15th Lieutenant John F. Toffey, on going to the Lincoln Hospital, East Capitol and Fifteenth Streets, where he was on duty, found a dark bay horse, with saddle and bridle on, standing at Lincoln Branch Barracks. The horse no doubt came in on a sort of byroad that led to Camp Barry, which turned north from the Branch Barracks towards the Bladensburg road. The sweat pouring from the animal had made a regular puddle on the ground. A sentinel at the hospital had stopped the horse. Lieutenant Toffey and Captain Lansing, of the 13th New York Cavalry, took the horse to the headquarters of the picket at the Old Capitol Prison, and from there to General E. O. C. Ord's headquarters. After reaching there, they discovered that the horse was blind of one eye, which identified it as the one Booth purchased in November, 1864, from Squire George Gardiner."

Immediately upon the identification of Paine I arrested the Bransons and all the occupants of their fashionable boarding house, No. 16 North Eutaw Street. Following is a list of the persons arrested:

Mrs. M. A. Branson, Miss M. A. Branson, Miss Maggie Branson, Mrs. Early, Mrs. Croyean, Miss Croyean, Mrs. Thomas Hall, Miss Josephine Hall, Mr. Joseph Branson, Jr., Mr. C. H. Morgan, Mr. C. S. Shriver, Mr. Chas. Ewart, Mr. C. E. Barnett, Mr. J. C. Hall, Mr. W. H. Ward, Mr. E. A. Willer, Mr. C. H. Croyean, Mr. Aug. Thomas, Mr. Winchester, Mr. Thos. Hall, Mr. S. T. Morgan, Mr. H. D. Shriver.

I began my examination of the individuals in the house, seeking to find who, if any, were intimate with Paine, and might, therefore, have had some knowledge of the crime "before the fact."

Not all of these people were known to be disloyal. Messrs. C. H. Morgan, S. T. Morgan, C. S. Shriver and H. D. Shriver are marked on my list as "loyal," and there may have been others.

I have a lead pencil memorandum of the examination in the house (No. 16 North Eutaw Street) but it is so disjointed as to be unintelligible, and I will not put it in here. Finding that the most valuable source of information was the Bransons, I released all others, resuming the examination of Miss Maggie Branson in my office where I could be more deliberate.

Her statement is mixed and disjointed and there are repetitions. It took me much time to elicit the facts. She broke down and wanted me to destroy a great part of her statement and let her replace it with a truthful one, which I refused, requiring that all she had said should be put down.

Examination of Miss Maggie Branson.

"I was at the General Hospital at Gettysburg about six weeks in 1863. I was there in the capacity of nurse. I don't know any of the surgeons except Dr. Simley, of Philadelphia, who would remember me. I went there to assist all the wounded soldiers. While there I saw a man known as Lewis Payne; he went by the name of "Doctor" and "Powell," he wore a pair of blue pants, I think, and a slouch hat; I did not have much talk with him while there.

"I did not learn during the time I was there what he was. I don't remember of giving him my address. Sometime in the same year, after the above named occurrence, I saw him at our house; he called to see me. I can scarcely remember how he was dressed; but I think in a Federal uniform. I think he was stopping at Miller's Hotel.

"He said he wanted to cross the lines but did not say where to, nor in what direction; he did not tell me where his home was; I don't remember what I replied.

I did not ask him anything about his intentions as to crossing the lines. I don't know that he told me what his intentions were; it was in the afternoon when he called. He again called at our house about the middle of January, 1865; he was dressed in black clothes; he said he was from Fauquier County, Virginia; he said he had just come in on the cars, and he wanted to board, but we could not at that time accommodate him; there was no one else present; he said he was a refugee and had his papers; he wanted to show them to me.

He said at Gettysburg that his name was Powell; on his second visit at the house he said his name was Payne."

At this point in the examination Miss Branson broke down. She realized that I was drawing her into a net of contradictions, and she thereafter proposed to be more frank and truthful with me.

"He said his father was a Baptist clergyman; said he had two brothers that were killed in the army; it is my impression that they were in the Confederate Army.

"He said a great deal of Mosby, and I should judge by his talk that he belonged to Mosby's Command. I have some slight recollection of his saying that he assisted in capturing a wagon train and some amount of newspapers on one occasion.

"I have occasionally walked out with him. I called once or twice at Mrs. Heim, No. —— Race Street, with him, we saw Charles and William Heim there; he did not see Mr. Heim, he (Heim) was in Richmond; I never saw any one else there when I went with Mr. Payne. He told me that his proper name was Powell; he said this when he came here this year.

"We also called on Mrs. Mantz, on Baltimore Street, near Green Street. I introduced him there as Mr. Payne. I might have called twice at this place. I often went to church with him. He was arrested at our house on March 12th, 1865, by Colonel Woolley's officers. I saw him after his release, on the day he was released; I have not seen him since. I heard from him only once, that was by a letter to my sister from New York.

"I have sent provisions, &c., to prisoners of war at Fort McHenry and Johnson's Island. I consider myself loyal. I have a great many friends in the South, and many relatives. I have never taken the oath of allegiance.

"Mr. E. W. Blair used to meet Mr. Payne at the house very often. On one occasion he went with him to the theatre. Mr. Chas. G. Heim used to call on us and would see Mr. Payne.

"If he had on a blue uniform when he came from Gettysburg, it was worn to aid him in getting South; it was not worn to act as a spy. I am confident that he never was North before. My sister said she thought at Gettysburg that he was a Federal doctor. Some called him Powell; I think he was introduced to me as Powell when he first came to our house. I think his correct name is Powell; he said his father was a Baptist minister, that he had lost two brothers in the war and that he did not know but that a third. His name may be Lewis Payne Powell. When he came to our house to board this year it was about the last days of January. Before coming there he boarded at Miller's Hotel about ten days. He called on us several times while he was boarding at Miller's Hotel. Sister or I entertained him when he came; his talk was principally of the ladies; he complained of his education.

"After he came to our house to board I introduced him to the boarders as Mr. Payne. I said to Miss Hall, one of the boarders, that he (Payne) was from Frederick County, Md.

"He was not particularly intimate with any one of the boarders. He was acquainted with all of them. My sister played chess with him; Mr. Barnett played with him. I have seen him speak to Mr. Joseph Thomas. I do not think they were intimate. I have spent considerable time with him. I think I spent more time with him than my sister or any of the other parties in the house. I walked with him very often. I was accompanied by Mr. Payne over in old town, on a matter of business, to employ some servants. I proposed to call on my cousin, Mrs. Dukehart, corner of Fayette and East Streets, and he agreed. I left him in the parlor alone, and went up stairs to see the family, and staid a short time and left. I am sure not a member of the family saw him; in the evening we called again. I called with him on Mrs. Heim on Paca Street, I might have called several times, we took tea there once; at other times only made short calls, at no time when we called was there any visitors there. Mr. Heim's business was in Richmond. Mr. Payne went to New York before Mr. Heim came home from Richmond. Mrs. Heim knew Mr. Payne was from Virginia. I don't know that she knew he was in the Rebel Army. I do not think Charles G. Heim was at any time home, when we called.

"We (Mr. Payne and I) called on Mrs. Mentz, on Baltimore Street; she is my aunt. I think we called on her twice. She knew he was from Virginia. I don't know that my sister ever went out with Mr. Payne. I don't remember going to any other place except to church. I went several times; do not know exactly how many.

"I remember his arrest on or about March 12, 1865, by Colonel Woolley. I came to this office and saw Lieut. Smith, about Mr. Paine. I thought he was arrested through malice on account of his whipping a colored servant in our house; that was very saucy. I told Lieut. Smith that he (Paine) had not been North before since the war commenced. I at the same time knew he had; I did this to shield him from harm. After his release he came to our house and left almost immediately. My impression is that he went directly to New York.

"After he arrived there he wrote me from the Revere House, directing me to address him at Revere House. I wrote him one letter; I addressed him as Lewis Payne. I never heard from him again, never saw him again after he left for New York; no one that I know saw him. I have always been a Rebel sympathizer. I have sent provisions, &c., to Confederate Prisoners at Forts McHenry and Delaware, Johnson's Island, Camp Chase, and Elmira, but only on permission of the military authorities."

When she had finished she was anxious to learn what I thought the Government would do to her. I informed her that she was responsible for Paine's acts; that if she had told me the truth when I had him in arrest, he would have been kept in arrest, and could not have attempted to assassinate Secretary Seward.

Miss Branson was detained a long time. Whenever you hear Paine spoken of in history as "Powell, the son of a Baptist minister" you will now recognize where the information came from.

The following from the New York "Tribune," April 29th, 1865, describes one of those who had knowledge before the act. He had been intimate with Paine, and undoubtedly we were creeping up too dangerously near him. The suicide was buried in Greenmount Cemetery, and in the darkness of night we dug the body up as mentioned by the "Tribune." This was the only time I ever acted the part of a ghoul. If I remember right, the man was a builder and committed suicide out behind a barn in the country:

Suicide in Baltimore.

"A well known citizen of Baltimore committed suicide last Monday, a short distance from this city, by shooting himself with a pistol. No cause could be assigned for the rash act except that he had recently seemed depressed and melancholy. Subsequent events have induced the suspicion that he was someway implicated in the conspiracy, and last night the body was exhumed, embalmed, and sent to Washington, by orders of the Government. The affair causes much speculation, and there are many reports in connection with it as well as some facts which it is deemed imprudent to publish at present."

(New York Tribune, April 29, 1865.)

Paine was hanged, along with Mrs. Surratt, Herold and Atzerodt. Considerable silly sentiment was manufactured in Mrs. Surratt's case; it was entirely wasted. If you will carefully examine her record you will say that her sex should not excuse such cold-blooded villainy. General Wallace was second in rank on the commission that tried the conspirators.

When President Lincoln's remains were lying in state in the rotunda of the Exchange in Baltimore, I remained at his head long hours, watching the faces of the people passing. Truly they were mourners, not the idle, curious, nor frivolous of mankind.

It had been intimated that the procession of people might be turned into a mockery. That mock ceremonies elsewhere would be attempted by some relentless furies. But even the suggestion was unhealthy. As a matter of history one of the earliest expressions of regret came from the Confederate prisoners of war confined at Point Lookout. Was ever man more universally loved?


Richmond had fallen—Class of detective work entirely changed— Counterfeiters—Secretary McCullogh—Go to steamboat of the Leary Line and capture a youthful murderer—Arrest of Mrs. Beverly Tucker.

Richmond had fallen, Lee had surrendered and the end was near. Disbandment and readjustment, to a civil basis, was then in order. Whatever work I did after this was of that character. I was no longer to chase my dream of crippling Mosby. Probably he did not know I lived. He might have smiled at my proposition, but I enjoyed the dream nevertheless.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, May 13, 1865.

Lieut. H. B. Smith.

Sir.—From what I can learn there are several gangs of counterfeiters of United States currency in this city, driving a good trade. I had the name and description of one of them but have lost it.

I now find that a certain John Mitchell (whom I know) engaged with a huxter in Washington, D. C., by name Henry High, knows all the particulars.

Mitchell will not come to this city as he is afraid of being arrested, upon what charge I do not know.

Yours, WM. L. HOPKINS.

This was a new field for me and I delved into the matter with success. Counterfeit money, in slang, is called "queer," and those who pass it on the public are called "shovers." Its manufacturer never "shoves" it, but sells it in quantities to small shop keepers, car conductors, and others, at a certain percentage of its face value—50 per cent. quite usually; the percentage, however, depends on whether it is well done or not.

Ramsey, at No. 146 Sixth Street, below Race Street, Philadelphia, was a medium. It was represented that the headquarters of the product was at Mahanoy City, Pa. I bought twenty-five dollars, face value, in twenty-five cent fractional currency very well done.

This was now a matter to be submitted to the Treasury Department, which I accordingly did, which was the reason for the following:

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, June 15, 1865.

Special Order No. 86.

1st Lieut. H. B. Smith, Assistant Provost Marshal, will immediately proceed to Washington, D. C., for the purpose of conferring with the Hon H. McCullogh, Secretary of the Treasury.

On accomplishing the object of his visit, he will immediately report to these headquarters.

By command of Major General Wallace.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col & Pro. Marshal.

Lieut. H. B. Smith, Asst. Provost Marshal.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, May 25, 1865. 12 P. M.

Lt. H. B. Smith, Asst. Provost Marshal.

You will proceed to the Norfolk Boat, "Lary Line," foot of Frederick Street, to-morrow morning, with a guard of one officer and twenty men, and carry out the instructions given you in compliance with orders of the Hon. Secretary of War.

By command of Major General Wallace.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col. & Pro. Marshal.

The above was an interesting case. The party to be apprehended was a young officer, described as very youthful in appearance, who had shot and killed a private soldier under very aggravating circumstances. He ordered the soldier to do a menial service, and killed him for refusing.

The steamboat had three hundred or four hundred passengers. We did not want to delay innocent persons, so I allowed all to pass off who were of age sufficient to warrant the conclusion that they were not wanted. Then I searched the boat and found a mere boy who appeared to be not over fourteen years old; he was the one wanted. He had been tried and convicted, and was on his way to jail (I think the Albany penitentiary) when he escaped. We started him on again under a guard. When in the Thirtieth Street station of the Hudson River Railroad, in New York City, he was permitted to go into a water closet alone. He never came out the door. He must have crawled out through the window, though it seemed not large enough to permit even a boy's egress. The guards became frightened and deserted. No one ever heard of either prisoner or guards so far as I know. This boy officer was certainly living a charmed life.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, May 25, 1865.

Mrs. Beverly Tucker will be arrested. Seize and search her baggage for papers, and also cause strict examination to be made to discover any papers concealed on her person. Much depends on your diligence and skill in executing this order.

Watch carefully what companions she has, if any, male or female, and cause similar search to be made of such persons.

By command of Major General Wallace.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col. & Pro. Marshal.

To Lt. H. B. Smith, Asst. Provost Marshal.


Camp Carroll rioting—Troops being mustered out.

The muster out of troops and return to civil life of the men who had been hardened soldiers was attended with difficulties. The men often began to feel liberty while yet with arms in their hands, and rioting, the effect of too much "fire water" was frequent. Camp Carroll was a muster out rendezvous in the western end of Baltimore.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, June 6, 1865.

Lieut. Smith:

I have sent four companies of infantry and a detachment of cavalry to report at Camp Carroll at once. They will be provided with ammunition. Find Colonel Johannes, 11th Md. Infantry, if you can, and direct him to take command of all reinforcements and enforce order in the Camp and neighborhood; if Colonel Johannes is not there, see the senior colonel at the Camp and impart the order to him.

Brigadier General Lockwood has been ordered to proceed to Camp Carroll at once and take command.

Please report state of affairs from time to time.

By command of Major General Wallace.

SAM'L B. LAWRENCE, A. Adjutant General.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. June 6, 1865.

Lt. Smith:

Send all the Cavalry you have to spare at once to report to the Commanding Officer, 11th Md. Infantry at Camp Carroll. Read the order I have written to him. Keep the three orders I wrote to General Lockwood and C. O. Federal Hill, and if you do not need them to-night, return them to me in the morning. Send the order at once to Commanding Officer, 11th Md.

If anything serious occurs to-night send an orderly to me.

Yours, &c., SAM'L B. LAWRENCE, A. Adjutant General.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Provost Marshal's Office. Baltimore, June 6, 1865.


I have the honor to report in the case of the disturbance at and near Camp Carroll this evening.

I proceeded to the spot, assisted by Capt. Jones and Lt. Smyth with their commands. I arrested some forty of the ring-leaders. I then proceeded to the Camp to quiet the men.

I gave the Comdg. Officer of the 11th Md. a verbal order to place his men on guard over all of the troops not armed, and I promised him a written order from you, placing him properly in Command, in which case I herewith return you the orders given to Mr. Babcock.

After placing a guard over the Camp I had the country about patroled and all ordered in. Everything is now quiet. It had become a very serious matter and I felt justified in placing the 11th Md. on duty. Hoping my action in this case will meet your approval, I am,

Very respy. your obdt. servt, H. B. SMITH, Lt. & Asst. Provost Marshal.

To Col. Lawrence, A. A. G.

Lieut. Smith:

Your action is approved. I have no material present to write the order for Colonel Johannes, but will do so and send it to him.

Let me know where the Md. Brigade is, and if you apprehend danger or think the Brigade and the 11th Md. will fight if they are encamped together, let me know.

I send you the orders for General Lockwood and Federal Hill. If all is quiet, and likely to remain so, retain them, but if there is any indication of further trouble send them at once.

Please let me know where the Brigade is. I directed it to be encamped at Carroll, and cannot understand why it is not there.

Respectfully, SAM'L B. LAWRENCE, A. Adjutant General.

If the Brigade is at Carroll, the Commanding Officer should be directed to take command of all and use his troops. Let me know and I will give the orders.

The whole cause of the trouble, and reason why I know so little about it is that they were ordered to report to Colonel Brown, A. A. P. M. Gen'l.

I remained at the head of my department during all of 1865, and saw the veteran armies disbanded. It seemed strange to see the Confederates (Marylanders) who had been so long shooting at us, come home and resume their occupations at the desk or plow right before our eyes.

There were not many disturbances like the Camp Carroll riot. America may well be proud of the peaceable disbandment of the two great armies. There was no evidence of remaining venom between the fighters. Not so, however, with the slimy secret society disturbers who brought on the war, and nursed its continuance. Whenever a sneering, vitriolic sound is heard, you may be sure that it emanates from the copperhead element.


Indicted for assault with intent to kill, the only clash between the military and civil authorities during General Wallace's administration.

June 25th, 1865, the Baltimore papers said: "Lieut. Smith, Wm. Earle, Kraft, and Babcock, of Colonel Woolley's office, were indicted for assault with intent to kill one Jacob Ruppert."

General Wallace had always encouraged the civil authorities, so that the establishment of martial law might be as little burdensome as possible on the citizens. In this instance the fact of the military being yet in control was overlooked. This Ruppert kept a low saloon on "the Causeway," one of the hardest spots in Baltimore. I had sent for him to report to me. He scorned the invitation; accordingly I went to his place. He blocked the doorway. I pulled him out, a scuffle ensued and he bled some, but came away with me. His (Ruppert's) father had some political influence from being able to control votes on "the Causeway"; he asked for an indictment. A warrant was issued from Judge H. L. Bond (Judge Bond was a Union man).

Jake Dukehardt, a deputy sheriff, met me on Baltimore Street, and informed me he held the warrant for my arrest. I assured him it would be foolhardy to try to execute it, for one of us would certainly be injured. I recommended him to report to Judge Bond, and I assured him I would be responsible for the results.

Judge Bond called on General Wallace, and explained how impossible it was to withdraw the order. General Wallace advised the judge to use his own judgment, but telling him, at the same time: "If you take Smith, I will place Alexander's Battery on the hill opposite the jail and blow it down." This was the only clash between the military and civil authorities under General Wallace's administration.


Trip to Norfolk and Richmond—Ralph Abercrombie—Miss Elizabeth L. Van Lew.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, July 5, 1865.

Special Order No. 93.

III. Lieut. H. B. Smith, Assistant Provost Marshal, 8th Army Corps, will proceed to Norfolk, Va., with prisoners Manuel Desota and Morris Moran. On arrival he will deliver the prisoners to the Provost Marshal at Norfolk, taking receipt for same. This duty performed, Lt. Smith will proceed to Richmond, Va., for the purpose of obtaining information in the case of Ralph Abercrombie, after which he will return to these headquarters without delay.

Quartermasters will furnish necessary transportation.

By command of Major General Wallace.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col. & Provost Marshal.

The above starts a train of reminiscences. Ralph Abercrombie, it was alleged, had been used as a spy upon our men confined in Libby Prison. He was confined with them, as though he were a prisoner also, but it was his business to worm out the confidences naturally confided to fellow prisoners, and to report them to the Confederate authorities.

One of the purposes of my visit was to interview a lady residing in Richmond who was a staunch friend of the Federal government, and who had encouraged and aided our soldiers in confinement in Libby prison and on Belle Island. Her name was Miss Elizabeth L. Van Lew. She resided in a fine mansion on an eminence overlooking Richmond from the east.

I was greatly entertained by her stories of her experiences; she had come close to the danger line of confiscation of her property and her personal incarceration. She had at one time concealed in the cupola of her house, our soldiers, who had escaped from Libby prison, while Confederate officers were being entertained in her parlors.

I desired to learn if she recollected anything regarding Abercrombie's actions. As a recognition of Miss Van Lew's loyalty, President Grant made her postmistress of Richmond in 1869, which post she filled for eight years.

A few years after the war I gave a friend a letter of introduction to her, which she honored. I was much pleased to be remembered by such a person. How such a kind hearted woman must have grieved, with a view constantly present from her home, of our suffering soldiers on desolate Belle Island!

Abercrombie was formerly a lieutenant in the 13th U. S. Infantry. He resigned in 1862 and went into the Confederacy through the blockade from Nassau. He was charged with having been the principal witness against Captain Dayton, who was executed at Castle Thunder, Richmond, on the charge of being a spy. He was arrested on the 18th of April, 1865.


My muster out—Reemployment as a civilian—Ordered to Philadelphia—Twice ordered to Washington with horse thieves.

The following is a copy of my release from duty to be mustered out:

Headquarters, Middle Military Department. Baltimore, July 19th, 1865.

Special Order No. 1.

I. Lieut. H. B. Smith, 5th N. Y. H. Artillery, is hereby relieved from duty as Assistant Provost Marshal, 8th Army Corps, and will rejoin his regiment without delay.

By command of Major General Hancock.

ADAM E. KING, Asst. Adjutant General.

Official. (Signed) GEO. H. HOOKER, Assistant Adjutant General.

Lt. H. B. Smith, 5th N. Y. H. Artillery, D. Co.

Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Md., July 20, 1865.

Lieutenant H. B. Smith, 5th New York Artillery, was on detached service as Assistant to the Provost Marshal, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps, at Baltimore, Maryland, during sixteen (16) months, 1864 and 1865, and always performed his duties zealously, efficiently, and promptly.

He won the confidence and esteem of the General Commanding, and all the officers of the Staff. As Lieut. Smith is to be mustered out of service, I take pleasure in thus furnishing him with evidence of the meritorious service he has rendered, and my belief that he will be equal to any trust that may be reposed on him, and entirely worthy the confidence of all with whom he may be associated in civil life.

SAMUEL B. LAWRENCE, Lieut. Col. & A. A. G.

On August 1st, 1865, I was appointed as a civilian to perform the same duties:

Military Headquarters, Middle Department, Office Provost Marshal. Baltimore, August 31, 1865.

Special Order No. 106.

1st. H. B. Smith, Commanding Detective Corps. Middle Military Division, will proceed to Philadelphia, Pa., for the purpose of obtaining information regarding a certain commissioned officer of the U. S. Vet. Res. Corps.

On completion of his duty he will report at these headquarters without delay.

Quartermaster's department will furnish transportation.

By command of Major General Humphreys.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col. & Pro. Mar. General.

Headquarters, Middle Military Department, Office Provost Marshal General, Baltimore, Sept. 20, 1865.

Special Order No. 116.

IInd. H. B. Smith, Chief of Detective Corps, Middle Military Department, and one man as guard, will proceed to Washington, D. C., in charge of the following-named horse thieves:

Michael Shea and H. J. Hoffman. On arrival he will deliver the prisoners with accompanying paper to Colonel T. Ingraham, Provost Marshal General, Defences of Potomac, receive receipt and report at these headquarters without delay.

Quartermaster's Department will furnish transportation.

By command of Major General Hancock.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col. & Pro. Mar. Gen'l.

Horse stealing was much in fashion at this time.

Headquarters, Middle Military Department, Office Provost Marshal General, Baltimore, Sept. 22, 1865.

Special Order No. 117.

II. H. B. Smith, Chief of Detective Corps, Middle Military Department, and one man as guard, will proceed to Washington, D. C., in charge of the following named horse thieves:

Wm. H. Smith and R. B. Franklin, alias Robert Nelson. On arrival he will deliver the prisoners with accompanying papers to Capt. Geo. B. Russell, Acting Provost Marshal General, Defences North of Potomac, receive receipt for same and report at these headquarters without delay.

Quartermaster's Department will furnish transportation.

By command of Major General Hancock.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Lt. Col. & Provost Marshal General.


Captain Beckwith convicted—Gambling—Order to take Beckwith to Albany penitentiary.

Along about August and September, 1865, the Government ordered surveillance of all gambling houses, to discover if disbursing officers were gambling. This was my first experience in the art. It was a free school, for the tuition was on Uncle Sam. The lessons have served me all my life, and I have never wanted to go to that school since.

We appropriated from five to ten dollars an evening, to be spent in each house visited, depending on its standing. That gave us entry and made us welcome so that we could spend the evening. I gambled and observed, along with Captain Beckwith. I saw him win, and also saw him lose; lose far more than he could afford to. That was his undoing. Powerful interests were extended in his behalf and he was pardoned. Now read the two documents following:

War Department, Adjutant General's Office. Washington, October 19, 1865.

General Court Martial. Orders No. 584.

The action of Major General Hancock, Commanding the Middle Department, designating the Penitentiary at Albany, New York, as the place of confinement in the case of Captain D. L. Beckwith, 22d Regiment Vet. Reserve Corps, Assistant Commissary of Musters, sentenced by a General Court Martial "to forfeit all pay that is now or may become due him to the date of promulgation of this sentence; to be cashiered and to be forever disqualified from holding any office of trust or emolument in the service of the United States, and to be confined for two years without pay, at hard labor at such penitentiary or Military Post as the Commanding General of this Department may direct."

This sentence to be published as presented by the 85th Article of War, as promulgated in General Orders No. 23, dated Headquarters Middle Military Department, Baltimore, Maryland, Oct. 10, 1865. Is approved. By order of the Secretary of War.

E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant General.

Official. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant General.

Headquarters, Middle Military Department, Office Provost Marshal General, Baltimore, Oct. 29, 1865.

Special Order No. 127.

I. Special Officer, H. B. Smith, with one guard will proceed to Albany, New York, in charge of prisoner D. L. Beckwith. On arriving at Albany he will deliver the prisoner with accompanying papers to Amos Pillsbury, Superintendent of the Albany Penitentiary; receiving receipt he will report with the guard at these headquarters without delay.

Quartermaster's Department will furnish transportation.

By command of Major General Humphreys.

JOHN WOOLLEY, Bvt. Brigadier General & Provost Marshal.

The "one guard" detailed to accompany me was General Woolley. He wanted a little rest and availed himself of this opportunity. Upon our arrival in Albany I hunted up my cousin, Edgar Jerome, who spent the evening with us at the Delevan House. We had a delightful evening listening to the General's stories. He was a charming story teller. Ed will remember especially his rendering of "The Arkansas Traveller."

Now, Nettie, don't find fault with your history because your Uncle is not mentioned in its lines. In the histories of great events, such as our Civil War, it is an honor to be, even though hidden, "between the lines." Thousands who are mentioned in written history to-day will not be there when it becomes more ancient. Later on, when other great events crowd, only three names may remain. Lincoln, Grant, Lee. Perhaps still further on, only Lincoln, the martyr for liberty's sake, may be found.

Much of my work was between the lines of the two contestants, a more dangerous place than in the lines, for I was exposed to the bullets and sabres of both Southern and Northern Armies.


Trip to Carlisle, Illinois, to unravel a fraudulent claim—John H. Ing.

We closed our headquarters in December, 1865, packing all records in finely arranged cabinets, which were then transferred to the War Department in Washington.

When my relation with the government was terminated, through the instrumentality of General Woolley (Woolley had recently been brevetted), I was engaged by Mr. Archibald Sterling, an attorney (a prominent Union man), to go to southern Illinois to ravel out a contested will case. The contestants were a group of neighbors, headed by a shrewd woman.

If I remember right, under the Maryland laws, if a child died before maturity, there was no inheritance. Mr. Sterling claimed that the young man was not of age when he died, and that he died in 1835; but he had no evidence to prove it. He had only a death notice clipped from some paper with no date on it. But he had an anonymous letter signed: "Veritas," postmarked at Carlisle, Illinois, in which the writer, for a consideration, offered to put Sterling in possession of evidence that would defeat the claim; this letter was a few months old. Mr. Sterling could not comply. He could pay for no evidence without compromising his clients. With these facts only and equipped with the following letter of introduction, I started West:

Headquarters, Middle Military Department, Office Provost Marshal General, Baltimore, Dec. 27, 1865.

Capt. Silas F. Miller, Burnet House, Cincinnati, Ohio.

My Dear Sir.—I shall be greatly obliged if you will make Lieut. Smith, the bearer, acquainted with one or more of the conductors of the O. & M. R. R. Co.

Lieut. Smith is one of my officers, and comes west on business which takes him on the line of that road.

This is not for the purpose of securing a pass, but in order to get information. I have the honor to be,

Very Respectfully, Your obedient servant, JOHN WOOLLEY, Bvt. Brigadier General U. S. Vols. Provost Marshal General M. M. D.

The field was entirely new to me. All the way to Cincinnati and the rest of the way to Carlisle, Illinois, I put in much of my time in speculating as to the best course to adopt on landing in a small town, among a lot of villagers, who were banded together in this scheme. My name was to be Comings, and I came from New York; that was all settled in my mind; but what was my business there? I expected to be there a few days, and there was the rub; finally, after failing to fix up a story I concluded to "keep mum," entirely. Later you will see the fix which that conclusion came near leading me into.

I arrived there at night. I asked the landlord not to put me high up in the hotel, and he didn't; I learned the next morning that the hotel was only two stories high. I lounged about the tavern and the village two or three days, making myself aware of the surroundings. I tramped out to the fork of the Kaskaskia river, where the affidavits alleged the boy was buried in 1836. The river was a muddy little brook. No grave was to be found, but some little distance away was a burying ground. I went there searching for the grave. I found it not, but lying up against a fence was a headstone having the boy's name on it, and the date of his death.

In walking about the village I had many times passed the residence of the woman who had framed up the claim; she had noticed me. I wrote one of my old officers in Baltimore to wire me, in language about like this:

"See Mrs. ——, confer fully and write me."

I instructed him to sign John H. Ing's name to it. Mr. Ing was this woman's attorney.

Equipped with this telegram I would be prepared to introduce myself to the woman as apparently having come there in the interest of Mr. Ing, her attorney, to look over the ground to see if matters alleged in the affidavits were susceptible of demonstration.

While waiting for the telegram I obtained the confidence of the postmaster. I impressed him that I was an agent of the Post Office Department, seeking to learn if he remembered a letter coming to his office addressed to "Veritas" (Sterling had replied to Veritas); he, having the too frequent curiosity of a village postmaster, said he remembered it well, and told me who the recipient was, and where he lived. He promised to keep secret my mission, and he did.

Mr. Truesdale, the proprietor of the tavern, kept horses, and I hired him to carry me to this man's house, quite a drive of three or four miles. On our way I found it desirable to seek his confidence too, and impress him I was an agent of the Post Office Department, etc. Mr. Truesdale seemed much relieved. He then told me he was so glad to know my true character. Being the only "unaccounted for" man in the village, I had been the object of suspicion, which, unrelieved, might have proven uncomfortable.

Carlisle was on the edge of the prairie. Live stock (marked) ran wild, until taken in; much had been stolen. A vigilance committee had been organized to punish the thieves. These people were about to conclude that the only "unaccounted for" man about was the "look out" for the thieves. Truesdale was wonderfully pleased to stand sponsor for me to them, without divulging my mission. Keeping perfectly mum came close to being poor judgment under these circumstances.

I saw Mr. "Veritas" and had a private talk with him. He promised to meet me in Carlisle the next day, which he did. Before communicating the information which he said he had, which comprised the name of the storekeeper who sold the material used for preparing the coffin in 1836, and who had books to sustain the statement, he demanded a promise in writing to pay him a large sum of money. Having a smattering of "legal lore" I drew up a bond to pay the required amount, in event of success. I kept a copy of the bond to show Mr. Sterling. It was signed by "George Comings." It was satisfactory to Mr. "Veritas," and he in an impressive manner wrote on a piece of paper, in large bold letters, the storekeeper's name: PARMENUS BOND. We agreed to drive over to Mr. Parmenus Bond's place the next day, and we did.

I found Parmenus to be very old, over eighty. He confirmed the statement after he learned Mr. "Veritas's" greed had been satisfied. (I guess he was to divide with the old gentleman, in fact.)

Having disposed of this part I was ready to use the telegram I had received, meantime, upon the woman schemer. I called upon her, presenting my telegram from Ing. She was charmed to meet me, saying she had observed my presence about the village. I told her I had surveyed the ground pretty well. I asked her about the tombstone, where did she get it? She said she got it from Harrisburg, Pa. (about one thousand miles away), and would have it set up in the spring, I advised her that I concluded the evidence was presentable, provided her witnesses all stayed in line. She assured me that they would, as they all had a money interest in it, in the event of success. We then parted, and it did not take me long to get out of town. I went to St. Louis, thence to Baltimore.

When I arrived in Baltimore, I at once called on Mr. Sterling, but had to introduce myself, I was so unkempt, and my apparel so dirty. He was anxious to know my report; I told him I had the evidence but had to agree to pay for it. His face was a sight. He concluded I had ruined his case. I handed him the copy of my bond, "George Comings's" bond, assuring him that "Veritas" would have a difficult time finding the bondsman; that he would not want to find him until after success, that he would not speak of it in Carlisle, for his life. Mr. Sterling then laughed heartily. I made a full report, advised Mr. Sterling to call in Mr. Ing confidentially, and show him his fix. The claim was withdrawn, and "George Comings" was never called upon to settle.

The use by me of Colonel John H. Ing's name was not unwarranted. I had previously had a "run in" with him, which led me to believe that he was a criminal party in this scheme. At one time he was deprived of the right to practice before military tribunals in our Department, because of unprofessional actions. He appealed to General Wallace, who referred the matter to me to make an examination. Pending the examination a lunch was given at which Ing and I were present. I presume the lunch was to give Ing a chance to reach me.

He tried to, but the lunch did not answer its purpose. Upon my report he was practically disbarred from practice in military courts, based upon the evidence obtained. Therefore when I met his name in connection with this case I felt warranted in assuming he was the "promoter" of it. The use of his name was not forgery. He was deprived by it of nothing except, perhaps, an "unearned increment."


Brevetted major—Governor Fenton's Letter.

State of New York, Executive Department, Albany, 8th May, 1867.

Bvt. Major H. B. Smith.

Dear Sir.—I have the honor to transmit herewith a Brevet Commission, conferred by the President in recognition of your faithful and disinterested services in the late war.

In behalf of the State allow me to thank you for the gallantry and devotion which induced this conspicuous mention by the general government. I feel a lively solicitude in all that relates to the honor and prosperity of the Soldiers of the Union Army, and especially those from our own State, who advanced its renown while defending the cause of our common country.

Very Respectfully, R. E. FENTON.

I believe there should be no continued ill feeling towards those who conscientiously bore arms against us. Nor towards their official spies. Nor towards persons who by reason of blood relationship or former close affiliations aided them. But towards those, who for personal profit aided them, and who sought to hamper us in our efforts to preserve the Union, we cannot cease to have contempt.

It is held that "everything is fair in war." If so, then the deceptions used in the secret service were fair. But the moral effect on the one who pursues such service is not pleasant. Such persons become so used to being impressed with possible dishonesty as to doubt mankind generally. I had to fight to overcome that tendency. It is a much happier condition of mind to be freer of suspicion. "No thing is stronger than it is in its weakest point" is an axiom. Almost every person has a weak point, which a detective seeks to find.

General Wallace's references to me were made after a period of forty years, during which time he had met me but twice. It was gratifying, greatly so, and I am perfectly willing to confess that I had "zeal," but prefer to let his opinion of my "ability" be passed upon by others.

I hope I have not injured the stories in their telling, but I am very afraid I have wearied you all.

New York, April, 1911.

Semi-Centennial of the Civil War.

- Transcriber's Note: Typographical errors corrected in text: Page 12 Blumenberg changed to Blumenburg Page 86 Leonardstown changed to Leonardtown Page 88 Reistertown changed to Reisterstown Page 89 Sims changed to Simms Page 94 Blackistone changed to Blackstone Page 114 Kelley changed to Kelly Page 120 Brogdan changed to Brogden Page 123 Leonardstown changed to Leonardtown Page 124 Leonardstown changed to Leonardtown Page 136 Westmoreland changed to Westmorland Page 152 Wycomico changed to Wicomico Page 212 Brittan's changed to Britton's Page 213 Brittan's changed to Britton's Page 238 Leonardstown changed to Leonardtown Page 239 Cawood's changed to Caywood's Page 243 Blumenberg changed to Blumenburg Page 244 Blumenberg changed to Blumenburg Page 248 Eke changed to Eck Page 257 Bronson changed to Branson Page 265 visted changed to visited Page 284 Westmoreland changed to Westmorland Page 286 Brittan's changed to Britton's Page 288 Brittan's changed to Britton's Page 289 Larges changed to Large Page 289 Westmoreland changed to Westmorland Page 303 Barnet changed to Barnett Page 306 Heims changed to Heim -


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