Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Exercise Book - with Inflections, Syntax, Selections for Reading, and Glossary
by C. Alphonso Smith
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kynerce, see cynerce. kyning, see cyning. kyrtel, m., kirtle, coat.


L:den, Latin. L:dengeode (-ode), n., Latin language. L:denware ( 47), m. pl., Latin people, Romans. l:fan ( 126), leave. l:ge, see licgan. L:land, n., Laaland (in Denmark). l:n, n., loan; t l:ne 121, 2 = as a loan. l:ne, adj., as a loan, transitory, perishable. l:ran ( 126), teach, advise, exhort [lr]. l:ssa, l:sta, see ly:tel. l:stan ( 127), last, hold out (intrans.); perform, achieve (trans.). l:tan ( 117), let, leave. lf, f., something left, remnant, heirloom (often a sword); t lfe, as a remnant, remaining. laguld, f., sea [lake-way, ld = leading, direction, way]. land, see lond. lang, see long. Langaland, n., Langeland (in Denmark). lr, f., lore, teaching. lrcwide, m., precept, instruction, [cwide < cwean]. lrow, m., teacher [lr + ow]. lst, m., track, footprint [shoemaker's last]; on lst(e), in the track of, behind (with dat.). l, loathsome, hateful. las, loose, free from, bereft of (with gen.). lasung, f., leasing, deception, falsehood. lȩcgan ( 125, Note), lay. lfdon, see lefan. leger, n., lying in, illness [licgan]. lȩng, see longe. lȩngra, see long. lod, m., prince, chief. lod, f., people, nation (the plural has the same meaning). lod-scipe, m., nation [people-ship]. lof, dear [lief]. leoht, adj., light. loht, n., light, brightness. leornere, m., learner, disciple. leornian ( 130), learn. leornung (liornung), f., learning. lo, n., song [lay?]. locrft, m., poetic skill [lay-craft]. losong, n., song, poem. lt, see l:tan. libban ( 133), live; pres. part., lifigende, living, alive. lc, n., body, corpse [lich-gate, Lichfield]. licgan ( 115, Note 2), lie, extend, flow, lie dead; 3d sing. indic. pres., lige, l. lchama (-homa), m., body [body-covering]. lcian ( 130), please (with dat.) [like]. lc-sr, n., body-sore, wound in the body. lefan (lfan) ( 126), permit, allow (with dat.) [grant leave to]. lf, n., life. lf-dagas, m. pl., life-days. lifigende, see libban. lg, m., flame, fire. lige, see licgan. lim, n., limb. list, f., cunning; dat. pl., listum, is used adverbially = cunningly. l, see licgan. lof, m., praise, glory. lond (land), n., land, country. long (lang) ( 96, (2)), long. longe (lange) ( 97, (2)), long; longe on dg, late in the day. lufan, see lufu. lufian (lufigean) ( 131), love. luflce, lovingly. lufu, f., love; dat. sing. (weak), lufan. lungre, quickly. lust, m., joy [lust]; on lust, joyfully. ly:t, indeclinable, little, few (with partitive gen.). ly:tel (ltel) ( 96, (2)), little, small.


m, see micle ( 97, (2)). mg, see magan. m:g, m., kinsman; nom. pl., mgas ( 27, (2)). mgen n., strength, power [might and main]. mgen-ȩllen, n., main strength, mighty courage. m:g, f., tribe. mghd, m., maidenhood, virginity. m:l-gesceaft, f., appointed time [m:l = meal, time]. m:ran ( 126), make famous, honor. m:re, famous, glorious, notorious. m:ro (m:ro, m:r), f., glory, fame. msseprost, m., mass-priest. m:st, see micel. magan ( 137), be able, may. mgas, see m:g. magu (mago), m., son, man. maguegn, m., vassal, retainer. man(n), see mon(n). mancus, m., mancus, half-crown; gen. pl., mancessa. mnd:d, f., evil deed. manig, see monig. manigfeald, see monigfeald. mra, see micel. maelian ( 130), harangue, speak. mum (mum), m., gift, treasure, jewel; gen. pl., mma. mumgyfa, m., treasure-giver, lord. mum-wela, m., wealth of treasure. m, see ic. meaht, f., might, power. meahte, see magan. mearc, f., boundary, limit [mark, march]. mearg (mearh), m., horse; nom. pl., maras. mear, m., marten. mec, see ic. medmicel, moderately large, short, brief. medu (medo), m., mead. medu-bȩnc, f., mead-bench. medu-ful, n., mead-cup. medu-heall, f., mead-hall. mȩn, see mon(n). mȩngan ( 127), mingle, mix. mȩnigu (mȩnigeo), f., multitude [many]. mȩnniscnes, f., humanity, incarnation [man]. meolc, f., milk. More, Mre (in Sweden). mȩre, m., lake, mere, sea [mermaid]. Meretn, m., Merton (in Surrey). mtan ( 126), meet, find. Metod (Meotod, Metud), m., Creator, God. metod-sceaft, f., appointed doom, eternity. micel ( 96, (3)), great, mighty, strong, large [mickle]; mra, more, stronger, larger. micle (micele), greatly, much. miclum, ( 93, (4)), greatly. mid, with, amid, among (with dat. and acc.). middangeard, m., earth, world [middle-yard]. middeweard, midward, toward the middle. Mierce, m. pl., Mercians. mihte, see magan. ml, f., mile [Lat. mille]. mildheortnes, f., mild-heartedness, mercy. milts, f., mildness, mercy. mn ( 76), my, mine. mislc, various. missenlc, various. md, n., mood, mind, courage. mdcearig, sorrowful of mind. mdega, mdga, see mdig. mdgeanc, m., purpose of mind. mdig, moody, brave, proud. mdor, f., mother. mdsefa, m., mind, heart. mon(n) (man, mann) ( 68; 70, Note), m., man, one, person, they. mna, m., moon. mna ( 68, (1), Note), m., month [mna]; dat. sing., mne. mon(n)cynn, n., mankind. mondryhten, m., liege lord. monian (manian) ( 130), admonish. monig (manig, moneg, mnig), many. monigfeald (manig-), manifold, various. mne, see mna. mr, m., moor. morgen, m., morning; dat. sing., morgen(n)e. moror-bealu (-bealo), n., murder [murder-bale]; see urfan. mste, see mtan. mtan ( 137), may, be permitted, must. mund-gripe, m., hand-grip. munuc, m., monk [Lat. monachus]. munuchd, m., monkhood, monastic rank. m, m., mouth. myntan ( 127), be minded, intend; pret. indic. 3d sing., mynte. mynster, n., monastery [Lat. monasterium]; dat. sing., mynstre. my:re, f., mare [mearh]. myr, f., joy, mirth; mdes myre 142, 17 [[Beowulf 811]] = with joy of heart.


n (n), not [ne = n-ever]; n ne, not, not at all. nabban (p.32, Note), not to have. n:dre, f., serpent, adder. nfde, see nabban. n:fre, never. n:nig ( 77), no one, no, none. n:re, n:ren, n:ron, see 40, Note2. ns = ne ws, see 40, Note 2. nss, m., ness, headland. nht, see nht. nls (nles), not at all [n ealles]. nam, see niman. nama, see noma. nmon, see niman. nn, not one, no, none [ne n]. nnwuht, n., nothing [no whit]. ne, not. n, nor; n ... n, neither ... nor. nah ( 96, (4)), near. nah, adv., nigh, near, nearly, almost; comparative, nar, nearer. neaht, see niht. nalcan (-l:can) ( 126), draw near to, approach (with dat.). nar, see nah, adv. nat, n., neat, cattle. nȩmnan ( 127), name. neme, (nyme), except, unless. nȩrian ( 125), save, preserve. nten, see neten. nedbeearf, needful, necessary. nehst, see nah ( 96, (4)). neten (nten), n., neat, beast, cattle. nigontene, nineteen. niht (neaht) ( 68, (1), Note), night. nihthelm, m., night-helm, shade of night. nihtsca, m., shadow of night. niht-weorc, n., night-work. niman ( 114), take, gain [nimble, numb]. npan ( 102), grow dark, darken. nis, see 40, Note 2. n, m., malice, violence. nwe, new, novel, startling. n, see n. nht (nht, n-wiht), n., not a whit, naught, nothing; not, not at all. nhwer (nhwer), neither; nhwer n ... ne ... n ... ne 118, 8 = neither ... nor. nolde, noldon = ne wolde, ne woldon, see willan. noma (nama), m., name. nor ( 97, (1)), north, in the north, northwards. noran ( 93, (5)), from the north; be noran, see 94, (4). Nor-Dȩne, m. pl., North-Danes. noreweard, northward. Norhymbre, m. pl., Northumbrians. Normanna, see Normon. Normȩn, see Normon. normest, see nor. Normon (-man) ( 68, (1)), Norwegian. noror, see nor. norryhte, northward. norweard, northward. Norweg, Norway. nose, f., cape, naze [ness, nose]. notu, f., office, employment. n, now; now that, seeing that; n 138, 13 [[Beowulf 658]] = now then. ny:hst (nehst), see nah. nyme, see neme. nysse, see nytan. nyste, see nytan. nyt(t), useful, profitable. nytan (nitan < ne witan, 136), not to know; 3d sing. pret., nysse, nyste.


of ( 94, (1)), of, from, concerning. ofer ( 94, (2)), over, across, after, in spite of (see 144,14 [[Beowulf 2725]]); ofer eoran 142, 9 [[Beowulf 803]] = on earth. ofer, adv., over, across. oferfran ( 126), go over, traverse. oferfrosan ( 109), freeze over. oferfroren, see oferfrosan. ofgiefan ( 115), give up, relinquish. ofost, f., haste. ofslgen, see ofslan. ofslan ( 118), slay off, slay. ofslge, see ofslan. oft, oft, often; superlative, oftost. on ( 94, (3)), in, into, on, against, to, among, during; on ff oe syx 109, 6= into five or six parts; on weg 140, 10 [[Beowulf 764]] = away; on innan 144, 5 [[Beowulf 2716]] = within; on unriht 145, 15 [[Beowulf 2740]] = falsely. onbrnan ( 126), kindle, inspire. oncy:, f., distress, suffering. ond (and), and. ondsaca, m., adversary. ondswarian ( 130), answer. ondweard, adj., present. onfng, see onfn. onfeohtan ( 110), fight. onfindan ( 110), find out, discover; pret. indic. 3d sing., onfunde. onfn ( 118), receive, seize violently. onfunde, see onfindan. ongan, prep., against, towards (with dat. and acc.). ongan, adv., just across, opposite. Ongelcynn (Angel-), n., Angle kin, English people, England. Ongelod (Angel-), f., the English people or nation. ongemang (-mong), among (with dat.). ongietan (-gitan) ( 115), perceive, see, understand. onginnan ( 110), begin, attempt. onltan ( 109), bow, incline (intrans.) [lout = a stooper]. onrdan ( 102), ride against, make a raidon. onsȩndan ( 127), send. onsl:pan (onslpan) ( 126), fall asleep, sleep. onsponnan ( 117), loosen [unspan]; pret. 3d sing. indic., onspon. onspringan ( 110), spring apart, unspring. onstl, m., institution, supply. onstȩllan ( 128), establish; pret. 3d sing. indic., onstealde. onwcnan ( 127), awake (intrans.). onweald (-wald), m., power, authority [wield]. onwȩndan ( 127), change, overturn [to wind]. r, n., beginning. o ( 94, (2)), until, as far as (oftime and place); o t, o e, until. oberan ( 114), bear away. er, other, second; er ... er, the one ... the other. ofstan ( 127), set to (a task). ofeallan ( 117) fall off, decline. oe, or; oe ... oe, either ... or.


plega, m., play, festivity. port, m., port [Lat. portus].


rd, f., raid. r:can ( 126), reach; pret. 3d sing., r:hte. rst, see rȩst. Radingas, m. pl., Reading (in Berkshire). rȩccan ( 128), narrate, tell; pret. pl.indic., rȩhton, reahton. rȩccelas, reckless, careless. rȩced, n., house, hall. regnian (rnian) ( 130), adorn, prepare; past part., geregnad. regollc (-lec), according to rule, regular. rn-weard, m., mighty warden, guard, champion. rȩst (rst), f., rest, resting-place, bed. re, fierce, furious. rce, rich, powerful, aristocratic. rce, n., realm, kingdom [bishopric]. rcsian ( 130), rule. rdan ( 102), ride. rman ( 126), count [rime]. rinc, m., man, warrior. rd, f., rood, cross; rde tcen, sign of the cross. Rmware, m. pl., Romans. rond (rand), m., shield. rn, f., rune, secret meditation [to round = to whisper]. rycene (ricene), quickly, rashly. ryhtnoranwind, m., straight north-wind.


s:, f., sea. s:-bt, m., sea-boat. s:d, n., seed. s:de, see sȩcgan. s:l, m., f., time, happiness [sil-ly]; on s:lum 137, 22 [[Beowulf 644]] = joyous, merry. s:lan ( 126), bind. s:-lend ( 68, (3)), m., seafarer (nom. and acc. pl.same as nom. and acc. sing.). sam ... sam, whether ... or. same, similarly; sw same, just the same, in like manner. samod, see somod. sanct, m., f., saint [Lat. sanctus]; gen. sing., sanct, f., sancti, m. sang, see song. sr, f., n., sore, pain, wound. sr, adj., sore, grievous. sre, sorely. swan ( 117,) sow. swol, f., soul; oblique cases, sing., swle ( 39, Note). scacan (sceacan) ( 116), shake, go, depart; past part., scacen, sceacen. scadu-helm, m., cover of night, shadow-covering [shadow-helm]; scadu-helma gesceapu, see Note on 138, 2-6 [[lines 647-51]]. sceal, see sculan. scap, n., sheep. scat, m., corner, region, quarter [sheet]; eoran scatta 139, 14 [[Beowulf 753]] = in the regions of earth (gen. used as locative). scawi(g)an ( 130), view, see [shew]. scawung, f., seeing. sceolde, see sculan. scop (scp), see scieppan. scowyrhta, m., shoe-maker. scȩan ( 116), injure, scathe (with dat.). scieppan ( 116), create. Scieppend, m., Creator. scnan ( 102), shine. scip (scyp), n., ship. scipen, n., stall. sciprp, m., ship-rope, cable. scr, f., shire, district. Sciringeshal, m., Sciringesheal (in Norway). scolde, see sculan. scomu, f., shame, dishonor. Scng, f., Skaane (southern district of the Scandinavian peninsula). scopgereord, n., poetic language. scran ( 102), stride, stalk. sculan ( 136; 137, Note 2), shall, have to, ought. Scyldingas, m. pl., Scyldings, Danes. scyp, see scip. Scyppend, see Scieppend. s, so, t ( 28; 28, Note3), the; that; he, she, it; who, which, that; s, from then, afterwards, therefore; s e (p.110, l.2), with what; y: ... t (p.110, ll.7-8), for this reason ... because; t :m ... sw, to such an extent ... as; y (), the (adverbial, with comparatives); y: ... y:, the ... the. seah, see son. sealde, see sȩllan. searo-gimm, m., artistic gem, jewel. searo-n, m., cunning hatred, plot. searo-onc, m., cunning thought, device. Seaxe, m. pl., Saxons, Saxony. sc(e)an ( 128), to seek, visit, meet. sȩcg, m., man, warrior. sȩcgan ( 132), say, tell. sefa, m., mind, spirit. sfte, more easily (comparative of sfte). segel, m., n., sail; dat. sing. = segle. seglian ( 130), sail. sȩle, m., hall. sȩledram, m., hall joy, festivity. sȩle-ful, n., hall cup. sȩlesȩcg, m., hall warrior, retainer. slest, best (no positive). self (sylf), self, himself (declined as strong or weak adjective). sȩllan (syllan) ( 128), give [sell, han(d)sel]. sȩmninga, forthwith, straightway. sȩndan ( 127), send. so, see s. soc, sick. seofon (syfan), seven. seolh, m., seal; gen. sing. = soles ( 27, (3)). son ( 118), see, look. seonu, f., sinew; nom. pl., seonowe. sess, m., seat. sibb, f., friendship, peace [gossip]. sidu (siodu), m., custom, morality, good conduct. se, see bon. siex, six; syxa (siexa) sum, see sum. siextig, sixty. sige, m., victory. sige-folc, n., victorious people. sige-las, victory-less, of defeat. sige-rf, victory-famed, victorious. sige-w:pen, n., victory-weapon. siglan ( 127), sail. Sillende, Zealand. sinc, n., treasure, prize. sinc-f:t, n., see 137, 1 [[Beowulf 623]] [treasure-vat]. sinc-ȩgu, f., receiving of treasure [icgan]. sind, sint, sindon, see bon. singan ( 110), sing. sittan ( 115, Note 2), sit, take position. s, m., journey, time; forman se 139, 2 [[Beowulf 741]] = the first time (instr. sing.). sian ( 130), journey. sian, after that, afterwards, after. sl:p, m., sleep. sl:pan ( 117), sleep. slan ( 118), slay [slow-worm]. sltan ( 102), slit, tear to pieces. slen, savage, perilous. sml, narrow. smalost, see sml. snw, m., snow. snot(t)or, wise, prudent. shte, see scan. somod (samod), together. sna, soon. song, m., n., song, poem. songcrft, m., art of song and poetry. sorg (sorh), f., sorrow. s, true. s, n., truth; t se, for a truth, truly, verily. s-fst, truthful, just. slce, truly. spd, f., possessions, success, riches [speed]. spdig, rich, prosperous. spell, n., story, tale [gospel]. spow, see spwan. spere, n., spear. spor, n., track, footprint. spwan ( 117), succeed (impersonal with dat.). spr:c, f., speech, language. sprecan ( 115), speak. spyrian (spyrigean) ( 130), follow (intrans.) [spor]. stf, staff, rod; pl.= literature, learning. stlhrn, m., decoy-reindeer. stlwiere, serviceable (see p.56, Note 2). st:r, n., story, narrative [Lat. historia]. st, n., shore. stn, m., stone, rock. stn-boga, m., stone-arch [stone-bow]. standan, see stondan. stnhli (-hleo), n., stone-cliff. stapol, m., column [staple]. starian ( 125), stare, gaze. stȩde, m., place. stelan ( 114), steal. stȩnt, see stondan. storbord, n., starboard, right side of a ship. stȩppan ( 116), step, advance; pret. indic. 3d sing., stp. stilnes, f., stillness, quiet. stondan ( 116), stand. stp, see stȩppan. storm, m., storm. stw, f., place [stow, and in names of places]. strang, see strong. strȩngest, see strong. strong ( 96, (2)), strong. styccem:lum, here and there. sum ( 91, Note 2), some, certain, a certain one; h syxa sum 104, 25 = he with five others. sumera, see sumor. sumor, m., summer; dat. sing. = sumera. sumorlida, m., summer-army. sundor, apart. sunne, f., sun. sunu, m., son. s, south, southwards. san ( 93, (5)), from the south; be san, south of ( 94, (4)). seweard, southward. sryhte, southward. sw (sw:), so, as, how, asif; sw sw, just as, as far as; sw ... sw, the ... the, as ... as; sw hwt sw, whatsoever ( 77, Note). sw:s, beloved, own. sw, n., track, footprint [swath]. swaul, m.? n.?, smoke. swealh, see swelgan. swefan ( 115), sleep, sleep the sleep of death. swefn, n., sleep, dream. swg, m., sound, noise. swegle, bright, clear. swlan ( 126), burn [sweal]. swelgan ( 110), swallow; pret. indic. 3d sing., swealh; subj., swulge. swellan ( 110), swell. Swoland, n., Sweden. Swom, m., dat. pl., the Swedes. sweotol, clear. sweotole, clearly. swȩrian ( 116), swear. swte, sweet. swtnes (-nis), f., sweetness. swift (swyft), swift. swilc (swylc) ( 77), such. swilce, in such manner, as, likewise; as if, as though (with subj.). swimman ( 110), swim. swn (swy:n), n., swine, hog. swnsung, f., melody, harmony. swe (swy:e), very, exceedingly, greatly. swost, chiefly, almost. swr, see swȩrian. swulge, see swelgan. swuster ( 68, (2)), f., sister. swylce (swelce), see swilce. swy:n, see swn. swynsian ( 130), resound. swy:e, see swe. swy:-ferh, strong-souled. sylf, see self. syll, f., sill, floor. syllan, see sȩllan. symbel, n., feast, banquet. symle, always. synd, see bon. syn-dolh, n., ceaseless wound, incurable wound. syndriglce, specially. synn, f., sin. syn-scaa, m., ceaseless scather, perpetual foe. syn-sn:d, f., huge bit [ceaseless bit]. syan, see sian. syx, see siex. syxtig, see siextig.


tcen, n., sign, token; dat. sing., tcne ( 33, Note). t:can ( 128), teach. tam, tame. tela, properly, well [til]. tȩllan ( 128), count, deem [tell]; pret. 3d sing., tealde. Tȩmes, f., the Thames. ton, arrange, create; pret. sing., tode. Terfinna, m., gen. pl., the Terfins. t, see t. td, f., tide, time, hour. ten (ty:n), ten. til(l), good. tma, m., time. tintreglc, full of torment. t ( 94, (1)), to, for, according to, as; t hrfe 114, 2 = for (as) a roof [cf. Biblical to wife, modern to boot]. t, adv., too. tbrecan (p.81, Note 2), break to pieces, knock about. td:lan ( 126), divide. temnes (t emnes) ( 94, (4)), along, alongside. tforan ( 94, (1)), before. tgeodan ( 126), join. thopa, m., hope. tlicgan ( 115, Note 2), separate, lie between; 3d sing, indic. = tl. tl, see tlicgan. tolcan ( 109, Note 1), destroy [the prefix t reverses the meaning of lcan, to lock]. torn, m., anger, insult. t ( 68, (1)), m., tooth. tweard ( 94, (1)), toward. tweard, adj., approaching, future. trow, f., pledge, troth. trownes, f., trust. Trs, Drausen (a city on the Drausensea). tn, m., town, village. tunge, f., tongue. tngerfa, m., bailiff [town-reeve; so sheriff = shire-reeve]. tungol, n., star. tw, see twgen. twgen, ( 89), two, twain. twntig, twenty. ty:n, see ten.


, then, when; ... , when ... then; , then when = when. , see s. :r, there, where; :r :r, there where = where; :r ... sw 142, 4 [[Beowulf 798]]= wheresoever; 145, 6 [[Beowulf 2731]]= if so be that. s, afterwards, therefore, thus, because; see s. t (tte = t e), that, so that. afian ( 130), consent to. anc, see onc. ancian (oncian) ( 130), thank. anon, see onan. s, see s. , see s (instr. sing.) and . e ( 75), who, whom, which, that. ah, though, although; ah e, though, although. earf, see urfan. earf, f., need, benefit. aw, m., habit, custom [thews]. egn (egen), m., servant, thane, warrior. ȩnc(e)an ( 128), think, intend. ening (-ung), f., service; the pl.may mean book of service (117, 17). od, f., people, nation. oden, m., prince, lord. odscipe, m., discipline. on (y:wan) ( 126), oppress [ow]. ow, m., servant. owa, m., servant. owotdm (owot-), m., service. s ( 73), this. ider, thither. iderweard, thitherward. n ( 76), thine. ing, n., thing; :nige inga, see 140, 15 [[Beowulf 769]], Note. ingan ( 127), arrange, appoint. is, see s. issum, see s. hte, hton, see ȩncean. olian ( 130), endure [thole]. onan, thence. onc, m., thanks. one, see s. onne, than, then, when; onne ... onne, when ... then. rg, f., time. ra-ny:d, f., compulsion, oppression, misery [throe-need]. rora, see re. ridda, third. rie (ry:) ( 89), three. rm, see re. rst-hy:dig, bold-minded. rtig, thirty. rwung, f., suffering. ry:, see re. rym(m), m., renown, glory, strength. ry:, f., power, multitude (pl.used in sense of sing.); asca ry:e 152, 23 [[Wanderer 99]] = the might of spears. ry:-rn, n., mighty house, noble hall. ry:-word, n., mighty word, excellent discourse. ( 72), thou. hte, see yncan. urfan ( 136), need; pres. indic. 3d sing., earf; pret. 3d sing., orfte; for-m m wtan ne earf Waldend fra moror-bealo mga 145, 17 [[Beowulf 2742]] = therefore the Ruler of men need not charge me with the murder of kinsmen. urh ( 94, (2)), through. us, thus. send, thousand. y:, see s. yder, see ider. yncan ( 128), seem, appear (impersonal); m ync, methinks, it seems to me; him hte, it seemed to him.


hta, m., dawn; gen. pl., htna. unbeboht, unsold [bebycgan = to sell]. unc, unknown, uncertain [uncouth]. under, under (with dat. and acc.). understondan ( 116), understand. underodan (-edan) ( 126), subjectto; past part. underoded = subjected to, obedient to (with dat.). unforbrned, unburned. unfri, m., hostility. ungefge, excessively. ungemete, immeasurably, very. ungesewenlc, invisible [past part. of son + lc]. unlyfigend, dead, dead man [unliving]. unly:tel, no little, great. unriht, n., wrong; on unriht, see on. unrihtwsnes, f., unrighteousness. unspdig, poor. unwearnum, unawares. p (pp), up. pstgnes, f., ascension [stgan]. p-lang, upright. re ( 76), our. usses = gen. sing. neut. of ser, see ic. t, out, outside. tan, from without, outside. tanbordes, abroad. tgong, m., exodus. uton, let us (with infin.) [literally let us go with infin. of purpose (see 137, 19-20, Note [[lines 641-42]]); uton = wuton, corrupted form of 1st pl.subj. of wtan, togo]. t-weard, outward bound, moving outwards.


wc, weak, insignificant. wacian ( 130), watch, be on guard; imperative sing., waca. wadan ( 116), go, tread [wade]. w:g, m., wave. W:gmundigas, m. Wgmundings (family to which Beowulf and Wiglaf belonged). wl, n., slaughter, the slain. wl-blat, deadly [slaughter-pitiful]. wlgfre, greedy for slaughter. wl-r:s, m., mortal combat [slaughter-race]. wl-row, fierce in strife. wlsliht (-sleaht), m., slaughter. wlstw, f., battle-field [slaughter-place]; wlstwe gewald, possession of the battle-field. w:pen, n., weapon. w:re, see bon. ws, see bon. wter, n., water. waldend, see wealdend. wan (won), wan, dark. wanhy:dig, heedless, rash. wnigean (wnian) ( 130), bewail, lament (trans.) [whine]. warian ( 130), attend, accompany. wt, see witan. waum, m., wave; gen. pl., waema. weal(l), m., wall, rampart. wealdend ( 68, (3)), wielder, ruler, lord. wealh, m., foreigner, Welshman. wealhstd, m., interpreter, translator. weallan ( 117), well up, boil, be agitated; pret. 3d. sing. indic., woll. wealsteal(l), m., wall-place, foundation. weard, m., ward, keeper. wear, see weoran. weaxan ( 117), wax, grow. weg, m., way; hys weges, see 93, (3); on weg, see on. wel(l), well, readily. wela, m., weal, prosperity, riches. welm, see wielm. wnan ( 126), ween, think, expect. wȩndan ( 127), change, translate [wend, windan]. wȩnian ( 130), entertain; wȩnian mid wynnum 149, 20 [[Wanderer 29]] = entertain joyfully; wȩnede t wiste 149, 27 [[Wanderer 36]] = feasted (trans.). Weonodland (Weonoland), n., Wendland. weorc, n., work, deed. weorold (weoruld), see woruld. weorpan ( 110), throw. weoran ( 110), be, become. wer, m., man [werwulf]. wrig, weary, dejected. werod, n., army, band. wesan, see bon. Wesseaxe, m. pl., West Saxons; gen. pl.= Wesseaxna. west, west, westward. westanwind, m., west wind. wste, waste. wsten, n., waste, desert. Wests:, f., West Sea (west of Norway). Westseaxe, m. pl., West Saxons, Wessex. wc, n., dwelling [bailiwick]. wcian ( 130), stop, lodge, sojourn [wc]. wdre, adv., farther, more widely (comparative of wde). wds:, f., open sea. wielm (welm), m., welling, surging flood [weallan]. wf, n., wife, woman. wg, m., n., war, battle. wiga, m., warrior. wild, wild. wildor, n., wild beast, reindeer; dat. pl.= wildrum ( 33, Note). willa, m., will, pleasure; gen. pl., wilna (138, 16 [[Beowulf 661]]). willan ( 134; 137, Note 3), will, intend, desire. wilnung, f., wish, desire; for :re wilnunga 119, 4 = purposely. Wiltn, m., Wilton (in Wiltshire). wn, n., wine. wn-rn, n., wine-hall. Wnburne, f., Wimborne (in Dorsetshire). wind, m., wind. wine, m., friend. Winedas, m. pl., the Wends, the Wend country. wine-dryhten, m., friendly lord. winelas, friendless. winem:g, m., friendly kinsman. wngeard, m., vineyard. winnan ( 110), strive, fight [win]. wnsl, n., wine-hall. wn-sȩle, m., wine-hall. winter, m., winter; dat. sing. = wintra. wintercearig, winter-sad, winter-worn. ws, wise. wsdm, m., wisdom. wse, wisely. wse, f., manner, matter, affair [in this wise]. ws-fst, wise [wise-fast; cf. shame-faced = shamefast]. ws-hycgende, wise-thinking. Wsle, f., the Vistula. Wslema, m., the mouth of the Vistula. wisse, see witan. wist, f., food, feast. wita, m., wise man, councillor. witan ( 136), know, show, experience. wtan ( 102), reproach, blame (with acc. of thing, dat. of person). wte, n., punishment. Wtland, n., Witland (in Prussia). wi ( 94, (3)), against, toward, with; wi astan and wi pp on emnlange :m by:num lande, toward the east, and upwards along the cultivated land; wi earm gest 139, 11 [[Beowulf 750]] = supported himself on his arm; genȩred wi ne (dat.) 143, 11 [[Beowulf 828]] = had preserved it from (against) violence. wierwinna, m., adversary. wifn ( 118), grapple with (with dat.). wihabban ( 133), withstand, resist (with dat.). wistondan ( 116), withstand, resist (with dat.). wlonc, proud. wd, see wadan. wolcen, n., cloud [welkin]; dat. pl., wolcnum. wolde, see willan. wma, m., noise, alarm, terror. won, see wan. wp, n., weeping. word, n., word. wrian ( 130), totter, crumble. worn, m., large number, multitude. woruld, f., world; t worulde btan :ghwilcum ȩnde 102, 18 = world without end. woruldcund, worldly, secular. woruldhd, m., secular life [world-hood]. woruldrce, n., world-kingdom, world. worulding, n., worldly affair. wrclst, m., track or path of an exile. wr, wroth, angry; foe, enemy. wrtan ( 102), write. wucu, f., week. wudu, m., wood, forest. wuldor, n., glory. Wuldorfder ( 68, (2)), m., Father of glory; gen. sing., Wuldorfder. Wuldur-cyning, m., King of glory. wulf, m., wolf. wund, f., wound. wund, wounded. wunden, twisted, woven, convolute (past part. of windan). wundor, n., wonder, marvel. wundrian ( 130), wonder at (with gen.). wurdon, see weoran. wuran, see weoran. wylf, f., she wolf. wylla, see willan. wyn-las, joyless. wynn, f., joy, delight. wynsum, winsome, delightful. wyrc(e)an ( 128), work, make, compose. wyrd, f., weird, fate, destiny. wyrhta, m., worker, creator [-wright]. wyrm, m., worm, dragon, serpent. wyrmlca, m., serpentine ornamentation. wyr (weor), worthy; see 114, 7-9, Note.


ylca, see ilca. yldan ( 127), delay, postpone [eald]. yldu, f., age [eld]. ymbe (ymb) ( 94, (2)), about, around, concerning [umwhile]; s ymb iii niht 99, 2 = about three nights afterwards. ymb-ode, see ymb-gn. ymbe-sittend, one who sits (dwells) round about another, neighbor. ymb-gn ( 134), go about, go around, circle (with acc.). yrfe-weard, m., heir. yrnan, see iernan. yrre, ireful, angry. yteren, of an otter [otor]. y:an ( 126), lay waste (as by a deluge) [y: = wave].




a, _n_ ( 77). abide, _bdan_ ( 102), _bdan_. about, _be_ ( 94, (1)), _ymbe_ ( 94,(2)); to write about, _wrtan be_; to speak about (= of), _sprecan ymbe_; about two days afterwards, _s ymbe twgen dagas_. adder, _n:dre_ ( 64). afterwards, _s_ ( 93, (3)). against, _wi_ ( 94, (3)), _on_ ( 94,(3)). Alfred, _lfred_ ( 26). all, _eall_ ( 80). also, _ac_. although, _ah_ ( 105, 2). always, _; _ealne weg_ ( 98, (1)). am, _eom_ ( 40). an, see a. and, _ond_ (_and_). angel, ȩngel ( 26). animal, _dor_ ( 32). are, _sind, sint, sindon_ ( 40). army, _werod_ ( 32); Danish army, _hȩre_ ( 26); English army, _fierd_ ( 38). art, _eart_ ( 40). Ashdown, _scesdn_ ( 38). ask, _biddan_ ( 65, Note 3; 115, Note2). away, _aweg_.


battle-field, wlstw ( 38). be, bon ( 40); not to be, see 40, Note 2. bear, beran ( 114). because, for :m (e), for on (e). become, weoran ( 110). before (temporal conjunction), :r, :r :m e (105,2). begin, onginnan ( 107, (1); 110). belong to, belimpan t + dative ( 110). best, see good. better, see good. bind, bindan ( 110). bird, fugol ( 26). bite, btan ( 102). body, lc ( 32). bone, bn ( 32). book, bc ( 68). both ... and, :ger ge ... ge. boundary, mearc ( 38). boy, cnapa ( 64). break, brotan ( 109), brecan, brecan (114). brother, bror ( 68, (2)). but, ac. by, from (fram) ( 94, (1); 141, Note1).


Cdmon, Cdmon ( 68, (1)). call, htan ( 117, (1)). cease, cease from, geswcan ( 102). child, bearn ( 32). choose, cosan ( 109). Christ, Crst ( 26). church, cirice ( 64). come, cuman ( 114). comfort, frfor ( 38). companion, gefra ( 64). consolation, frfor ( 38). create, gescieppan ( 116).


Danes, Dȩne ( 47). day, dg ( 26). dead, dad ( 80). dear (= beloved), lof ( 80). deed, d:d ( 38). die, cwelan ( 114). division (of troops), gefylce ( 32), getruma (64). do, dn ( 134). door, dor ( 32), duru ( 52). drink, drincan ( 110). during, on ( 94, (3)). See also 98. dwell in, ban on ( 126, Note 2).


earl, eorl ( 26). endure, drogan ( 109). England, Ȩnglalond ( 32). enjoy, brcan ( 62, Note 1; 109, Note1). every, :lc ( 77). eye, age ( 64).


father, fder ( 68, (2)). field, feld ( 51). fight, feohtan, gefeohtan ( 110). find, findan ( 110). finger, finger ( 26). fire, fy:r ( 32). fisherman, fiscere ( 26). foreigner, wealh ( 26). freedom, frodm ( 26). friend, wine ( 45), frond ( 68,(3)). friendship, frondscipe ( 45). full, full (with genitive) ( 80).


gain the victory, sige habban, sige niman. gift, giefu ( 38). give, giefan (with dative of indirect object) (115). glad, gld ( 81). glove, glf ( 38). go, gn ( 134), faran ( 116). God, God ( 26). good, gd ( 80).


Halgoland, Hlgoland ( 32). hall, heall ( 38). hand, hond ( 52). hard, heard ( 80). have, habban ( 34); not to have, nabban (p.32, Note). he, h ( 53). head, hafod ( 32). hear, heran ( 126). heaven, heofon ( 26). help, helpan (with dative) ( 110). herdsman, hierde ( 26). here, hr. hither, hider. hold, healdan ( 117, (2)). holy, hlig ( 82). horse, mearh ( 26), hors ( 32). house, hs ( 32).


I, ic ( 72). in, on ( 94, (3)). indeed, slce. injure, scȩan (with dative) ( 116). it, hit ( 53).


king, cyning ( 26). kingdom, rce ( 32), cynerce (32).


land, lond ( 32). language, spr:c ( 38), geode (32). large, micel ( 82). leisure, :metta ( 64). let us, uton (with infinitive). limb, lim ( 32). little, lytel ( 82). live in, ban on ( 126, Note 2). lord, hlford ( 26). love, lufian ( 131). love (noun), lufu ( 38).


make, wyrcan ( 128). man, sȩcg ( 26), mon ( 68,(1)). many, monig ( 82). mare, my:re ( 64). mead, medu ( 51). Mercians, Mierce ( 47). milk, meolc ( 38). month, mna ( 68, (1), Note 1). mouth, m ( 26). much, micel ( 96, (3)), micle (97,(2)). murderer, bona ( 64). my, mn ( 76).


natives, londlode ( 47). nephew, nefa ( 64). new, nwe ( 82). Northumbrians, Norymbre ( 47). not, ne.


of, see about. on, on ( 94, (3)), ofer ( 94,(2)). one, n ( 89); the one ... the other, er ... er. other, er ( 77). our, re ( 76). ox, oxa ( 64).


place, stw ( 38). plundering, hȩrgung ( 38). poor, earm ( 80), unspdig ( 82). prosperous, spdig ( 82).


queen, cwn ( 49).


reindeer, hrn ( 26). remain, bdan ( 102), bdan. retain possession of the battle-field, gan wlstwe gewald. rich, rce ( 82), spdig ( 82). ride, rdan ( 102).


say, cwean ( 115), sȩcgan ( 133). scribe, bcere ( 26). seal, seolh ( 26). see, son ( 118), geson. serpent, n:dre ( 64). servant, owa ( 64), egn ( 26). shall, sculan ( 136; 137, Note2). she, ho ( 53). shepherd, hierde ( 26). ship, scip ( 32). shire, scr ( 38). shoemaker, scowyrhta ( 64). side, on both sides, on gehwre hond. six, siex ( 90). slaughter, wl ( 32), wlsliht (45). small, ly:tel ( 82). son, sunu ( 51). soul, swol ( 38). speak, sprecan ( 115). spear, gr ( 26), spere ( 32). stand, stondan ( 116). stone, stn ( 26). stranger, wealh ( 26), cuma ( 64). suffer, drogan ( 109). sun, sunne ( 64). swift, swift ( 80).


take, _niman_ ( 110). than, _onne_ ( 96, (6)). thane, _egn_ ( 26). that (conjunction), _t_. that (demonstrative), _s, so, t_ (28). that (relative), _e_ ( 75). the, _se, so, t_ ( 28). then, _, onne_. these, see this. they, _he_ ( 53). thing, _ing_ ( 32). thirty, _rtig_. this, _s, os, is_ ( 73). those, see that (demonstrative). thou, _ ( 72). though, _ah_ ( 105, 2). three, _re_ ( 89). throne, ascend the throne, _t rce fn_. throw, _weorpan_ ( 110). to, _t_ ( 94, (1)). tongue, _tunge_ ( 64). track, _spor_ ( 32). true, _s_ ( 80). truly, _slce_. two, _twgen_ ( 89).


very, swe. vessel, ft ( 32). victory, sige ( 45).


wall, weall ( 26). warrior, sȩcg ( 26), eorl ( 26). way, weg ( 26). weapon, w:pen ( 32). well, wel ( 97, (2)). Welshman, Wealh ( 26). went, see go. westward, west, westrihte. whale, hwl ( 26). what? hwt ( 74). when, , onne. where? hw:r. which, e ( 75). who? hw ( 74). who (relative), e ( 75). whosoever, sw hw sw ( 77, Note). will, willan ( 134; 137, Note 3). Wilton, Wiltn ( 26). win, see gain. wine, wn ( 32). wisdom, wsdm ( 26). wise, ws ( 80). with, mid ( 94, (1)); to fight with (= against), gefeohtan wi (94,(3)). withstand, wistondan (with dative) ( 116). wolf, wulf ( 26), wylf ( 38). woman, wf ( 32). word, word ( 32). worm, wyrm ( 45).


ye, _g_ ( 72). year, _gar_ ( 32). yoke, _geoc_ ( 32). you, _ (singular), _g_ (plural) ( 72). your, _n_ (singular), _ower_ (plural) ( 76).

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


The spelling "Fins" (translating " Finnas") is used consistently. Errors were trivial, generally missing punctuation. Shakespeare citations have been silently regularized to "I, ii, 3" form. The Old English text was not checked for misprints.

Numbered Sections:

9 Note to t.: settan, to set [to t.] 39 NOTE.—Syncopation occurs as in masculine and neuter a-stems. [final . missing] 41 so hlignes[1], holiness. [comma missing] 95 for :m, } [comma missing] 104 corresponding with its function in Mn.E. [final . missing] 130 eard-ian, eard-ode ... [first comma missing] 131 NOTE 1. [NOTE. 1.] 132 hf-de, lif-de, secg-an, [all commas missing]


Poetry: Structure: Meter: Type B: The type of B most frequently occurring is . [final . missing]

Beowulf: The Banquet in Heorot (page 138). [8] = ealdre (instr. sing.). [final . missing]


bgan ( 109, Note 1) [Note, 1] dofol, m., n., devil; [m. n.,] intinga, m., cause, sake. [intinga.] laguld, f., sea [lake-way, ld = leading, direction, way]. [closing bracket printed as parenthesis] noran ( 93, (5)), from the north; [second closing parenthesis missing] s:l, m., f., time, happiness [sil-ly]; [m. f.,] sfte, more easily (comparative of sfte). [closing parenthesis missing] Swom, m., dat. pl., the Swedes. [final . missing] tolcan ( 109, Note 1), destroy ... [section mark missing] wi ( 94, (3)), ... [section mark missing]


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