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American Men of Letters
by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (The Physician and Poet not the Jurist)
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"He arrives at the sea-shore and a sumptuous ship has floored and carpeted for him the stormy Atlantic."—

"If we weave a yard of tape in all humility and as well as we can, long hereafter we shall see it was no cotton tape at all but some galaxy which we braided, and that the threads were Time and Nature."—

"Tapping the tempest for a little side wind."—

"The locomotive and the steamboat, like enormous shuttles, shoot every day across the thousand various threads of national descent and employment and bind them fast in one web."—

He is fond of certain archaisms and unusual phrases. He likes the expression "mother-wit," which he finds in Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and other old writers. He often uses the word "husband" in its earlier sense of economist. His use of the word "haughty" is so fitting, and it sounds so nobly from his lips, that we could wish its employment were forbidden henceforth to voices which vulgarize it. But his special, constitutional, word is "fine," meaning something like dainty, as Shakespeare uses it,—"my dainty Ariel,"—"fine Ariel." It belongs to his habit of mind and body as "faint" and "swoon" belong to Keats. This word is one of the ear-marks by which Emerson's imitators are easily recognized. "Melioration" is another favorite word of Emerson's. A clairvoyant could spell out some of his most characteristic traits by the aid of his use of these three words; his inborn fastidiousness, subdued and kept out of sight by his large charity and his good breeding, showed itself in his liking for the word "haughty;" his exquisite delicacy by his fondness for the word "fine," with a certain shade of meaning; his optimism in the frequent recurrence of the word "melioration."

We must not find fault with his semi-detached sentences until we quarrel with Solomon and criticise the Sermon on the Mount. The "point and surprise" which he speaks of as characterizing the style of Plutarch belong eminently to his own. His fertility of illustrative imagery is very great. His images are noble, or, if borrowed from humble objects, ennobled by his handling. He throws his royal robe over a milking-stool and it becomes a throne. But chiefly he chooses objects of comparison grand in themselves. He deals with the elements at first hand. Such delicacy of treatment, with such breadth and force of effect, is hard to match anywhere, and we know him by his style at sight. It is as when the slight fingers of a girl touch the keys of some mighty and many-voiced organ, and send its thunders rolling along the aisles and startling the stained windows of a great cathedral. We have seen him as an unpretending lecturer. We follow him round as he "peddles out all the wit he can gather from Time or from Nature," and we find that "he has changed his market cart into a chariot of the sun," and is carrying about the morning light as merchandise.

* * * * *

Emerson was as loyal an American, as thorough a New Englander, as home-loving a citizen, as ever lived. He arraigned his countrymen sharply for their faults. Mr. Arnold made one string of his epithets familiar to all of us,—"This great, intelligent, sensual, and avaricious America." This was from a private letter to Carlyle. In his Essay, "Works and Days," he is quite as outspoken: "This mendicant America, this curious, peering, itinerant, imitative America." "I see plainly," he says, "that our society is as bigoted to the respectabilities of religion and education as yours." "The war," he says, "gave back integrity to this erring and immoral nation." All his life long he recognized the faults and errors of the new civilization. All his life long he labored diligently and lovingly to correct them. To the dark prophecies of Carlyle, which came wailing to him across the ocean, he answered with ever hopeful and cheerful anticipations. "Here," he said, in words I have already borrowed, "is the home of man—here is the promise of a new and more excellent social state than history has recorded."

Such a man as Emerson belongs to no one town or province or continent; he is the common property of mankind; and yet we love to think of him as breathing the same air and treading the same soil that we and our fathers and our children have breathed and trodden. So it pleases us to think how fondly he remembered his birthplace; and by the side of Franklin's bequest to his native city we treasure that golden verse of Emerson's:—

"A blessing through the ages thus Shield all thy roofs and towers, GOD WITH THE FATHERS, SO WITH US, Thou darling town of ours!"

Emerson sympathized with all generous public movements, but he was not fond of working in associations, though he liked well enough to attend their meetings as a listener and looker-on. His study was his workshop, and he preferred to labor in solitude. When he became famous he paid the penalty of celebrity in frequent interruptions by those "devastators of the day" who sought him in his quiet retreat. His courtesy and kindness to his visitors were uniform and remarkable. Poets who come to recite their verses and reformers who come to explain their projects are among the most formidable of earthly visitations. Emerson accepted his martyrdom with meek submission; it was a martyrdom in detail, but collectively its petty tortures might have satisfied a reasonable inquisitor as the punishment of a moderate heresy. Except in that one phrase above quoted he never complained of his social oppressors, so far as I remember, in his writings. His perfect amiability was one of his most striking characteristics, and in a nature fastidious as was his in its whole organization, it implied a self-command worthy of admiration.

* * * * *

The natural purity and elevation of Emerson's character show themselves in all that he writes. His life corresponded to the ideal we form of him from his writings. This it was which made him invulnerable amidst all the fierce conflicts his gentle words excited. His white shield was so spotless that the least scrupulous combatants did not like to leave their defacing marks upon it. One would think he was protected by some superstition like that which Voltaire refers to as existing about Boileau,—

"Ne disons pas mal de Nicolas,—cela porte malheur."

(Don't let us abuse Nicolas,—it brings ill luck.) The cooped-up dogmatists whose very citadel of belief he was attacking, and who had their hot water and boiling pitch and flaming brimstone ready for the assailants of their outer defences, withheld their missiles from him, and even sometimes, in a movement of involuntary human sympathy, sprinkled him with rose-water. His position in our Puritan New England was in some respects like that of Burns in Presbyterian Scotland. The dour Scotch ministers and elders could not cage their minstrel, and they could not clip his wings; and so they let this morning lark rise above their theological mists, and sing to them at heaven's gate, until he had softened all their hearts and might nestle in their bosoms and find his perch on "the big ha' bible," if he would,—and as he did. So did the music of Emerson's words and life steal into the hearts of our stern New England theologians, and soften them to a temper which would have seemed treasonable weakness to their stiff-kneed forefathers. When a man lives a life commended by all the Christian virtues, enlightened persons are not so apt to cavil at his particular beliefs or unbeliefs as in former generations. We do, however, wish to know what are the convictions of any such persons in matters of highest interest about which there is so much honest difference of opinion in this age of deep and anxious and devout religious scepticism.

It was a very wise and a very prudent course which was taken by Simonides, when he was asked by his imperial master to give him his ideas about the Deity. He begged for a day to consider the question, but when the time came for his answer he wanted two days more, and at the end of these, four days. In short, the more he thought about it, the more he found himself perplexed.

The name most frequently applied to Emerson's form of belief is Pantheism. How many persons who shudder at the sound of this word can tell the difference between that doctrine and their own professed belief in the omnipresence of the Deity?

Theodore Parker explained Emerson's position, as he understood it, in an article in the "Massachusetts Quarterly Review." I borrow this quotation from Mr. Cooke:—

"He has an absolute confidence in God. He has been foolishly accused of Pantheism, which sinks God in nature, but no man Is further from it. He never sinks God in man; he does not stop with the law, in matter or morals, but goes to the Law-giver; yet probably it would not be so easy for him to give his definition of God, as it would be for most graduates at Andover or Cambridge."

We read in his Essay, "Self-Reliance ": "This is the ultimate fact which we so quickly reach on this, as on every topic, the resolution of all into the ever-blessed ONE. Self-existence is the attribute of the Supreme Cause, and it constitutes the measure of good by the degree in which it enters into all lower forms."

The "ever-blessed ONE" of Emerson corresponds to the Father in the doctrine of the Trinity. The "Over-Soul" of Emerson is that aspect of Deity which is known to theology as the Holy Spirit. Jesus was for him a divine manifestation, but only as other great human souls have been in all ages and are to-day. He was willing to be called a Christian just as he was willing to be called a Platonist.

Explanations are apt not to explain much in dealing with subjects like this. "Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?" But on certain great points nothing could be clearer than the teaching of Emerson. He believed in the doctrine of spiritual influx as sincerely as any Calvinist or Swedenborgian. His views as to fate, or the determining conditions of the character, brought him near enough to the doctrine of predestination to make him afraid of its consequences, and led him to enter a caveat against any denial of the self-governing power of the will.

His creed was a brief one, but he carried it everywhere with him. In all he did, in all he said, and so far as all outward signs could show, in all his thoughts, the indwelling Spirit was his light and guide; through all nature he looked up to nature's God; and if he did not worship the "man Christ Jesus" as the churches of Christendom have done, he followed his footsteps so nearly that our good Methodist, Father Taylor, spoke of him as more like Christ than any man he had known.

Emerson was in friendly relations with many clergymen of the church from which he had parted. Since he left the pulpit, the lesson, not of tolerance, for that word is an insult as applied by one set of well-behaved people to another, not of charity, for that implies an impertinent assumption, but of good feeling on the part of divergent sects and their ministers has been taught and learned as never before. Their official Confessions of Faith make far less difference in their human sentiments and relations than they did even half a century ago. These ancient creeds are handed along down, to be kept in their phials with their stoppers fast, as attar of rose is kept in its little bottles; they are not to be opened and exposed to the atmosphere so long as their perfume,—the odor of sanctity,—is diffused from the carefully treasured receptacles,—perhaps even longer than that.

Out of the endless opinions as to the significance and final outcome of Emerson's religious teachings I will select two as typical.

Dr. William Hague, long the honored minister of a Baptist church in Boston, where I had the pleasure of friendly acquaintance with him, has written a thoughtful, amiable paper on Emerson, which he read before the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. This Essay closes with the following sentence:—

"Thus, to-day, while musing, as at the beginning, over the works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, we recognize now as ever his imperial genius as one of the greatest of writers; at the same time, his life work, as a whole, tested by its supreme ideal, its method and its fruitage, shows also a great waste of power, verifying the saying of Jesus touching the harvest of human life: 'HE THAT GATHERETH NOT WITH ME SCATTERETH ABROAD.'"

"But when Dean Stanley returned from America, it was to report," says Mr. Conway "('Macmillan,' June, 1879), that religion had there passed through an evolution from Edwards to Emerson, and that 'the genial atmosphere which Emerson has done so much to promote is shared by all the churches equally.'"

What is this "genial atmosphere" but the very spirit of Christianity? The good Baptist minister's Essay is full of it. He comes asking what has become of Emerson's "wasted power" and lamenting his lack of "fruitage," and lo! he himself has so ripened and mellowed in that same Emersonian air that the tree to which he belongs would hardly know him. The close-communion clergyman handles the arch-heretic as tenderly as if he were the nursing mother of a new infant Messiah. A few generations ago this preacher of a new gospel would have been burned; a little later he would been tried and imprisoned; less than fifty years ago he was called infidel and atheist; names which are fast becoming relinquished to the intellectual half-breeds who sometimes find their way into pulpits and the so-called religious periodicals.

It is not within our best-fenced churches and creeds that the self-governing American is like to find the religious freedom which the Concord prophet asserted with the strength of Luther and the sweetness of Melancthon, and which the sovereign in his shirt-sleeves will surely claim. Milton was only the precursor of Emerson when he wrote:—

"Neither is God appointed and confined, where and out of what place these his chosen shall be first heard to speak; for he sees not as man sees, chooses not as man chooses, lest we should devote ourselves again to set places and assemblies, and outward callings of men, planting our faith one while in the old convocation house, and another while in the Chapel at Westminster, when all the faith and religion that shall be there canonized is not sufficient without plain convincement, and the charity of patient instruction, to supple the least bruise of conscience, to edify the meanest Christian who desires to walk in the spirit and not in the letter of human trust, for all the number of voices that can be there made; no, though Harry the Seventh himself there, with all his liege tombs about him, should lend their voices from the dead, to swell their number."

The best evidence of the effect produced by Emerson's writings and life is to be found in the attention he has received from biographers and critics. The ground upon which I have ventured was already occupied by three considerable Memoirs. Mr. George Willis Cooke's elaborate work is remarkable for its careful and thorough analysis of Emerson's teachings. Mr. Moncure Daniel Conway's "Emerson at Home and Abroad" is a lively picture of its subject by one long and well acquainted with him. Mr. Alexander Ireland's "Biographical Sketch" brings together, from a great variety of sources, as well as from his own recollections, the facts of Emerson's history and the comments of those whose opinions were best worth reproducing. I must refer to this volume for a bibliography of the various works and Essays of which Emerson furnished the subject.

From the days when Mr. Whipple attracted the attention of our intelligent, but unawakened reading community, by his discriminating and appreciative criticisms of Emerson's Lectures, and Mr. Lowell drew the portrait of the New England "Plotinus-Montaigne" in his brilliant "Fable for Critics," to the recent essays of Mr. Matthew Arnold, Mr. John Morley, Mr. Henry Norman, and Mr. Edmund Clarence Stedman, Emerson's writings have furnished one of the most enduring pieces de resistance at the critical tables of the old and the new world.

He early won the admiration of distinguished European thinkers and writers: Carlyle accepted his friendship and his disinterested services; Miss Martineau fully recognized his genius and sounded his praises; Miss Bremer fixed her sharp eyes on him and pronounced him "a noble man." Professor Tyndall found the inspiration of his life in Emerson's fresh thought; and Mr. Arnold, who clipped his medals reverently but unsparingly, confessed them to be of pure gold, even while he questioned whether they would pass current with posterity. He found discerning critics in France, Germany, and Holland. Better than all is the testimony of those who knew him best. They who repeat the saying that "a prophet is not without honor save in his own country," will find an exception to its truth in the case of Emerson. Read the impressive words spoken at his funeral by his fellow-townsman, Judge Hoar; read the glowing tributes of three of Concord's poets,—Mr. Alcott, Mr. Channing, and Mr. Sanborn,—and it will appear plainly enough that he, whose fame had gone out into all the earth, was most of all believed in, honored, beloved, lamented, in the little village circle that centred about his own fireside.

It is a not uninteresting question whether Emerson has bequeathed to the language any essay or poem which will resist the flow of time like "the adamant of Shakespeare," and remain a classic like the Essays of Addison or Gray's Elegy. It is a far more important question whether his thought entered into the spirit of his day and generation, so that it modified the higher intellectual, moral, and religious life of his time, and, as a necessary consequence, those of succeeding ages. Corpora non agunt nisi soluta, and ideas must be dissolved and taken up as well as material substances before they can act. "That which thou sowest is not quickened except it die," or rather lose the form with which it was sown. Eight stanzas of four lines each have made the author of "The Burial of Sir John Moore" an immortal, and endowed the language with a classic, perfect as the most finished cameo. But what is the gift of a mourning ring to the bequest of a perpetual annuity? How many lives have melted into the history of their time, as the gold was lost in Corinthian brass, leaving no separate monumental trace of their influence, but adding weight and color and worth to the age of which they formed a part and the generations that came after them! We can dare to predict of Emerson, in the words of his old friend and disciple, Mr. Cranch:—

"The wise will know thee and the good will love, The age to come will feel thy impress given In all that lifts the race a step above Itself, and stamps it with the seal of heaven."

It seems to us, to-day, that Emerson's best literary work in prose and verse must live as long as the language lasts; but whether it live or fade from memory, the influence of his great and noble life and the spoken and written words which were its exponents, blends, indestructible, with the enduring elements of civilization.

* * * * *

It is not irreverent, but eminently fitting, to compare any singularly pure and virtuous life with that of the great exemplar in whose footsteps Christendom professes to follow. The time was when the divine authority of his gospel rested chiefly upon the miracles he is reported to have wrought. As the faith in these exceptions to the general laws of the universe diminished, the teachings of the Master, of whom it was said that he spoke as never man spoke, were more largely relied upon as evidence of his divine mission. Now, when a comparison of these teachings with those of other religious leaders is thought by many to have somewhat lessened the force of this argument, the life of the sinless and self-devoted servant of God and friend of man is appealed to as the last and convincing proof that he was an immediate manifestation of the Divinity.

Judged by his life Emerson comes very near our best ideal of humanity. He was born too late for the trial of the cross or the stake, or even the jail. But the penalty of having an opinion of his own and expressing it was a serious one, and he accepted it as cheerfully as any of Queen Mary's martyrs accepted his fiery baptism. His faith was too large and too deep for the formulae he found built into the pulpit, and he was too honest to cover up his doubts under the flowing vestments of a sacred calling. His writings, whether in prose or verse, are worthy of admiration, but his manhood was the underlying quality which gave them their true value. It was in virtue of this that his rare genius acted on so many minds as a trumpet call to awaken them to the meaning and the privileges of this earthly existence with all its infinite promise. No matter of what he wrote or spoke, his words, his tones, his looks, carried the evidence of a sincerity which pervaded them all and was to his eloquence and poetry like the water of crystallization; without which they would effloresce into mere rhetoric. He shaped an ideal for the commonest life, he proposed an object to the humblest seeker after truth. Look for beauty in the world around you, he said, and you shall see it everywhere. Look within, with pure eyes and simple trust, and you shall find the Deity mirrored in your own soul. Trust yourself because you trust the voice of God in your inmost consciousness.

There are living organisms so transparent that we can see their hearts beating and their blood flowing through their glassy tissues. So transparent was the life of Emerson; so clearly did the true nature of the man show through it. What he taught others to be, he was himself. His deep and sweet humanity won him love and reverence everywhere among those whose natures were capable of responding to the highest manifestations of character. Here and there a narrow-eyed sectary may have avoided or spoken ill of him; but if He who knew what was in man had wandered from door to door in New England as of old in Palestine, we can well believe that one of the thresholds which "those blessed feet" would have crossed, to hallow and receive its welcome, would have been that of the lovely and quiet home of Emerson.



INDEX.

[For many references, not found elsewhere, see under the general headings of Emerson's Books, Essays, Poems.]

Abbott, Josiah Gardiner, a pupil of Emerson, 49, 50.

Academic Races, 2, 3. (See Heredity.)

Action, subordinate, 112.

Adams, John, old age, 261.

Adams, Samuel, Harvard debate, 115.

Addison, Joseph, classic, 416.

Advertiser, The, Emerson's interest in, 348.

Aeolian Harp, his model, 329, 340. (See Emerson's Poems,—Harp.)

Aeschylus, tragedies, 253. (See Greek.)

Agassiz, Louis: Saturday Club, 222; companionship, 403.

Agriculture: in Anthology, 30; attacked, 190; not Emerson's field, 255, 256, 365.

Akenside, Mark, allusion, 16.

Alchemy, adepts, 260, 261.

Alcott, A. Bronson: hearing Emerson, 66; speculations, 86; an idealist, 150; The Dial, 159; sonnet, 355; quoted, 373; personality traceable, 389.

Alcott, Louisa M., funeral bouquet, 351.

Alexander the Great: allusion, 184; mountain likeness, 322.

Alfred the Great, 220, 306.

Allston, Washington, unfinished picture, 334. (See Pictures.)

Ambition, treated in Anthology, 30.

America: room for a poet, 136, 137; virtues and defects, 143; faith in, 179; people compared with English, 216; things awry, 260; aristocracy, 296; in the Civil War, 304; Revolution, 305; Lincoln, the true history of his time, 307; passion for, 308, 309; artificial rhythm, 329; its own literary style, 342; home of man, 371; loyalty to, 406; epithets, 406, 407. (See England, New England, etc.)

Amici, meeting Emerson, 63. (See Italy.)

Amusements, in New England, 30.

Anaemia, artistic, 334.

Ancestry: in general, 1-3; Emerson's, 3 et seq. (See Heredity.)

Andover, Mass.: Theological School, 48; graduates, 411.

Andrew, John Albion: War Governor, 223; hearing Emerson, 379. (See South.)

Angelo. (See Michael Angelo.)

Antinomianism: in The Dial, 162; kept from, 177. (See God, Religion, etc.)

Anti-Slavery: in Emerson's pulpit, 57; the reform, 141, 145, 152; Emancipation address, 181; Boston and New York addresses, 210-212; Emancipation Proclamation, 228; Fugitive Slave Law, and other matters, 303-307. (See South.)

Antoninus, Marcus, allusion, 16.

Architecture, illustrations, 253.

Arianism, 51. (See Unitarianism.)

Aristotle: influence over Mary Emerson, 17; times mentioned, 382.

Arminianism, 51. (See Methodism, Religion, etc.)

Arnim, Gisela von, 225.

Arnold, Matthew: quotation about America, 137: lecture, 236; on Milton, 315; his Thyrsis, 333; criticism, 334; string of Emerson's epithets, 406.

Aryans, comparison, 312.

Asia: a pet name, 176; immovable, 200.

Assabet River, 70, 71.

Astronomy: Harp illustration, 108; stars against wrong, 252, 253. (See Galileo, Stars, Venus, etc.)

Atlantic Monthly: sketch of Dr. Ripley, 14, 15; of Mary Moody Emerson, 16; established, 221; supposititious club, 222; on Persian Poetry, 224; on Thoreau, 228; Emerson's contributions, 239, 241; Brahma, 296.

Atmosphere: effect on inspiration, 290; spiritual, 413, 414.

Augustine, Emerson's study of, 52.

Authors, quoted by Emerson, 381-383. (See Plutarch, etc.)

Bacon, Francis: allusion, 22, 111; times quoted, 382.

Bancroft, George: literary rank, 33; in college, 45.

Barbier, Henri Auguste, on Napoleon, 208.

Barnwell, Robert W.: in history, 45; in college, 47.

Beaumont and Fletcher, disputed, line, 128, 129.

Beauty: its nature, 74, 94, 95; an end, 99, 135, 182; study, 301.

Beecher, Edward, on preexistence, 391. (See Preexistence.)

Behmen, Jacob: mysticism, 201, 202, 396; citation, 380.

Berkeley, Bishop: characteristics, 189; matter, 300.

Bible: Mary Emerson's study, 16; Mosaic cosmogony, 18; the Exodus, 35; the Lord's Supper, 58; Psalms, 68, 181, 182, 253; lost Paradise, 101; Genesis, Sermon on the Mount, 102; Seer of Patmos, 102, 103; Apocalypse, 105; Song of Songs, 117; Baruch's roll, 117, 118; not closed, 122; the Sower, 154; Noah's Ark, 191; Pharisee's trumpets, 255; names and imagery, 268; sparing the rod, 297; rhythmic mottoes, 314; beauty of Israel, 351; face of an angel, 352; barren fig-tree, 367; a classic, 376; body of death, "Peace be still!" 379; draught of fishes, 381; its semi-detached sentences, 405; Job quoted, 411; "the man Christ Jesus," 412; scattering abroad, 414. (See Christ, God, Religion, etc.)

Bigelow, Jacob, on rural cemeteries, 31.

Biography, every man writes his own, 1.

Blackmore, Sir Richard, controversy, 31.

Bliss Family, 9.

Bliss, Daniel, patriotism, 72.

Blood, transfusion of, 256.

Books, use and abuse, 110, 111. (See Emerson's Essays.)

Boston, Mass.: First Church, 10, 12, 13; Woman's Club, 16; Harbor, 19; nebular spot, 25, 26; its pulpit darling, 27; Episcopacy, 28; Athenaeum, 31; magazines, 28-34; intellectual character, lights on its three hills, high caste religion, 34; Samaria and Jerusalem, 35; streets and squares, 37-39; Latin School, 39, 40, 43; new buildings, 42; Mrs. Emerson's boarding-house, the Common as a pasture, 43; Unitarian preaching, 51; a New England centre, 52; Emerson's settlement, 54; Second Church, 55-61; lectures, 87, 88, 191; Trimount Oracle, 102; stirred by the Divinity-School address, 126; school-keeping, Roxbury, 129; aesthetic society, 149; Transcendentalists, 155, 156; Bay, 172; Freeman Place Chapel, 210: Saturday Club, 221-223; Burns Centennial, 224, 225; Parker meeting, 228; letters, 263, 274, 275; Old South lecture, 294; Unitarianism, 298; Emancipation Proclamation, 307; special train, 350; Sons of Liberty, 369; birthplace, 407; Baptists, 413.

Boswell, James: allusion, 138; one lacking, 223; Life of Johnson, 268.

Botany, 403. (See Science.)

Bowen, Francis: literary rank, 34; on Nature, 103, 104.

Brook Farm, 159, 164-166, 189, 191. (See Transcendentalism, etc.)

Brown, Howard N., prayer, 355.

Brown, John, sympathy with, 211. (See Anti-Slavery, South.)

Brownson, Orestes A., at a party, 149.

Bryant, William Cullen: his literary rank, 33; redundant syllable, 328; his translation of Homer quoted, 378.

Buckminster, Joseph Stevens: minister in Boston, 12, 26, 27, 52; Memoir, 29; destruction of Goldau, 31.

Buddhism: like Transcendentalism, 151; Buddhist nature, 188; saints 298. (See Emerson's Poems,—Brahma, —India, etc.)

Buffon, on style, 341.

Bulkeley Family, 4-7.

Bulkeley, Peter: minister of Concord, 4-7, 71; comparison of sermons, 57; patriotism, 72; landowner, 327.

Bunyan, John, quoted, 169.

Burke, Edmund: essay, 73; times mentioned, 382.

Burns, Robert: festival, 224, 225; rank, 281; image referred to, 386; religious position, 409. (See Scotland.)

Burroughs, John, view of English life, 335.

Burton, Robert, quotations, 109, 381.

Buttrick, Major, in the Revolution, 71, 72.

Byron, Lord: allusion, 16; rank, 281; disdain, 321; uncertain sky, 335; parallelism, 399.

CABOT, J. ELLIOT: on Emerson's literary habits, 27; The Dial, 159; prefaces, 283, 302; Note, 295, 296; Prefatory Note, 310, 311; the last meetings, 347, 348.

Caesar, Julius, 184,197.

California, trip, 263-271, 359. (See Thayer.)

Calvin, John: his Commentary, 103; used by Cotton, 286.

Calvinism: William Emerson's want of sympathy with, 11, 12; outgrown, 51; predestination, 230; saints, 298; spiritual influx, 412. (See God, Puritanism, Religion, Unitarianism.)

Cambridge, Mass.: Emerson teaching there, 50; exclusive circles, 52. (See Harvard University.)

Cant, disgust with, 156.

Carlyle, Thomas: meeting Emerson, 63; recollections of their relations, 78-80, 83; Sartor Resartus, 81, 82, 91; correspondence, 82, 83, 89, 90, 127, 176, 177, 192, 315, 317, 374, 380, 381, 406, 407; Life of Schiller, 91; on Nature, 104, 105; Miscellanies, 130; the Waterville Address, 136-138; influence, 149, 150; on Transcendentalism, 156-158; The Dial, 160-163; Brook Farm, 164; friendship, 171; Chelsea visit, 194; bitter legacy, 196; love of power, 197; on Napoleon and Goethe, 208; grumblings, 260; tobacco, 270; Sartor reprinted, 272; paper on, 294; Emerson's dying friendship, 349; physique, 363; Gallic fire, 386; on Characteristics, 387; personality traceable, 389.

Carpenter, William B., 230.

Century, The, essay in, 295.

Cerebration, unconscious, 112, 113.

Chalmers, Thomas, preaching, 65.

Channing, Walter, headache, 175, 390.

Channing, William Ellery: allusion, 16; directing Emerson's studies, 51; preaching, 52; Emerson in his pulpit, 66; influence, 147, 149; kept awake, 157.

Channing, William Ellery, the poet: his Wanderer, 263; Poems, 403.

Channing, William Henry: allusions, 131, 149; in The Dial, 159; the Fuller Memoir, 209; Ode inscribed to, 211, 212.

Charleston, S C, Emerson's preaching, 53. (See South.)

Charlestown, Mass., Edward Emerson's residence, 8.

Charles V., 197.

Charles XII., 197.

Chatelet, Parent du, a realist, 326.

Chatham, Lord, 255.

Chaucer, Geoffrey: borrowings, 205; rank, 281; honest rhymes, 340; times mentioned, 382.

Chelmsford, Mass., Emerson teaching there, 49, 50.

Chemistry, 403. (See Science.)

Cheshire, its "haughty hill," 323.

Choate, Rufus, oratory, 148.

Christ: reserved expressions about, 13; mediatorship, 59; true office, 120-122; worship, 412. (See Jesus, Religion, etc.)

Christianity: its essentials, 13; primitive, 35; a mythus, defects, 121; the true, 122; two benefits, 123; authority, 124; incarnation of, 176; the essence, 306; Fathers, 391.

Christian, Emerson a, 267.

Christian Examiner, The: on William Emerson, 12; its literary predecessor, 29; on Nature, 103, 104; repudiates Divinity School Address, 124.

Church: activity in 1820, 147; avoidance of, 153; the true, 244; music, 306. (See God, Jesus, Religion, etc.)

Cicero, allusion, 111. Cid, the, 184.

Clarke, James Freeman: letters, 77-80, 128-131; transcendentalism, 149; The Dial, 159; Fuller Memoir, 209; Emerson's funeral, 351, 353-355.

Clarke, Samuel, allusion, 16.

Clarke, Sarah, sketches, 130.

Clarkson, Thomas, 220.

Clergy: among Emerson's ancestry, 3-8; gravestones, 9. (See Cotton, Heredity, etc.)

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor: allusion, 16; Emerson's account, 63; influence, 149, 150; Carlyle's criticism, 196; Ancient Mariner, 333; Christabel, Abyssinian Maid, 334; times mentioned, 382; an image quoted, 386; William Tell, 387.

Collins, William: poetry, 321; Ode and Dirge, 332.

Commodity, essay, 94.

Concentration, 288.

Concord, Mass.: Bulkeley's ministry, 4-7; first association with the Emerson name, 7; Joseph's descendants, 8; the Fight, 9; Dr. Ripley, 10; Social Club, 14; Emerson's preaching, 54; Goodwin's settlement, 56; discord, 57; Emerson's residence begun, 69, 70; a typical town, 70; settlement, 71; a Delphi, 72; Emerson home, 83; Second Centennial, 84, 85, 303; noted citizens, 86; town government, the, monument, 87; the Sage, 102; letters, 125-131, 225; supposition of Carlyle's life there, 171; Emancipation Address, 181; leaving, 192; John Brown meeting, 211; Samuel Hoar, 213; wide-awake, 221; Lincoln obsequies, 243, 307; an under-Concord, 256; fire, 271-279; letters, 275-279; return, 279; Minute Man unveiled, 292; Soldiers' Monument, 303; land-owners, 327; memorial stone, 333; Conway's visits, 343, 344; Whitman's, 344, 345; Russell's, 345; funeral, 350-356; founders, 352; Sleepy Hollow, 356; a strong attraction, 369; neighbors, 373; Prophet, 415.

Congdon, Charles, his Reminiscences, 66.

Conservatism, fairly treated, 156, 157. (See Reformers, Religion, Transcendentalism, etc.)

Conversation: C.C. Emerson's essay, 22, 258; inspiration, 290.

Conway, Moncure D.: account of Emerson, 55, 56, 66, 194; two visits, 343, 344; anecdote, 346; error, 401; on Stanley, 414.

Cooke, George Willis: biography of Emerson, 43, 44, 66, 88; on American Scholar, 107, 108; on anti-slavery, 212; on Parnassus, 280-282; on pantheism, 411.

Cooper, James Fenimore, 33.

Corot, pearly mist, 335, 336. (See Pictures, etc.)

Cotton, John: service to scholarship, 34; reading Calvin, 286.

Counterparts, the story, 226.

Cowper, William: Mother's Picture, 178; disinterested good, 304; tenderness, 333; verse, 338.

Cranch, Christopher P.: The Dial, 159; poetic prediction, 416, 417.

Cromwell, Oliver: saying by a war saint, 252; in poetry, 387.

Cudworth, Ralph, epithets, 200.

Cupples, George, on Emerson's lectures, 195.

Curtius, Quintus for Mettus, 388.

Cushing, Caleb: rank, 33; in college, 45.

Dana, Richard Henry, his literary place, 33, 223.

Dante: allusion in Anthology, 31; rank, 202, 320; times mentioned, 382.

Dartmouth College, oration, 131-135.

Darwin, Charles, Origin of Species, 105.

Dawes, Rufus, Boyhood Memories, 44.

Declaration of Independence, intellectual, 115. (See American, etc.)

Delirium, imaginative, easily produced, 238. (See Intuition.)

Delia Cruscans, allusion, 152. (See Transcendentalism.)

Delos, allusion, 374.

Delphic Oracle: of New England, 72; illustration, 84.

Democratic Review, The, on Nature, 103.

De Profundis, illustrating Carlyle's spirit, 83.

De Quincey, Thomas: Emerson's interview with, 63, 195; on originality, 92.

De Stael, Mme., allusion, 16.

De Tocqueville, account of Unitarianism, 51. Dewey, Orville, New Bedford ministry, 67.

Dexter, Lord Timothy, punctuation, 325, 326.

Dial, The: established, 147, 158; editors, 159; influence, 160-163; death, 164; poems, 192; old contributors, 221; papers, 295; intuitions, 394.

Dial, The (second), in Cincinnati, 239.

Dickens, Charles: on Father Taylor, 56; American Notes, 155.

Diderot, Denis, essay, 79.

Diogenes, story, 401. (See Laertius.)

Disinterestedness, 259.

Disraeli, Benjamin, the rectorship, 282.

Dramas, their limitations, 375. (See Shakespeare.)

Dress, illustration of poetry, 311, 312.

Dryden, John, quotation, 20, 21.

Dwight, John S.: in The Dial, 159; musical critic, 223.

East Lexington, Mass., the Unitarian pulpit, 88.

Economy, its meaning, 142.

Edinburgh, Scotland: Emerson's visit and preaching, 64, 65; lecture, 195.

Education: through friendship, 97, 98; public questions, 258, 259.

Edwards, Jonathan: allusions, 16, 51; the atmosphere changed, 414. (See Calvinism, Puritanism, Unitarianism, etc.)

Egotism, a pest, 233.

Egypt: poetic teaching, 121; trip, 271, 272; Sphinx, 330. (See Emerson's Poems,—Sphinx.)

Election Sermon, illustration, 112.

Elizabeth, Queen, verbal heir-loom, 313. (See Raleigh, etc.)

Ellis, Rufus, minister of the First Church, Boston, 43.

Eloquence, defined, 285, 286.

Emerson Family, 3 et seq.

Emerson, Charles Chauncy, brother of Ralph Waldo: feeling towards natural science, 18, 237; memories, 19-25, 37, 43; character, 77; death, 89, 90; influence, 98; The Dial, 161; "the hand of Douglas," 234; nearness, 368; poetry, 385; Harvard Register, 401.

Emerson, Edith, daughter of Ralph Waldo, 263.

Emerson, Edward, of Newbury, 8.

Emerson, Edward Bliss, brother of Ralph Waldo: allusions, 19, 20, 37, 38; death, 89; Last Farewell, poem, 161; nearness, 368.

Emerson, Edward Waldo, son of Ralph Waldo: in New York, 246; on the Farming essay, 255; father's last days, 346-349; reminiscences, 359.

Emerson, Ellen, daughter of Ralph Waldo: residence, 83; trip to Europe, 271; care of her father, 294; correspondence, 347.

Emerson, Mrs. Ellen Louisa Tucker, first wife of Ralph Waldo, 55.

Emerson, Joseph, minister of Mendon, 4, 7, 8.

Emerson, Joseph, the second, minister of Malden, 8.

Emerson, Mrs. Lydia Jackson, second wife of Ralph Waldo: marriage, 83; Asia, 176.

Emerson, Mary Moody: influence over her nephew, 16-18; quoted, 385.

Emerson, Robert Bulkeley, brother of Ralph Waldo, 37.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, His Life: moulding influences, 1; New England heredity, 2; ancestry, 3-10; parents, 10-16; Aunt Mary, 16-19; brothers, 19-25; the nest, 25; noted scholars, 26-36; birthplace, 37, 38; boyhood, 39, 40; early efforts, 41, 42; parsonages, 42; father's death, 43; boyish appearance, 44; college days, 45-47; letter, 48; teaching, 49, 50; studying theology, and preaching, 51-54; ordination, marriage, 55; benevolent efforts, wife's death, 56; withdrawal from his church, 57-61; first trip to Europe, 62-65; preaching in America, 66, 67; remembered conversations, 68, 69; residence in the Old Manse, 69-72; lecturing, essays in The North American, 73; poems, 74; portraying himself, 75; comparison with Milton, 76, 77; letters to Clarke, 78-80, 128-131; interest in Sartor Resartus, 81; first letter to Carlyle, 82; second marriage and Concord home, 83; Second Centennial, 84-87; Boston lectures, Concord Fight; 87; East Lexington church, War, 88; death of brothers, 89, 90; Nature published, 91; parallel with Wordsworth, 92; free utterance, 93; Beauty, poems, 94; Language, 95-97; Discipline, 97, 98; Idealism, 98, 99; Illusions, 99, 100; Spirit and Matter, 100; Paradise regained, 101; the Bible spirit, 102; Revelations, 103; Bowen's criticism, 104; Evolution, 105, 106; Phi Beta Kappa oration, 107, 108; fable of the One Man, 109; man thinking, 110; Books, 111; unconscious cerebration, 112; a scholar's duties, 113; specialists, 114; a declaration of intellectual independence, 115; address at the Theological School, 116, 117; effect on Unitarians, 118; sentiment of duty, 119; Intuition, 120; Reason, 121; the Traditional Jesus, 122; Sabbath and Preaching, 123; correspondence with Ware, 124-127; ensuing controversy, 127; Ten Lectures, 128; Dartmouth Address, 131-136; Waterville Address, 136-140; reforms, 141-145; new views, 146; Past and Present, 147; on Everett, 148; assembly at Dr. Warren's, 149; Boston doctrinaires, 150; unwise followers, 151-156; Conservatives, 156, 157; two Transcendental products, 157-166; first volume of Essays, 166; History, 167, 168; Self-reliance, 168, 169; Compensation, 169; other essays, 170; Friendship, 170, 171; Heroism, 172; Over-Soul, 172-175; house and income, 176; son's death, 177, 178; American and Oriental qualities, 179; English virtues, 180; Emancipation addresses in 1844, 181; second series of Essays, 181-188; Reformers, 188-191; Carlyle's business, Poems published, 192; a second trip to Europe, 193-196; Representative Men, 196-209; lectures again, 210; Abolitionism, 211, 212; Woman's Rights, 212, 213; a New England Roman, 213, 214; English Traits, 214-221; a new magazine, 221; clubs, 222, 223; more poetry, 224; Burns Festival, 224; letter about various literary matters, 225-227; Parker's death, Lincoln's Proclamation, 228; Conduct of Life, 228-239; Boston Hymn, 240; "So nigh is grandeur to our dust," 241; Atlantic contributions, 242; Lincoln obsequies, 243; Free Religion, 243, 244; second Phi Beta Kappa oration, 244-246; poem read to his son, 246-248; Harvard Lectures, 249-255; agriculture and science, 255, 256; predictions, 257; Books, 258; Conversation, 258; elements of Courage, 259; Success, 260, 261; on old men, 261, 262; California trip, 263-268; eating, 269; smoking, 270; conflagration, loss of memory, Froude banquet, third trip abroad, 272; friendly gifts, 272-279; editing Parnassus, 280-282; failing powers, 283; Hope everywhere, 284; negations, 285; Eloquence, Pessimism, 286; Comedy, Plagiarism, 287; lessons repeated, 288; Sources of Inspiration, 289, 290; Future Life, 290-292; dissolving creed, 292; Concord Bridge, 292, 293; decline of faculties, Old South lecture, 294; papers, 294, 295; quiet pen, 295; posthumous works, 295 et seq.; the pedagogue, 297; University of Virginia, 299; indebtedness to Plutarch, 299-302; slavery questions, 303-308; Woman Question, 308; patriotism, 308, 309; nothing but a poet, 311; antique words, 313; self-revelation, 313, 314; a great poet? 314-316; humility, 317-319; poetic favorites, 320, 321; comparison with contemporaries, 321; citizen of the universe, 322; fascination of symbolism, 323; realism, science, imaginative coloring, 324; dangers of realistic poetry, 325; range of subjects, 326; bad rhymes, 327; a trick of verse, 328; one faultless poem, 332; spell-bound readers, 333; workshop, 334; octosyllabic verse, atmosphere, 335, 336; comparison with Wordsworth, 337; and others, 338; dissolving sentences, 339; incompleteness, 339, 340; personality, 341, 342; last visits received, 343-345; the red rose, 345; forgetfulness, 346; literary work of last years, 346, 347; letters unanswered, 347; hearing and sight, subjects that interested him, 348; later hours, death, 349; last rites, 350-356; portrayal, 357-419; atmosphere, 357; books, distilled alcohol, 358; physique, 359; demeanor, 360; hair and eyes, insensibility to music, 361; daily habits, 362; bodily infirmities, 362, 363; voice, 363; quiet laughter, want of manual dexterity, 364; spade anecdote, memory, ignorance of exact science, 305; intuition and natural sagacity united, fastidiousness, 366; impatience with small-minded worshippers, Frothingham's Biography, 367; intimates, familiarity not invited, 368; among fellow-townsmen, errand to earth, inherited traditions, 369; sealed orders, 370, 371; conscientious work, sacrifices for truth, essays instead of sermons, 372; congregation at large, charm, optimism, 373; financially straitened, 374; lecture room limitations, 374, 375; a Shakespeare parallel, 375, 376; platform fascination, 376; constructive power, 376, 377; English experiences, lecture-peddling, 377; a stove relinquished, utterance, an hour's weight, 378; trumpet-sound, sweet seriousness, diamond drops, effect on Governor Andrew, 379; learning at second hand, 380; the study of Goethe, 380; a great quoter, no pedantry, 381; list of authors referred to, 381, 382; special indebtedness, 382; penetration, borrowing, 383; method of writing and its results, aided by others, 384; sayings that seem family property, 385; passages compared, 385-387; the tributary streams, 388; accuracy as to facts, 388; personalities traceable in him, 389; place as a thinker, 390; Platonic anecdote, 391; preexistence, 391, 392; mind-moulds, 393; relying on instinct, 394; dangers of intuition, 395; mysticism, 396; Oriental side, 397; transcendental mood, 398; personal identity confused, 399; a distorting mirror, 400; distrust of science, 401-403; style illustrated, 403, 404; favorite words, 405; royal imagery, 406; comments on America, 406, 407; common property of mankind, 407; public spirit, solitary workshop, martyrdom from visitors, 408; white shield invulnerable, 409; religious attitude, 409-411; spiritual influx, creed, 412; clerical relations, 413; Dr. Hague's criticism, 413, 414; ameliorating religious influence, 414; freedom, 415; enduring verse and thought, 416, 417; comparison with Jesus, 417; sincere manhood, 418; transparency, 419.

Emerson's Books:— Conduct of Life, 229, 237. English Traits: the first European trip, 62; published, 214; analysis, 214-220; penetration, 383; Teutonic fire, 386. Essays: Dickens's allusion, 156; collected, 166. Essays, second series, 183. Lectures and Biographical Sketches, 128, 295, 296, 347. Letters and Social Aims, 210, 283, 284, 296. May-day and Other Pieces, 161, 192, 224, 242, 257, 310, 318, 346. Memoir of Margaret Fuller, 209. Miscellanies, 302, 303. Nature, Addresses, and Lectures, 179. Nature: resemblance of extracts from Mary Moody Emerson, 17; where written, 70; the Many in One, 73; first published, 91, 92, 373; analysis, 93-107; obscure, 108; Beauty, 237. Parnassus: collected, 280; Preface, 314; allusion, 321. Poems, 293, 310, 318, 339. Representative Men, 196-209. Selected Poems, 311, 347. Society and Solitude, 250.

Emerson's Essays, Lectures, Sermons, Speeches, etc.:— In general: essays, 73, 88, 91, 92, 310; income from lectures, 176, 191, 192; lectures in England, 194-196; long series, 372; lecture-room, 374; plays and lectures, 375; double duty, 376, 377; charm, 379. (See Emerson's Life, Lyceum, etc.) American Civilization, 307. American Scholar, The, 107-115, 133, 188. Anglo-Saxon Race, The, 210. Anti-Slavery Address, New York, 210-212. Anti-Slavery Lecture, Boston, 210, 211. Aristocracy, 296. Art, 166, 175, 253, 254. Beauty, 235-237. Behavior, 234. Books, 257, 380. Brown, John, 302, 305, 306. Burke, Edmund, 73. Burns, Robert, 224, 225, 307. Carlyle, Thomas, 294, 302, 317. Channing's Poem, preface, 262, 263, 403. Character, 183, 295, 297. Chardon Street and Bible Convention, 159, 302. Circles, 166, 174, 175. Civilization, 250-253. Clubs, 258. Comedy. 128. Comic, The, 286, 287. Commodity, 94. Compensation, 166, 169. Concord Fight, the anniversary speech, 292, 293. Concord, Second Centennial Discourse, 84-86. Conservative, The, 156, 157, 159. Considerations by the Way, 235. Courage, 259. Culture, 232, 233. Demonology, 128, 296. Discipline, 97, 98. Divinity School Address, 116-127, 131. Doctrine of the Soul, 127. Domestic Life, 254, 255. Duty, 128. Editorial Address, Mass. Quarterly Review, 193, 302, 307. Education, 296, 297. Eloquence, 254; second essay, 285, 286. Emancipation in the British West Indies, 181, 303. Emancipation Proclamation, 228, 307. Emerson, Mary Moody, 295, 296, 302. English Literature, 87. Experience, 182. Farming, 255, 256. Fate, 228-330. Fortune of the Republic, 294, 302, 307-309. Fox, George, 73. France, 196. Free Religious Association, 243, 302, 307. Friendship, 166, 170. Froude, James Anthony, after-dinner speech, 271. Fugitive Slave Law, 303, 304. Genius, 127. Gifts, 184, 185. Goethe, or the Writer, 208, 209. Greatness, 288, 346. Harvard Commemoration, 307. Heroism, 166, 172. Historical Discourse, at Concord, 303. Historic Notes of Life and Letters in New England, 147, 165, 296, 302. History, 166, 167. Hoar, Samuel, 213, 214, 295, 302. Home, 127. Hope, 284, 285. Howard University, speech, 263. Human Culture, 87. Idealism, 98-100. Illusions, 235, 239. Immortality, 266, 290-292, 354. Inspiration, 289. Intellect, 166, 175. Kansas Affairs, 305. Kossuth, 307. Language, 95-97. Lincoln, Abraham, funeral remarks, 242, 243, 307. Literary Ethics, 131-136. Lord's Supper, 57-60, 303. Love, 127,128,166,170. (See Emerson's Poems.) Luther, 73. Manners, 183, 234. Man of Letters, The, 296, 298. Man the Reformer, 142, 143. Method of Nature, The, 136-141. Michael Angelo, 73, 75. Milton, 73, 75. Montaigne, or the Skeptic, 202-204. Napoleon, or the Man of the World, 206-209. Natural History of the Intellect, 249, 268, 347. Nature (the essay), 185, 186, 398. New England Reformers, 188-191, 385. Nominalism and Realism, 188. Old Age, 261, 262. Over-Soul, The, 166, 172-175, 398, 411. Parker, Theodore, 228, 306. Perpetual Forces, 297. Persian Poetry, 224. Phi Beta Kappa oration, 347. Philosophy of History, 87. Plato, 198-200; New Readings, 200. Plutarch, 295, 299-302. Plutarch's Morals, introduction, 262. Poet, The, 181, 182. Poetry, 210. Poetry and Imagination, 283; subdivisions: Bards and Trouveurs, Creation, Form, Imagination, Melody, Morals, Rhythm, Poetry, Transcendency, Veracity, 283, 284; quoted, 325. Politics, 186, 187. Power, 230, 231. Preacher, The, 294, 298. Professions of Divinity, Law, and Medicine, 41. Progress of Culture, The, 244, 288. Prospects, 101-103. Protest, The, 127. Providence Sermon, 130. Prudence, 166, 171, 172. Quotation and Originality, 287, 288. Relation of Man to the Globe, 73. Resources, 286. Right Hand of Fellowship, The, at Concord, 56. Ripley, Dr. Ezra, 295, 302. Scholar, The, 296, 299. School, The, 127. Scott, speech, 302, 307. Self-Reliance, 166, 168, 411. Shakespeare, or the Poet, 204-206. Social Aims, 285. Soldiers' Monument, at Concord, 303. Sovereignty of Ethics, The, 295, 297, 298. Spirit, 100, 101. Spiritual Laws, 166, 168. Success, 260, 261. Sumner Assault, 304. Superlatives, 295, 297. Swedenborg, or the Mystic, 201, 202, 206. Thoreau, Henry D., 228, 295, 302. Times, The, 142-145. Tragedy, 127. Transcendentalist, The, 145-155, 159. Universality of the Moral Sentiment, 66. University of Virginia, address, 347. War, 88, 303. Water, 73. Wealth, 231, 232. What is Beauty? 74, 94, 95. Woman, 307, 308. Woman's Rights, 212, 213. Work and Days, 256, 312, 406, 407. Worship, 235. Young American, The, 166, 180, 181.

Emerson's Poems:— In general: inspiration from nature, 22, 96; poetic rank in college, 45, 46; prose-poetry and philosophy, 91, 93; annual afflatus, in America, 136, 137; first volume, 192; five immortal poets, 202; ideas repeated, 239; true position, 311 et seq.; in carmine veritas, 313; litanies, 314; arithmetic, 321, 322; fascination, 323; celestial imagery, 324; tin pans, 325; realism, 326; metrical difficulties, 327, 335; blemishes, 328; careless rhymes, 329; delicate descriptions, 331; pathos, 332; fascination, 333; unfinished, 334, 339, 340; atmosphere, 335; subjectivity, 336; sympathetic illusion, 337; resemblances, 337, 338; rhythms, 340; own order, 341, 342; always a poet, 346. (See Emerson's Life, Milton, Poets, etc.) Adirondacs, The, 242, 309, 327. Blight, 402. Boston, 346, 407, 408. Boston Hymn, 211, 221, 241, 242. Brahma, 221, 242, 396, 397. Celestial Love, 170. (Three Loves.) Class Day Poem, 45-47. Concord Hymn, 87, 332. Daemonic Love, 170. (Three Loves.) Days, 221, 242, 257, 312; pleached, 313. Destiny, 332. Each and All, 73, 74, 94, 331. Earth-Song, 327. Elements, 242. Fate, 159, 387. Flute, The, 399. Good-by, Proud World, 129, 130, 338. Hamatreya, 327. Harp, The, 320, 321, 329, 330. (See Aeolian Harp.) Hoar, Samuel, 213, 214. Humble Bee, 46, 74, 75, 128, 272, 326, 331, 338. Initial Love, 170, 387. (Three Loves.) In Memoriam, 19, 89. Latin Translations, 43. May Day, 242; changes, 311, 333. Merlin, 318, 319. (Merlin's Song.) Mithridates, 331. Monadnoc, 322, 331; alterations, 366. My Garden, 242. Nature and Life, 242. Occasional and Miscellaneous Pieces, 242. Ode inscribed to W.H. Channing, 211, 212. Poet, The, 317-320, 333. Preface to Nature, 105. Problem, The, 159, 161, 253, 284, 326, 337, 380. Quatrains, 223, 242. Rhodora, The, 74, 94, 95, 129. Romany Girl, The, 221. Saadi, 221, 242. Sea-Shore, 333, 339. Snow-Storm, 331, 338, 339. Solution, 320. Song for Knights of Square Table, 42. Sphinx, The, 113, 159, 243, 330, 398. Terminus, 221, 242; read to his son, 246-248, 363. Test, The, 201, 202, 320. Threnody, 178, 333. Titmouse, The, 221, 326. Translations, 242, 399. Uriel, 326, 331, 398. Voluntaries, 241. Waldeinsamkeit, 221. Walk, The, 402. Woodnotes, 46, 159, 331, 338. World-Soul, The, 331.

Emersoniana, 358.

Emerson, Thomas, of Ipswich, 38.

Emerson, Waldo, child of Ralph Waldo: death, 177, 178; anecdote, 265.

Emerson, William, grandfather of Ralph Waldo: minister of Concord, 8-10, 14; building the Manse, 70; patriotism, 72.

Emerson, William, father of Ralph Waldo: minister, in Harvard and Boston, 10-14; editorship, 26, 32, 33; the parsonage, 37, 42; death, 43.

Emerson, William, brother of Ralph Waldo, 37, 39, 49, 53.

England: first visit, 62-65; Lake Windermere, 70; philosophers, 76; the virtues of the people, 179, 180; a second visit, 192 et seq.; notabilities 195; the lectures, 196; Stonehenge, 215; the aristocracy, 215; matters wrong, 260; Anglo-Saxon race, trade and liberty, 304; lustier life, 335; language, 352; lecturing, a key, 377; smouldering fire, 385. (See America, Europe, etc.)

Enthusiasm: need of, 143; weakness, 154.

Epicurus, agreement with, 301.

Episcopacy: in Boston, 28, 34, 52; church in Newton, 68; at Hanover, 132; quotation from liturgy, 354; burial service, 356. (See Calvinism, Church, Religion, etc.)

Esquimau, allusion, 167.

Establishment, party of the, 147. (See Puritanism, Religion, Unitarianism, etc.)

Eternal, relations to the, 297. (See God, Jesus, Religion, etc.)

Europe: Emerson's first visit, 62-65; return, 72; the Muses, 114; debt to the East, 120; famous gentlemen, 184; second visit, 193-196; weary of Napoleon, 207; return, 210; conflict possible, 218; third visit, 271-279; cast-out passion for, 308. (See America, England, France, etc.)

Everett, Edward: on Tudor, 28; literary rank, 33; preaching, 52; influence, 148.

Evolution, taught in "Nature," 105, 106.

Eyeball, transparent, 398.

Faith: lacking in America, 143, building cathedrals, 253. (See God, Religion, etc.)

Fine, a characteristic expression, 405.

Fire, illustration, 386. (See England, France, etc.)

Forbes, John M., connected with the Emerson family, 263-265; his letter, 263.

Foster, John, minister of Brighton, 15.

Fourth-of-July, orations, 386. (See America, etc.)

Fox, George, essay on, 73.

France: Emerson's first visit, 62, 63; philosophers, 76; Revolution, 80; tired of Napoleon, 207, 208; realism, 326; wrath, 385, 386. (See Carlyle, England, Europe, etc.)

Francis, Convers, at a party, 149.

Franklin, Benjamin: birthplace, 37; allusion, 184; characteristics, 189; Poor Richard, 231; quoted, 236; maxims, 261; fondness for Plutarch, 382; bequest, 407.

Fraunhofer, Joseph, optician, 230, 324.

Frazer's Magazine: "The Mud," 79; Sartor Resartus, 81. (See Carlyle.)

Freeman, James, minister of King's Chapel, 11, 12, 52. Free Trade, Athenaeum banquet, 220.

Friendship, C.C. Emerson's essay, 22, 23, 77.

Frothingham, Nathaniel L., account of Emerson's mother, 13.

Frothingham, Octavius Brooks: Life of Ripley, 165; an unpublished manuscript, 365-367.

Fuller, Margaret: borrowed sermon, 130; at a party, 149; The Dial, 159, 160, 162; Memoir, 209; causing laughter, 364; mosaic Biography, 368.

Furness, William Henry: on the Emerson family, 14; Emerson's funeral, 350, 353.

Future, party of the, 147.

Galton, Francis, composite portraits, 232.

Gardiner, John Sylvester John: allusion, 26; leadership in Boston, 28; Anthology Society, 32. (See Episcopacy.)

Gardner, John Lowell, recollections of Emerson's boyhood, 38-42.

Gardner, S.P., garden, 38.

Genealogy, survival of the fittest, 3. (See Heredity.)

Gentleman's Magazine, 30.

Gentleman, the, 183.

Geography, illustration, 391.

German: study of, 48, 49, 78, 380; philosophers, 76; scholarship, 148; oracles, 206; writers unread, 208; philosophers, 380; professors, 391.

Germany, a visit, 225, 226. (See Europe, France, Goethe, etc.)

Gifts, 185.

Gilfillan, George: on Emerson's preaching, 65; Emerson's physique, 360.

Gilman, Arthur, on the Concord home, 83.

Glasgow, the rectorship, 280.

God: the universal spirit, 68, 69, 94; face to face, 92, 93; teaching the human mind, 98, 99; aliens from, 101; in us, 139-141; his thought, 146; belief, 170; seen by man, 174; divine offer, 176; writing by grace, 182; presence, 243; tribute to Great First Cause, 267; perplexity about, 410; ever-blessed One, 411; mirrored, 412. (See Christianity, Religion, etc.)

Goethe: called Mr., 31; dead, 63; Clarke's essay, 79; generalizations, 148; influence, 150; on Spinoza, 174, 175; rank as a poet, 202, 320; lovers, 226; rare union, 324; his books read, 380, 381; times quoted, 382. (See German, etc.)

Goldsmith, Oliver, his Vicar of Wakefield, 9, 10, 15.

Good, the study of, 301.

Goodwin, H.B., Concord minister, 56.

Gould, Master of Latin School, 39.

Gould, Thomas R., sculptor, 68.

Gourdin, John Gaillard Keith and Robert, in college, 47.

Government, abolition of, 141.

Grandmother's Review, 30.

Gray, Thomas, Elegy often quoted, 316, 317, 416.

Greece: poetic teaching, 121; allusion, 108.

Greek: Emerson's love for, 43, 44; in Harvard, 49; poets, 253; moralist, 299; Bryant's translation, 378; philosophers, 391. (See Homer, etc.)

Greenough, Horatio, meeting Emerson, 63.

Grimm, Hermann, 226.

Guelfs and Ghibellines, illustration, 47.

Hafiz, times mentioned, 382. (See Persia.)

Hague, William, essay, 413.

Haller, Albert von, rare union, 324.

Harvard, Mass., William Emerson's settlement, 10, 11.

Harvard University: the Bulkeley gift, 6; William Emerson's graduation, 10; list of graduates, 12; Emerson's brothers, 19, 21; Register, 21, 24, 385, 401; Hillard, 24, 25; Kirkland's presidency, 26, 27; Gardner, 39-41; Emerson's connection, 44-49; the Boylston prizes, 46; Southern students, 47; graduates at Andover, 48; Divinity School, 51, 53; a New England centre, 52; Bowen's professorship, 103; Phi Beta Kappa oration, 107, 115, 133, 188, 244; Divinity School address, 116-132; degree conferred, 246; lectures, 249; library, 257; last Divinity address, 294; Commemoration, 307; singing class, 361; graduates, 411. (See Cambridge.)

Haskins, David Green, at Emerson's funeral, 356.

Haskins, Ruth (Emerson's mother), 10, 13, 14. Haughty, a characteristic expression, 405.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel: his Mosses, 70; "dream-peopled solitude," 86; at the club, 223; view of English life, 335; grave, 356; biography, 368.

Hazlitt, William: British Poets, 21.

Health, inspiration, 289.

Hebrew Language, study, 48. (See Bible.)

Hedge, Frederic Henry: at a party, 149; quoted, 383.

Henry VII., tombs, 415.

Herbert, George: Poem on Man, 102; parallel, 170; poetry, 281; a line quoted, 345.

Herder, Johann Gottfried, allusion, 16.

Heredity: Emerson's belief, 1, 2; in Emerson family, 4, 19; Whipple on, 389; Jonson, 393.

Herrick, Robert, poetry, 281.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. (See Emerson's Books,—Nature.)

Hilali, The Flute, 399.

Hillard, George Stillman: in college, 24, 25; his literary place, 33; aid, 276.

Hindoo Scriptures, 199, 200. (See Bible, India, etc.)

History, how it should be written, 168.

Hoar, Ebenezer Rockwood: reference to, 223; on the Burns speech, 225; kindness, 273, 274, 276-279; at Emerson's death-bed, 349; funeral address, 351-353.

Hoar, Samuel: statesman, 72; tribute, 213, 214.

Holland, description of the Dutch, 217.

Holley, Horace, prayer, 267.

Holmes, John, a pupil of Emerson, 50.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell: memories of Dr. Ripley, 15; of C.C. Emerson, 20, 21; familiarity with Cambridge and its college, 45; erroneous quotation from, 251, 252; jest erroneously attributed to, 400, 401.

Holy Ghost, "a new born bard of the," 123. (See Christ, God, Religion, etc.)

Homer: poetic rank, 202, 320; plagiarism, 205; Iliad, 253; allusion, 315; tin pans, 325; times quoted, 382. (See Greek, etc.)

Homer, Jonathan, minister of Newton, 15.

Hooper, Mrs. Ellen, The Dial, 159, 160.

Hope: lacking in America, 143; in every essay, 284.

Horace: allusion, 22; Ars Poetica, 316.

Horses, Flora Temple's time, 388.

Howard University, speech, 263.

Howe, Samuel Gridley, the philanthropist, 223.

Hunt, Leigh, meeting Emerson, 195.

Hunt, William, the painter, 223.

Idealism, 98-100, 146, 150.

Idealists: Ark full, 191; Platonic sense, 391.

Imagination: the faculty, 141; defined, 237, 238; essay, 283; coloring life, 324.

Imbecility, 231.

Immortality, 262. (See God, Religion, etc.)

Incompleteness, in poetry, 339.

India: poetic models, 338; idea of preexistence, 391; Brahmanism, 397. (See Emerson's Poems,—Brahma.)

Indians: in history of Concord, 71; Algonquins, 72.

Inebriation, subject in Monthly Anthology, 30.

Insects, defended, 190.

Inspiration: of Nature, 22, 96, 141; urged, 146.

Instinct, from God or Devil, 393.

Intellect, confidence in, 134.

Intuition, 394.

Ipswich, Mass., 3, 4, 8.

Ireland, Alexander: glimpses of Emerson, 44, 64, 65: reception, 193,194; on Carlyle, 196; letter from Miss Peabody, 317; quoting Whitman, 344; quoted, 350.

Irving, Washington, 33.

Italy: Emerson's first visit, 62, 63; Naples, 113.

Jackson, Charles, garden, 38.

Jackson, Dr. Charles Thomas, anaesthesia, 403.

Jackson, Miss Lydia, reading Carlyle, 81. (See Mrs. Emerson.)

Jahn, Johann, studied at Andover, 48.

Jameson, Anna, new book, 131.

Jesus: times mentioned, 382; a divine manifestation, 411; followers, 417; and Emerson, 419. (See Bible, Christ, Church, Religion, etc.) Joachim, the violinist, 225, 226.

Johnson, Samuel, literary style, 29.

Jonson, Ben: poetic rank, 281; a phrase, 300; traduction, 393. (See Heredity, etc.)

Journals, as a method of work, 384.

Jupiter Scapin, 207.

Jury Trial, and dinners, 216.

Justice, the Arch Abolitionist, 306.

Juvenal: allusion, 22; precept from heaven, 252.

Kalamazoo, Mich., allusion, 388.

Kamschatka, allusion, 167.

Keats, John: quoted, 92; Ode to a Nightingale, 316; faint, swoon, 405.

King, the, illustration, 74.

Kirkland, John Thornton: Harvard presidency, 26, 52; memories, 27.

Koran, allusion, 198. (See Bible, God, Religion, etc.)

Labor: reform, 141; dignity, 142.

Lacenaire, evil instinct, 392.

Laertius, Diogenes, 390, 391.

La Harpe, Jean Francois, on Plutarch, 301.

Lamarck, theories, 166.

Lamb, Charles, Carlyle's criticism, 196.

Landor, Walter Savage, meeting Emerson, 63.

Landscape, never painted, 339, 240. (See Pictures, etc.)

Language: its symbolism, 95-97; an original, 394.

Latin: Peter Bulkeley's scholarship, 7; translation, 24, 25; Emerson's Translations, 43, 44.

Laud, Archbishop, 6.

Law, William, mysticism, 396.

Lawrence, Mass., allusion, 44.

Lecturing, given up, 295. (See Emerson's Essays, Lectures, etc.)

Leibnitz, 386.

Leroux, Pierre, preexistance, 391.

Letters, inspiration, 289.

Lincoln, Abraham, character, 307. (See Emerson's Essays.)

Linnaeus, illustration, 323, 324.

Litanies, in Emerson, 314. (See Episcopacy.)

Literature: aptitude for, 2, 3; activity in 1820, 147.

Little Classics, edition, 347.

Liverpool, Eng., a visit, 193, 194. (See England, Europe, Scotland, etc.)

Locke, John, allusion, 16, 111.

London, England.: Tower Stairs, 63; readers, 194; sights, 221; travellers, 308; wrath, 385. (See England, etc.)

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth: allusions, 31, 33; Saturday Club, 222, 223; burial, 346.

Lord, Nathan, President of Dartmouth College, 132.

Lord's Supper, Emerson's doubts, 57-61.

Lothrop & Co., publishers, 83.

Louisville, Ky., Dr. Clarke's residence, 78-80.

Lounsbury, Professor, Chaucer letter, 205.

Love: in America, 143; the Arch Abolitionist, 306. (See Emerson's Poems.)

Lowell, Charles: minister of the West Church, 11, 12, 52; on Kirkland, 27.

Lowell, F.C., generosity, 276.

Lowell, James Russell: an allusion, 33; on The American Scholar, 107; editorship, 221; club, 223; on the Burns speech, 225; on Emerson's bearing, 360, 361; Hawthorne biography, 368; on lectures, 379.

Lowell, Mass., factories, 44.

Luther, Martin: lecture, 73; his conservatism, 298; times mentioned, 382.

Lyceum, the: a pulpit, 88; New England, 192; a sacrifice, 378. (See Lecturing, Emerson's Lectures, etc.)

Lycurgus, 306. (See Greece.)

Mackintosh, Sir James, an allusion, 16.

Macmillan's Magazine, 414.

Malden, Mass.: Joseph Emerson's ministry, 8; diary, 17.

Man: a fable about, 109, 110; faith in, 122; apostrophe, 140.

Manchester, Eng.: visit, 194, 195; banquet, 220. (See England, etc.)

Marlowe, Christopher, expressions, 404.

Marvell, Andrew: reading by C.C. Emerson, 21; on the Dutch, 217; verse, 338.

Mary, Queen, her martyrs, 418.

Massachusetts Historical Society: tribute to C.C. Emerson, 21; quality of its literature, 84; on Carlyle, 294.

Massachusetts Quarterly Review, 193, 302, 307, 411. Materialism, 146, 391. (See Religion.)

Mather, Cotton: his Magnalia, 5-7; on Concord discord, 57; on New England Melancholy, 216; a borrower, 381.

Mathew, Father, disciples, 368.

Mayhew, Jonathan, Boston minister, 51.

Melioration, a characteristic expression, 405.

Mendon, Mass., Joseph Emerson's ministry, 4.

Mephistopheles, Goethe's creation, 208.

Merrimac River, 71.

Metaphysics, indifference to, 249.

Methodism, in Boston, 56. (See Father Taylor.)

Michael Angelo: allusions, 73, 75; on external beauty, 99; course, 260; filled with God, 284; on immortality, 290; times mentioned, 382.

Middlesex Agricultural Association, 235. (See Agriculture, Emerson's Essays.)

Middlesex Association, Emerson admitted, 53.

Miller's Retrospect, 34.

Milton, John: influence in New England, 16; quotation, 24; essay, 73, 75; compared with Emerson, 76, 77; Lycidas, 178; supposed speech, 220; diet, 270, 271; poetic rank, 281; Arnold's citation, Logic, Rhetoric, 315; popularity, 316; quoted, 324; tin pans, 325; inventor of harmonies, 328; Lycidas, 333; Comus, 338; times mentioned, 382; precursor, quotation, 415.

Miracles: false impression, 121, 122; and idealism, 146; theories, 191; St. Januarius, 217; objections, 244. (See Bible, Christ, Religion, etc.)

Modena, Italy, Emerson's visit, 63.

Monadnoc, Mount, 70.

Montaigne: want of religion, 300; great authority, 380; times quoted, 382.

Montesquieu, on immortality, 291.

Monthly Anthology: Wm. Emerson's connection, 13, 26; precursor of North American Review, 28, 29; character, 30, 31; Quincy's tribute, 31; Society formed, 32; career, 33; compared with The Dial, 160.

Moody Family, of York, Me., 8,10.

Morals, in Plutarch, 301.

Morison, John Hopkins, on Emerson's preaching, 67.

Mormons, 264, 268.

Mother-wit, a favorite expression, 404, 405.

Motley, John Lothrop, 33, 223.

Mount Auburn, strolls, 40.

Movement, party of the, 147.

Munroe & Co., publishers, 81.

Music: church, 306; inaptitude for, 361; great composers, 401.

Musketaquid River, 22, 70, 71.

Mysticism: unintelligible, 390; Emerson's, 396.

Napoleon: allusion, 197; times mentioned, 382.

Napoleon III., 225.

Nation, The, Emerson's interest in, 348.

Native Bias, 288.

Nature: in undress, 72; solicitations, 110; not truly studied, 135; great men, 199; tortured, 402. (See Emerson's Books, Emerson's Essays, etc.)

Negations, to be shunned, 285.

New Bedford, Mass., Emerson's preaching, 52, 67.

Newbury, Mass., Edward Emerson's deaconship, 8.

New England: families, 2, 3, 5; Peter Bulkeley's coming, 6; clerical virtues, 9; Church, 14; literary sky, 33; domestic service, 34, 35; two centres, 52; an ideal town, 70, 71; the Delphi, 72; Carlyle invited, 83; anniversaries, 84; town records, 85; Genesis, 102; effect of Nature, 106; boys and girls, 163; Massachusetts, Connecticut River, 172; lyceums, 192; melancholy, 216; New Englanders and Old, 220; meaning of a word, 296, 297; eyes, 325; life, 325, 335; birthright, 364; a thorough New Englander, 406; Puritan, 409; theologians, 410; Jesus wandering in, 419. (See America, England, etc.)

Newspapers: defaming the noble, 145; in Shakespeare's day, 204.

Newton, Mass.: its minister, 15; Episcopal Church, 68. (See Rice.)

Newton, Sir Isaac, times quoted, 382.

Newton, Stuart, sketches, 130.

New World, gospel, 371. (See America.)

New York: Brevoort House, 246; Genealogical Society, 413.

Niagara, visit, 263.

Nidiver, George, ballad, 259.

Nightingale, Florence, 220.

Nithsdale, Eng., mountains, 78.

Non-Resistance, 141.

North American Review: its predecessor, 28, 29, 33; the writers, 34; Emerson's contributions, 73; Ethics, 294, 295; Bryant's article, 328.

Northampton, Mass., Emerson's preaching, 53.

Norton, Andrews: literary rank, 34; professorship, 52.

Norton, Charles Eliot: editor of Correspondence, 82; on Emerson's genius, 373.

Old Manse, The: allusion, 70; fire, 271-279. (See Concord.)

Oliver, Daniel, in Dartmouth College, 132.

Optimism: in philosophy, 136; "innocent luxuriance," 211; wanted by the young, 373.

Oriental: genius, 120; spirit in Emerson, 179.

Orpheus, allusion, 319.

Paine, R.T., JR., quoted, 31.

Palfrey, John Gorham: literary rank, 34; professorship, 52.

Pan, the deity, 140.

Pantheism: in Wordsworth and Nature, 103; dreaded, 141; Emerson's, 410, 411.

Paris, Trance: as a residence, 78; allusion, 167; salons, 184; visit, 196, 308.

Parker, Theodore: a right arm of freedom, 127; at a party, 149; The Dial, 159, 160; editorship, 193; death, 228; essence of Christianity, 306; biography, 368; on Emerson's position, 411.

Parkhurst, John, studied at Andover, 48.

Parr, Samuel, allusion, 28.

Past, party of the, 147.

Peabody, Andrew Preston, literary rank, 34.

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer: her Aesthetic Papers, 88; letter to Mr. Ireland, 317.

Peirce, Benjamin, mathematician, 223.

Pelagianisin, 51. (See Religion.)

Pepys, Samuel, allusion, 12.

Pericles, 184, 253.

Persia, poetic models, 338. (See Emerson's Poems, Saadi).

Pessimism, 286. (See Optimism).

Philadelphia, Pa., society, 184.

Philanthropy, activity in 1820, 147.

Philolaus, 199.

Pie, fondness for, 269.

Pierce, John: the minister of Brookline, 11; "our clerical Pepys," 12.

Pindar, odes, 253. (See Greek, Homer, etc.)

Plagiarism, 205, 206, 287, 288, 384. (See Quotations, Mather, etc.)

Plato: influence on Mary Emerson, 16, 17; over Emerson, 22, 52, 173, 188, 299, 301; youthful essay, 74; Alcott's study, 150; reading, 197; borrowed thought, 205, 206; Platonic idea, 222; a Platonist, 267; saints of Platonism, 298; academy inscription, 365; great authority, 380; times quoted, 382; Symposium and Phaedrus quoted, 387; tableity, preexistence, 391; Diogenes dialogue, 401; a Platonist, 411. (See Emerson's Books, and Essays, Greek, etc.)

Plotinus: influence over Mary Emerson, 16, 17; ashamed of his body, 99; motto, 105; opinions, 173, 174; studied, 380.

Plutarch: allusion, 22; his Lives, 50; study, 197; on immortality, 291; influence over Emerson, 299 et seq.; his great authority, 380; times mentioned, 382; Emerson on, 383; imagery quoted, 385; style, 405.

Plymouth, Mass.: letters written, 78, 79; marriage, 83.

Poetry: as an inspirer, 290; Milton on, 315. (See Shakespeare, etc.)

Poets: list in Parnassus, 281; comparative popularity, 316, 317; consulting Emerson, 408. (See Emerson's Poems).

Politics: activity in 1820, 147; in Saturday Club, 259.

Pomeroy, Jesse, allusion, 393.

Pope, Alexander, familiar lines, 316

Porphyry: opinions, 173, 174; studied, 380.

Porto Rico, E.B. Emerson's death, 19.

Power, practical, 259.

Prayer: not enough, 138, 139; anecdotes, 267. (See God, Religion, etc.)

Preaching, a Christian blessing, 123. Preexistence, 391.

Presbyterianism, in Scotland, 409.

Prescott, William, the Judge's mansion, 38.

Prescott, William Hickling: rank, 33; Conquest of Mexico, 38.

Prior, Matthew, 30.

Proclus, influence, 173, 380.

Prometheus, 209.

Prospects, for man, 101-103. (See Emerson's Essays.)

Protestantism, its idols, 28. (See Channing, Religion, Unitarianism, etc.)

Psammetichus, an original language, 394. (See Heredity, Language, etc.)

Punch, London, 204.

Puritans, rear guard, 15. (See Calvinism, etc.)

Puritanism: relaxation from, 30; after-clap, 268; in New England, 409. (See Unitarianism.)

Putnam's Magazine, on Samuel Hoar, 213, 214.

Pythagoras: imagery quoted, 385; preexistence, 391.

Quakers, seeing only broad-brims, 218.

Quincy, Josiah: History of Boston Athenaeum, 31; tribute to the Anthology, 32, 33; memories of Emerson, 45-47; old age, 261.

Quotations, 381-383. (See Plagiarism, etc.)

Raleigh, Sir Walter, verse, 338.

Raphael, his Transfiguration, 134. (See Allston, Painters, etc.)

Rats, illustration, 167, 168.

Reed, Sampson, his Growth of the Mind, 80.

Reforms, in America, 141-145.

Reformers, fairness towards, 156, 157, 188-192. (See Anti-Slavery, John Brown.)

Religion: opinions of Wm. Emerson and others, 11-13; nature the symbol of spirit, 95; pleas for independence, 117; universal sentiment, 118-120; public rites, 152; Church of England, 219; of the future, 235; relative positions towards, 409, 410; Trinity, 411; Emerson's belief, 412-415; bigotry modified, 414. (See Calvinism, Channing, Christ, Emerson's Life, Essays, and Poems, Episcopacy, God, Unitarianism, etc.)

Republicanism, spiritual, 36.

Revolutionary War: Wm. Emerson's service, 8, 9; subsequent confusion, 25, 32; Concord's part, 71, 72, 292, 293. (See America, New England, etc.)

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 228.

Rhythm, 328, 329, 340. (See Emerson's Poems, etc.)

Rice, Alexander H., anecdote, 68, 69, 346. (See Newton.)

Richard Plantagenet, 197.

Ripley, Ezra: minister of Concord, 10; Emerson's sketch, 14-16; garden, 42; colleague, 56; residence, 70.

Ripley, George: a party, 149; The Dial, 159; Brook Farm, 164-166; on Emerson's limitations, 380.

Robinson, Edward, literary rank, 34.

Rochester, N.Y., speech, 168.

Rome: allusions, 167, 168; growth, 222; amphora, 321. (See Latin.)

Romilly, Samuel, allusion, 220.

Rose, anecdote, 345. (See Flowers.)

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, his Savoyard Vicar, 51, 52.

Ruskin, John: on metaphysics, 250; certain chapters, 336; pathetic fallacy, 337; plagiarism, 384.

Russell, Ben., quoted, 267.

Russell, Le Baron: on Sartor Resartus, 81, 82; groomsman, 83; aid in rebuilding the Old Manse, 272-279; Concord visit, 345.

Saadi: a borrower, 205; times mentioned, 382. (See Persia.)

Sabbath: a blessing of Christianity, 123, 298.

Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin, on poetry, 339.

Saint Paul, times mentioned, 382. (See Bible.)

Saladin, 184.

Sallust, on Catiline, 207.

Sanborn, Frank B.: facts about Emerson, 42, 43, 66; Thoreau memoir, 368; old neighbor, 373.

Sapor, 184.

Satan, safety from, 306. (See Mephistopheles, Religion, etc.)

Saturday Club: establishment, 221-223, 258; last visits, 346, 347; familiarity at, 368.

Scaliger, quotation, 109, 110.

Schelling, idealism, 148; influence 173.

Schiller, on immortality, 290.

Scholarship: a priesthood, 137; docility of, 289.

School-teaching, 297. (See Chelmsford.)

Schopenhauer, Arthur: his pessimism, 286; idea of a philosopher, 359.

Science: growth of, 148; Emerson inaccurate in, 256; attitude toward, 401, 402. (See C.C. Emerson.)

Scipio, 184.

Scotland: Carlyle's haunts, 79; notabilities, 195, 196; Presbyterian, 409.

Scott, Sir Walter: allusion, 22; quotations, 23, 77; dead, 63; "the hand of Douglas," 234; as a poet, 281; popularity, 316; poetic rank, 321.

Self: the highest, 113; respect for, 288, 289.

Seneca, Montaigne's study, 382.

Shakespeare: allusion, 22; Hamlet, 90, 94; Benedick and love, 106; disputed line, 128, 129; an idol, 197; poetic rank, 202, 281, 320, 321; plagiarism, 204-206; on studies, 257, 258; supremacy, 328; a comparison, 374; a playwright, 375, 376; punctiliousness of Portia, 378; times mentioned, 382; lunatic, lover, poet, 387; Polonius, 389; mother-wit, 404; fine Ariel, 405; adamant, 418.

Shattuck, Lemuel, History of Concord, 382.

Shaw, Lemuel, boarding-place, 43.

Shelley, Percy Bysshe: Ode to the West Wind, 316, 399; redundant syllable, 328; Adonais, 333.

Shenandoah Mountain, 306.

Shingle, Emerson's jest, 364.

Ships: illustration of longitude, 154; erroneous quotation, 251, 252; building illustration, 376, 377.

Sicily: Emerson's visit, 62; Etna, 113.

Sidney, Sir Philip, Chevy Chace, 379.

Silsbee, William, aid in publishing Carlyle, 81.

Simonides, prudence, 410.

Sisyphus, illustration, 334.

Sleight-of-hand, illustration, 332.

Smith, James and Horace, Rejected Addresses, 387, 397.

Smith, Sydney, on bishops, 219.

Socrates: allusion, 203; times mentioned, 382.

Solitude, sought, 135.

Solomon, epigrammatic, 405. (See Bible.)

Solon, 199.

Sophron, 199.

South, the: Emerson's preaching tour, 53; Rebellion, 305, 407. (See America, Anti-Slavery, etc.)

Southerners, in college, 47.

Sparks, Jared, literary rank, 33.

Spenser, Edmund: stanza, 335, 338; soul making body, 391; mother-wit, 404.

Spinoza, influence, 173, 380.

Spirit and matter, 100, 101. (See God, Religion, Spenser, etc.)

Spiritualism, 296.

Sprague, William Buel, Annals of the American Pulpit, 10-12.

Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn, on American religion, 414.

Star: "hitch your wagon to a star," 252, 253; stars in poetry, 324.

Sterling, J. Hutchinson, letter to, 282, 283.

Stewart, Dugald, allusion, 16.

Story, Joseph, literary rank, 33.

Stuart, Moses, literary rank, 33.

Studio, illustration, 20.

Summer, description, 117.

Sumner, Charles: literary rank, 33: the outrage on, 211; Saturday Club, 223.

Swedenborg, Emanuel: poetic rank, 202, 320; dreams, 306; Rosetta-Stone, 322; times mentioned, 382.

Swedenborgians: liking for a paper of Carlyle's, 78; Reed's essay, 80; spiritual influx, 412.

Swift, Jonathan: allusion, 30; the Houyhnhnms, 163; times mentioned, 382.

Synagogue, illustration, 169.

Tappan, Mrs. Caroline, The Dial, 159.

Tartuffe, allusion, 312.

Taylor, Father, relation to Emerson, 55, 56, 413.

Taylor, Jeremy: allusion, 22; Emerson's study, 52; "the Shakespeare of divines," 94; praise for, 306.

Teague, Irish name, 143.

Te Deum: the hymn, 68; illustration, 82.

Temperance, the reform, 141, 152. (See Reforms.)

Tennyson, Alfred: readers, 256; tobacco, 270; poetic rank, 281; In Memoriam, 333; on plagiarism, 384.

Thacher, Samuel Cooper: allusion, 26; death, 29.

Thayer, James B.: Western Journey with Emerson, 249, 263, 265-271, 359; ground swell, 364. (See California.)

Thinkers, let loose, 175.

Thomson, James, descriptions, 338.

Thoreau, Henry D.: allusion, 22; a Crusoe, 72; "nullifier of civilization," 86; one-apartment house, 142, 143; The Dial, 159, 160; death, 228; Emerson's burial-place, 356; biography, 368; personality traceable, 389; woodcraft, 403.

Ticknor, George: on William Emerson, 12; on Kirkland, 27; literary rank, 33.

Traduction, 393. (See Heredity, Jonson, etc.)

Transcendentalism: Bowen's paper, 103, 104; idealism, 146; adherents, 150-152; dilettanteism, 152-155; a terror, 161.

Transcendentalist, The, 157-159.

Truth: as an end, 99; sought, 135.

Tudor, William: allusion, 26; connecting literary link, 28, 29.

Turgot, quoted, 98, 99.

Tyburn, allusion, 183.

Unitarianism: Dr. Freeman's, 11, 12; nature of Jesus, 13; its sunshine, 28; white-handed, 34; headquarters, 35; lingual studies, 48, 49; transition, 51; domination, 52; pulpits, 53, 54; chapel in Edinburgh, 65; file-leaders, 118; its organ, 124; "pale negations," 298. (See Religion, Trinity, etc.)

United States, intellectual history, 32. (See America, New England, etc.)

Unity, in diversity, 73, 106, 284.

Upham, Charles W., his History, 45.

Verne, Jules, onditologie, 186.

Verplanck, Gulian Crommelin, literary rank, 33.

Virginia, University of, 299.

Volcano, illustration, 113.

Voltaire, 409.

Voting, done reluctantly, 152, 153.

Wachusett, Mount, 70.

Walden Pond: allusion, 22, 70, 72; cabin, 142, 143. (See Concord.)

War: outgrown, 88, 89; ennobling, 298.

Ware, Henry, professorship, 52. (See Harvard University.)

Ware, Henry, Jr.: Boston ministry, 55; correspondence, 124-127. (See Unitarianism, etc.)

Warren, John Collins, Transcendentalism and Temperance, 149.

Warren, Judge, of New Bedford, 67.

Warwick Castle, fire, 275.

Washington City, addresses, 307. (See Anti-Slavery, etc.)

Waterville College, Adelphi Society, 135-142.

Webster, Daniel: E.B. Emerson's association with, 19; on Tudor, 28, 29; literary rank, 33; Seventh-of-March Speech, 303; times mentioned, 382.

Weiss, John, Parker biography, 368.

Wellington, Lord, seen by Emerson, 63, 64.

Wesley, John, praise of, 306. (See Methodism.)

Western Messenger, poems in, 128.

West India Islands, Edward B. Emerson's death, 89.

Westminster Abbey, Emerson's visit, 63, 64. (See Emerson's Books,—English Traits,—England, etc.)

Westminster Catechism, 298. (See Calvinism, Religion, etc.)

Whipple, Edwin Percy: literary rank, 33; club, 223; on heredity, 389.

White of Selborne, 228.

Whitman, Walt: his enumerations, 325, 326; journal, 344, 346.

Wilberforce, William, funeral, 64.

Will: inspiration of, 289; power of, 290.

Windermere, Lake, 70. (See England.)

Winthrop, Francis William, in college, 45.

Wolfe, Charles, Burial of Moore, 416.

Woman: her position, 212, 213, 251; crossing a street, 364.

Woman's Club, 16.

Words, Emerson's favorite, 404, 405. (See Emerson's Poems,—Days.)

Wordsworth, William: Emerson's account, 63; early reception, Excursion, 92, 95; quoted, 96, 97; Tintern Abbey, 103; influence, 148, 150; poetic rank, 281, 321; on Immortality, 293, 392; popularity, 316; serenity, 335; study of nature, 337; times mentioned, 382; We are Seven, 393; prejudice against science, 401.

Wotton, Sir Henry, quoted, 259.

Yankee: a spouting, 136; improve, 176; whittling, 364. (See America, New England, etc.)

Yoga, Hindoo idea, 397.

Young, Brigham: Utah, 264, 268; on preexistence, 391.

Young, Edward, influence in New England, 16, 17.

Zola, Emile, offensive realism, 326.

THE END

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