American Hero-Myths - A Study in the Native Religions of the Western Continent
by Daniel G. Brinton
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[Footnote 1: "Juxta Paraquariae metropolim rupes utcumque cuspidata, sed in modicam planitiem desinens cernitur, in cujus summitate vestigia pedum humanorum saxo impressa adhuc manent, affirmantibus constanter indigenis, ex eo loco Apostolum Thomam multitudini undequaque ad eum audiendum confluenti solitum fuisse legem divinam tradere: et addunt mandiocae, ex qua farinam suam ligneam conficiunt, plantandae rationem ab eodem accepisse." P. Nicolao del Techo, Historia Provincial Paraquariae Societatis Jesu, Lib. vi, cap. iv (folio, Leodii, 1673).]

[Footnote 2: "Ipse abii," he writes in his well known Letter, "et propriis oculis inspexi, quatuor pedum et digitorum satis alte impressa vestigia, quae nonnunquam aqua excrescens cooperit." The reader will remember the similar event in the history of Quetzalcoatl (see above, chapter iii, Sec.3)]

The story was that wherever this hero-god walked, he left behind him a well-marked path, which was permanent, and as the Muyscas of New Granada pointed out the path of Bochica, so did the Guaranays that of Zume, which the missionaries regarded "not without astonishment."[1] He lived a certain length of time with his people and then left them, going back over the ocean toward the East, according to some accounts. But according to others, he was driven away by his stiff-necked and unwilling auditors, who had become tired of his advice. They pursued him to the bank of a river, and there, thinking that the quickest riddance of him was to kill him, they discharged their arrows at him. But he caught the arrows in his hand and hurled them back, and dividing the waters of the river by his divine power he walked between them to the other bank, dry-shod, and disappeared from their view in the distance.

[Footnote 1: "E Brasilia in Guairaniam euntibus spectabilis adhuc semita viditur, quam ab Sancto Thoma ideo incolae vocant, quod per eam Apostolus iter fecisse credatur; quae semita quovis anni tempore eumdem statum conservat, modice in ea crescendibus herbis, ab adjacenti campo multum herbescenti prorsus dissimilibus, praebetque speciem viae artificiose ductae; quam Socii nostri Guairaniam excolentes persaepe non sine stupore perspexisse se testantur." Nicolao del Techo, ubi supra, Lib. vi, cap. iv.

The connection of this myth with the course of the sun in the sky, "the path of the bright God," as it is called in the Veda, appears obvious. So also in later legend we read of the wonderful slot or trail of the dragon Fafnir across the Glittering Heath, and many cognate instances, which mythologists now explain by the same reference.]

Like all the hero-gods, he left behind him the well-remembered promise that at some future day he should return to them, and that a race of men should come in time, to gather them into towns and rule them in peace.[1] These predictions were carefully noted by the missionaries, and regarded as the "unconscious prophecies of heathendom" of the advent of Christianity; but to me they bear too unmistakably the stamp of the light-myth I have been following up in so many localities of the New World for me to entertain a doubt about their origin and meaning.

[Footnote 1: "Ilium quoque pollicitum fuisse, se aliquando has regiones revisurum." Father Nobrega, ubi supra. For the other particulars I have given see Nicolao del Techo, Historia Provinciae Paraquariae, Lib. vi, cap. iv, "De D. Thomae Apostoli itineribus;" and P. Antonio Ruiz, Conquista Espiritual hecha por los Religiosos de la Compania de Jesus en las Provincias del Paraguay, Parana, Uruguay y Tape, fol. 29, 30 (4to., Madrid, 1639). The remarkable identity of the words relating to their religious beliefs and observances throughout this widespread group of tribes has been demonstrated and forcibly commented on by Alcide D'Orbigny, L'Homme Americain, vol. ii, p. 277. The Vicomte de Porto Seguro identifies Zume with the Cemi of the Antilles, and this etymology is at any rate not so fanciful as most of those he gives in his imaginative work, L'Origine Touranienne des Americaines Tupis-Caribes, p. 62 (Vienna, 1876).]

I have not yet exhausted the sources from which I could bring evidence of the widespread presence of the elements of this mythical creation in America. But probably I have said enough to satisfy the reader on this point. At any rate it will be sufficient if I close the list with some manifest fragments of the myth, picked out from the confused and generally modern reports we have of the religions of the Athabascan race. This stem is one of the most widely distributed in North America, extending across the whole continent south of the Eskimos, and scattered toward the warmer latitudes quite into Mexico. It is low down in the intellectual scale, its component tribes are usually migratory savages, and its dialects are extremely synthetic and of difficult phonetics, requiring as many as sixty-five letters for their proper orthography. No wonder, therefore, that we have but limited knowledge of their mental life.

Conspicuous in their myths is the tale of the Two Brothers. These mysterious beings are upon the earth before man appears. Though alone, they do not agree, and the one attacks and slays the other. Another brother appears on the scene, who seems to be the one slain, who has come to life, and the two are given wives by the Being who was the Creator of things. These two women were perfectly beautiful, but invisible to the eyes of mortals. The one was named, The Woman of the Light or The Woman of the Morning; the other was the Woman of Darkness or the Woman of Evening. The brothers lived together in one tent with these women, who each in turn went out to work. When the Woman of Light was at work, it was daytime; when the Woman of Darkness was at her labors, it was night.

In the course of time one of the brothers disappeared and the other determined to select a wife from one of the two women, as it seems he had not yet chosen. He watched what the Woman of Darkness did in her absence, and discovered that she descended into the waters and enjoyed the embraces of a monster, while the Woman of Light passed her time in feeding white birds. In course of time the former brought forth black man-serpents, while the Woman of Light was delivered of beautiful boys with white skins. The master of the house killed the former with his arrows, but preserved the latter, and marrying the Woman of Light, became the father of the human race, and especially of the Dene Dindjie, who have preserved the memory of him.[1]

[Footnote 1: Monographie des Dene Dindjie, par C.R.P.E. Petitot, pp. 84-87 (Paris, 1876). Elsewhere the writer says: "Tout d'abord je dois rappeler mon observation que presque toujours, dans les traditions Dene, le couple primitif se compose de deux freres." Ibid., p. 62.]

In another myth of this stock, clearly a version of the former, this father of the race is represented as a mighty bird, called Yel, or Yale, or Orelbale, from the root ell, a term they apply to everything supernatural. He took to wife the daughter of the Sun (the Woman of Light), and by her begat the race of man. He formed the dry land for a place for them to live upon, and stocked the rivers with salmon, that they might have food. When he enters his nest it is day, but when he leaves it it is night; or, according to another myth, he has the two women for wives, the one of whom makes the day, the other the night.

In the beginning Yel was white in plumage, but he had an enemy, by name Cannook, with whom he had various contests, and by whose machinations he was turned black. Yel is further represented as the god of the winds and storms, and of the thunder and lightning.[1]

[Footnote 1: For the extent and particulars of this myth, many of the details of which I omit, see Petitot, ubi supra, pp. 68, 87, note; Matthew Macfie. Travels in Vancouver Island and British Columbia, pp. 452-455 (London, 1865); and J.K. Lord, The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British Columbia (London, 1866). It is referred to by Mackenzie and other early writers.]

Thus we find, even in this extremely low specimen of the native race, the same basis for their mythology as in the most cultivated nations of Central America. Not only this; it is the same basis upon which is built the major part of the sacred stories of all early religions, in both continents; and the excellent Father Petitot, who is so much impressed by these resemblances that he founds upon them a learned argument to prove that the Dene are of oriental extraction,[1] would have written more to the purpose had his acquaintance with American religions been as extensive as it was with those of Asiatic origin.

[Footnote 1: See his "Essai sur l'Origine des Dene-Dindjie," in his Monographie, above quoted.]

There is one point in all these myths which I wish to bring out forcibly. That is, the distinction which is everywhere drawn between the God of Light and the Sun. Unless this distinction is fully comprehended, American mythology loses most of its meaning.

The assertion has been so often repeated, even down to the latest writers, that the American Indians were nearly all sun-worshipers, that I take pains formally to contradict it. Neither the Sun nor the Spirit of the Sun was their chief divinity.

Of course, the daily history of the appearance and disappearance of light is intimately connected with the apparent motion of the sun. Hence, in the myths there is often a seeming identification of the two, which I have been at no pains to avoid. But the identity is superficial only; it entirely disappears in other parts of the myth, and the conceptions, as fundamentally distinct, must be studied separately, to reach accurate results. It is an easy, but by no means a profound method of treating these religions, to dismiss them all by the facile explanations of "animism," and "sun and moon worship."

I have said, and quoted strong authority to confirm the opinion, that the native tribes of America have lost ground in morals and have retrograded in their religious life since the introduction of Christianity. Their own faiths, though lower in form, had in them the germs of a religious and moral evolution, more likely, with proper regulation, to lead these people to a higher plane of thought than the Aryan doctrines which were forced upon them.

This may seem a daring, even a heterodox assertion, but I think that most modern ethnologists will agree that it is no more possible for races in all stages of culture and of widely different faculties to receive with benefit any one religion, than it is for them to thrive under one form of government, or to adopt with advantage one uniform plan of building houses. The moral and religious life is a growth, and the brash wood of ancient date cannot be grafted on the green stem. It is well to remember that the heathendoms of America were very far from wanting living seeds of sound morality and healthy mental education. I shall endeavor to point this out in a few brief paragraphs.

In their origin in the human mind, religion and morality have nothing in common. They are even antagonistic. At the root of all religions is the passionate desire for the widest possible life, for the most unlimited exercise of all the powers. The basis of all morality is self-sacrifice, the willingness to give up our wishes to the will of another. The criterion of the power of a religion is its ability to command this sacrifice; the criterion of the excellence of a religion is the extent to which its commands coincide with the good of the race, with the lofty standard of the "categorical imperative."

With these axioms well in mind, we can advance with confidence to examine the claims of a religion. It will rise in the scale just in proportion as its behests, were they universally adopted, would permanently increase the happiness of the human race.

In their origin, as I have said, morality and religion are opposites; but they are opposites which inevitably attract and unite. The first lesson of all religions is that we gain by giving, that to secure any end we must sacrifice something. This, too, is taught by all social intercourse, and, therefore, an acute German psychologist has set up the formula," All manners are moral,"[1] because they all imply a subjection of the personal will of the individual to the general will of those who surround him, as expressed in usage and custom.

[Footnote 1: "Alle Sitten sind sittlich." Lazarus, Ursprung der Sitte, S. 5, quoted by Roskoff. I hardly need mention that our word morality, from mos, means by etymology, simply what is customary and of current usage. The moral man is he who conforms himself to the opinions of the majority. This is also at the basis of Robert Browning's definition of a people: "A people is but the attempt of many to rise to the completer life of one" (A Soul's Tragedy).]

Even the religion which demands bloody sacrifices, which forces its votaries to futile and abhorrent rites, is at least training its adherents in the virtues of obedience and renunciation, in endurance and confidence.

But concerning American religions I need not have recourse to such a questionable vindication. They held in them far nobler elements, as is proved beyond cavil by the words of many of the earliest missionaries themselves. Bigoted and bitter haters of the native faiths, as they were, they discovered in them so much that was good, so much that approximated to the purer doctrines that they themselves came to teach, that they have left on record many an attempt to prove that there must, in some remote and unknown epoch, have come Christian teachers to the New World, St. Thomas, St. Bartholomew, monks from Ireland, or Asiatic disciples, to acquaint the natives with such salutary doctrines. It is precisely in connection with the myths which I have been relating in this volume that these theories were put forth, and I have referred to them in various passages.

The facts are as stated, but the credit of developing these elevated moral conceptions must not be refused to the red race. They are its own property, the legitimate growth of its own religious sense.

The hero-god, the embodiment of the Light of Day, is essentially a moral and beneficent creation. Whether his name be Michabo, Ioskeha, or Quetzalcoatl, Itzamna, Viracocha or Tamu, he is always the giver of laws, the instructor in the arts of social life, the founder of commonwealths, the patron of agriculture. He casts his influence in favor of peace, and against wars and deeds of violence. He punishes those who pursue iniquity, and he favors those who work for the good of the community.

In many instances he sets an example of chaste living, of strict temperance, of complete subjection of the lusts and appetites. I have but to refer to what I have already said of the Maya Kukulcan and the Aztec Quetzalcoatl, to show this. Both are particularly noted as characters free from the taint of indulgence.

Thus it occurred that the early monks often express surprise that these, whom they chose to call savages and heathens, had developed a moral law of undeniable purity. "The matters that Bochica taught," says the chronicler Piedrahita, "were certainly excellent, inasmuch as these natives hold as right to do just the same that we do." "The priests of these Muyscas," he goes on to say, "lived most chastely and with great purity of life, insomuch that even in eating, their food was simple and of small quantity, and they refrained altogether from women and marriage. Did one transgress in this respect, he was dismissed from the priesthood."[1]

[Footnote 1: "Las cosas que el Bochica les ensenaba eran buenas, siendo assi, que tenian por malo lo mismo que nosotros tenemos por tal." Piedrahita, Historia General de las Conquistas del Nuevo Reyno de Granada, Lib. i, Cap. iii.]

The prayers addressed to these deities breathe as pure a spirit of devotion as many now heard in Christian lands. Change the names, and some of the formulas preserved by Christobal de Molina and Sahagun would not jar on the ears of a congregation in one of our own churches.

Although sanguinary rites were common, they were not usual in the worship of these highest divinities, but rather as propitiations to the demons of the darkness, or the spirits of the terrible phenomena of nature. The mild god of light did not demand them.

To appreciate the effect of all this on the mind of the race, let it be remembered that these culture-heroes were also the creators, the primal and most potent of divinities, and that usually many temples and a large corps of priests were devoted to their worship, at least in the nations of higher civilization. These votaries were engaged in keeping alive the myth, in impressing the supposed commands of the deity on the people, and in imitating him in example and precept. Thus they had formed a lofty ideal of man, and were publishing this ideal to their fellows. Certainly this could not fail of working to the good of the nation, and of elevating and purifying its moral conceptions.

That it did so we have ample evidence in the authentic accounts of the ancient society as it existed before the Europeans destroyed and corrupted it, and in the collections of laws, all distinctly stamped with the seal of religion, which have been preserved, as they were in vogue in Anahuac, Utatlan, Peru and other localities.[1] Any one who peruses these will see that the great moral principles, the radical doctrines of individual virtue, were clearly recognized and deliberately enforced as divine and civil precepts in these communities. Moreover, they were generally and cheerfully obeyed, and the people of many of these lands were industrious, peaceable, moral, and happy, far more so than they have ever been since.

[Footnote 1: The reader willing to pursue the argument further can find these collections of ancient American laws in Sahagun, Historia de Nueva Espana, for Mexico; in Geronimo Roman, Republica de las Indias Occidentales, for Utatlan and other nations; for Peru in the Relacion del Origen, Descendencia, Politica, y Gobierno de los Incas, por el licenciado Fernando de Santillan (published at Madrid. 1879); and for the Muyscas, in Piedrahita, Hist. Gen. del Nuevo Reyno de Granada, Lib. ii, cap. v.]

There was also a manifest progress in the definition of the idea of God, that is, of a single infinite intelligence as the source and controlling power of phenomena. We have it on record that in Peru this was the direct fruit of the myth of Viracocha. It is related that the Inca Yupangui published to his people that to him had appeared Viracocha, with admonition that he alone was lord of the world, and creator of all things; that he had made the heavens, the sun, and man; and that it was not right that these, his works, should receive equal homage with himself. Therefore, the Inca decreed that the image of Viracocha should thereafter be assigned supremacy to those of all other divinities, and that no tribute nor sacrifice should be paid to him, for He was master of all the earth, and could take from it as he chose.[1] This was evidently a direct attempt on the part of an enlightened ruler to lift his people from a lower to a higher form of religion, from idolatry to theism. The Inca even went so far as to banish all images of Viracocha from his temples, so that this, the greatest of gods, should be worshiped as an immaterial spirit only.

[Footnote 1: P. Joseph de Acosta, Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias, Lib. vi, cap. 31 (Barcelona, 1591).]

A parallel instance is presented in Aztec annals. Nezahualcoyotzin, an enlightened ruler of Tezcuco, about 1450, was both a philosopher and a poet, and the songs which he left, seventy in number, some of which are still preserved, breathe a spirit of emancipation from the idolatrous superstition of his day. He announced that there was one only god, who sustained and created all things, and who dwelt above the ninth heaven, out of sight of man. No image was fitting for this divinity, nor did he ever appear bodily to the eyes of men. But he listened to their prayers and received their souls.[1]

[Footnote 1: See Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl, Historica Chichimeca, cap. xlix; and Joseph Joaquin Granados y Galvez, Tardes Americanas, p. 90 (Mexico, 1778).]

These traditions have been doubted, for no other reason than because it was assumed that such thoughts were above the level of the red race. But the proper names and titles, unquestionably ancient and genuine, which I have analyzed in the preceding pages refute this supposition.

We may safely affirm that other and stronger instances of the kind could be quoted, had the early missionaries preserved more extensively the sacred chants and prayers of the natives. In the Maya tongue of Yucatan a certain number of them have escaped destruction, and although they are open to some suspicion of having been colored for proselytizing purposes, there is direct evidence from natives who were adults at the time of the Conquest that some of their priests had predicted the time should come when the worship of one only God should prevail. This was nothing more than another instance of the monotheistic idea finding its expression, and its apparition is not more extraordinary in Yucatan or Peru than in ancient Egypt or Greece.

The actual religious and moral progress of the natives was designedly ignored and belittled by the early missionaries and conquerors. Bishop Las Casas directly charges those of his day with magnifying the vices of the Indians and the cruelties of their worship; and even such a liberal thinker as Roger Williams tells us that he would not be present at their ceremonies, "Lest I should have been partaker of Satan's Inventions and Worships."[1] This same prejudice completely blinded the first visitors to the New World, and it was only the extravagant notion that Christianity had at some former time been preached here that saved us most of the little that we have on record.

[Footnote 1: Roger Williams, A Key Into the Language of America, p. 152.]

Yet now and then the truth breaks through even this dense veil of prejudice. For instance, I have quoted in this chapter the evidence of the Spanish chroniclers to the purity of the teaching attributed to Bochica. The effect of such doctrines could not be lost on a people who looked upon him at once as an exemplar and a deity. Nor was it. The Spaniards have left strong testimony to the pacific and virtuous character of that nation, and its freedom from the vices so prevalent in lower races.[1]

[Footnote 1: See especially the Noticias sobre el Nuevo Reino de Granada, in the Colleccion de Documentos ineditos del Archivo de Indias, vol. v, p. 529.]

Now, as I dismiss from the domain of actual fact all these legendary instructors, the question remains, whence did these secluded tribes obtain the sentiments of justice and morality which they loved to attribute to their divine founders, and, in a measure, to practice themselves?

The question is pertinent, and with its answer I may fitly close this study in American native religions.

If the theory that I have advocated is correct, these myths had to do at first with merely natural occurrences, the advent and departure of the daylight, the winds, the storm and the rains. The beneficent and injurious results of these phenomena were attributed to their personifications. Especially was the dispersal of darkness by the light regarded as the transaction of all most favorable to man. The facilities that it gave him were imputed to the goodness of the personified Spirit of Light, and by a natural association of ideas, the benevolent emotions and affections developed by improving social intercourse were also brought into relation to this kindly Being. They came to be regarded as his behests, and, in the national mind, he grew into a teacher of the friendly relations of man to man, and an ideal of those powers which "make for righteousness." Priests and chieftains favored the acceptance of these views, because they felt their intrinsic wisdom, and hence the moral evolution of the nation proceeded steadily from its mythology. That the results achieved were similar to those taught by the best religions of the eastern world should not excite any surprise, for the basic principles of ethics are the same everywhere and in all time.




Acosta, J. de Alegre, F.X. Anales del Museo Nacional de Mejico Ancona, Eligio Angrand, L. Annals of Cuauhtitlan Antonio, G. Argoll, Capt Avila, Francisco de

Bancroft, H.H. Baraga, Frederick Basalenque, D. Becerra Beltran, de Santa Rosa Berendt, C.H. Bernal Diaz Bertonio, L. Betanzos, Juan de Bobadilla, F. de Boturini, L. Bourbourg, Brasseur de, see Brasseur. Brasseur (de Bourbourg), C. Buschmann, J.C.E. Buteux, Father

Cabrera, P.F. Campanius, Thomas Campbell, John Carriedo, J.B. Carrillo, Crescencio Charency, H. de Charlevoix, Pere Chavero, Alfredo Chaves, Gabriel de Chilan Balam, Books of Clavigero, Francesco S. Codex Borgianus Codex Telleriano-Remensis Codex Troano Codex Vaticanus Cogolludo, D.L. de Comte, Auguste Cortes, Hernan Cox, Sir George W. Cuoq, J.A. Cusic, David

Desjardins, E. D'Orbigny, A. Duran, Diego

Elder, F.X.

Fischer, Heinrich Franco, P. Fuen-Leal, Ramirez de

Gabriel de San Buenaventura Garcia, G. Garcia y Garcia, A. Gatschet, A.S. Gomara, F.L. Granados y Galvez, J.J.

Hale, Horatio Haupt, Paul Hernandez, Francisco Hernandez, M. Herrera, Antonio de Holguin, D.G. Humbolt, A.V.

Ixtlilxochitl, F.A. de

Jourdanet, M.

Keary, Charles F. Kingsborough, Lord

Lalemant, Father Landa, D. de Lang, J.D. Las Casas, B. de Lazarus, Prof. Leon, Cieza de Le Plongeon, Dr. Lizana, B. Lord, J.K. Lubbock, Sir John

Macfie, M. Mangan, Clarence Markham, C.R. Melgar, J.M. Mendieta, Geronimo de Mendoza, G. Molina, Alonso de Molina, C. de Montejo, Francisco de Motolinia, Padre Motul, Diccionario de Mueller, Max

Nieremberg, E. de Nobrega, E.

Ollanta, drama of Olmos, Andre de Orozco y Berra, Senor Oviedo, G.F. de

Pachacuti, J. de Pech, Nakuk Perrot, Nicholas Petitot, P.E. Piedrahita, L.T. Pimentel, F. Pinart, A.L. Pineda, E. Pio Perez, J. Popol Vuh, the Porto Seguro, V. de Prescott, W.H.

Rau, Charles Rea, A. de la Rialle, G. de Roman, H. Roskoff, Gustav Ruiz, A.

Sagard Pere Sahagun, B. de Sanchez, Jesus Santillan, F. de Schoolcraft, H. R. Schultz-Sellack, Dr. C. Schwartz, F.L.W. Short, J.T. Simeon, Remi Simon, P. Sotomayor, J. de V. Squier, B. G. Stephens, J.L. Strachey, William

Tanner, John Taylor, S. Techo, N. de Ternaux-Compans, M Tezozomoc, A. Tiele, C.P. Tobar, Juan de Toledo, F. de Torquemada, Juan de Trumbull, J.H. Tschudi, J.J. von

Uricoechea, E.

Valera, Blas Vega, Garcillaso, de la Vega, Nunez de la Veitia

Waitz, Th. Wiener, C. Williams, Roger

Xahila, F.E.A.

Zegarra, G.P.


Abancay, in Peru Abstract expressions Acan, Maya god of wine Acantun, Maya deities Ages of the world Ah-kiuic, deity of the Mayas Ah-puchah, deity of the Mayas Air, gods of; see Wind Algonkins, their location " their hero-myth Amun, Egyptian deity Anahuac Animiki, the thunder god Arawack language Ares, the Greek Arnava, name of Viracocha Apotampo Arama, deity of the Moxos Arrival, the Great and Less Ataensic, an Iroquois deity Atahualpa Inca Atecpanamochco, the bath of Quetzalcoatl Athabascan myths and languages Aticsi, epithet of Viracocha Aurora, myths of; see Dawn Ayar, Ancca Ayar Cachi, a name of Viracocha Ayar Manco Ayar Uchu Aymaras, myths of " language of Aztecs, location of Aztecs in Yucatan Aztlan, meaning of

Bacabs, the four Baldur, the Norse Ball, the game of Bearded hero-god Belly, the, in symbolism Bird, symbol of Bisexual deities Bochica, hero-god of the Muyscas Borrowing in myths Butterfly, the, as a symbol of the wind

Cadmus, the myth of Cakchiquels, myths of Camaxtli, a name of Tezcatlipoca Canas tribe Canil, a name of Itzamna Cannook, deity of Dene Carapaco, lake of Carcha, town of Cardinal points, worship of Caylla, epithet of Viracocha Ce Acatl, One Reed, a name of Quetzalcoatl Ce Acatl Inacuil Cemi, deity of Arawacks Chac, deity of the Mayas Chacamarca, river of Chac Mool, supposed idol Chalchihuitl Chalchiuitlicue, Aztec goddess Chalchihuitzli, Aztec deity Chalchiuhapan, the bath of Quetzalcoatl Chasca, Qquichua deity Chem, Egyptian deity Chibchas, see Muyscas Chibilias, a Maya goddess Chichen Itza Chichimees, the Chickaban, a festival Chicomecoatl, an Aztec deity Chicomoztoc Chimalman Chimalmatl Chimizapagua, name of Bochica Chivim, land of Chnum, Egyptian deity Choctaws, myth of Cholula Christianity, effects of Cincalco, Cave of Cipactli, in Aztec myth Cipactonal, in Aztec myth Citlatonac, an Aztec deity Citlallicue, an Aztec deity Citlaltlachtli Coatl, in Nahuatl Coatecalli, the Aztec Pantheon Coatlicue, Aztec goddess Cocoms, the Colhuacan Colla, a Peruvian deity Colors, symbolism of Con, Peruvian deity Concacha Conchuy Condorcoto, the mountain Condoy, hero-god of Mixes Coto, village Coyote, sacred to Tezcatlipoca Cozcapan, fountain of Cozumel, cross of Cross, the, symbol of Cuchaviva, goddess of Muyscas Cueravaperi, goddess of Tarascos Cuernava, cave of Cum-ahau, a Maya deity Curicaberis, deity of Tarascos Cuzco, founding of " temple of

Darkness, powers of Dawn, the mansion of the " myths of Dene, myths of Drum, the sacred Dyaus, the Aryan god Dyonisiac worship, the

East, sacredness of Echuac, a Maya deity Egyptian mythology Europe, carried off by Zeus

Fafnir, the dragon Fatal children, the myth of Fire, origin of Five eggs, the Flint stone, myths of Flood myth, the Four brothers, the myths of " sacred numbers " roads to the underworld Freya, Norse goddess Frog, as symbol of water

Genesiac principle, worship of Gijigonai, the day makers Glittering heath, the Golden locks of the hero-god Great Bear, constellation of Guanacaure, mountain of Guaranis tribe Guaymis, tribe of Darien Guazacoalco Gucumatz, god of Kiches

Hachaccuna Hanmachis, the sun-god Heart, symbol of Henotheism in religions Hermaphrodite deities Hermes, Greek myth of Hill of Heaven, the Hobnel, deity of the Mayas Homonomy Huanacauri Huastecs, the Huarachiri Indians, myth of Huayna Capac, Inca Huehuetlan, town of Huemac, a name of Quetzalcoatl Hueytecpatl, an Aztec deity Hue Tlapallan Hueytonantzin, an Aztec deity Huitzilopochtli, Aztec deity birth of Huitznahna, Aztec deity Hunchbacks, attendant on Quetzalcoatl Hunhunahpu, a Kiche deity Hunpictok, a Maya deity Hurons, myth of Hurukan, god of Kiches

Idea of God, evolution of Illa, name of Viracocha Incas, empire of Indra Ioskeha, the myth of " derivation of Iroquois, their location " hero myth of Itzamal, city of Itzamna, the Maya hero god " his names Itzas, a Maya tribe Itztlacoliuhqui, Aztec deity Ix-chebel-yax, Maya goddess Ixchel, the rainbow goddess Ixcuin, an Aztec deity Izona, error for Itzamna Iztac Mixcoatl

Jupiter, the planet

Kabironokka, the North Kabil, a name of Itzamna Kabun, the West Kiches, myths of Kinich ahau, a name of Itzamna Kinich ahau haban Kinich kakmo, a name of Itzamna Kukulcan, myth of " meaning of name

Languages, sacred, of priests " American Laws, native American Lif, the Teutonic Light, its place in mythology Light-god, the " color of Light, woman of Lucifer, worshiped by Mayas

Maize, origin of Manco Capac Mani, province of Marriage ceremonies Master of life, the Mat, the virgin goddess Ma Tlapallan Mayapan, destruction of " foundation of Mayas, myths of " language " ancestors of " prophecies of Meconetzin, a name of Quetzalcoatl Meztitlan, province of Michabo, myth of " derivation of Michoacan Mictlancalco Mirror, the magic Mirrors, of Aztecs Mixcoatl, a name of Tezcatlipoca Mixes, tribe Monenequi, a name of Tezcatlipoca Monotheism in Peru Moon, in Algonkin myths " in Aztec myths Moquequeloa, a name of Tezcatlipoca Morals and religion Morning, house of the Moxos, myths of Moyocoyatzin, a name of Tezcatlipoca Muskrat, in Algonkin mythology Muyscas, myths of " laws of

Nahuatl, the language Nanacatltzatzi, an Aztec deity Nanih Wayeh Nanihehecatle, name of Quetzalcoatl Narcissus, the myth of Nemterequeteba, name of Bochica Nezahualcoyotzin, Aztec ruler Nezaualpilli, a name of Tezcatlipoca Nicaraguans, myths of Nonoalco Nuns, houses of

Oaxaca, province of Occhuc, town Ocelotl, the Odin, the Norse Ojibway dialect, the " myth

Ometochtli, an Aztec deity Orelbale, Athabascan, deity Osiris, the myth of Otomies Otosis, in myth building Ottawas, an Algonkin tribe Owl, as a symbol of the wind Oxomuco, in Aztec myth

Pacarina, the, in Peru Pacari tampu Pachacamac Pachayachachi, epithet of Viracocha Palenque, the cross of " building of Pantecatl, Aztec deity Panuco, province of Papachtic, a name of Quetzalcoatl Pariacaca, a Peruvian deity Paronyms Parturition, symbol of Paths of the gods Pay zume, a hero-god Perseus Personification Peten, lake Phallic emblems Phoebus Pinahua, a Peruvian deity Pirhua Pirua Pochotl son of Quetzalcoatl Polyonomy in myth building Prayers, purpose of " to Quetzalcoatl " to Viraoocha Proper names in American languages Prophecies of Mayas Prosopopeia Pulque, myths concerning

QABAUIL, god of Kiches Qquichua language Qquonn, Peruvian deity Quateczizque, priests so-called Quauhtitlan Quetzalcoatl identified with the East meaning of the name as god contest with Tezcatlipoca the hero of Tula worshiped in Cholula born of a virgin his bath as the planet Venus as lord of the winds god of thieves representations Quetzalpetlatl

Ra, the Sun-god Rabbit, the giant " in Algonkin myths " in Aztec myths Rainbow, as a deity Rains, gods of Red Land, the, see Tlapallan Religions, classifications of " the essence of " and morals Repose, the place of Reproduction, myths concerning Resurrection, belief in Romulus and Remus

Sand, place of Sarama and Sarameyas, a Sanscrit myth Serpent symbol, the Serpents, the king of Seven brothers, the " caves or tribes, the Shawano, the south Shu, Egyptian deity Skunk, sacred to Tezcatlipoca Snailshell symbol Sogamoso, town Soma, the intoxicating Sons of the clouds Sterility, relief from Sua, name of Bochica Sun worship in Peru " in America Sun, the city of Suns, the Aztec Surites, deity of Tarascos

Tahuantin Suyu kapac Tampuquiru Tamu, a hero-god Tapirs Tarascos Taripaca, epithet of Viracocha Tawiscara, in Iroquois myth Tecpancaltzin, a Toltec king Tecpatl, an Aztec deity Tehotennhiaron, Iroquois deity Tehunatepec tribes Teimatini, a name of Tezcatlipoca Telephassa, mother of Cadmus Telpochtli, a name of Tezctlipoca Tentetemic, an Aztec deity Teocolhuacan Teometl, the Texcalapan Texcaltlauhco Teyocoyani, a name of Tezcatlipoca Tezcatlachco Tezcatlipoca, Aztec deity his names derivation of name as twins contests with Quetzalcoatl slays Ometochli dressed in the tiger skin Tezcatlipoca-Camaxtli Tezcuco Tharonhiawakon, in Iroquois Thomas, Saint, in America Thunder, myth of Tiahuanaco, myth concerning Ticci, name of Viracocha Tiger, as a symbol Titicaca lake Titlacauan, a name of Tezcatlipoca Tizapan, the White Land Tlacauepan Tlaloc, Aztec deity Tlalocan Tlamatzincatl, a name of Tezcatlipoca Tlanqua-cemilhuique, a name of the Toltecs Tlapallan Tlatlallan, the fire land Tlillan, the dark land Thllapa, the murky land Thlpotonqui, a name of Quetzalcoatl Tocapo, epithet of Viracocha Toh, a Kiche deity Tokay, epithet of Viracocha Tollan, see Tula Tollan-Cholollan Tollan Tlapallan Tollantzinco Toltecs, the Tonalan Tonatlan Tonaca cihuatl, an Aztec deity Tonaca tecutli, Aztec deity Topiltzin, a name of Quetzalcoatl Toltec, an Aztec deity Totems, origin of Toveyo, the Tree of life, the Tree of the Mirror Tualati, myth of Tukupay, epithet of Viracocha Tula, the mythical city of Tum, Egyptian deity Tume, a hero-god Tunapa, name of Viracocha Tupac Yupanqui, Inca Tupi-Guaranay tribes Twins, in mythology Two brothers, myths of Tzatzitepec, the hill of shouting Tzendals, hero-myth of Tzinteotl, Aztec deity Ttzitzimime, Aztec deities

Uac metun ahau, a name of Itzamna Ualum chivim Ualum uotan Urcos, temple of Usapu, epithet of Viracocha Utatlan, province of

Vase, lord of the Venus, the planet, in myths Viracocha, myth of " meaning of " statues of " worship of Virgin cow, the, in Egypt Virgin-mother, myth of Virgins of the sun, in Peru Votan, hero-god of Tzendals

Wabawang, the morning star Wabun, or the East Water, in mythology " gods of West, in mythology West wind, the Wheel of the months " of the winds White hero-god, the " land " serpent Winds, gods of World-stream, the

Xalac Xbalanque, hero-god of Kiches Xicapoyan, the bath of Quetzalcoatl Xilotzin, son of Quetzalcoatl Xiu, Maya family of Xmukane, in Kiche myth Xochitl, the maiden Xochitlycacan, the rose garden Xochiquetzal, an Aztec deity

Yacacoliuhqui, Aztec deity Yacatecutli, Aztec deity Yahualli ehecatl, a name of Quetzalcoatl Yalahau, deity of Tzendals Yale, deity of the Dene Yamquesupa, lake of Yaotlnecoc, a name of Tezcatlipoca Yaotzin, a name of Tezcatlipoca Yaqui, derivation of Yax-coc-ahmut, a name of Itzamna Yel, deity of Dene Ymamana Viracocha Yoalli ehecatl, a name of Tezcatlipoca Yoamaxtli, a name of Tezcatlipoca Yoel of the winds Yolcuat Quetzalcoat Yucatan Yunca language Yupanqui, Inca

Zacuan Zapala, epithet of Viracocha Zapotecs, tribe Zeus, the Greek Zipacna, a Kiche diety Zitacuarencuaro, a festival Zivena vitzcatl Zoques, tribe Zuhe, name of Bochica Zume, a hero-god Zuyva, Tollan in


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