Although very busy with matters of state, President Roosevelt received an urgent call to deliver a Fourth of July oration at Pittsburg. He consented, and spoke to a vast assemblage on the rights and duties of American citizens.
To remain in Washington during the hot summer months was out of the question with President Roosevelt and his family, and early in the season he removed to Oyster Bay, there to enjoy himself as best he might during the short time allowed him for recreation.
That the business of the administration might not be too seriously interrupted, he hired a few rooms over a bank building in the village of Oyster Bay, and these were fitted up for himself and his several secretaries and assistants. To the bank building he rode or drove every day, spending an hour or more over the routine work required. By this means undesirable visitors were kept away from his private residence, and he was permitted to enjoy himself as he pleased in company with his family.
While Mr. Roosevelt was summering at Oyster Bay, it was arranged that he should make a short tour through New England, to last from August 22 to September 3. The trip covered every New England State, and was one of great pleasure to the President until the last day. Everywhere he went he was greeted by enthusiastic crowds, and, of course, had to make one of his characteristic speeches, accompanied by a great deal of hand-shaking.
On the last day of the trip he was at Dalton, Massachusetts, the home of Governor Crane. It had been planned to drive from Dalton to Lenox, a beautiful spot, adjoining Laurel Lake, where are located the summer homes of many American millionnaires.
The trip was begun without a thought of what was to follow. In the party, besides President Roosevelt, were Governor Crane, Secretary Cortelyou (afterward made a member of the Cabinet), United States Secret Service officer William Craig, and the driver of the carriage. It may be mentioned here that William Craig was detailed as a special guard for the President, and had been with him since the tour was begun.
There are a number of trolley lines in this section of Massachusetts, all centring in Pittsfield. As the mass of the people were very anxious to see President Roosevelt, the trolleys going to the points where he would pass were crowded, and the cars were run with more than usual speed.
As the carriage containing the President and his companions attempted to cross the trolley tracks a car came bounding along at a rapid rate of speed. There seemed to be no time in which to stop the car, and in an instant the long and heavy affair crashed into the carriage with all force, hurling the occupants to the street in all directions. The Secret Service officer, William Craig, was instantly killed, and the driver of the carriage was seriously hurt.
There was immediate and great excitement, and for the time being it was feared that President Roosevelt had been seriously injured. He had been struck a sharp blow on the leg, and had fallen on his face, cutting it not a little. The shock was a severe one, but in a little while he was himself once more, although his face was much swollen. Later still a small abscess formed on the injured limb, but this was skilfully treated by his physician, and soon disappeared. The others in the carriage escaped with but a few bruises and a general shaking-up.
The result of this accident, small as it was to the President personally, showed well how firmly he was seated in the affection of his fellow-citizens. From all over the country, as well as from his friends in foreign climes, telegrams of congratulation came pouring in. Everybody was glad that he had escaped, and everybody wished to show how he felt over the affair.
"President Roosevelt was much affected by the messages received," said one who was in a position to know. "It showed him that his friends were in every walk of life, from the highest to the lowest. Had he met death, as did the Secret Service officer detailed to guard over him, the shock to the people, coming so soon after the assassination of President McKinley, would have been tremendous."
The President had already been persuaded to consent to a short trip to the South, from September 5 to 10, and then a trip to the West, lasting until September 19, or longer. The trips came to an end on September 23, in Indiana, because of the abscess on the lower limb already mentioned, yet on November 19 he was given a grand reception by the people of Memphis, Tennessee, who flocked around him and were glad to see him as well as ever.
"We are so glad you escaped from that trolley accident!" was heard a hundred times.
"We can't afford to lose you, Mr. President," said others. "Really good men are too scarce." And then a cheer would go up for "The hero of San Juan Hill!"
His speeches on these trips were largely about the trusts and monopolies that are trying to control various industries of our country. It is an intricate subject, yet it can be said that Mr. Roosevelt understands it as well as any one, and is laboring hard to do what is right and best, both for the consumer and the capitalist.
Congress had, some time before, voted a large sum for the extension and improvement of the White House, and while Mr. Roosevelt and his family were at Oyster Bay these improvements were begun. They continued during the fall, and the President made his temporary home at a private residence in the capital city. Here it was he was treated for his wounded limb, and here he ended the coal strike, as already chronicled.
NEW OFFICES AT THE WHITE HOUSE—SENDS A WIRELESS MESSAGE TO KING EDWARD OF ENGLAND—END OF THE TROUBLE IN VENEZUELA—THE CANADIAN BOUNDARY DISPUTE—BEGINNING OF A TRIP TO THE WEST—IN YELLOWSTONE PARK
The end of the year found President Roosevelt in the best of health, despite the accident some weeks previous. The improvements at the White House were now complete, and the family of the Chief Magistrate took possession. A separate set of offices for the President and his Cabinet had been built at the western end of the executive mansion, and the rooms formerly used for this purpose were turned into living apartments. The changes made have been approved by many who have seen them, and they have wondered why the alterations were not made a long time ago.
On December 1, Congress assembled for a new session, and on the day following the President's message was read. It was a masterly state paper, dealing with the trust question, our relations with the new government of Cuba (for the island was now free, just as we had meant it to be when the war with Spain started), the creation of a new department of Commerce and Labor, needs of the army and navy, and the all-important matter of how the Philippines should be governed. It may be added here that not long after this a Department of Commerce and Labor was created by Congress, and Mr. George B. Cortelyou, the secretary to the President, became its first official head. When Mr. Cortelyou left his post as secretary, Mr. William Loeb, Jr., who had been the President's private secretary for some time, became the regular first secretary to the Chief Magistrate, a place he occupies to-day.
Just about this time there was considerable trouble in Indianola, Mississippi. A colored young lady had been appointed postmistress, and the people in that vicinity refused to recognize her. The Post-Office Department did what it could in the matter, and then referred the case to the President.
"As she has been regularly appointed, the people will have to accept her," said Mr. Roosevelt. And when there was more trouble, he sent forward an order that the post-office be shut up entirely. This was done, and for a long time the people of that vicinity had to get their mail elsewhere, a great inconvenience to them.
On January 1, 1903, the new cable to the Hawaiian Islands was completed, and President Roosevelt received a message from Governor Dole, and sent a reply to the same. About two weeks later the President sent a wireless, or rather cableless, message to King Edward of England. This helped to mark the beginning of a new era in message-sending which may cause great changes in the transmission of messages in the future.
For some time past there had been a small-sized war going on in Venezuela, South America, between that nation on one hand and England, Germany, and Italy on the other. This war had caused much disturbance to American trade. Pressure was brought to bear upon the several nations through President Roosevelt, and at last it was agreed to leave matters to be settled by arbitration at The Hague. The agreements to this end were signed at Washington, much to the President's satisfaction. All trouble then ceased, and American commerce was resumed as before.
For many years there had been a dispute between the United States and Canada, regarding a certain boundary line. This country claimed a long strip of territory next to the sea, near the seaports of Dyea and Skagway, and Canada claimed that this strip, about thirty miles in width, belonged to her domain.
There had been endless disputes about the claim, and considerable local trouble, especially during the rush to the Klondike after gold.
Many Americans contended that we had absolute right to the territory, and when arbitration was spoken of, said we had nothing to arbitrate. This was, in the main, President Roosevelt's view of the matter, yet, as things grew more disturbed, he realized, as a good business man, that something must be done. We did not wish to fight Canada and England for the strip of land, and neither did they wish to fight, so at last a Board of Arbitration was agreed upon, and the claims of both parties were carefully investigated. In the end nearly every point claimed by the United States was granted to us. It was a great satisfaction to have this long-standing dispute settled; and how much better it was to do it by arbitration than by going to war.
The regular session of Congress came to an end on March 4, 1903, but President Roosevelt had already called an extra session, to consider a bill for reciprocity in our dealing with the new government of Cuba and to ratify a treaty with Colombia concerning the Panama Canal.
There was a great deal of debating at this session of Congress. The bill concerning Cuba caused but little trouble, but many wanted the canal placed in Nicaragua instead of Panama, and did not wish to pay the forty millions of dollars asked for the work already accomplished by the old French Canal Company. But in the end the bill passed the United States Senate by a vote of seventy-three to five, with the proviso that should we fail to make a satisfactory arrangement about the Panama Canal, then the government should build the canal through Nicaragua. President Roosevelt was enthusiastic over a canal at the isthmus, and lost no time in arranging to push the work further.
The people of the far West were very anxious to meet the chief ruler of our nation, and early in the year it was arranged that President Roosevelt should leave Washington on April 1 for a tour to last until June. In that time he was to visit more than twenty States, and make over one hundred stops. The people in the West awaited his coming with much pleasure.
The President was justly entitled to this outing, for the nation was now at peace with the entire world, and never had business been so prosperous. More than this, our affairs with other nations had been so handled that throughout the entire civilized world no ruler was more popular than was Theodore Roosevelt. In England he was spoken of with the highest praise, and the regards of the Germans had already been shown in the visit of Prince Henry to this country. He was known to be vigorous to the last degree, but it was likewise realized that he was thoroughly honest and straight-forward.
The first stop of the President in his trip West was made at Chicago, where during the day he laid the corner-stone of the new law building of the University of Chicago, which university conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. (Doctor of Laws). In the evening he addressed an unusually large crowd at the Auditorium building, speaking upon the Monroe Doctrine.
From Chicago the President journeyed to Milwaukee, and then to St. Paul and Minneapolis. At the first-named city he made a forceful address on the trusts, giving his hearers a clear idea of how the great corporations of to-day were brought into existence, and what may be done to control them, and in the last-named city he spoke on the ever-important question of tariff.
It was an eventful week, and when Sunday came the Chief Magistrate was glad enough to take a day of rest at Sioux Falls, South Dakota. From there he journeyed to Gardiner, Montana, one of the entrances to that greatest of all American wonderlands, Yellowstone Park.
It was understood that President Roosevelt wished to visit the Park without a great following of the general public, and this wish was carried out to the letter. Mr. Roosevelt had with him the well-known naturalist, Mr. John Burroughs, and for about two weeks he enjoyed himself to his heart's content, visiting many of the spots of interest and taking it easy whenever he felt so disposed. It was not a hunting trip, although big game is plentiful enough in the Park. It was just getting "near to nature's heart," and Mr. Roosevelt afterward declared it to be one of the best outings he had ever experienced.
DEDICATION OF THE FAIR BUILDINGS AT ST. LOUIS—CONTINUATION OF THE TRIP TO SAN FRANCISCO—UP IN THE FAR NORTH-WEST—BACK IN WASHINGTON—THE POST-OFFICE SCANDALS—THE NEW REPUBLIC OF PANAMA—A CANAL AT LAST—PROCLAMATION REGARDING THE WAR BETWEEN JAPAN AND RUSSIA—OPENING OF THE GREAT FAIR
After the refreshing tour of Yellowstone Park, President Roosevelt journeyed across Nebraska to Omaha, then across Iowa to Keokuk, and from the latter city to St. Louis.
As before, he delivered a number of addresses, and wherever he spoke great crowds came to see and to hear him. In these crowds were people of all political tendencies, but it made no difference if they were Republicans, Democrats, or Populists, all were equally glad to greet the President of the United States and the hero of San Juan Hill.
On this trip he frequently met some of the Rough Riders, and they invariably did all in their power to make him feel at home. On the other hand he showed that he had not forgotten them.
"By George, I am glad to see you!" he would exclaim, catching an old comrade by the hand. And his tone of voice would show that he meant just what he said.
For a long time the people of St. Louis had been preparing for a grand fair, to be known as the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to commemorate the purchasing from France of all that vast territory of the United States which lies between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains and the Gulf of Mexico and British America. The purchase was made in 1803 for fifteen millions of dollars, and it was hoped to hold the exposition on the one hundredth anniversary, in 1903, but matters were delayed, and so the fair was postponed until 1904.
The dedication of the fair buildings at the Exposition Grounds was held on April 30, 1903, and was made a gala occasion by those interested. President Roosevelt was invited to speak, and also Ex-President Cleveland, and both made addresses of remarkable interest. Following the dedication exercises a grand banquet was given at which the scene of good-fellowship was one not readily forgotten. The President wished the exposition well, and promised to do all in his power to make it a success.
Although the President had already travelled many miles, the greater part of his western trip still lay before him.
From St. Louis he went to Kansas City and to Topeka, where the citizens were as anxious to meet him as anywhere. He stopped at Sharon Springs over Sunday, and then went to Denver, and to various towns in Colorado and in New Mexico. While in New Mexico he became interested in the systems of irrigation there, and told the people what they might do if their systems of watering the ground were increased.
Having passed through the Grand Canon, the second week in May found him in southern California. He visited Los Angeles, reviewing the annual floral parade, and many other points, and at Claremont addressed a great gathering of school children in a beautiful park filled with shrubs and flowers. The children were decidedly enthusiastic over the meeting, and when Mr. Roosevelt went away, some pelted him with flowers, which bombardment he took in good part.
President Roosevelt's visit to Leland Stanford Jr. University in California came next, and here the students cheered him with vigor. He visited many of the more important buildings, and was entertained by members of the faculty.
His face was now set toward the Golden Gate, and San Francisco was all alive to give him an ovation. It was his first official visit to the Pacific coast, and all whom he met vied with each other to do him honor, while they listened with great attention to what he had to say.
Three days were spent in San Francisco and vicinity, and three days more in a tour of the Yosemite Valley. President Roosevelt was particularly anxious to see some of the big trees of the State, and was driven to several that are well known.
The steps of the Chief Magistrate were now turned northward, to Oregon, and a week was spent at Portland, and in the towns and cities of the Puget Sound territory, and beyond. Here he saw much that was new and novel in the lumber trade and in the salmon industry, and was received with a warmth that could not be mistaken.
"He is a President for the whole country, no mistake about that," said more than one.
"He makes you feel he is your friend the minute you lay eyes on him," would put in another. To many in this far corner of our country, this visit of the President will ever remain as a pleasant memory. They could never hope to get to Washington, more than three thousand miles away, and to have him come out to see them was worth remembering.
The journey eastward was made through Montana to Salt Lake City and then to Cheyenne, where additional addresses were delivered. From the latter point a fast train bore him homeward, and by the next Sunday he was back in the White House once more, as fresh and hearty as ever, and well prepared to undertake whatever important work might come to hand.
And work was there in plenty. Among the first things taken up by the President was a scandal in the Post-Office Department. Without loss of time President Roosevelt ordered Postmaster General Payne to make a thorough investigation, with the result that many contracts which were harmful to our post-office system were annulled, and some wrong-doers were brought to justice.
Toward the end of July there was considerable disturbance in the Government Printing Office at Washington because a certain assistant foreman, who had been discharged, was reinstated. All of the bookbinders were on the point of striking because they did not want the man returned, as he did not belong to their union. But President Roosevelt was firm in the matter; and in the end the man went back, and there was no strike. This affair caused an almost endless discussion in labor circles, some claiming that the union should have been upheld, while others thought differently.
During the summer, as was his usual habit, President Roosevelt, with his family, spent part of his time at his country home at Oyster Bay. This time the visit to the old homestead was of unusual interest, for, on August 17, the North Atlantic Fleet of the navy visited that vicinity, for review and inspection by the President.
It was a gala occasion, and the fleet presented a handsome appearance as it filed past and thundered out a Presidential salute. Many distinguished guests were present, and all without exception spoke of the steady improvement in our navy as a whole. President Roosevelt was equally enthusiastic, and well he might be, for he had used every means in his power to make our navy all it should be.
Late in September President Roosevelt returned to Washington, and on October 15 delivered the principal address at the unveiling of a statue of that grand military hero, General Sherman. Here once more he was listened to with tremendous interest, delivering a speech that was patriotic to the core and full of inspiration.
For some time past matters in Colombia had been in a very mixed-up condition. The United States were willing to take hold of the Panama Canal, as already mentioned, but although a treaty had been made to that effect, the Colombian government would not ratify the agreement.
On November 3, the trouble in Colombia reached its culminating point. On that day the State of Panama declared itself free and independent. The people of that State wanted the canal built by the United States, and were very angry when the rest of the Colombian States would not agree to the treaty which had been made.
At once there were strong rumors of war, and a few slight attacks were really made. The United States forbade the transportation of soldiers on the Panama railroad, and a few days later recognized Panama as an independent republic. The new republic was likewise recognized by France, and, later still, by England. On November 9, Panama appointed a commission to negotiate a canal treaty with our country, and this treaty was signed and sealed at Washington by Secretary of State Hay, acting for the United States, and M. Bunau-Varilla, acting for Panama.
The President's next message to Congress went at great length into the question of the Panama Canal, and in defence of the recognition of the new republic. It also told of what the new Department of Commerce and Labor had accomplished, especially the branch devoted to corporations.
"We need not be over-sensitive about the welfare of corporations which shrink from the light," wrote Mr. Roosevelt. And in this statement every one who had the best interests of our nation at heart agreed. To accomplish great works great corporations are often necessary, but they must conduct business in such a fashion that they are not ashamed to show their methods to the public at large.
At the opening of the year 1904 there were strong rumors of a war between Japan and Russia, over the occupation of Korea, and this war started early in February by a battle on the sea, wherein the Russian fleet lost several war-ships. This contest was followed by others of more or less importance, and it looked as if, sooner or later, other nations might become involved in the struggle.
"We must keep our hands off," said President Roosevelt, and at once issued a proclamation, calling on all good citizens to remain strictly neutral, and warning those who might take part that they could hope for no aid from the United States should they get into trouble personally or have any property confiscated. This proclamation was followed by some excellent work of our State Department, whereby it was agreed among the leading nations that the zone of fighting should be a limited one,—that is, that neither Japan nor Russia should be allowed to carry it beyond a certain defined territory.
For many weeks Congress had debated the Panama Canal treaty and the action of President Roosevelt regarding the new republic of Panama. On February 23, 1904, a vote was taken in the Senate, and the Panama Canal treaty was ratified in all particulars. Without delay some United States troops were despatched to Panama, to guard the strip of land ten miles wide through which the canal is to run, and preparations were made to push the work on the waterway without further delay.
On Saturday, April 30, the great World's Fair at St. Louis was formally opened to the public. It had cost over fifty millions of dollars and was designed to eclipse any fair held in the past. The opening was attended by two hundred thousand visitors, all of whom were more than pleased with everything to be seen.
It had been arranged that President Roosevelt should formally open the Exposition by means of telegraphic communications from the White House to the fair grounds. A key of ivory and gold was used for the purpose, and as soon as it was touched a salute of twenty-one guns roared forth in the Exposition's honor. Around the President were assembled the members of his Cabinet and representatives of many foreign nations. Before touching the key which was to set the machinery of the wonderful fair in motion, President Roosevelt spoke as follows:—
"I have received from the Exposition grounds the statement that the management of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition awaits the pressing of the button which is to transmit the electric energy which is to unfurl the flag and start the machinery of the Exposition.
"I wish now to greet all present, and especially the representatives of the foreign nations here represented, in the name of the American people, and to thank these representatives for the parts their several countries have taken in being represented in this centennial anniversary of the greatest step in the movement which transformed the American Republic from a small confederacy of States lying along the Atlantic seaboard into a continental nation.
"This Exposition is one primarily intended to show the progress in the industry, the science, and the art, not only of the American nation, but of all other nations, in the great and wonderful century which has just closed. Every department of human activity will be represented there, and perhaps I may be allowed, as honorary president of the athletic association which, under European management, started to revive the memory of the Olympic games, to say that I am glad that, in addition to paying proper heed to the progress of industry, of science, of art, we have also paid proper heed to the development of the athletic pastimes which are useful in themselves as showing that it is wise for nations to be able to relax.
"I greet you all. I appreciate your having come here on this occasion, and in the presence of you, representing the American government and the governments of the foreign nations, I here open the Louisiana Exposition."
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT—THE PRESIDENT'S FAMILY—LIFE AT THE WHITE HOUSE—OUR COUNTRY AND ITS FUTURE
In reading over the foregoing pages the question may occur to some of my young readers, How is it possible for President Roosevelt to accomplish so much and still have time in which to occasionally enjoy himself by travelling or by going on a hunting tour?
The answer is a very simple one. Mr. Roosevelt works systematically, as do all who want their labor to amount to something. Years ago, when he was physically weak, he determined to make himself strong. He persisted in vigorous exercise, especially in the open air, and in the end attained a bodily health which any ordinary man may well envy.
The President does each day's work as it comes before him. He does not borrow trouble or cross a bridge before he comes to it. Whatever there is to do he does to the very best of his ability, and he allows future complications to take care of themselves. If a mistake is made, he does not worry continually over it, but keeps it in mind, so that a like mistake shall not occur again. When once his hand is on the plough, he does not believe in turning back. He has unlimited faith in the future of our glorious country, and a like faith in the honor and courage of his fellow-citizens.
Any man to be an intelligent worker cannot be dissipated, and the President is a good illustration of this. He has a good appetite, but eats moderately, and does not depend upon stimulants or tobacco to "brace him up" when the work is extra heavy. He goes out nearly every day for a walk, a ride on horseback, or a drive with some members of his family, and as a result of this, when night comes, sleeps soundly and arises the next morning as bright and fresh as ever.
This is the first time that a President with a large family has occupied the White House. Other Presidents have had a few children, but Mr. Roosevelt took possession with six, a hearty, romping crowd, the younger members of which thought it great fun to explore the executive mansion when first they moved in. The President loves his children dearly, and is not above "playing bear" with the little ones when time permits and they want some fun.
Of Mrs. Roosevelt it can truthfully be said that she makes a splendid "first lady in the land." She takes a great interest in all social functions, and an equal interest in what is best for her boys and girls and their friends. She is very charitable, and each year contributes liberally to hundreds of bazaars and fairs held throughout our country.
The oldest child of the President is Miss Alice Lee Roosevelt, named after her mother, the first wife of the Chief Magistrate. Although but a step-daughter to the present Mrs. Roosevelt, the two are as intimate and loving as if of the same flesh and blood. Miss Roosevelt has already made her debut in Washington society, and assisted at several gatherings at the White House.
All of the other children were born after Mr. Roosevelt's second marriage. His oldest son is Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., commonly called by his chums, Teddy, Jr. He is a lad of sixteen, bright and clever, and has been attending a college preparatory school at Groton, Massachusetts, as already mentioned. He loves outdoor games, and is said to possess many tastes in common with his father.
The other members of the family are, Kermit, fourteen, Ethel Carew, twelve, Archibald Bullock, nine, and a lively little boy named Quentin, who is six.
Some time ago a distinguished member of the English Educational Commission visited this country and made an inspection of our school system. When asked what had impressed him most deeply, he answered:—
"The children of the President of the United States sitting side by side with the children of your workingmen in the public schools."
This simple little speech speaks volumes for the good, hard common sense of our President. He believes thoroughly in our public institutions, and knows the real value of sending out his boys to fight their own battles in the world at large. He does not believe in pampering children, but in making them self-reliant. All love to go out with him, and when at Oyster Bay he frequently takes the boys and their cousins for a day's tramp through the woods or along the beach, or else for a good hard row on the bay. The President prefers rowing to sailing, and frequently rows for several miles at a stretch. His enjoyment of bathing is as great as ever, and his boys love to go into the water with him.
Christmas time at the White House is just as full of joy there as it is anywhere. The younger children hang up their stockings, and scream with delight over every new toy received. For some days previous to Christmas one of the rooms is turned into a storeroom, and to this only Mrs. Roosevelt and one of the maids hold the key. Presents come in from everywhere, including many for the President, for his friends far and near insist upon remembering him. These presents are arranged on a large oval table near one of the broad windows, and on Christmas morning the distribution begins.
The President, in his trips to the woods, has seen the great harm done by cutting down promising evergreens, so he does not believe very much in having a Christmas tree. But a year ago a great surprise awaited him.
"I'm going to fix up a tree," said little Archie, and managed to smuggle a small evergreen into the house and place it in a large closet that was not being used. Here he and his younger brother Quentin worked for several days in arranging the tree just to suit them. On Christmas morning, after the presents were given out, both asked their father to come to where the closet was located.
"What is up now?" asked Mr. Roosevelt, curiously.
"Come and see!" they shouted. And he went, followed by all the others of the family. Then the closet door was thrown open, and there stood the tree, blazing with lights. It was certainly a great surprise, and Mr. Roosevelt enjoyed it as much as anybody.
The children of Washington, and especially those whose fathers occupy public positions, always look forward with anticipations of great pleasure to the children's parties given by Mrs. Roosevelt, and these parties are of equal interest to those living at the mansion.
Such a party was given during the last holidays, and was attended by several hundred children, all of whom, of course, came arrayed in their best. They were received by Mrs. Roosevelt, who had a hand-shake and a kind word for each, and then some of the Cabinet ladies, who were assisting, gave to each visitor a button, set in ribbon and tinsel and inscribed "Merry Christmas and Happy New Year."
The big main dining-room of the White House had been prepared for the occasion. There was a Christmas tree at one side of the room, and the table was filled with fruit, cake, and candy. The President came in and helped to pass the ice-cream and cake, and Theodore, Jr. and some of the others passed the candy and other good things.
After this the visitors were asked to go to the East Room and dance. The Marine Band furnished the music, and while the children were dancing, the President came in to look at them. The entertainment lasted until the end of the afternoon, and when the visitors departed, President Roosevelt was at the door to shake hands and bid them good-by.
And here let us bid good-by ourselves, wishing Theodore Roosevelt and his family well. What the future holds in store for our President no man can tell. That he richly deserves the honors that have come to him, is beyond question. He has done his best to place and keep our United States in the front rank of the nations of the world. Under him, as under President McKinley, progress has been remarkably rapid. In the uttermost parts of the world our Flag is respected as it was never respected before. Perhaps some few mistakes have been made, but on the whole our advancement has been justified, and is eminently satisfactory. The future is large with possibilities, and it remains for the generation I am addressing to rise up and embrace those opportunities and make the most of them.
BRIEF EXTRACTS FROM FAMOUS ADDRESSES DELIVERED BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT
"If we are to be a really great people, we must strive in good faith to play a great part in the world. We cannot avoid meeting great issues. All that we can determine for ourselves is whether we shall meet them well or ill."
"All honor must be paid to the architects of our material prosperity; to the captains of industry who have built our factories and our railroads; to the strong men who toil for wealth with brain or hand; for great is the debt of the nation to these and their kind. But our debt is still greater to the men whose highest type is to be found in a statesman like Lincoln, a soldier like Grant."
"A man's first duty is to his own home, but he is not thereby excused from doing his duty to the state; for if he fails in this second duty it is under the penalty of ceasing to be a freeman."
—Extracts from "The Strenuous Life."
"Is America a weakling to shrink from the work that must be done by the world's powers? No! The young giant of the West stands on a continent and clasps the crest of an ocean in either hand. Our nation, glorious in youth and strength, looks into the future with eager and fearless eyes, and rejoices, as a strong man to run the race."
—Extract from Speech seconding the Nomination of William McKinley for President.
"Poverty is a bitter thing, but it is not as bitter as the existence of restless vacuity and physical, moral, and intellectual flabbiness to which those doom themselves who elect to spend all their years in that vainest of all vain pursuits, the pursuit of mere pleasure."
"Our interests are at bottom common; in the long run we go up or go down together."
"The first essential of civilization is law. Anarchy is simply the hand-maiden and forerunner of tyranny and despotism. Law and order, enforced by justice and by strength, lie at the foundation of civilization."
—Extracts from a Speech delivered at Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 2, 1901.
"We hold work, not as a curse, but as a blessing, and we regard the idler with scornful pity."
"Each man must choose, so far as the conditions allow him, the path to which he is bidden by his own peculiar powers and inclinations. But if he is a man, he must in some way or shape do a man's work."
"It is not given to us all to succeed, but it is given to us all to strive manfully to deserve success."
"We cannot retain the full measure of our self-respect if we do not retain pride in our citizenship."
—Extracts from an Address on "Manhood and Statehood."
"The true welfare of the nation is indissolubly bound up in the welfare of the farmer and wage-worker; of the man who tills the soil, and of the mechanic, the handicraftsman, and the laborer. The poorest motto upon which an American can act is the motto of 'some men down,' and the safest to follow is that of 'all men up.'"
—Extract from Speech delivered at the Dedication of the Pan-American Fair Buildings.
"The men we need are the men of strong, earnest, solid character—the men who possess the homely virtues, and who to these virtues add rugged courage, rugged honesty, and high resolve."
—Extract from Speech delivered upon the Life of General Grant.
LIST OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT'S WRITINGS
The Naval War of 1812, 2 volumes. (1882.) The Winning of the West, 6 volumes. (1889-1896.) Hunting Trips of a Ranchman. (1885.) Hunting Trips on the Prairie. (Companion volume to that above. 1885.) The Wilderness Hunter. (1893.) Hunting the Grisly. (Companion volume to that above. 1893.) The Rough Riders. (1899.) Life of Oliver Cromwell. (1900.) The Strenuous Life—Essays and Addresses. (1900.) American Ideals. (1897.) Administration—Civil Service. (1898.) Life of Thomas Hart Benton. (1887.) New York. (Historic Towns Series. 1891.) Life of Gouverneur Morris. (1888.) Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail. (1888.) Essays on Practical Politics. (1888.)
Written by Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge:
Hero Tales from American History. (1895.)
Written by Theodore Roosevelt and G.B. Grinnell:
Trail and Camp Fire. (1896.) Hunting in Many Lands. (1896.)
Principal Magazine Articles:
Admiral Dewey. (McClure's Magazine.) Military Preparedness and Unpreparedness. (Century Magazine.) Mad Anthony Wayne's Victory. (Harper's Magazine.) St. Clair's Defeat. (Harper's Magazine.) Fights between Iron Clads. (Century Magazine.) Need of a New Navy. (Review of Reviews.)
CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT FROM 1858 TO 1904
1858. October 27. Theodore Roosevelt born in New York City, son of Theodore Roosevelt and Martha (Bullock) Roosevelt.
1864. Sent to public school, and also received some private instruction; spent summers at Oyster Bay, New York.
1873. Became a member of the Dutch Reformed Church; has been a member ever since.
1876. September. Entered Harvard College. Member of numerous clubs and societies.
1878. February 9. Death of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr.
1880. June. Graduated from Harvard College; a Phi Beta Kappa man. September 23. Married Miss Alice Lee, of Boston, Massachusetts. Travelled extensively in Europe; climbed the Alps; made a member of the Alpine Club of London.
1881. Elected a member of the New York Assembly, and served for three terms in succession.
1884. Birth of daughter, Alice Lee Roosevelt. Death of Mrs. Alice (Lee) Roosevelt, Mr. Roosevelt's first wife. Death of Mrs. Martha (Bullock) Roosevelt, Mr. Roosevelt's mother. Made Delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention that nominated James G. Blaine for President.
1885. Became a ranchman and hunter.
1886. Ran for office of mayor of New York City, and was defeated by Abram Hewitt. Spent additional time in hunting. December 2. Married Edith Kermit Carew, of New York City.
1888. Birth of son, Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. September. Grand hunt in the Selkirk Mountains.
1889. May. Appointed by President Harrison a member of the Civil Service Commission; served for six years, four under President Harrison and two under President Cleveland.
1890. Birth of son, Kermit Roosevelt.
1891. September. Grand hunt at Two-Ocean Pass, Wyoming.
1892. Birth of daughter, Ethel Carew Roosevelt.
1895. May 24. Appointed Police Commissioner of New York City by Mayor William Strong. Served until April, 1897. Birth of son, Archibald Bullock Roosevelt.
1897. April. Made First Assistant Secretary of the Navy, under Secretary Long and President McKinley. Birth of son, Quentin Roosevelt.
1898. April 25. Congress declared war with Spain. Roosevelt resigned his position in the Navy Department. May. Helped to organize the Rough Riders, and was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, May 6. May 29. The Rough Riders left San Antonio, Texas, for Tampa, Florida. June 2. In camp at Tampa. June 7. Move by coal cars to Port Tampa; four companies left behind; board transport Yucatan. June 13. Start for Cuba, without horses. June 22. Landing of the Rough Riders at Daiquiri. June 23. March to Siboney. June 24. Advance to La Guasima (Las Guasimas). First fight with the Spanish troops. July 1. Battles of San Juan and El Caney. Roosevelt leads the Rough Riders up San Juan Hill. July 2. Fighting in the trenches by the Rough Riders, Roosevelt in command. July 3. Sinking of the Spanish fleet off Santiago Bay. July 8. Roosevelt made Colonel of the Rough Riders. August 7. Departure of the Rough Riders from Cuba. August 9. Spain accepts terms of peace offered by the United States. August 16. Arrival of the Rough Riders at Montauk, Long Island. September 15. Mustering out of the Rough Riders. September 27. Nominated by the Republican party for governor of New York. October. Grand campaigning tour through the Empire State. November. Elected governor of New York by seventeen thousand plurality.
1899. January 1. Assumed office as governor of New York. April 10. Delivered famous address on "The Strenuous Life," at Chicago. September 29 and 30. Governor appointed these days as holidays in honor of a reception to Admiral Dewey; grand water and land processions.
1900. June 19. Republican Convention met at Philadelphia; Roosevelt seconded the nomination of McKinley for President (second term), and was nominated for the Vice-Presidency. July, August, and September. Governor Roosevelt travelled 20,000 miles, delivering 673 political speeches at nearly 600 cities and towns. November 6. McKinley and Roosevelt carried 28 states, Democratic opponents carried 17 states; Republican electoral votes, 292, Democratic and scattering combined, 155. December. Presided over one short session of the United States Senate.
1901. January 11. Started on a five weeks' hunting tour in Northwest Colorado; bringing down many cougars. April. Attended the dedication of the Pan-American Exposition buildings at Buffalo, New York, and delivered an address. September 6. Received word, while at Isle la Motte, Vermont, that President McKinley had been shot; hurried at once to Buffalo; assured that the President would recover, joined his family in the Adirondacks. September 14. Death of President McKinley. Roosevelt returned to Buffalo; took the oath of office as President of the United States at the house of Ansley Wilcox; retained the McKinley Cabinet. September 15 to 19. Funeral of President McKinley, at Buffalo, Washington, and Canton, Ohio. President Roosevelt attended. September 20. First regular working day of President Roosevelt at the White House. December 3. First annual message delivered to Congress. December 4. Senate received Hay-Pauncefote canal treaty from the President. December 17. First break in the McKinley Cabinet. Postmaster General Smith resigned; was succeeded by H.C. Payne.
1902. January 3. Grand ball at the White House, Miss Alice Roosevelt formally presented to Washington society. January 6. Secretary Gage of the Treasury resigned; was succeeded by Ex-Governor Leslie M. Shaw, of Iowa. January 20. The President transmitted to Congress report of Canal Commission, recommending buying of rights for $40,000,000. February 10. Serious sickness of Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. President in attendance at Groton, Massachusetts, several days. February 24. Reception to Prince Henry of Prussia. February 25. Launching of German Emperor's yacht, which was christened by Miss Alice Roosevelt. March 7. President signed a bill creating a permanent pension bureau. May 12. Beginning of the great coal strike; largest in the history of the United States. May 21. President unveiled a monument at Arlington Cemetery, erected in memory of those who fell in the Spanish-American War. June 9. President reviewed West Point cadets at the centennial celebration of that institution. July 4. Addressed a great gathering at Pittsburg. July 5. Removed his business offices to Oyster Bay for the summer. August 11. Retirement of Justice Gray of the Supreme Court; the President named Oliver Wendell Holmes as his successor. August 22. The President began a twelve days' tour of New England. September 3. Narrow escape from death near Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Trolley car ran down carriage, killing Secret Service attendant. September 6 and 7. President visited Chattanooga, Tennessee, and delivered addresses. October 3. President called conference at Washington concerning coal strike. October 21. As a result of several meetings between the President, the mine operators, and the mine workers the miners resumed work, and a commission was appointed by the President to adjust matters in dispute. November 19. Grand reception to the President at Memphis, Tennessee. December 2. President's message to Congress was read by both branches.
1903. January 15. President signed the free coal bill passed by Congress. January 21. President signed the bill for the reorganization of the military system. March 5. Special session of Congress called by the President to consider Cuban reciprocity bill and Panama Canal treaty with Colombia. March 12. President appointed a Commission to report on organization, needs, and conditions of government work. March 18. President received report of Coal Commission. April 2. President received degree of LL.D. from the University of Chicago. Beginning of long trip to the west. April 4. President addressed Minnesota legislature at St. Paul. April 30. President delivered address at dedication of buildings of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, at St. Louis. June 6. President ordered an investigation into the Post-office Department scandals. July 4. First message around the world, via new Pacific cable, received by President at Oyster Bay. July 23. The President refused to consider charges made by a bookbinders' union against a workman in the Government Printing Office, thereby declaring for an "open" shop. August 17. Grand naval review by the President, on Long Island Sound, near Oyster Bay. September 17. President delivered an address at the dedication of a monument to New Jersey soldiers, on the battle-field of Antietam. October 15. President delivered an address at unveiling of statue to General Sherman, at Washington. October 20. President called extra session of Congress to consider a commercial treaty with Cuba. November 3. Panama proclaimed independent of Colombia. November 6. The United States government formally recognized the independence of the state of Panama. November 10. Opening of extra session of Congress called by President to consider commercial treaty with Cuba. November 18. A new canal treaty was formally signed at Washington by Secretary Hay, of the United States, and M. Bunau-Varilla, acting for Panama. December 2. The canal treaty was ratified at Panama. December 7. The President sent regular message to Congress especially defending the administration policy regarding Panama and the canal.
1904. January 4. The President sent a special message to Congress regarding the recognition of the new republic of Panama. This was followed for weeks by debates, for and against the action of the administration. February. War broke out between Japan and Russia; the President issued a proclamation declaring the neutrality of the United States. February 22. The President and family assisted at a Washington's Birthday tree-planting at the White House grounds. February 23. The United States ratified all the provisions of the Panama Canal treaty; preparations were made, under the directions of the President, to begin work without delay. April 30. President, at Washington, delivered address and pressed telegraphic key opening World's Fair at St. Louis.
American Boys' Life Of William McKinley
By EDWARD STRATEMEYER. 300 pages. Illustrated by A.B. Shute, and from photographs $1.25
Here is told the whole story of McKinley's boyhood days, his life at school and at college, his work as a school teacher, his glorious career in the army, his struggles to obtain a footing as a lawyer, his efforts as a Congressman, and lastly his prosperous career as our President. There are many side lights on the work at the White House during the war with Spain, and in China, all told in a style particularly adapted to boys and young men. The book is full of interesting anecdotes, all taken from life, showing fully the sincere, honest, painstaking efforts of a life cut all too short. The volume will prove an inspiration to all boys and young men, and should be in every one's library.
For sale by all booksellers, or sent postpaid, on receipt of price, by the publishers.
LEE AND SHEPARD BOSTON
THE FAMOUS "OLD GLORY SERIES"
By EDWARD STRATEMEYER
Author of "The Bound to Succeed Series," "The Ship and Shore Series," "Colonial Series," "Pan-American Series," etc.
Six volumes. Cloth. Illustrated. Price per volume $1.25
UNDER DEWEY AT MANILA Or The War Fortunes of a Castaway
A YOUNG VOLUNTEER IN CUBA Or Fighting for the Single Star
FIGHTING IN CUBAN WATERS Or Under Schley on the Brooklyn
UNDER OTIS IN THE PHILIPPINES Or A Young Officer in the Tropics
THE CAMPAIGN OF THE JUNGLE Or Under Lawton through Luzon
UNDER MACARTHUR IN LUZON Or Last Battles in the Philippines
"A boy once addicted to Stratemeyer stays by him."—The Living Church.
"The boys' delight—the 'Old Glory Series.'"—The Christian Advocate, New York.
"Stratemeyer's style suits the boys."—JOHN TERHUNE, Supt. of Public Instruction, Bergen Co., New Jersey.
"Mr. Stratemeyer is in a class by himself when it comes to writing about American heroes, their brilliant doings on land and sea."—Times, Boston.
"Mr. Stratemeyer has written a series of books which, while historically correct and embodying the most important features of the Spanish-American War and the rebellion of the Filipinos, are sufficiently interwoven with fiction to render them most entertaining to young readers."—The Call, San Francisco.
For sale by all booksellers, or sent, postpaid, on receipt of price by LEE AND SHEPARD, Publishers, BOSTON
THE COLONIAL SERIES
By EDWARD STRATEMEYER
Author of "Pan-American Series," "Old Glory Series," "Great American Industries Series," "American Boys' Biographical Series," etc.
Four volumes. Cloth. Illustrated by A.B. Shute. Price per volume, $1.25
WITH WASHINGTON IN THE WEST Or A Soldier Boy's Battles in the Wilderness
MARCHING ON NIAGARA Or The Soldier Boys of the Old Frontier
AT THE FALL OF MONTREAL Or A Soldier Boy's Final Victory
ON THE TRAIL OF PONTIAC Or The Pioneer Boys of the Ohio
"Mr. Stratemeyer has put his best work into the 'Colonial Series.'"—Christian Register, Boston.
"A series that doesn't fall so very far short of being history itself."—Boston Courier.
"The tales of war are incidental to the dramatic adventures of two boys, so well told that the historical facts are all the better remembered."—Boston Globe.
"Edward Stratemeyer has in many volumes shown himself master of the art of producing historic studies in the pleasing story form."—Minneapolis Journal.
"The author, Edward Stratemeyer, has used his usual care in matters of historical detail and accuracy, and gives a splendid picture of the times in general."—Milwaukee Sentinel.
"Told by one who knows how to write so as to interest boys, while still having a care as to accuracy."—Commercial Advertiser, New York.
For sale by all booksellers, or sent, postpaid, on receipt of price by LEE AND SHEPARD, Publishers BOSTON
TWO GOOD WAR STORIES
By EDWARD STRATEMEYER
ON TO PEKIN, Or Old Glory in China
Cloth. 330 pages. Illustrated by A. Burnham Shute. $1.25
The hero, Gilbert Pennington, has become a lieutenant in the regular army, and goes from the Philippines with the Ninth Regiment to take part in the rescue of the beleaguered British Embassy at Pekin by the international forces. Mr. Stratemeyer has risen to the occasion by giving, in addition to one of his very best stories, a store of information concerning China and the Chinese, conveyed in a natural and entertaining manner.
Mr. Stratemeyer gives his youthful readers plenty of adventures, but there is little that might not easily happen. His books are eminently "safe" ones, and their patriotic spirit will be considered admirable.—Home Journal, Boston.
BETWEEN BOER AND BRITON Or Two Boys' Adventures in South Africa
Illustrated by A. Burnham Shute 354 pages Price $1.25
Relates the experiences of two boys, cousins to each other, one American and the other English, whose fathers are engaged in the Transvaal, one in farming and the other in mining operations. While the two boys are off on a hunting trip after big game, the war between the Boers and Britons suddenly breaks out, and the boys find themselves placed between hostile armies, where their thrilling experiences are brought out in Mr. Stratemeyer's best style.
Exhibits the same qualities which have given popularity to his former writings.—The Times, Pittsburg, Pa.
A stirring story of the South African war.—The Journal, Indianapolis, Ind.
The kind of story to please boys and give them a fair idea of a great historical event.—St. Louis Post-Despatch.
GREAT AMERICAN INDUSTRIES SERIES
By EDWARD STRATEMEYER
TWO YOUNG LUMBERMEN Or From Maine to Oregon for Fortune
320 pages. Cloth. Illustrated. Price $1.00 net
A splendid new story, undoubtedly the best Mr. Stratemeyer has yet penned. It covers the whole of the great lumber industry of our country, the scene shifting from Maine to Michigan and the Great Lakes, and then to the Columbia and the Great Northwest. The heroes are two sturdy youths who have been brought up among the lumbermen of their native State, and who strike out in an honest endeavor to better their condition. As mill hands, fellers, log drivers, and general camp workers they have a variety of adventures, absorbing in the extreme. An ideal volume for the library of every wide-awake American who wishes to know what our great lumber industry is to-day.
Boys are acquiring the Stratemeyer habit.—Post, Chicago.
Mr. Stratemeyer's books are not only entertaining but instructive.—Daily Press, Portland, Me.
He knows how to attract and hold boy readers.—Evening Standard, New Bedford, Mass.
The demands of boy readers are peculiar, and the author who can satisfy them, not once or twice, but uniformly, must possess rare ability in an extremely difficult field. Such an author is Edward Stratemeyer.—Sunday News, Newark, N.J.
By EDWARD STRATEMEYER
LOST ON THE ORINOCO Or American Boys in Venezuela
12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. Price $1.25
This volume tells of five American youths, who, with their tutor, sail from New York to La Guayra, touching at Curacao on the way. They visit Caracas, the capital, Macuto, the fashionable seaside resort, go westward to the Gulf of Maracaibo and lake of the same name, and at last find themselves in the region of the mighty Orinoco, and of course they have some exciting experiences, one of which gives name to the book. Just the book boys and young men should read, in view of the general interest in matters Pan-American.
Its pictures of South American life and scenery are novel and instructive.—The Literary World, Boston.
The scenes described are of the sort to charm the hearts of adventurous boys.—The Outlook, N.Y.
THE YOUNG VOLCANO EXPLORERS Or American Boys in the West Indies
12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. Price $1.25
This is a complete tale in itself, but has the same characters which have appeared so successfully in "Lost on the Orinoco." The boys, with their tutor, sail from Venezuela to the West Indies, stopping at Jamaica, Cuba, Hayti, and Porto Rico. They have numerous adventures on the way, and then set out for St. Pierre, Martinique, where they encounter the effects of the eruption of Mt. Pelee, and two of the boys are left on a raft to shift for themselves. Life in the West Indies is well portrayed, and the tale will appeal to many an older person as well as to the boys.