Aliens or Americans?
by Howard B. Grose
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V. The Individual Duty

[Sidenote: What You Can Do]

This brings us to the heart of the whole matter—the personal equation. The trouble is that the alien and the American do not know each other. Aversion on the one side is met by suspicion on the other. Shut away from intercourse, the alien becomes more alienated, and the American more opinionated, with results that may easily breed trouble. The antidote for prejudice is knowledge. Immigration has made it possible—and in this case possibility is duty—for the consecrated Christian, in this day and land of marvelous opportunity, to be a missionary—not by proxy but in person.

[Sidenote: Be a Home Missionary]

Here is the foreigner in every community. You meet him in a hundred places where the personal contact is possible. Did it ever occur to you that you could do something directly for the evangelization of the Greek or Italian fruit vender or bootblack or laborer? Have you ever felt any responsibility for the salvation of these commonly despised foreigners? Have you laughed at them, or shown your contempt and dislike for them as they have crowded the public places? The evangelization of the foreigners in America must be effected by the direct missionary effort of the masses of American Christians. That is the foundation truth. The work cannot be delegated to Home Mission Boards or any other agencies, no matter how good and strong in their place.

[Sidenote: A Personal Service]

Hence, let all emphasis be put here upon personal responsibility and opportunity. Be a missionary yourself. Reach and teach some one of these newcomers, and you will do your part. Do not begin with talking about religion. Make the chance to get acquainted; then after you have shown genuine human interest, and won confidence, the way will be open for the gospel that has already been felt in human helpfulness. As a result of this study, which has taught you to discriminate and to be charitable to all peoples, the new attitude and sympathy will enable you to approach those who have been brought within your sphere of influence. There is a field of magnificent breadth open to our young people. Once engaged in this personal service, and aware of its blessed effects, there will be no lack of a missionary zeal that will embrace the world-wide kingdom.

[Sidenote: A Shining Example of Personal Effort]

At a conference in New York, in the Home Mission study class a young colored man from the West Indies gave a practical illustration of individual missionary effort of the kind that would evangelize the foreigners, if it were generally practiced. He said that every Thursday, when the steamer from the West Indies arrives, he arranges his work so as to be at the wharf, ready to welcome immigrants, especially young people, and to advise them, if they are strangers without settled destination. He was led to do this by his own experience. For three years after he came to New York, he went from church to church without ever receiving a word of welcome or invitation to come again. Finally he found a church home; but the homesickness and loneliness of those years made him feel that so far as he could help it, no one else from the West Indies should have a similar experience. So he made himself free to speak to the young men, and always invited them to church. He had been the means of aiding many to establish themselves, and had saved many immigrants from being lured away into evil. He said the place to get the heart of the foreigner was when he first landed. It was a simple story, told without any false modesty. Plainly his heart was in the work. He was a home missionary, doing a definite service of importance, and setting an example that inspired that company. They could not help the round of applause that followed his statement. It was spontaneous. This is the personal touch that must be put in some way upon the stranger that is within our gates. If the alien can be brought under this gracious Christian influence, the chances are many that he will soon cease to be alien and become Christian. Blessed is he who makes any soul welcome to country and church.

[Sidenote: A Call for Sacrifice]

A call to home mission service is thus presented by Dr. Goodchild, who would carry religion more fully into the settlement idea: "We need for the solution of this problem that young men and women who go to the great cities from the strong churches of the smaller towns and villages should identify themselves with mission churches rather than to seek ease and honor in wealthy churches where unused talent is already congested.

[Sidenote: The Living Example]

"We need young men and young women to go down among these people and live Christian lives in the midst of them. I do not believe that any one should take his children there to rear them. But young men in groups, or young women in groups, or young couples without children, who are able to earn their own living could contribute greatly to the solution of these problems if they would live among these foreigners and help in the process of digestion and assimilation. And there is nothing that can do that work so quickly and effectually as for Christian men and women to dwell among these people, as Christ once left his home on high to dwell among the sinful ones of earth. And if there are young men and young women who are willing to give themselves wholly to work for these people, and will live among them, and seek by the power of divine grace to lift them up, it surely is very little for you and me to sustain them while they toil."

[Sidenote: How the Work Grows]

Wherever earnest effort has been put forth, the progress of the work has been most encouraging. As an illustration of this, when Dr. H. A. Schauffler some twenty years ago began his pioneer missionary work among the 25,000 Bohemians of Cleveland, he could not learn of any fellow-laborers in the Slavic field except a Bohemian theological student in New York, a Bohemian Reformed Church pastor in Iowa, and another in Texas. But in 1905 there met in Chicago an Interdenominational Conference of Slavic missionaries and pastors, and that gathering comprised no less than 103 Slavic workers, of whom sixty-four were pastors and preachers, fourteen women missionaries, and twenty-five missionary students; while the conference represented forty-nine churches in thirteen states, and five evangelical denominations. Mr. Ives says truly: "It has been forever established that foreigners are as convertible as our own people, that in many instances their faith is more pure and evangelical than the American type, that their lives are transformed by its power to an extent that sometimes puts the American Christian to shame, that their children are easily gathered into Sunday-schools, their young people into Endeavor Societies, and their men and women into prayer-meetings, where in many different tongues they yet speak and pray in the language of Canaan. The immigration problem is not the same menace that it was. A mighty solvent has been found."

[Sidenote: Inspiring Difficulties]

There is no escaping the fact that a prodigious amount of difficult lifting must be done in order to elevate the aliens to the American social and religious level. But the very vastness of the home mission task is inspiring rather than discouraging to heroic souls. As someone says, "The American loves a tough job." Difficulties will not hinder him a moment when once he is moved with the divine impulse, sees the thing to be done, and sets himself with God's help to do it. Present conditions call to mind that passage in "Alice in Wonderland," where by the seashore

The walrus and the carpenter were walking hand in hand, And wept like anything to see such quantities of sand. "If seven maids with seven mops, swept it for half a year, Do you suppose," the walrus said, "that they could get it clear?" "I doubt it," said the carpenter, and shed a bitter tear.

[Sidenote: A Hopeful, not Hopeless Task]

It must be confessed that what has been done, in comparison with what has to be done, would not be unfairly represented by the seven maids, and that some people think the conversion of the foreigner as hopeless as the carpenter did the sand-sweeping job. But seven mops are better than none, and the pessimists are few. Souls are different material to work upon from sand. By and by the Christian denominations will stop sweeping around the edges of this great missionary enterprise, and take hold of it with full force. This will come to pass when the real conditions and needs and perils are widely known; and in making them known the young people have their opportunity to render signal service to foreigner, country, Church, and Christ.

VI. Basal Grounds for Optimism

[Sidenote: The Outlook]

Now that we have completed our study of immigration, necessarily limited by time and space, we are in position to draw some conclusions with regard to the outlook. Our study shows that there is plenty in the character and extent of present day immigration to make the Christian and patriot thoughtful, prayerful, and purposeful. On the surface there is enough that is appalling and threatening to excuse if not justify the use of the word "peril." The writer confesses that when he lived, years ago, in western Pennsylvania, and came close to the inferior grades of immigrants, and witnessed the changes wrought by the displacement of the earlier day mining class, he bordered for a time on the pessimistic plane. Nor was his condition much improved during residence in New England, where the changing of the old order and the passing of the Puritan are of vast significance to our country. But closer study of the broad subject has led to a positively optimistic view concerning immigration, and some of the grounds of this optimism may properly close this chapter and volume.

[Sidenote: Two Great Factors—Democracy and Religion]

The basal ground is the universal tendency toward democracy and the universal necessity for religion. These are sufficiently axiomatic. The appeal to the history of the nineteenth century is sufficient to establish the first, and the appeal to the heart of humanity will establish the second. Democracy is the dominant spirit in the world's life to-day. It is the vital air of America. Whatever is in its nature inimical to democracy cannot permanently endure on this continent, and certainly cannot control, whether it be in the sphere of ecclesiasticism or commercialism. This, then, is the sure ground for optimism. Religion is a necessity in a nation. What shall the type of religion be in America? The answer is clear, for Protestantism is democratic, while Romanism is autocratic.

[Sidenote: Influence of the New Environment]

The hope of America's evangelization is increased by the fact that the pure religion of Jesus Christ is so essentially democratic in its fundamental teachings of the brotherhood of man, of spiritual liberty and unity. The immigrant comes into a new environment, created alike by civil and religious liberty, and cannot escape its influence. Political liberty teaches the meaning of soul liberty, and leads the way slowly but surely to it. A man cannot come into rights of one kind without awakening to rights of every kind; and once awakened, soon he insists upon having them all for himself. Freedom is infectious and contagious, and the disease is speedily caught by the old-world arrival, who breathes in its germs almost before the ship-motion wears off. The peril of this is that to him the main idea of liberty is license. The true meaning of the word he must be taught by the Christian missionary, for certainly he will not learn it from the Church to which he commonly belongs. Here, then, is the opportunity for the pure gospel and for the Christian missionary.

[Sidenote: The Testing "If"]

Adding the natural appeal of the gospel in its simplicity to this favoring democratic environment, there is every reason for optimism concerning immigration, if only American Protestantism prove true to its opportunity and duty. "Ah, but that is a tremendous IF," said a widely known Christian worker to whom this statement was made. "I agree with you as to the favoring conditions, and my only doubt is whether our Christian Churches can be brought to see their duty and do it. So far there are only signs of promise. Our home mission societies are doubtless doing all they can with the slender means furnished by the contributing churches, but they are only playing at the evangelization of these inpouring millions." What could be said in reply? One could not deny present apathy on the part of Protestants at large, whether the cause be ignorance or indifference or want of missionary spirit. One could but declare faith in the prevailing power of Protestantism when the crisis comes. We believe the day is not distant when American Protestantism will present a united front and press forward irresistibly. For the hastening of this day let us pray and work.

[Sidenote: The Task of the Ages]

Thus the problem always resolves itself to this at last: God has set for American Protestant Christianity the gigantic task of the ages—the home-foreign-mission task—nothing less than the assimilation of all these foreign peoples who find a home on this continent into a common Americanism so that they shall form a composite American nation—Christian, united, free, and great. What could be more glorious than to have part in the solution of this problem? To this supreme service, young men and women of America, you are called of God. What say you: shall it be Alien or American?



I. Faults on Both Sides.

1. What issues hang upon our work for the incoming foreigners?

2. * What barriers must be broken down in order to approach them successfully?

3. What do these immigrants (speaking of them in general terms) possess, and what do they lack, spiritually?

4. Is there a lack in our own personal attitude and feelings toward them? What is it?

5. * If you had come as an average immigrant, what would you be likely to think of "America" and the "Americans"?

II. Missionary Beginnings.

6. When and where is it most easy to approach the foreigner? What will a "lurking prejudice" do?

7. What Christian workers are there at the ports of entry? Give instances of the results of their labors.

8. Can we possibly rest content with what is now being done on these lines? Why not?

9. * Should all denominations unite in an effort to meet the situation? Will you strive for it?

10. What has been the history of evangelical churches down town in New York City? What centers of Christian work may be found there? What form would a more adequate provision be likely to take?

11. Among what classes of immigrants has the most successful Christian work been done?

12. Among what classes has it been thus far sporadic and experimental? Give instances of successful work for Italians.

III. Expansion Needed and Possible.

13. * Are those who are ordinarily neglected responsive to the right sort of effort? How may there be sent forth "more laborers into the harvest"?

14. When and how may the scattered forces be joined for more effective work?

15. * Shall we "dare to brave the perils of an unprecedented advance"?[99] Have we such faith that God will move his people to furnish the funds?

IV. Local and Individual Efforts.

16. Are there many Sunday-schools for Chinese in local churches? Why not as many for other needy races?

17. * How can every Christian be a Home Missionary? Describe some example. Compare our Lord's parable of the leaven.

18. Will the "day of small things" lead to greater? On what conditions? Give instances.

19. * Is the task great enough to challenge our Christian faith, courage, and perseverance?

V. A Hopeful Outlook for the Christian.

20. Is there any reason for inactivity and despair? Why not?

21. Will Christian democracy help to solve the problem?

22. Where lies the element of uncertainty and how can it be removed?

23. * Will you deliberately give yourself to be used of God in helping to remove it?

"Immigration Means Obligation."


I. Study the various forms of work undertaken for foreigners by denominational Home Mission Boards.

Tables and statements in the appendixes of this book.

Missionary periodicals.

Reports and papers of different Societies.

II. Investigate and report upon efforts made in your own locality.

III. Frame an argument, or plea, for the great enlargement of all Christian activities on behalf of foreigners.

McLanahan: Our People of Foreign Speech, X, XI.





- Period Number - Year ending September 30 1820 8,385 1821 9,127 1822 6,911 1823 6,354 1824 7,912 1825 10,199 1826 10,837 1827 18,875 1828 27,382 1829 22,520 1830 23,322 1831 22,633 Oct. 1, 1831, to Dec. 31, 1832 60,482 Year ending December 31 1833 58,640 1834 65,365 1835 45,374 1836 76,242 1837 79,340 1838 38,914 1839 68,069 1840 84,066 1841 80,289 1842 104,565 Jan. 1 to Sept. 30, 1843 52,496 Year ending September 30 1844 78,615 1845 114,371 1846 154,416 1847 234,968 1848 226,527 1849 297,024 1850 310,004 Oct. 1 to Dec. 31, 1850 59,976 Year ending December 31 1851 379,466 1852 371,603 1853 368,645 1854 427,833 1855 200,877 1856 195,857 Jan. 1 to June 30, 1857 112,123 Year ending June 30 1858 191,942 1859 129,571 1860 133,143 Year ending June 30 1861 142,877 1862 72,183 1863 132,925 1864 191,114 1865 180,339 1866 332,577 1867 303,104 1868 282,189 1869 352,768 1870 387,203 1871 321,350 1872 404,806 1873 459,803 1874 313,339 1875 227,498 1876 169,986 1877 141,857 1878 138,469 1879 177,826 1880 457,257 1881 669,431 1882 788,992 1883 603,322 1884 518,592 1885 395,346 1886 334,203 1887 490,109 1888 546,889 1889 444,427 1890 455,302 1891 560,319 1892 579,663 1893 439,730 1894 285,631 1895 258,536 1896 343,267 1897 230,832 1898 229,299 1899 311,715 1900 448,572 1901 487,918 1902 648,743 1903 857,046 1904 812,870 1905 1,026,499 1906[101] 1,100,735 -


Under 14 to 45 yrs. Race or people Male Female Total 14 44 and years years over - - - - - - African (black) 2,325 1,273 3,598 433 2,974 191 Armenian 1,339 539 1,878 246 1,529 103 Bohemian and Moravian 6,662 5,095 11,757 2,620 8,442 695 Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin 5,562 261 5,823 97 5,529 197 Chinese 1,883 88 1,971 28 1,666 277 Croatian and Slovenian 30,253 4,851 35,104 1,383 32,470 1,251 Cuban 4,925 2,334 7,259 1,346 5,225 688 Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian 2,489 150 2,639 62 2,450 127 Dutch and Flemish 5,693 2,805 8,498 1,699 6,085 714 East Indian 137 8 145 3 122 20 English 31,965 18,900 50,865 6,956 36,726 7,183 Filipino 4 1 5 4 1 Finnish 11,907 5,105 17,012 1,483 15,047 482 French 6,705 4,642 11,347 1,121 8,825 1,401 German 49,647 32,713 82,360 11,469 64,441 6,450 Greek 11,586 558 12,144 446 11,523 175 Hebrew 82,076 47,834 129,910 28,553 95,964 5,393 Irish 24,640 29,626 54,266 2,580 48,562 3,124 Italian (north) 31,695 8,235 39,930 3,569 34,561 1,800 Italian (south) 155,007 31,383 186,390 16,915 159,024 10,451 Japanese 9,810 1,211 11,021 124 10,588 309 Korean 4,506 423 4,929 325 4,557 47 Lithuanian 13,842 4,762 18,604 1,474 16,875 255 Magyar 34,242 11,788 46,030 3,864 39,926 2,240 Mexican 152 75 227 29 169 29 Pacific Islander 13 4 17 1 15 1 Polish 72,452 29,985 102,437 9,867 89,914 2,656 Portuguese 2,992 1,863 4,855 1,035 3,381 439 Roumanian 7,244 574 7,818 153 7,293 372 Russian 2,700 1,046 3,746 591 2,988 167 Ruthenian (Russniak) 10,820 3,653 14,473 661 13,321 491 Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and Swedes) 37,202 25,082 62,284 6,597 52,226 3,461 Scotch 10,472 5,672 16,144 2,270 12,109 1,765 Slovak 38,038 14,330 52,368 4,582 45,882 1,904 Spanish 4,724 866 5,590 403 4,612 575 Spanish-American 1,146 512 1,658 223 1,232 203 Syrian 3,248 1,574 4,822 742 3,843 237 Turkish 2,082 63 2,145 45 2,073 27 Welsh 1,549 982 2,531 464 1,726 341 West Indian (except Cuban) 892 656 1,548 187 1,209 152 All other peoples 288 63 351 22 311 18 Total 724,914 301,585 1,026,499 114,668 855,419 56,412

Here we have forty-four races or nationalities differentiated. Surely this is a medley of peoples to be harmonized. Note the vast proportion of working age.



- + Race or People Idiots Insane Paupers or Loathsome Contract Relieved likely to or laborers in be public contagious hospital charges diseases -+ African (black) .. .. 107 .. 13 3 Armenian .. .. 25 50 5 78 Bohemian and Moravian .. 1 38 8 5 104 Bulgarian, Servian, and Montenegrin .. .. 314 19 62 37 Chinese .. 1 9 74 3 2 Croatian and Slovenian .. .. 263 88 32 128 Cuban .. 1 22 4 11 .. Dalmatian, Bosnian, and Herzegovinian .. .. 41 3 13 18 Dutch and Flemish 2 1 51 7 5 41 East Indian .. .. 12 .. 1 3 English 4 9 328 28 58 144 Finnish 2 1 33 46 4 89 French .. 2 94 9 23 48 German 5 8 420 100 60 747 Greek .. .. 193 22 60 70 Hebrew 10 10 1,208 353 33 1,534 Irish 4 13 175 28 15 243 Italian (north) .. 2 169 41 42 158 Italian (south) 6 19 1,578 247 205 1,290 Japanese .. 1 238 285 13 2 Korean .. .. 4 18 .. 1 Lithuanian 2 1 48 92 8 269 Magyar .. .. 427 103 18 363 Mexican .. .. 7 8 .. 2 Polish .. 4 444 204 125 991 Portuguese .. .. 50 7 1 26 Roumanian .. .. 388 14 111 47 Russian .. 3 66 27 1 59 Ruthenian (Russniak) 1 1 186 14 13 115 Scandinavian (Norwegians, Danes, and Swedes) 2 9 152 43 14 253 Scotch .. 2 77 10 21 75 Slovak .. .. 275 66 47 491 Spanish .. 1 66 6 63 23 Spanish American .. .. 13 4 1 6 Syrian .. .. 124 155 59 200 Turkish .. .. 46 9 5 17 Welsh .. 1 12 1 13 8 West Indian (except Cuban) .. 1 20 .. .. 17 All other peoples .. .. 195 5 .. 74 - + Grand total 38 92 7,898 2,198 1,164 7,776 -+



1862. Act of February 19, prohibiting building, equipping, loading, or preparing any vessel licensed, enrolled or registered in the United States for procuring coolies from any Oriental country to be held for service or labor.

1875. Act of March 3, providing that any person contracting or attempting to contract to supply coolie labor to another be guilty of felony. Excluding convicts, and women imported for immoral purposes, making this traffic felony.

1882. General Immigration Act of August 3; enlarging excluded list and establishing head tax.

1885. Contract Labor Act of February 26, to prevent importation of labor under the padrone or other similar system.

1891. Act of March 3, which codified and strengthened the previous statutes. Excluded classes increased; encouraging of contract labor to emigrate by advertisements forbidden; scope of Immigration Bureau enlarged by establishing office of Superintendent of Immigration (now Commissioner-General), providing for return of debarred aliens, and making decision of immigration officers as to landing or debarment final.

1893. Act of March 3; requiring manifests and their verification; providing boards of special inquiry; and compelling steamship companies to post in the offices of their agents copies of the United States immigration laws, and to call the attention of purchasers of tickets to them.

1894. Act of August 18; making the decision of the appropriate immigration officials final as to admission of aliens, unless reversed by the Secretary of the Treasury on appeal.

1903. Immigration Restriction Act of March 3. (For its main provisions see p. 70 of this book, footnote 23.)


(1) Idiots; (2) insane persons; (3) epileptics; (4) prostitutes; (5) paupers; (6) persons likely to become public charge; (7) professional beggars; (8) persons afflicted with a loathsome or contagious disease; (9) persons who have been convicted of a felony or other crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, not including those convicted of purely political offences; (10) polygamists; (11) anarchists (or persons who believe in or advocate the overthrow by force or violence of the government of the United States or of all government or forms of laws, or the assassination of public officials); (12) those deported within a year from date of application for admission as being under offers, solicitation, promises or agreements to perform labor or service of some kind therein; (13) any person whose ticket or passage is paid for with the money of another, or who is assisted by others to come, unless it is shown that such person does not belong to one of the excluded classes; but any person in the United States may send for a relative or friend without thereby putting the burden of this proof upon the immigrant.


In order to enforce these provisions twelve violations were made crimes, with penalties of both fine and imprisonment: (1) Importing any person for immoral purposes; (2) prepaying the transportation or encouraging the migration of aliens under any offer, solicitation, promise or agreement, parol or special, expressed or implied, made previous to the importation of aliens, to perform labor in the United States; (3) encouraging the migration of aliens by promise of employment through advertisements in foreign countries; (4) encouraging immigration on the part of owners of vessels and transportation companies by any means other than communications giving the sailing of vessels and terms of transportation; (5) bringing in or attempting to bring in any alien not duly admitted by an immigrant inspector or not lawfully entitled to enter the United States; (6) bringing in by any person other than railway lines of any person afflicted with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease; (7) allowing an alien to land from a vessel at any other time and place than that designated by the immigration officer; (8) refusing or neglecting to return rejected aliens to the port from which they came or to pay their maintenance while on land; (9) refusing or neglecting to return aliens arrested within three years after entry as being unlawfully in the United States; (10) knowingly or willfully giving false testimony or swearing to any false statement affecting the right of an alien to land is made perjury; (11) assisting any anarchist to enter the United States, or conspiring to allow, procure or permit any such person to enter; (12) failing to deliver manifests.


Act of 1819, providing that a vessel should not carry more than two passengers for every five tons, and that a specified quantity of certain provisions should be carried for every passenger; requiring the master to deliver sworn manifests showing age, sex, occupation, nativity, and destination of passengers.

Act of 1855, limited number to one for every two tons, and provided that each passenger on main and poop decks should have sixteen feet of floor space, and on lower decks eighteen feet.

Act of 1882, providing that in a steamship the unobstructed spaces shall be sufficient to allow one hundred cubic feet per passenger on main and next deck, and 120 on second deck below main deck, and forbidding carrying of passengers on any other decks, or in any space having vertical height less than six feet; other provisions regulate the occupancy of berths, light and air, ventilation, toilet rooms, food, and hospital facilities. Explosives and other dangerous articles are not to be carried, nor animals with or below passengers. Lists of passengers are to be delivered to the boarding officer of customs.

Act of 1884, provision that no keeper of a sailors' boarding house or hotel, and no runner or person interested in one, could board an incoming vessel until after it reached its dock. This to protect aliens from imposition and knavery.


1. In regard to diseased aliens: that competent medical officers be located at the principal ports of embarkation; that all aliens seeking passage secure as a prerequisite from such officer a certificate of good health, mental and physical; and that the bringing of any alien unprovided with such certificate shall subject the vessel by which he is brought to summary fine. 2. That the penalty of $100 now prescribed for carrying diseased persons be increased to $500, as a means of making the transportation lines more careful. 3. Such further legislation as will enable the government to punish those who induce aliens to come to this country under promise or assurance of employment. Less exacting rules of evidence and a summary mode of trial are needed to make the law effective. 4. That Congress provide means for distributing arriving aliens who now congregate in the large cities. 5. That as a means of those incapable of self-support through age or feebleness; those who have not brought sufficient money to maintain them for a reasonable time in event of sickness or lack of employment. 6. That adequate means be adopted, enforced by sufficient penalties, to compel steamship companies to observe in good faith the law which forbids them to encourage or solicit immigration. If other means fail, a limitation apportioning the number of passengers in direct ratio to tonnage is suggested. 7. That masters of vessels be required to furnish manifests of outgoing aliens, similar to those of arriving aliens, so that the net annual increase of alien population may be ascertained.

In addition two special recommendations are made, with view to control immigration and lessen the hardships of the debarred: (1) To enlighten aliens as to the provisions of our laws, so that they may not in ignorance sever their home ties and sacrifice their small possessions in an ineffectual attempt to enter the United States. To this end the laws and regulations should be translated into the various tongues and distributed widely. This might not prevail as against the influence and promises of transportation agents, but it would relieve this country of responsibility for needless distress and suffering. (2) An international conference of immigration experts.



The following facts and figures, received from the leading Home Mission Boards, give some idea of the work which is now being done for the evangelization of the foreign peoples in the United States. We should be glad if the reports were more complete. They do not represent all of the work that is being done, because a considerable part of this work is carried on by the local churches in all of the denominations, and this work is seldom reported and does not enter into the statistics of the Home Mission Boards.

It is hoped that each Board will provide a supplementary chapter, setting forth in detail its work among the foreign population—a work abounding in incident and hopefulness. There is no more encouraging home mission work, and wherever earnest effort has been made, the response has been most gratifying. Write to your Home Mission Board for full information. Where a special chapter is not furnished for a supplemental study, the Boards will send the information and literature that will enable the leader of the study class to show what is being done, with a detail impossible in the general treatment of the subject.

It is significant, in this connection, that all the Boards are calling especial attention to the needs of this work among the foreign peoples and urging large advance in plans for evangelization.


- No. of charges Members and probationers receiving in charge receiving Nationality missionary aid missionary aid - Welsh 4 185 Swedish 135 12,076 Norwegian and Danish 85 4,236 German 265 19,184 French 8 350 Chinese 11 298 Japanese 30 1,666 Bohemian and Hungarian 11 1,666 Italian 18 1,014 Portuguese 3 86 Finnish 9 93 Foreign Populations 3 .... - 582 39,557

Including the charges not now receiving missionary aid, the total number of missions, or charges, among the foreign peoples was 971, not including Spanish work, and the total membership, including probationers, was 92,082 in 1906. The work is extended all over the country.

The Woman's Home Missionary Society supports Immigrant Homes in New York City, and in Boston, Mass., in which immigrants may find protection and counsel as well as a safe lodging. In Philadelphia, Pa., work is also done for incoming strangers, and lodgings provided in case of need. Missionaries are stationed at each of these points. Much work is done for foreigners by this Society through its three large city missions, and its numerous Deaconess Homes.


Nationality No. of Churches and Stations Membership

Armenian 3 183 Bohemian 30 1,529 Chinese 10 438 Danes and Norwegians 1 101 Dutch 12 1,365 French 9 508 German 156 13,446 Hungarian (Magyar) 15 1,035 —- ——— Total 236 18,605

Italian 32 955 Japanese 3 50 Korean 1 40 Russian 1 .... Slavic 8 337 Syrian 2 15 Welsh 7 414 —- ——— Total 290 20,415

The Annual Report for 1906 says: In addition to the above it is doubtless true that there are many churches, and even individuals, carrying on religious work among foreigners which has not been reported to the Board. Two facts warrant special attention. One is that the proper carrying on of the work of giving the gospel to these foreign-speaking peoples necessarily includes and is closely allied with other needs—such as schools; literature in their own tongue, including tracts, papers, and the Bible; colporteur visitation; Bible reading, and so forth. It is not sufficient simply to open a church or hall where a meeting can be held and expect the people to come. A great deal of preparatory work must be done.


Nationality No. of Field Members of Mission Fields

Bohemians 6 196 Chinese 12 209 Danes 20 484 Finns 13 175 French Canadian 29 650 Germans 148 5,196 Hungarians 3 42 Italians 25 391 Japanese 2 68 Jews 2 .... —- ——— 260 7,411

Lettish 2 31 Mexicans in U. S 18 113 Norwegians 50 1,095 Poles 6 82 Portuguese 2 42 Russians 2 71 Slavs 5 77 Swedes 205 7,623 Syrians 1 .... —- ——— 551 16,545


Churches Memb'ship

Germans, 1906 266 26,274 Dane-Norwegian, 1903 90 5,530 Swedes, 1903 331 22,625

The number of missionaries among the foreign populations was 312. The Women's Societies maintained a number of workers, including the efficient missionaries at Ellis Island. The Home Mission Society is supporting Italian missionaries in twenty cities. Aside from organized effort, Chinese Sunday-schools are conducted by many local churches, which do not report to any central organization. There is a considerable work done also by the city mission societies, which work independently in part. In some places, local churches also maintain missions among the Italians, Hungarians, and Slavs.


Total number of Missionaries 215 German Missions 73 Scandinavian Missions 89 Bohemian " 20 Polish " 5 French " 7 Spanish Missions 10 Finnish " 6 Danish " 2 Armenian " 6 Greek " 1 Chinese and Japanese 22


Churches Members Average to a Church

Germans 170 8,000 47 Scandinavians 95 7,495 79 Slavs 12 636 58 All other Nationalities, (including Italians, French, Greek, Armenian, Chinese, Welsh, etc) 102 8,222 78 —- ——— —- 379 24,353 262


The Domestic Section of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States carries on work to a limited extent among the Swedes. There is a general missionary in the East, who has charge of this work in the three dioceses of Rhode Island, New York, and Massachusetts, and one in the northwest. In the eastern dioceses named there were in 1906 fifteen Swedish missions and parishes, with 1,897 communicants, ministered to by five clergymen. The western general missionary visited Sweden during the past year for the purpose of finding suitable university students for the ministry in this country. There are missions in Duluth and at other points. The Annual Report says: "Of all the work under the care of the general missionary, none is more important than the mission to Scandinavian immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, New York, for it acts as a special feeder to the church. The Scandinavian immigrants outnumber those from any other Protestant country."

What further work is done for the foreign peoples is carried on by the local parishes, such as Grace Church, Trinity, Saint George's, and Saint Bartholomew's in New York, which work among the Italians and other nationalities, and equip their missions in a manner worthy of imitation.


Large numbers of the immigrants are Lutherans. The resources of the Lutheran church in America to care for her people are thus stated by the Rev. J. N. Lenker, D.D., in the Lutheran World, the church organ:

For the Germans, 5,000 pastors, 8,000 churches, and 1,200,000 communicant members.

For the Scandinavians, 1,800 pastors, 14,300 churches, and 500,000 communicant members.

For the Finns, three synods, 58 pastors, 187 churches, and 22,149 communicant members.

For the Slovaks, about 200 organizations with a growing number of pastors and a very loyal constituency.

For the Letts and Esthonians, 21 organized congregations and preaching stations, divided into the eastern and western districts.

For the Icelanders, one synod, 10 pastors, 37 organized congregations, 3,785 communicant members.

For the Poles, Bohemians, and Magyars, work is done by the various German synods, the late statistics of which are not at hand. Besides congregations in these languages, many understand German and are served by German pastors.

The whole Lutheran Church of America, including the Swedish Mission Friends with 33,000 members and the German Evangelical Synod with 222,000 members, the constituents of which are nearly all Lutherans, making in all 8,956 pastors, 15,135 churches, and 2,123,639 communicant members are the results of immigrant mission work or mission work in foreign languages or languages other than English.


First class and the easiest to assimilate are

English 50,865 Reformed Scotch 16,144 Reformed Germans 82,360 Luth. and Cath. Scandinavians 62,284 Lutheran Irish 54,266 Catholic. Finns 17,012 Lutheran Letts, et al. 18,604 Lutheran Slovaks 52,368 Lutheran ———- Total 353,903

Second class and the second easiest to assimilate:

Magyars 46,030 Ref. and Cath. Bohemians, etc 11,757 Ref. and Cath. French 11,021 Ref. and Cath. Ruthenians 14,473 Catholic ——— Total 83,281

Third class and the most difficult to evangelize and Americanize and the class that makes the new problem difficult:

Poles 102,137 Catholic Italians 226,320 Catholic Hebrews 129,910 Israelites ———- Total 458,367



Bernheimer, Charles S., Editor. The Russian Jew in the United States. B. F. Buck & Co., New York $1.50. Written mostly by Jews; replete with facts gathered in the various centers—New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston. Should be read by those who would understand this remarkable people.

Brandenburg, Broughton. Imported Americans. F. A. Stokes, New York. $1.60. Description of experiences while making personal investigations in New York, Italy, and the steerage, of immigration problems.

Crowell, Katherine R. Coming Americans. Willett Press, New York. Paper, 25 cents; Cloth, 35 cents. A book for Juniors, putting in attractive form for children and teachers of children the leading features of immigration.

Gordon, W. Evans. The Alien Immigrant. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50. Describes the Hebrews in European countries, with chapter on situation in the United States.

Hall, Prescott F. Immigration. Henry Holt & Co., New York. $1.50. The latest volume of comprehensive character, taking the restrictive position. The author is secretary of the Immigration Restriction League.

Holt, Hamilton. Undistinguished Americans. James Pott & Co., New York. $1.50. Biographical and readable.

Lord, Eliot, et al. The Italian in America. B. F. Buck & Co., New York. $1.50. Makes an exceedingly favorable showing for the Italians; somewhat one-sided but valuable.

Mayo-Smith, Richmond. Emigration and Immigration. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50. An exceedingly valuable and scholarly work.

McLanahan, Samuel. Our People of Foreign Speech. Fleming H. Revell Company, New York. 50 cents, net. A handbook containing many valuable facts in compact form.

Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.25, net. Descriptive of the conditions in which the foreign population struggles for existence.

Roberts, Peter. Anthracite Coal Communities. The Macmillan Company, New York. $3.50. A study of the anthracite regions and the Slavs, similar in character to Dr. Warne's book.

Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. $1.50. A work based on personal investigation and living among the Slavs who labor in the stockyards in Chicago; vivid narrative. This book discloses the treatment of the alien that makes him a menace to America.

Strong, Josiah. Our Country. Baker & Taylor Company, New York. 60 cents. The points made in the chapter on Immigration are as pertinent now as when the book was issued in 1881.

Strong, Josiah. The Twentieth Century City. Baker & Taylor Company, New York. Paper, 25 cents; Cloth, 50 cents. Has the breadth of view and effectiveness which belong to the author.

Warne, F. Julian. The Slav Invasion. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Pa. $1.00, net. Study at first hand of conditions in Pennsylvania mining regions and the Slav population.

Whelpley, J. D. The Problem of the Immigrant. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $4.20. Dealing with the emigration and immigration laws of all nations.

Wood, Robert A. Americans in Process. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50. A series of papers by Robert A. Wood, and other workers in the South End House in Boston, Mass.


Abuses, of immigration privileges and laws, 42, 43, 63-69, 78-84, 92, 93

Adams, Representative, of Pennsylvania, 74, 97

Admission, see Immigrants

Africans, 124

Alabama, 113

Albany, New York, 22

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, 3

Alien, admission, 53-64; advance in numbers and distribution, 15-50, 102-117; characterized, 236, 237, 258; ideas imported, 241; loss of religious faith, 271; opinion of America, 272; protection, 65-68; restriction, 68-84

Aliens, classes excluded, 77, 78; total since American Revolution, 28

America, duty to guard its own genius, 232; mission, 10, 269; must be kept Christian, 271; unique mission field, 269

American, Christians, duty of, 10, 11, 44-47; fair play, 73; ideals to be preserved, 11, 46, 47, 91, 238, 239, 262; institutions, 232, 261; liberty, 117; Protestantism, 16, 47, 254, 255, 288; teacher in Syria, 39; Tract Society, 50; type of nationality, 11, 45, 46, 92, 238, 240

Americanization of immigrants, 10, 14, 46, 113, 126, 176, 242; children promoting, 205, 223, 259, 260

Anderson, Herbert, 268

Antwerp, 99

Appeal, right of, by excluded, 77, 78

Ardan, Ivan, 181, 182

Armenians, 124

Asia, immigrants from, 20, 21, 113

Assimilation of foreign peoples, 270, 271; aid to, 293

Assisted immigration, 43, 77, 93, 101

Associated Charities of Boston, 96

Atchison, Rena M., 194, 247

Attila, 27

Australians, as immigrants, 22

Austria, 81, 82

Austria-Hungary, 92, 165; immigrants from, 21, 25, 72

Baldwin, Mrs. S. L., 72, 73

Baltimore, 53

Barrows, Dr. S. J., 142

Battery, the, 54, 62, 108

Belgians, as immigrants, 21

Belgium, 29

Berlin, 199

Betts, Mrs. Lillian W., 151, 152, 204

Bible, 34, 167, 174, 283, 288

"Birds of passage," 71, 135

Blackwell's Island, 139

Board of Special Inquiry, 62

Bohemians, as immigrants, 21, 165-170; city centers, 166; freethinking tendencies, 168, 169; Protestant in spirit, 165-168; religious work among, 285

Booth, General William, 194

Bosnians, 183

Boston, 24, 53, 83, 198; Italian Society, 111

Boyesen, Professor, 28, 89, 90, 234

Brandenburg, Broughton, 41, 65-68, 82, 97, 98, 101

Bremen, 82, 99

Brooklyn, 148

Brooks, Phillips, 232

Bryce, James, 200

Buffalo, 172

Bulgarians, as immigrants, 21, 183

Bureau of Information, 110

Burlington, Iowa, 20

Calvin, 172

Cambridge, Massachusetts, 24

Canada, 27; ingress from, 53, 77, 92

Canadians, as immigrants, 21

Carr, Mr. 138

Carroll, Dr. H. K., 174

Castle Garden, 28

Celtic peoples, 123

Chandler, ex-Senator, 214

Chattanooga, Immigration Bureau in, 113

Chicago, 36, 166-172, 176, 187, 198

Childhood, the blighting of, 225, 226

Children, condition of, in great cities, 221, 222; number of, at work, 224, 226

Chinese, as immigrants, 21, 40, 72, 73; converts, 73, 89, 269; exclusion act, 70, 73; Sunday-schools for, 289

Chivers, Dr. E. E., 267

Chopin, 172

Christ, 44, 277

Christian attitude toward immigrants, 44-47, 270; cooeperation and federation, 286; optimism, 8, 117, 262

Christianity, converts to, 73; its first impression for newcomers, 277, 278

Churches, duty and opportunity of, 270, 282, 286; abandoning lower New York, 278; must be missionary, 270; saving themselves through saving immigrants, 285; work for foreigners, 289

Cincinnati, 23

Citizenship, how degraded, 214

City, the, bad government of, 200; conditions of tenement-house life in, 201, 210; demoralizing influences, 209, 214; environment offered immigrants, 196, 201-206; foreignization of, 198, 199, 217; isolation of foreigners in, 205; nerve and storm center, 193; overcrowding, 203, 206; political evils, 214

City College, many Jewish pupils in, 189

Civil War, effect on immigration, 26, 31

Claghorn, Kate H., 97, 259

Cleveland, Ohio, 24, 166, 169, 172

Cleveland, President, 96

Colonies, foreign, in America, 196, 198, 200, 217

Colonists distinguished from immigrants, 45, 46

Columbia University, 13

Columbus, Christopher, 188

Commissioner-General of Immigration, 25, 76-78, 83, 92, 93; of the Port, 77

Coney Island, 150

Congestion of foreign elements in cities, 195

Congress, acts of, 70

Connecticut, 173, 174, 180

Consumption, statistics of, 220; foreign element largely its victims, 220

Contract labor exclusion, 77, 82, 92; violation, 82, 83

Convicts, excluded, 77

Cook, Joseph, 52

Coolies, Chinese, excluded, 70

Cooeperation, interdenominational, 286; of Home Mission Boards, 288

Copernicus, 172

Crime, conditions favorable to increase of, 209, 224; foreigners led into by environment and example, 209

Croatians, 124, 183

Czechs, see Bohemians

Dalmatians, as immigrants, 183

Danes, as immigrants, 21

Debarred, see Excluded

Democracy, influence of upon aliens, 296, 298

Denmark, immigrants from, 23

Detroit, 21, 172

Discrimination needed as to immigrants, 127

Diseases guarded against, 57, 59, 60, 74, 77, 78, 93

Distribution of immigrants, 102-117; New York state, 105, 107; New Zealand methods, 116; North Atlantic section, 105; Ohio, 107; Pennsylvania, 105, 107; railroads assisting, 116; societies aiding, 107-113; South Central states, 105; West Virginia, 107; Western section, 105

Dublin, 199

Dutch, as immigrants, 21

Eastern invasion, the, 157-192

Edison, Thomas A., 247

Educational policy affected by immigration, 246

Ellis Island, 18, 19, 35, 37, 54, 55, 59-62, 74, 83, 99, 100, 108; missionary workers at, 274; results of personal efforts at, 275

Emerson, Ralph W., 247

English, as immigrants, 19, 21, 126; language, influence of, 259, 260

Environment, evil effects of upon children, 243

Europe, American ideas working in, 33, 34; immigrants from, 20, 23, 98, 123-192

Evangelization of immigrants, 10, 16, 46, 47; accessibility, 294; illustration of, 283; most potent factor in Americanizing, 270; need for extension of, 277; personal responsibility for, 290; sporadic, not systematic, 281

Evasion of immigration laws, 78-83

Excluded classes, 74-78, 100, 101

Federation of Jewish Charities, 102

Financial panics, effect on immigration, 26, 31

Finns, as immigrants, 21

Fiume, 82, 99

Forbes, James, 139

Foreign-born, distribution of, 107

Four State Immigration League, 113

France, 34

Franklin, Benjamin, 69

Freethinkers, their societies among immigrants, 168, 169, 180, 285

French-American College, the, 280

French, as immigrants, 21

French-Canadians, Roman Catholic convention of, 257

Fung Yuet Mow, 269

Gardner, Representative, of Massachusetts, 95

Genoa, 99, 132

Germans, as immigrants, 19, 21, 35, 126

Germany, immigrants from, 25, 33, 81

Goodchild, Rev. F. M., 33, 292

Grant, Ulysses S., 247

Great Britain, immigrants from, 25, 43, 128

Greece, 92

Greek Catholic Church, 182, 184; Orthodox or Russian State Church, 182

Greeks, as immigrants, 21, 37, 41

Hall, Prescott F., 45, 70, 129

Hamburg, 82, 99

Havre, 99

Hebrew, see Jewish, Jews

Herzegovinians, as immigrants, 183

Hewes, F. W., 107

Home Missions, at Ellis Island, 274; demand for extension of in New York, 287; opportunities of, for local churches, 279; personal work, 274, 290, 291; results of abroad, 269; settlement influences by residence, 292, 293

Honolulu, 53

Huguenot colonial stock, 240

Hungarians, as immigrants, 33, 128, 177-179; cafes, as social centers, 178, 179; fair degree of education, 177; open to mission work, 178

Hungary, 19, 128

Huns, 27, 165

Hunter, Robert, 194, 200

Huss, John, 166, 170

Iberic peoples, 123

Idiots, excluded, 77, 78

Illiteracy, amount of among immigrants, 22, 24, 125; test proposed, 95, 96

Immigrants, admission, 53-64; "assisted," 43, 93; approachable, 273, 282; attracted to the city, 195; debarred, 70, 71, 77, 78; diseased, 57, 60, 74, 77, 78, 93, 94; illiteracy among, 22, 23, see also Illiteracy; "manifest," 55, 56, 61; nationality, 21, 22; "natural," 31-42; ports and routes of entry, 53, 77; "solicited," 42, 43, 80-82, 93; smuggling of, 81, 92; religious census and conditions, 251, 271; value of first impression upon, 273; views of America, 272; women among, 18, 61, 76

Immigration, annual volume, 17-22; Bureau of, 76, 77, 92, 104; causes of, 29-31; Christian view of, 8; classes, 31-43; Conference of 1905, 90, 91; divine mission in, 270; economic fallacies of, 245; effect upon educational policy, 246; inspectors and officers, 59-61, 76, 77; laws, see Laws, immigration; new development of, 121-155; numbers since 1820, 25-27; process by the steerage and Ellis Island described, 55-62; Restrictive League, 96; "runner," 80-82; steamship and railroad arrangements, 55, 57, 62

Indianapolis, 22

Indians, North American, 45

Industrial Commission, 31

Insane, excluded, 77, 78

Insanity, low proportion among Italians and Jews, 140

Institutional church, need of, 286, 288

Ireland, 27, 43, immigrants from, 25, 31, 72, 128; potato famine, 25

Irish, as immigrants, 19, 21, 38, 39, 89, 126; compared with the Italians, 136, 137

Italian, Benevolent Institute, 147; Chamber of Commerce, 145; Hospital, 147; Immigration Department, 138; Savings Bank, 147

Italians, as immigrants, 19, 34, 36, 37, 110, 130; distribution, 135, 136; family cooeperation, 207; generally peaceable character, 141, 142, 208; illiteracy, 22, 134; in New York, 139, 145, 206; number entering, 19, 134, 135; parallel drawn with Irish, 136, 137; societies for mutual aid, 50, 110, 145, 147; spirit of converts, 284; thrift, 139-147, 207; women homemakers, 206;

Italy, 92, 131-133; government action and aid, 79, 111; immigrants from, 25, 31, 72, 79, 107; Royal Department of Emigration, 111; sections compared, 131-134

Ives, Mr., 294

Japanese, as immigrants, 40; Robinson Crusoe, 40

Jefferson, President, 68

Jerome of Prague, 166

Jersey City, 22

Jewish children as pupils, 189

Jews, as immigrants, 21, 95, 96, 113, 128, 185-190; Austria-Hungarian, 21, 186; German, 185; good qualities, 190; number of in New York, 186, 198; Roumanian, 186; Russian, 11, 12, 21, 185-190

John G. Carlisle, ferryboat, 53

Joseph II, Emperor, of Austria, 167

Juvenile Court, Jewish children in, 190

Kansas City, 22

Kosciusko, 172

Kossuth, a Slovak, 175

Labor, immigration of skilled and unskilled, 23, 24

Latin races, as immigrants, 113, 131

Lawrence, Kansas, 20

Laws, immigration, 58, 64; Bill of 1906, 95; problems, 87-119; protective, 65-68; restrictive, 68-84; summaries and recommendations, 309-313

Lee, Dr. S. H., 136, 152

Legislation, see Laws, immigration

Letts, the, as immigrants, 179, 180

Liberty, American, as a working leaven, 33, 34; statue of, 57, 278

Lieber, Francis, 194

Lincoln, Abraham, 247

Lithuanians, as immigrants, 23, 36, 179, 180; illiteracy, 23

Liverpool, 99

Lodge, Senator, 96

London, 99

Long Island, as a field for Italians, 149

Longfellow, 247

Louisiana, 113

Louisville, 23

Luther, 172

Lynn, Massachusetts, 24

Machinery, effect on immigration, 43

Madison, President, 68

Mafia, the, 130, 141

Magna Charta, 34

Magyars, as immigrants, 21, 177-179; illiteracy, 23; see also Hungarians

"Manifest" for immigrant, 55, 56, 61

Marine Hospital Service, 59

Marseilles, 99

Mashek, Nan, 166

Massachusetts, 142, 173

Mayo-Smith, Richmond, 52, 231, 238, 248

McLanahan, Samuel, 121

McMillan, Margaret, 225

Mexicans, as immigrants, 21

Mexico, ingress through, 92, 93

Michigan, 172

Milwaukee, 170, 172

Minneapolis, 21

Mission workers for immigrants, 274

Mississippi, 113, 183

Mitchell, Max, 102

Mongolic peoples, 124

Montenegrins, as immigrants, 21, 183

Moravians, as immigrants, 164

Music, love of by Bohemians, 169; by Italians, 144

Naples, 99, 199

National Civic Federation, 90; Slavonic Society, 176

Naturalization, illegal methods, 93, 196, 214-215; reading test desirable, 249

New Amsterdam, 45

New England, 45, 148, 173, 179; how it can remain Christian, 270, 271

New Haven, 23

New Jersey, 148, 173, 178

New Orleans, 183

New York, Bible Society, 50; State, 69, 70, 105, 107, 178, 213

New York City, 30-39, 53, 54, 62, 63, 110, 112, 139, 145, 165, 166, 169, 172, 176-189, 198, 200, 220; chief port of entry for immigrants, 53; child life and labor in, 220, 221; consumption in, 220; cosmopolitan character, 198, 199; foreign peoples in, 139, 145, 150, 166, 172, 178, 179, 186-189, 195-226

Norway, 27; immigrants from, 23, 25, 126

Occupations, of various races, 23, 24

Odessa, 99

Ogg, Frederick A., 92, 93, 99, 100

Ohio, 172

Optimism, 8, 29, 262

Ottawa, Illinois, 20

Padrones, 82, 92, 111

Parochial schools among aliens, 246, 256

Pauperism in the United States, 218; contrasted with poverty, 217; foreign percentage of, 219; increased by immigration, 219

Pennsylvania, 160-163, 172, 175, 177, 179, 181, 183, 213

People's Forum in Cooper Institute, 250

Persecution, affecting immigration, 29, 30, 91

Philadelphia, 38, 53, 172, 176, 179, 187

Pittsburg, 82, 172, 174, 176

Poles, as immigrants, 22, 35, 75, 76, 170-174; clannish, 173; illiteracy, 22, 173; independence, 173

Polish, Catholics, 174; girl, story of, 212; Jew, "sweater," 210; National Alliance, 170

Ports, for examination abroad, 98, 99; of entry, 53

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 20

Poughkeepsie, New York, 20

Poverty in the United States, 218; defined, 217

Presbyterian Slavistic Union, 176

Protestantism, as related to immigrants, 9, 39, 47, 202, 166-174, 177-188, 216, 224, 251; could change conditions as to child labor, 225, 226; ought to save immigrants from moral degeneracy, 255; vast opportunity to evangelize and Americanize, 267-299

Providence, Rhode Island, 21

Public Schools, attacks upon to be resisted, 248; duty to elevate, 248; foreign children in, 198, 223, 248; power to Americanize, 234, 248, 256

Publicity, value of, 83, 90

Quarantine, 56, 62

Railroads and immigrants, 62, 63

Reich, Emil, 131

Religious census of immigrants in 1900, 251

Removal Bureau, for directing Jewish emigrants, 111

Reports, Commissioner-General, 25, 143

Riis, Jacob, 194, 216

Roman Catholic Church, as related to immigrants, 133, 151, 152, 167, 168, 172-174, 177-184, 247, 248, 251, 256, 257, 271, 297; efforts to get public money for parochial schools, 246; some lessons to be learned from, 279

Roosevelt, President, 51, 73, 88, 92, 96, 179

Rossi, Adolpho, 138, 147

Rotterdam, 99

Roumanians, as immigrants, 19, 21; see also Jews

Rovinanek, Mr., 174, 175

Russia, 34, 128; immigrants from, 25, 81, 217

Russian empire, 19; Jews, 11, 19, 112; persecution, 29, 30

Saint Louis, 145, 198

Saint Nazaire, 99

Saloon, evil effects of, 216, 217

Sampson, Sidney, 260

San Francisco, 41, 53, 73, 148

Saratoga Springs, New York, 20

Sargent, Commissioner-General, 28, 103, 158, 203

Scandinavians, 27; agricultural tendency, 127; useful immigrants, 19, 21, 126, 217; small illiteracy, 23

Schauffler, Dr. A. F, 30, 195

Schauffler, Dr. H. A., 293

Scotch, as immigrants, 21, 126; small illiteracy, 23

Scotland, 27

Secretary of Commerce and Labor, 77, 78

Seelye, ex-President of Amherst, 255

Servian immigrants, 21

Settlement service by religion and residence, 292, 293

Sioux Falls, Iowa, 20

Slavic home missionaries, 293, 294; peoples, 124

Slavs, as immigrants, 21, 79, 107, 113, 127, 128, 157-192; defined, 159, 160; displacing other peoples, 160, 162; illiteracy, 23, 164; largely unskilled, 164; migration of recent date, 160; mostly mine and factory workers, 164; native workers among, 285

Slovaks, as immigrants, 174-176; from agricultural class, 175; organizations among, 176; tinware workers, 176

Slovenians, as immigrants, 183

Slums, peril of the children in, 220-224; poverty and pauperism of, 217-219

Socialism, bred in the slums, 202

Societies in aid of immigrants by races, 110-112

Society for Italian immigrants, 50, 110, 111

Solicitation, as affecting immigration, 42, 43, 80-82, 93

South American immigrants, 21

South Carolina, 113

South, the New, as a field for immigrants, 113

Southampton, 99

Spahr, Dr. Charles B., 260

Spanish immigrants, 21, 217

Special Inquiry Board, 77

Speranza, Gino C., 88, 145

"Stairs of Separation," 62, 63

Standards of living, lowered through immigration, 244

States and countries as a scale of immigration, 24, 25, 27, 28

Statistics of immigration, aliens since Revolution, 28; arrivals by years from 1820 to 1905, 305; child labor in New York City, and in United States, 226, 227; countries by totals, 127-129; debarred during fourteen years, and by race or people, 77, 303; distribution by states, 105-107; entries at ports and through Canada, 53; estimated immigration for 1905-6, 20; illiteracy, 21-23, 134, 164; increase of immigrants for 1905, 25; inflow since 1820, 25-27; insanity, 140; Italians, by years, locality, and occupation, 134, 135, 143; Jews, chiefly Russian, 185, 186, 198; labor skilled and unskilled, 23, 24, 134, 164; mendicancy, 140; money sent from United States to aid immigrants, 31; present annual race totals illustrated, 20-23; race, sex, and age of immigrants for 1905, 306; religious divisions for 1900, 251; savings and investments of Italians, 145, 146; Slavs for 1905, 159, see also, for distribution and occupation, 165-183; tendency among Italians to forsake Roman Catholic Church, 271

Steamships for immigrants, 55, 57; overcrowding, 65; rate cutting, 79; steerage abuses and reforms, 65-68; unkind treatment, 57, 58, 67; unsanitary arrangements, 65-67; violation of laws, 78-84

Stettin, 99

Strong, Dr. Josiah, 9-16, 193, 194, 256, 257

Sunday laws and observance, as affected by immigration, 72, 237, 241, 252-254; Sunday-schools, among immigrants, 284, 294

Sweat-shop, description of system, 209, 210; reproach to Christian civilization, 210; victims of, 210-213

Sweden, 27; immigrants from, 23, 25, 33, 37, 38, 126

Swiss, as immigrants, 21, 28

Switzerland, 27, 43

Syrian immigrants, 23, 39

Tariff, effect on immigration, 44

Temperance, large measure of, among Chinese, Italians, and Jews, 73, 141, 190

Tenement-houses, description of life in, 204-208; evils of, 201; exorbitant rents, 202; model block of suggested, 288; responsibility of landlords, 202; unsanitary conditions of, 211

Tent campaign, winning Italians, 282

Teutonic peoples, 123

Texas, 113

Thompson, Dr. Charles L., 117, 268

Training schools, needed in work among aliens, 286

Trieste, 99

Tuoti, Mr. G., 145

Turks, as immigrants, 21; illiteracy, 23

Tymkevich, Paul, 158

United Hebrew Charities, 111, 219, 277

United Kingdom, see Great Britain

United States, agencies of helpful to immigrants, 50, 54, 57-63, 111, 274; "assisted" immigration to, 43, 93; attraction of, 29-42; Immigration Investigating Commission, 112, 113; Industrial Commission on Immigration, 141; legislation as to immigrants, see Laws, immigration; money from relatives in, to aid immigrants, 31; national songs, 34; Post-office, an immigration agency, 33; see also Commissioner-General of Immigration, Ports of entry

Venice, 199

Vincennes, Indiana, 20

Virginia, 45, 175

Vote, foreign, peril of, 249

Walker, General Francis A., 232

Ward, Robert D., 194

Warne, F. J., 157, 158, 162, 246

Warsaw, 199

Washington, city of, 24; President, 68

Watchorn, Commissioner Robert, 30, 82

Welsh, as immigrants, 21, 126

Whelpley, J. D., 16, 70, 79, 94, 101

Wisconsin, 167

Women immigrants, 18, 35, 38, 39, 57, 61, 67, 75, 76, 304; special inspection for, 61, 76

Work of leading denominations for foreign population, 314-320

Yiddish language, 198

Young people, as creators of public sentiment, 197; opportunity of for Christian service, 10

Ziska, General, 166

* * * * *

The Forward Mission Study Courses

* * * * *

"Anywhere, provided it be FORWARD."—David Livingstone

* * * * *

_Prepared under the auspices of the


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE:—Harry Wade Hicks, S. Earl Taylor, John W. Wood, F. P. Haggard, T. H. P. Sailer.

* * * * *

The Forward Mission Study Courses are an outgrowth of a conference of leaders in Young People's Mission Work, held in New York City, December, 1901. To meet the need that was manifested at that conference for Mission Study Text-books suitable for young people, two of the delegates, Professor Amos R. Wells, of the United Society of Christian Endeavor, and Mr. S. Earl Taylor, Chairman of the General Missionary Committee of the Epworth League, projected the Forward Mission Study Courses. These courses have been officially adopted by the Young People's Missionary Movement, and are now under the immediate direction of the Executive Committee of the Movement, which consists of the young people's secretaries, or other official representatives of twelve of the leading missionary boards of the United States and Canada.

The aim is to publish a series of text-books covering the various home and foreign mission fields, and written by leading authorities with special reference to the needs of young people. The entire series when completed will comprise perhaps as many as twenty text-books. A general account will be given of some of the smaller countries, such as Japan, Korea, and Turkey; but, for the larger fields, as China, Africa, and India, the general account will be supplemented by a series of biographies of the principal missionaries connected with the country. The various home mission fields will also be treated both biographically and historically.

The following text-books have been published:—

1. The Price of Africa. (Biographical.) By S. Earl Taylor.

2. Into All the World. A General Survey of Missions. By Amos R. Wells.

3. Princely Men in the Heavenly Kingdom. (Biographical.) By Harlan P. Beach, M.A., F.R.G.S.

4. Child Life in Mission Lands. A Course of Study for Junior Societies. By Ralph E. Diffendorfer.

5. Sunrise in the Sunrise Kingdom. A Study of Japan. By the Rev. John H. De Forest, D.D.

6. Heroes of the Cross in America. Home Missions. (Biographical.) By Don O. Shelton.

7. Daybreak in the Dark Continent. A Study of Africa. By Wilson S. Naylor.

8. The Christian Conquest of India. A Study of India. By Bishop James M. Thoburn.

9. Aliens or Americans? A Study of Immigration. By Rev. Howard B. Grose, Ph.D.

These books are published by mutual arrangement among the denominational publishing houses, to whom all orders should be addressed. They are bound uniformly, and are sold for 50 cents, in cloth, and 35 cents, in paper, postage extra.

* * * * *

Study classes desiring more advanced text-books are referred to the admirable series published by the Interdenominational Committee of the Woman's Boards. The volumes already published are:—

Via Christi. A Study of Missions before Carey. By Louise Manning Hodgkins.

Lux Christi. A Study of Missions in India. By Caroline Atwater Mason.

Rex Christus. A Study of Missions in China. By Rev. Arthur H. Smith, D.D.

Dux Christus. A Study of Missions in Japan. By Rev. W. E. Griffis, D.D.

Christus Liberator. A Study of Missions in Africa. By Ellen C. Parsons.

Christus Redemptor. A Study of the Island World. By Helen Barrett Montgomery.

* * * * *

* * * * *


[1] J. D. Whelpley, The Problem of the Immigrant, 2.

[2] Entrance Port for Immigrants at New York.

[3] The total immigration into the United States for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906, was 1,100,735.

[4] For table showing immigration for each year from 1820 to 1905, see Appendix A.

[5] Now known as the Battery. See footnote 1, p. 54.

[6] City Mission Monthly, April, 1902.

[7] Those who are interested in this feature can trace—by examining the table in the Appendix which gives the immigration by years since 1820—the relation between prosperity and immigration. The effect of the panics of 1837, 1843, 1873, 1893, and the depression caused by the Civil War, will be seen clearly in the immigration totals. This subject is treated in Immigration, 17 ff.

[8] Published in Baptist Home Mission Monthly for July, 1906.

[9] Hamilton Holt, Undistinguished Americans.

[10] The Swedish krone (kro-ne) has a value of about 27 cents.

[11] Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans, 37.

[12] Prescott F. Hall, Immigration, 3, 4.

[13] The park and piers at the southern end of New York City, formerly known as Castle Garden.

[14] Samuel E. Moffett, Review of Reviews, July, 1903.

[15] It is good to know that the reception conditions, so far as the Government is concerned, have been made as favorable as present accommodations will allow, and enlargement is already projected. Since the Federal Government finally took charge of immigration in 1882, great improvement has been made in method and administration. The inspection is humane, prompt, and on the whole kindly, although entrance examinations are as much dreaded by the average immigrant as by the average student. Commissioner Watchorn, an admirable man for his place, insists upon kindness, and want of it in an employee is cause for dismissal. Ellis Island affords an excellent example of carefully adjusted details and thorough system, whereby with least possible friction thousands of aliens are examined in a day, and pronounced fit or unfit to enter the country. The process is too rapid, however, to give each case the attention which the best interests of the country demand.

[16] Under the Act of 1903, this manifest has to state: The full name, age and sex; whether married or single; the calling or occupation; whether able to read or write; the nationality; the race; the last residence; the seaport landing in the United States; the final destination, if any, beyond the port of landing; whether having a ticket through to such final destination; whether the alien has paid his own passage or whether it has been paid by any other person or by any corporation, society, municipality, or government, and if so, by whom; whether in possession of thirty dollars, and if less, how much; whether going to join a relative or friend and if so, what relative or friend, and his name and complete address; whether ever before in the United States, and if so, when and where; whether ever in prison or almshouse or an institution or hospital for the care and treatment of the insane or supported by charity; whether a polygamist; whether an anarchist; whether coming by reason of any offer, solicitation, promise, or agreement, expressed or implied, to perform labor in the United States, and what is the alien's condition of health, mental and physical, and whether deformed or crippled, and if so, for how long and from what cause.

[17] Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans, 208.

[18] This imaginary sketch adheres in every detail to the facts. The medical examiners and inspectors become exceedingly expert in detecting disease, disability, or deception. If an overcoat is carried over the shoulder, they look for a false or stiff arm. The gait and general appearance indicate health or want of it to them, and all who do not appear normal are turned aside for further examination, which is thorough. The women have a special inspection by the matrons, who have to be both expert and alert to detect and reject the unworthy. The chief difficulty lies in too small a force to handle such large numbers, which have reached as high as 45,000 in five days.

[19] The present regulations were passed in 1882, and if lived up to, as by trustworthy testimony they are not, would prevent serious overcrowding, although the conditions as to air, sanitation, and morals would still be most unsatisfactory. For protective laws, see Appendix B.

[20] Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans, chap. XIV.

[21] This Act of 1824 required of vessel-masters a report giving name, birthplace, age, and occupation of each immigrant, and a bond to secure the city against public charges.

[22] Immigration, chap. X.

[23] The main provisions are: 1. Head tax of $2. 2. Excluded classes numbering 17. 3. Criminal offenses against the Immigration Acts, enumerating 12 crimes. 4. Rejection of the diseased aliens. 5. Manifest, required of vessel-masters, with answers to 19 questions. 6. Examination of immigrants. 7. Detention and return of aliens. 8. Bonds and guaranties. The law may be found in full in the Appendix to Immigration, and in The Problem of the Immigrant, chap. VI., where the rules and regulations for its enforcement are also given. A list of the excluded classes and criminal offenses will be found in Appendix B of this volume.

[24] Joseph H. Adams, in Home Missionary, for April, 1905.

[25] The Immigration Bureau has 1,214 inspectors and special agents. The Commissioner-General says of them: They are spread throughout the country from Maine to southern California. They are

[26] thoroughly organized under competent chiefs, many of them working regardless of hours, whether breaking the seals of freight cars on the southern border to prevent the smuggling of Chinese, or watching the countless routes of ingress from Canada, ever alert and willing, equally efficient in detecting the inadmissible alien and the pretended citizen. The Bureau asserts with confidence that, excepting a very few, the government of this country has no more able and faithful servants in its employ, either civil or military, than the immigration officers.

[27] Commissioner-General's Report for 1905, p. 41.

[28] Immigration Report for 1905, p.56.

[29] Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans, 33.

[30] Immigration Report for 1905, p. 48.

[31] Prof. H. H. Boyesen.

[32] Frederick Austin Ogg, in Outlook for May 5, 1906.

[33] A synopsis of these recommendations will be found in Appendix B.

[34] Sec. 38. That no alien immigrant over sixteen years of age physically capable of reading shall be admitted to the United States until he has proved to the satisfaction of the proper inspection officers that he can read English or some other tongue ... provided that an admissible alien over sixteen, or a person now or hereafter in the United States of like age, may bring in or send for his wife, mother, affianced wife, or father over fifty-five, if they are otherwise admissible, whether able to read or write or not.

[35] Sec. 39. That every male alien immigrant over sixteen shall be deemed likely to become a public charge unless he shows to the proper immigration officials that he has in his possession at the time of inspection money to the equivalent of $25, or that the head of his family entering with him so holds that amount to his account. Every female alien must have $15.

[36] The Bill, as amended, left the head tax at $2, and the reading test was omitted. Great opposition to the Bill came from the foreign element, especially the Jews.

[37] Dr. Goodchild.

[38] Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans, 302.

[39] Outlook for May 5, 1906.

[40] J. D. Whelpley, The Problem of the Immigrant, 13.

[41] Annual Report for 1903, p. 60.

[42] Annual Report for 1905, p. 58.

[43] Idem, opposite p. 34.

[44] This bureau shall collect and furnish to all incoming aliens, data as to the resources, products, and manufactures of each state, territory and district of the United States; the prices of land and character of soils; routes of travel and fares; opportunities of employment in the skilled and unskilled occupations, rates of wages, cost of living, and all other information that in the judgment of the Commissioner-General might tend to enlighten the aliens as to the inducements to settlement in the various sections.

[45] Bernheimer, The Russian Jew in the United States, 370.

[46] Prescott F. Hall, Immigration, 303.

[47] Eliot Lord, in The Italian in America, 177 ff.

[48] "The Problem of Immigration," Presbyterian Board of Publication.

[49] For a condensed characterization of the north of Europe immigrants read the chapter on Racial Conditions in Immigration (chap. III.) The leading traits of the various immigrant peoples are set forth with fairness and discrimination, although probably none of those described would see themselves exactly as Mr. Hall sees them.

[50] The Italian in America.

[51] John Foster Carr in Outlook.

[52] See page 146.

[53] Dr. S. H. Lee in Baptist Home Mission Monthly, for May, 1905.

[54] Location of various public institutions of New York City.

[55] Industrial Commission Report to Congress, Dec. 5, 1901.

[56] The Italian in America, 215, 216.

[57] G. Tuoti, in The Italian in America, 78.

[58] A remarkable showing of what the Italians have accomplished through these farming colonies in various parts of the country is given in the chapter "On Farm and Plantation", in The Italian in America.

[59] Rev. E. P. Farnham, D.D., in New York Examiner, June 22, 1906.

[60] University Settlement Studies, December, 1905.

[61] While the Magyars (or Hungarians) are not Slavs, they have lived in close contact with them, and for convenience may be classed in the Slavic division; and the same thing is true of the Roumanian and Russian Jews. All these peoples come from Russia, Austria-Hungary, or the Balkan States, and represent similar customs and ideas, although they differ materially in character, as we shall see.

[62] Samuel McLanahan, Our People of Foreign Speech, 34 ff.

[63] F. J. Warne, The Slav Invasion, chap. VI.

[64] Miss Kate H. Claghorn, in Charities, for December, 1904.

[65] Charities, for December, 1904.

[66] Samuel McLanahan, Our People of Foreign Speech, 45.

[67] Louis H. Pick, in Charities, for December, 1904.

[68] Miss Emily Balch, "The Slavs at Home," in Charities and Commons.

[69] Lee Frankel, in The Russian Jew in the United States, 63.

[70] Julius H. Greenstone, in The Russian Jew in the United States, 158.

[71] Commissioner-General's Report for 1905, p. 58.

[72] The Leaven of a Great City, and The Story of an East Side Family.

[73] University Settlement Studies, January, 1906.

[74] Hamilton Holt, Undistinguished Americans, 43 ff.

[75] Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives, chap. XVIII.

[76] Robert Hunter, Poverty, chap. I. This is a book that every American should read. The author is indebted to it for much of the material in this chapter.

[77] Robert Hunter, Poverty, 196.

[78] Idem, chap. V.

[79] Richmond Mayo-Smith, Emigration and Immigration, 5 ff.

[80] Walter E. Heyl, in University Settlement Studies.

[81] F. J. Warne, The Slav Invasion, 103.

[82] Rena M. Atchison, Un-American Immigration, 82.

[83] Richmond Mayo-Smith, Emigration and Immigration, 84 ff.

[84] Represents the recapitulation of totals of Europe, Asia, Africa and all other countries.

[85] Josiah Strong, Our Country, 56.

[86] Kate H. Claghorn, in Charities for December, 1904.

[87] Broughton Brandenburg, Imported Americans, 19.

[88] Sidney Sampson, pamphlet, "The Immigration Problem."

[89] Fung Yuet Mow, Chinese missionary in New York, says that at a missionary Conference which he attended in Canton there were fifty missionaries present, native Chinese, and half of them were converted in our missions in America, and returned home to seek the conversion of their people. Everywhere he met the influence of Chinese who found Christ in this country.

[90] Henry H. Hamilton in the Home Missionary.

[91] In one city in Massachusetts, where there are 1,700 Italians only fifty or sixty attend the Roman Catholic Church; and in another, of 6,000 Italians, only about 300 go to that church. They declare that they are tired of the Romish Church and have lost faith in its priests. Similar reports come from all parts of the country.

[92] There are numerous instances equally remarkable. Many young people express their desire to lead true lives and the missionaries often learn how well the resolutions made at Ellis Island have been kept. One missionary says: "I meet one here and another there, who tell me that I met them first three or four years ago, when they first reached this country, strangers to Christ as well as to me; but now they say, 'We love to tell the story of Jesus and his love.' Some of the denominations have houses fitted up for the temporary entertainment of immigrants who need a safe place while waiting to hear from friends or secure employment. This missionary work admirably supplements the excellent service rendered by the protective organizations, of which the United Hebrews Charities is perhaps the most influential, dispensing funds amounting to $270,000 a year, including the Baron Hirsch fund. There is also an Immigrant Girls' Home which saves many from temptation while they are seeking employment, and helps them secure places in Christian families."

[93] Rev. Joel S. Ives, pamphlet, "The Foreigner in New England."

[94] Appendix C.

[95] Some denominations already have theological training departments for foreign people. The French-American College at Springfield, Massachusetts, is the first distinctive training school for foreigners.

[96] "The Foreign Problem." Published by the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions.

[97] Rev. F. H. Allen, in Home Missionary for January, 1906.

[98] Rev. C. W. Shelton reports typical cases, that could be duplicated by every secretary of a Home Missionary Society and every missionary. In one mission church a young Swede girl gave $25 a month, out of her earnings as cook, toward the pastor's support. In a Finnish church, another young woman pledged $30 a month out a salary of $50. A Chinese mission in California supports three native workers in China. A Slav Mission Sunday-school in Braddock, Pennsylvania, with thirty members, gave out of its poverty, as one year's record, $6 for home missions, $1.25 for windows in a new Bohemian church, $1 for missionary schools, $6.35 for maps, and $6 for a foreign missionary ship. Nearly fifty cents a member these Slavs gave; and that amount per member from all Christian Churches and Sunday-schools would make the missionary treasuries much fuller than at present.

[99] Words used by Dr. A. L. Phillips, of Richmond, Va., at the Asheville Conference, July, 1906.

[100] From Annual Report of Commissioner-General of Immigration for 1905.

[101] Statement from Commissioner-General F. P. Sargent.

[102] From the Lutheran World.


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