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Alcohol: A Dangerous and Unnecessary Medicine, How and Why - What Medical Writers Say
by Martha M. Allen
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"A lady, Mrs. A., tenderly nurtured, refined, cultured, moving in an influential position, belonged to a family in whom the tendency to intemperance existed. Realizing the danger, she, for seven years of her married life, adhered to total abstinence. Illness came, and the doctor ordered wine; and her husband, deaf to her arguments, insisted on her taking it. She fell into habits of intemperance. Her husband died, and for a time she pulled up and trained as a hospital nurse; but temptation prevailed, and she fell from bad to worse. Loving hands received her time after time, and at last placed her in an Inebriate Home. For a short time she did well, but soon became unmanageable. After another desperate period she entered a second home, but after leaving she yielded again, was twice in prison, and fell into the lowest degradation and utter ruin, surely deserving our deepest pity. Her doctor and her husband had persisted in working her fall in spite of her own strongest convictions."—Selected.

THEY DID NOT DIE.—"Dr. Lord of Pasadena suffered from rheumatism of the heart for more than half of a long lifetime. No doctor ever felt his pulse (which intermitted) without exclaiming, 'Why, doctor, you have no business to be alive with such a pulse,'—or something similar. For nineteen years his wife never retired without having at least one medicine she could put her hand on in the dark, the ammonia bottle within reach, the electric battery ready to start like a fire-engine, and preparations for heating water in less than no time. His acute attacks usually came in the night—an uninterrupted night's sleep was something unknown to either the doctor or his wife in all these years.

"They lived in sight of an open grave, and seldom a week passed when it did not seem as if death had actually occurred. If ever a case called for alcoholic stimulants this one did. But none were ever administered, none were ever kept in the house. The doctor's standing orders were: 'If all the doctors in the country order you to give me liquor, and say my life depends upon it, don't do it. Tell them I know more about it than they do. It won't save my life; it will only lessen what little chance I have.' All who knew about this case, and hundreds did, were driven to the conclusion that if these two people, one in this condition and the other feeble, could live all alone as they did, miles from a doctor, and neighbors not near, and could get along without alcoholics of any kind, everybody can do the same everywhere. And the doctor finally wore out his heart trouble and died of another disease."—Pacific Ensign.

An English weekly journal is responsible for the following anecdote:—

"A Birmingham physician has had an amusing experience. The other day a somewhat distracted mother brought her daughter to see him. The girl was suffering from what is known among people as 'general lowness.' There was nothing much the matter with her, but she was pale and listless and did not care about eating or doing anything. The doctor, after due consultation, prescribed for her a glass of claret three times a day with her meals. The mother was somewhat deaf, but apparently heard all he said and bore off her daughter, determined to carry out the prescription to the very letter. In ten days' time they were back again, and the girl looked a different creature. She was rosy-cheeked, smiling and the picture of health. The doctor congratulated himself on his diagnosis of the case. 'I am glad to see that your daughter is so much better,' he said. 'Yes,' exclaimed the excited and grateful mother. 'Thanks to you, doctor! She has had just what you ordered. She has eaten carrots three times a day since we were here, and sometimes oftener—and once or twice uncooked—and now look at her!'"

THE REST CURE:—"After all, the veneer of civilization is quite thin. Scratch most people, and very near the surface you come on the savage. This is specially true when they are sick. They at once want charms and miracles to restore them to health, and come to the doctor or 'medicine man,' as they look upon him—with this demand: 'I want something, doctor, to fix me up.' But he, unhappy man, has not wherewith to satisfy them, unless he is a quack.

"He knows that in most cases all he can do is to give advice as to how best Nature may be allowed to effect a cure; for Nature is the great physician, and the doctor's main duty is to stand by and see that she gets fair play. Nature's chief cure, in a large number of the diseases to which flesh is heir, is rest. The tired man needs rest. The tired brain, the tired stomach, the tired liver and kidneys, need the same rest.

"So, when the patient turns up with an overworked and exhausted organ of some sort within him—be it what it may—heart, brain or stomach—the true physician prescribes, first and chiefly, not drugs, but rest.

"Now, this is generally the advice the patient doesn't want. His desire is for a bottle of something, no matter how nasty it may be, which shall 'fix him up,' and let him go on doing what he has been doing previously. Common-sense is always at a discount, and never more so than in this case. The tired brain-worker doesn't want to stop. Give him something to whip up his brain and his body, something to drive the spurs into them. 'What I want,' he says, 'is a really strong tonic'; though, if he knew that before, what was the use of coming to the doctor? Or he would like to be told to take a glass of whisky-and-water when he is tired, which is the maddest and most disastrous advice that could be given.

"The man who has been ill-treating his stomach, eating too much or too well, also demands a tonic—something to give him an appetite so that he may eat more. And his poor overwrought stomach is all the time crying out for rest.

"So it is all along the line. The possessor of an inflamed and swollen knee prays for a liniment to rub into it which will cure it straight away, and is highly disgusted when told that he will have to lie up for a week or two.

"Again, for the tired stomach the cure is starvation. Let the person live on his own fat, and a little milk-and-water for a few days, and his stomach will take courage again and return to work with renewed zest. But it is the most difficult thing in the world to persuade the patient or his kind relatives of the truth of this. There are many diseases in which, for a short time at least, the less food the sick person has the better. But the relatives are always much wiser than the doctor. They insist 'that the strength must be kept up,' and would like to force the patient to eat more than he does when well. 'You will let his strength down, doctor,' is a common complaint, and one of the difficulties hospital authorities have to face is to prevent kind friends from smuggling in food to the inmates, who, in their opinion, are being brutally starved.

"I myself have cured people by making them rest—lie in bed and starve. But the next time they were sick, I wasn't the doctor."—"PHYSICIAN" in Our Federation.

"The blessings of sunlight and fresh air should be more appreciated. The sun is the godfather of us all. The source of all light, heat, electricity and energy, what wonder that it was once worshipped as the Creator. The future will recognize it not only as the best disinfectant, an all powerful preventive of disease, but also as a wonderful healer of disease. The more people can be taught to live in pure air out of doors, and bask in the rays of the sun, the less of disease there will be to prevent."—DR. C. H. SHEPARD, Brooklyn, N. Y.

ALCOHOL TESTED.

"Some years ago Dr. Beddoes, a physician of eminence, was very anxious to put to the test the disputed question as to the power of alcoholic liquors to give strength to the system. He discovered that those who had most calls upon their physical endurance were the smiths who were engaged in forging ship's anchors, for at one moment they would be exposed to a heat so fierce that one marveled that any human organization could endure exposure to it, and then their work would call them away to a temperature that was chilly and cold, added to which all the time their work lasted they were bathed in a profuse perspiration, the demands upon their physical energy were so great. To counteract this perpetual drain upon their system they were in the habit of drinking unlimited quantities of beer, which their masters provided for them as a matter of course, and a sine qua non. One day, as they were resting from their work at midday, Dr. Beddoes made his appearance amongst some of these men who were employed in a certain foundry, and submitted a formal proposition to them, to this effect, that twelve of their number, the strongest and stanchest, should be selected for an experiment, and they should work for a week, six of them drinking only water, and the other six taking their beer as usual. His proposition was laughed to scorn. The men would not hear of it. 'Look here, mate,' said their spokesman, 'do you want us to be all dead men; you don't know what our work is, and how it takes all a man's strength to weld an anchor. Why, if we did not have our beer and plenty of it, it would be all up with us in a brace of shakes.'

"The doctor said: 'I should be very sorry for any harm to come to you. You know I am a doctor, and I will be constantly at hand to see if any of you are going wrong, and I promise that if I see any of you breaking down I will at once stop my experiment.' And then taking out of his pocket ten crisp five-pound notes, he displayed them to the anchor smiths. 'I will put down these notes, L50 in all; six of you shall try water for one week honestly and fairly; if you pull through without giving in, the L50 shall be yours; if not, I'll take the L50 back again. Is it a bargain?'

"This clenched the matter, and very soon the doctor's offer was accepted, and a gang of six men volunteered to begin their work on the Monday without beer. The beer drinkers did their best to chaff the water drinkers, and aggravated them by taking good care to show them how very nice it was to have recourse to unlimited beer. The water drinkers kept firm, and the first day, to their astonishment, found that they could do just as much work as the rest of their mates. On Tuesday the water drinkers began to crow over the beer drinkers, for they found that, while the latter complained and grumbled at the heat, they were enabled to take the work in a philosophical kind of way. Wednesday, Thursday and Friday wore away, and the teetotal band became more and more triumphant, the laugh was all on their side, for not only did they feel more comfortable than their beer-loving companions, but the L50 came nearer and nearer, and at last, on Saturday, when the time for finishing work came, they threw down their tools and their hammers, and crowded up to the doctor to claim the prize, and to give a faithful record of their experiences; and one and all declared that they had done their hard work with more ease and comfort to themselves than ever it had been done before, and, instead of feeling tired and jaded, as they often did on the Saturday afternoon, they were quite ready to begin work again, and if the doctor had another L50 to dispose of, they would most gladly give him a chance of protracting his experiment for another week. The doctor expressed himself perfectly satisfied with the trial which had already taken place, and left the place amidst three hearty cheers, while the men proceeded to discuss the ins and outs of the matter among themselves."—National Advocate.

BEER-DRINKING INJURES HEALTH.

"I think there is no doubt that beer-drinking is deleterious to health, and personally I have never seen any case of disease where I thought it useful. I believe it is more deleterious to health than the stronger spirits, and this opinion is derived from the report of the actuaries' investigations for our insurance companies a few years ago."—DR. JOHN M. DODSON, Dean of the Medical Department of the University of Chicago.

"My connection with large medical institutions for many years past has given me, I think, an excellent opportunity to observe the effect of beer-drinking and the use of other alcoholic liquors in many cases. I can say as a result of my own observation that beer-drinking has a very pernicious effect upon nearly every organ of the body. It produces disease of the stomach and digestive tract, of the heart and circulating system, of the kidneys and liver, and of the nervous system. In addition to this it lessens the vigor and vital resistance of the whole body, makes the beer drinker very much more susceptible to infection such as pneumonia, and other acute infections, and also lessens his ability to recover from illnesses of any kind. An untold amount of misery and disease would be avoided if the use of beer and other intoxicating liquors could be wiped off the face of the earth."—DR. W. H. RILEY, Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich.

In the report of Bellevue Hospital, New York City, for 1904, Dr. Alexander Lambert, in speaking of delirium tremens, says: "The delirium tremens from beer does not come on so readily as that from whisky, but is slower in clearing up." Page 138 of report.

"Apart from its toxic effect it is seldom realized how harmful beer may be by promoting obesity, and, in susceptible persons, favoring dilatation of the stomach."—DR. E. P. JOSLIN, Professor in Harvard Medical School.

"It is not the concentrated alcoholic liquors alone that cause heart and kidney trouble but pre-eminently the continued immoderate use of beer. Nothing is more false than the belief that the progressive dislodgement of other alcoholic drinks by beer will diminish the destructive influences of alcoholism. * * * It has been conclusively established by thousandfold experiments that soldiers in all climates, in heat, cold and rain, endure best the most fatiguing marches when they are absolutely deprived of alcoholic drinks."—PROF. G. VON BUNGE, M. D., Basle, Switzerland.

"Beer, wine and spirits furnish no element capable of entering into the composition of blood, muscular fibre, or anything which is the seat of vital principle. If a man drinks daily 8 or 10 quarts of the best Bavarian beer in a year he will have taken into his system as much nourishment as is contained in a five-pound loaf of bread."—Liebig, the great German chemist.

"Beer-drinker's heart is a term well-known to the physicians of our large hospitals, and indicates a special condition of unhealthy enlargement of the heart due to dilatation, accompanied by some increase of tissue and of fat. Doctors Bauer and Bollinger found that in Munich one in every sixteen of the hospital patients died from this disorder. It is common in Germany—the land of beer-drinking—and proves incontestably that the habit of drinking even such a mild alcoholic beverage as lager-beer is one that is undesirable and unwise."—From "Alcohol and the Human Body," by Sir Victor Horsley, M. D., London.

"Nothing is more erroneous from the physician's standpoint, than to think of diminishing the destructive effects of alcoholism by substituting beer for other alcoholic drinks, or that the victims of drink are found only in those countries where whisky helps the people of a low grade of culture to forget their poverty and misery."—PROF. STRUMPEL, Breslau, Germany.

"The result of extolling beer as the mightiest enemy of whisky and brandy has been that the consumption of the distilled liquors has changed very little, while to these liquors has been added beer, the use of which has led to a great and still increasing beer alcoholism. * * *

"The beer drinker who is not at all a drunkard in the popular sense, is very frequently the victim of chronic inflammation of the kidneys. * * * An enlarged and fatty condition of the liver, marked by a dull pain in the region of the organ, often follows from the habitual use of beer. The death-rate from liver diseases among brewers of beer in England is more than double that in all other occupations. * * * Beer-drinkers have a marked tendency to enlargement of the stomach, and to chronic diarrhoea. Beer causes also inflammation of the nerves. This is often announced by 'rheumatic' pains in the legs. * * * Beer alcoholism, as well as alcoholism in general, lowers the resistance of the body to all diseases by injuring most of the organs. And herein lies the chief danger in the general wide-spread use of beer. The drinker is especially open to attacks of infectious disease. * * * The brutalizing effect of beer-alcoholism is shown most clearly by the fact that in Germany crimes of personal violence, particularly dangerous bodily injuries, occur most frequently in Bavaria where there is the highest consumption of beer."—DR. HUGO HOPPE, Nerve Specialist, Konigsberg, Germany.

"The life insurance companies make a business of estimating men's lives, and can only make money by making correct estimates of whatever influences life. Now they expect a man otherwise healthy, who is addicted to beer-drinking, will have his life shortened from 40 to 60 per cent. For instance if he is twenty years old and does not drink beer he may reasonably expect to live until he is 61. If he is a beer-drinker he will probably not live to be over 35. If he is 30 years old when he begins to drink beer he will probably drop off somewhere between 40 and 45 instead of living to 64 as he should. There is no sentiment, prejudice or assertion about these figures. They are simply cold-blooded business facts, derived from experience, and the companies invest their money on them just the same as a man pays so many dollars for so many feet of ground or bushels of wheat."—DR. S. S. THORN, Toledo, Ohio, in U. S. Senate Document, published in 1901.

"Fatty degeneration of various organs is frequently witnessed in beer-drinkers. Diabetes mellitus is frequently due to beer-drinking, and is made much worse by its continuance. In Germany more than half of the cases in the inebriate asylums enter from beer-drinking. In Bavaria, the women are not able properly to suckle their children because of the universal consumption of their favorite national drink. Indeed, so grave are the evils caused by beer-drinking that the fight against beer should now be conducted as strenuously as that against stronger liquors."—DR. LEGRAIN, Paris, France.

DRUG DRINKS.

In the report of the President's Homes Commission, Senate Document 644, may be found a list of soft drinks examined by the Bureau of Chemistry. The report says:—

"Attention is directed to the danger of soft drinks containing caffeine, and extract of coca leaf, the active principle of the latter being cocaine. * * * We have seen how the opium habit may be acquired by the use of the various proprietary or secret preparations, and so the cocaine habit may be developed by the use of these much lauded soft drinks. * * * No wonder that insanity and diseases of the nervous system are on the increase."

The following is a list of drinks examined by the Bureau of Chemistry. Investigation showed that these contained both caffeine and extract of coca leaf:

Afri Cola, Ala Cola, Cafe Coca, Carre Cola, Celery Cola, Chan Ola, Chera Cola, Coca Beta, Coca Cola, Pilsbury's Coke, Cola Coke, Cream Cola, Dope, Four Kola, Hayo Kola, Heck's Cola, Kaye Ola, Koca Nola, Koke, Kola Ade, Kola Kola, Kola Phos, Koloko, Kos Kola, Lime Cola, Lima Ola, Mellow Nip, Nerv Ola, Revive Ola, Rocola, Rye Ola, Standard Cola, Toka Tona, Tokola, Vim-O, French Wine of Coca, Wise Ola.

The manufacturers of some of those listed claim that their coca extract is prepared from a decocainized coca leaf, the refuse product discarded in the manufacture of cocaine. The Coca Cola company claims that their coca extract is now without cocaine, and most of the recent analyses show this to be true, yet the Pure Food Commissioner of North Dakota says in his report for 1907 that Coca Cola as examined by him, "Gave a reaction for cocaine." It is easy to see that so long as even refuse coca leaves are used some cocaine may at times be in the product.

As cocaine is the most destructive drug known to humanity its presence in any of the so-called temperance drinks is a frightful evil calling for speedy legislation. It is practically impossible to cure a person of the cocaine habit. This drug causes insomnia, dyspepsia, chronic palpitations, and complete paralysis of will-power, with a tendency to criminal acts. When a person becomes habituated to its use he suffers torments when not under its influence. The real cocaine fiend will rob or kill to get the drug. What can be thought of men, who knowing the deadly nature of this drug, will hide it away in a drink sold as harmless to children and women who would never touch beer or wines? It is placed in the drink to form a craving for that drink and thus create a demand that will enrich the conscienceless manufacturers.

The following preparations were found to contain caffeine, but there was no evidence to the effect that coca leaf in any form had been used in their manufacture:

Calcycine, Celery Cocoa, Citro Cola, Deep Rock Ginger Ale, Fosko, Heck's Star Pepsin, Koke, Koke Ola, Kalafra, Kumfort, Lime Juice and Kola, Lon Kola, Meg-O, Mexicola, Pau Pau Cola, Pedro, Pepsi Cola, Speed Ball, To-Ko, Vril.

The report says that the following list were not examined but from their names, and from the evidence submitted, they contain either caffeine or coca leaf extract, or both: Charcola, Cherry Kola, Cola Soda, Cola Ginger, Field's Coca, Imported French Cola, Jacob's Kola, Koko Ale, Kola Cream, Kola Pepsin Celery Wine Tonic, Kola Vena, Loco Kola, Mintola, Mate, Pikmeup, Ro-Cola, Schelhorn's Coca, Vine Cola, Viz.

Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, says that the sale of all such drinks should be prohibited.

Caffeine is a drug much used in headache remedies. It is derived from the kola nut, and from tea and coffee. It is also made artificially from uric acid occurring in the guano or bird manure deposits of South America. This bird manure product is said to be used in some of the drinks while in others caffeine obtained from refuse tea sweepings is used. The sales-manager of the Coca Cola Company says the caffeine in their product is made from tea. It is claimed by the manufacturers of caffeine drinks that they are as harmless as tea or coffee. But physicians advise against the use of tea and coffee for children and for delicate, nervous people, and every intelligent person knows that these drinks should not be indulged in immoderately. The secret caffeine drinks at the soda-fountain are not warned against because few people know of what they are made. So it frequently happens that children whose parents do not permit them to drink tea and coffee are taking caffeine in a much more injurious form at the drug stores.

Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, says: "When caffeine is separated from tea and coffee, and used as a separate drug, it exerts a much more specific action upon the system than when in natural combination. Its general effect is to induce that unhappy state described as nervousness, with deranged digestion and impaired health." Dr. H. H. Rusby, Dean of the College of Pharmacy, of Columbia University, New York City, a high authority, says: "Caffeine is a genuine poison, both acute and chronic. Taken in the form of a beverage it tends to the formation of a drug habit, quite as characteristic, though not so effective, as ordinary narcotics. Permanent disorders of the cardiac function, and of the cerebral circulation, result from its continued use."

The Druggists Circular, for May, 1908, contained a query from a druggist as to a good formula for a kola nut soda syrup. The answer was in part as follows: "There are two kinds of druggists. One kind puts any and every kind of stuff into stock, and passes it out to his customers, young and old, ignorant or learned, foolish or wise, his only desire being to get a profit. The other kind of druggist refuses to stock some things at all. Kola drinks owe their vogue to the caffeine which they contain. Caffeine is a poison which is cumulative in its effects, and an excess of which has not infrequently caused death. We believe you would better be on record as discouraging rather than encouraging the growth of the caffeine habit, especially among young people, who constitute a large part of the soda-water trade."

The London Lancet of January 25, 1908, reports the results of experiments made in Paris with kola given to horses to determine its action in relieving fatigue. It apparently diminished fatigue, but the horses receiving it lost more weight than those to whom it was not given. The experimenter said this showed that kola (caffeine) like alcohol, can give the tissues a lash with a whip, but that such energy, artificially produced, is at the expense of the organism. So, when people see the alluring advertisements of caffeine drinks which "relieve fatigue," let them beware of the relief which carries with it injury to the body.

Of the most widely advertised of these caffeine drinks the government report says: "The prevalence of the 'Coca Cola fiend' is becoming a matter of great importance and concern." (See volume on Social Betterment of Senate Document 644, page 268.) M. M. A.

SPECIAL MEDICAL DIRECTIONS FOR WOMEN.

"In the treatment of diseases of women, alcohol has been considered a very important remedy. Because it affords relief from pain, many resort to its use during painful menstruation. Each month either whisky, or some medicine containing a liberal supply of alcohol, is considered a necessity.

"The alcohol habit is not infrequently formed in this way. I have in my mind several cases of inebriety which were traceable to the habit of taking something to relieve pain at these periods. A woman whose husband held a high official position, thus acquired a craving for alcohol and became a confirmed drinker. He was finally compelled to place her in an institution for treatment.

"Alcohol affords relief, not by lessening the internal congestion which causes the pain, but by paralyzing or benumbing the nervous system. In fact, alcohol, instead of relieving, aggravates the internal congestion. It is a deceiver, for it makes the patient believe she is benefited when in fact the condition is made worse. The uterus has become more congested by its use, and when the paralyzing effect of the alcohol has worn off the pain will be found more severe, and the demand for alcohol increased correspondingly. The only safe and wise plan when suffering from pain due to internal congestion is to remove the cause. If uterine misplacement exists suitable treatment must be taken to correct this. Almost immediate relief from pain due to congestion of the pelvic organs may be obtained by taking a hot full bath. A hot foot or leg bath is also a good treatment since the warming of the extremities quickens the circulation in the limbs and relieves congestion in the pelvic region.

"There are various forms of dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation and each form has a treatment by itself. The congestive type which is due to taking cold is better relieved by a hot sitz bath before the date expected, the temperature of the water should be 101 deg.-103 deg. with the feet in water a degree or two hotter. If at the time of the period the pain still continues, an enema or vaginal douche will usually give the necessary relief unless the patient should be exposed to cold by allowing the hands, arms, feet or legs to become chilled.

"Many women do not dress their limbs warmly enough at any time. Just before the menstrual period the tendency is for the pelvic organs to become congested; there is a greater tendency to cold feet then, than at any other time. I would therefore advise warmer clothing on the limbs at such times. The drinking of hot pepper tea, ginger tea, etc., is a pernicious practice, for these irritants inflame the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. Hot lemonade or hot water will afford the same relief without leaving an inflamed surface behind to be irritated by the next meal.

"There are some cases of great constriction of the uterine canal which have reflex irritability in the stomach. Those having the stomach affected cannot take food, the least thing is rejected. It is best for such to remain quiet in bed, applying heat to the stomach and abdomen and to the feet until relief is experienced. Those suffering from headache should also remain quiet in bed. Some resort to anodynes and form the habit of using codeine, morphine. All these are bad and should be avoided. I have never found it necessary to give one dose of either to relieve pain at such times. Hot applications with the enema, vaginal douche, or foot bath, has usually been all that was required.

"I recall many cases of severe pain where the extremities were cold and clammy and the entire body was in a hysterical contraction that were immediately relieved by a hot vaginal douche. The muscles relaxed, the patient warmed up and recovered nicely.

"For securing sleep in insomnia, a hot toddy is often used, but a quicker and better effect can be gained by a hot, or neutral bath. The latter given at 99 deg. or 100 deg. for twenty minutes will produce sleep and refreshment, as it equalizes the circulation by bringing the blood to the surface.

"It is safer under all circumstances to do without alcohol or other dangerous drugs in treatment of these diseases."—DR. LAURETTA E. KRESS, Washington, D. C.

NOTE—An experienced nurse says that prompt relief in painful menstruation may often be found by sitting upon a toilet water-jar half full or more of hot water. The steam rises and the heat relieves.

TOTAL ABSTINENCE AND LIFE INSURANCE.

Nothing shows more clearly and convincingly that alcoholic liquors have a tendency to shorten life than the figures published by life insurance companies. A most interesting and valuable paper upon this theme was read before the Actuarial Society of America, in 1904, by Mr. Joel G. Van Cise, actuary of the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States. In it he gives the experience of different life insurance companies which have separate sections for total abstainers and non-abstainers. The Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, one of the large companies, showed after a few years' experience with the two sections a death-rate 23 per cent. higher among the drinkers than among the abstainers. The Sceptre Life for the years from 1884 to 1903, inclusive, gave the following: Expected deaths of abstainers, 1,440; actual deaths, 792, being 55 per cent. of the expected. Expected deaths of non-abstainers, 2,730; actual deaths, 1,880, or 79 per cent. of the expected. The Scottish Temperance Life from 1883 to 1902 gave the following: Abstainers, expected deaths, 936; actual deaths, 420, or 45 per cent. of the expected. Non-abstainers, expected deaths, 319; actual deaths, 225, or 71 per cent. of the expected.

Mr. Van Cise goes on to show that the statistics which have been published from time to time, giving the percentages of mortality in the various occupations of life, invariably show a higher death-rate among those engaged in the liquor business than among those engaged in other lines of work, except such as are specially hazardous. He says: 'The higher death-rate among liquor dealers is so universally recognized by life assurance companies that a number of them will not issue policies, even on the lives of the richest brewers, upon any terms, and not one of the companies, to my knowledge, admits liquor dealers upon as advantageous terms as those engaged in other ordinary occupations.' He then quotes from a circular sent to the agency force of a prominent United States company, in which attention is called to a rule which forbids the taking of any risks on bartenders: 'Saloonkeepers, generally, not taken, but best of this class may be accepted on 10 or 15 year endowments only.' Others connected more remotely with the liquor business might be taken with a charge of $5.00 per thousand extra. The circular of instructions adds that the limitations of liquor dealers are made necessary 'by the very excessive rate of mortality found to exist among persons so employed.'

Mr. Van Cise closed his address before the Actuaries' Society by saying: 'I contend that the facts given in this paper show conclusively that the effect of total abstinence is to lower the death-rate, and increase the average duration of human life.'

The Equitable Company had a section for total abstainers for a few years which was discontinued on account of the new insurance laws which came into effect in 1907. The actuary writes in response to inquiry: 'We are very careful in our selection of risks, and only those who drink in moderation will be accepted. I think it safe to say that, other things being equal, all American life insurance companies would consider a total abstainer a more desirable risk than a moderate drinker.'

The United Kingdom Temperance and General Provident Institution, of London, is a large and successful company which was organized in 1840, expressly for total abstainers, because at that time larger premiums were asked from abstainers than from drinkers, the common opinion then being that alcoholic liquors were necessary to health. In 1846, this company added a general section, in which carefully selected moderate drinkers were accepted, but each section was kept entirely separate from the other. This separation has continued to the present time, both classes paying the same premiums, but sharing in profits according to the earnings of the section to which the members belong. From 1866 to 1900, for every 100 deaths in the temperance section there were 137 deaths in the moderate drinking section, based on a corresponding number of lives at risk. The dividends for a recent five years average $20 to the temperance members, and $17 to the drinking members.

The actuary of this English company, Mr. Roderick Mackenzie Moore, read a paper before the Institute of Actuaries, in 1903, in which he reviewed the work of this company during its history of sixty years' experience with abstainers and over fifty with non-abstainers. He showed that there has been no marked difference in the number of policies in force in the two sections, and the average amount of the policies in each section has been about the same, so that the comparison is as fair as could possibly be made. He gives these figures: 'Non-abstainers, male, expected deaths, 8,911; actual deaths, 8,947; per cent. of actual to expected, 100.4. Abstainers, male, expected deaths, 6,899; actual deaths, 5,124; per cent. of actual to expected, 74.3.' This shows a difference of 26.1 per cent. between the actual and expected deaths of abstainers and moderate drinkers, and the full figures show the death rate among the drinkers to be 35 per cent. higher than among the abstainers.

The American Temperance Life Insurance Association was organized in 1887. It gives a lower premium rate to members of the abstainers' section than to those in the general section. The circulars sent out by this company state that the average life of moderate drinkers is thirty-five and a half years; tipplers, fifty-one years; total abstainers, sixty-four and one-fifth years.

Very interesting is the result of an inquiry made of various insurance companies not long ago as to whether they consider the habitual user of intoxicating beverages as good an insurance risk as the total abstainer; 'if not, why not?' All but two out of forty-one companies answered, 'No.' The two answered, 'Depends on quantity used.' In answer to the 'Why not?' the Etna said, 'Drink diseases the system and shortens life'; Hartford Life, 'Moderate use lays foundation for disease'; Knights of the Maccabees, 'Drink tends to destroy life'; Knights Templar and Masons' Life Indemnity, 'Drink lessens ability to overcome disease'; Sun Life, 'Drink injures constitution. Habit apt to grow'; Massachusetts Mutual Life, 'Drink causes organic changes. Reduces expectation of life nearly two-thirds.' The rest of the answers are much the same as these.—M. M. A.



INDEX

Abbott, Dr. A. C., 264, 278, 280, 281, 368

Abdominal bandage, 199

Abel, Prof. J. J., 128

Abernethy, Dr., 36

Acetanilid, 180, 301, 346

Acetic acid in pharmacy, 134, 136

Acid drinks kill bacilli, 150

Adelung, Dr. Edward Von, 326, 379

Adynamic disease, 272

Aiken, Dr. J. M., 376

Alabama law and alcoholic prescriptions, 27

Albumen, 30, 60, 62, 152, 173

Alcohol, food claims, 112-114, 128 a mocker, 364, 377 a narcotic, 121, 123 a poison, 28, 29, 100, 105, 358, 371, 388 injurious to living cells, 275 advance in study of, 380 affinity for blood and tissues, 114 affinity for water, 148, 149 and foods, action contrasted, 406 and empty stomach, 100 mental work, 400 anti-spasmodic, 124 apparent benefits; deceptive warmth from evanescent, 108 anaesthetic and paralyzant, 120, 181 anaesthetic effect deceptive, 222, 262, 266 antipyretic, 127 as medicine, 96-130 as medicine, causes waste of force, 83 as medicine, diminished use, 20, 53-57 as medicine, need of popular education regarding, 297 as medicine, opposition to by W. C. T. U., 21-27 causes disease, 28-36 as sedative, 127 as tonic, 124, 126 beginning of scientific study, 11 a cause of Bright's disease, 34, 91 causes malnutrition, 284 craving, 140 delusion that it "supports", 294 depressant, 150, 178 dangerous in pneumonia, 201 difference in action from carbohydrates and fats, 403 diminishes arterial pressure, 119, 120 effect on respiration, 263, 266 experiments, 11, 15, 62, 65, 80, 93, 101, 119, 120, 149, 200, 266, 267, 268, 275, 279, 288, 392-405, 421

Alcoholic diseases ascribed to other causes, 33 drink, no danger in sudden stopping, 293 drinks, stories of life sustained on, 112 dyspepsia, 63 proprietary medicines, 299-334

Alcohol, medical use bulwark of liquor-traffic, 96, 97, 360, 361 medical use causes death, 260 medical use delays recovery, 115 medical use evidence against, 336-391 medical use result of habit and tradition, 292, 294, 295, 298, 378 medical use, Toledo Blade on, 358 medical use, mortality increased by, 247-261, 267

Ammonia, 40, 188

Anaesthesia, 119, 120

Anaemia, 141

Anders, Dr. Howard S., 370

Angina pectoris, 181, 182

Animal poison, 206-211

Anthrax, 281, 282

Alcoholism, 36, 111

Ale, 120, 142, 236

Alkalies for stomach, 174

Alum, 143, 164, 171, 215

American Association for Study of Inebriety, 329

American Druggist and Patent Medicine Agitation, 26

American Medical Association, declaration on alcohol, 14

Antikamnia, 192, 346

Anti-Tuberculosis Congress resolution, 154

Apoplexy, 31, 32, 111, 142

Appetite, loss of, 142

Aschaffenberg, Prof., 400

Association of Abstaining Physicians, Germany, 387

Asthma, 179, 345

Athletes and alcohol, 103

Atwater, Prof., 128-130

Australian Government Commission on Patent Medicines, 314

Baldwin, Dr. Edward R., 370

Barton, Miss Clara, 48

Baths, 57, 145, 146, 147, 152, 164, 193, 197, 199, 410, 431, 432

Battle Creek Sanitarium, 223-227, 255, 256

Bavaria, beer-drinking effects, 425

Beale, Dr. Lionel, 99, 286

Beaumont, Dr., 61, 293

Beddoes, Dr., 13, 421

Beebe, Dr. S. P., 404, 405

Beef-tea, 194, 197, 325

Bacteria, 150

Badger, Dr. Richard, 365

Baer, Dr., 19

Barker, Prof., 337

Barr, Sir James, 372

Beer, 31, 66, 116, 117, 124, 126, 142, 179, 239, 244-246, 247, 423-426

Bellevue Hospital, 36, 54, 309

Berkley and Friedenwald, 279

Beverages for the sick, 411

Bigelow, Dr. Jacob, 335

Billings, Dr. Frank, 155

Bitters, 176, 329

Blankmeyer, Dr. H. J., 159

Bleuler, Dr., 388

Blood, 66-75, 76, 86,106, 113, 114, 119, 393

Blood purifiers, 75

Blood vessels, 63, 75, 76, 108, 109, 120, 124, 143

Blumenau, alcohol and digestion, 173

Boils and carbuncles, 144

Bond, Dr. Knox, on fevers, 252, 373

Bostwick, Dr., 336

Bowditch, Prof. Vincent Y., 157

Boynton, Dr., 377

Bradner, Dr. Roe, 329, 332

Brain, 32, 36

Brandy, 35, 120, 143, 151, 173, 177, 183, 196, 215, 356

Brewers, 38, 425

Bright's disease, 34, 91, 94

British army, experiences with alcohol, 101, 102

British Medical Journal, 180, 247, 269, 270, 319, 324

British Medical Temperance Association, 148-151, 250

Broadbent, Dr., 274

Brodie, Dr. Benj., 105

Bromidia, 353

Bromo Seltzer, 346

Brown, Dr. Alonzo, 271-273

Brunton, Dr. Lauder, 269, 270

Bucke, Dr. R. M., alcohol and the insane, 412

Buckley, Rev. J. M., D.D., cured of consumption, 159

Bunge, Prof. G. Von, 207, 424

Bureau of Chemistry, 426, 427

Burnett, Dr. Mary Weeks, 41-44

Burt, Mrs. Mary T., 24

Bussey, Dr., 237

Butter, substitute for cod-liver oil, 314

Cabot, Dr. Richard C., 57, 370

Caffeine, 49, 135, 300, 428-430

Cain, Dr. J. S., 229, 377

Calmette, Dr., snake-bite 206-209

Camphor, 217, 374

Cancer and alcohol, 288

Carbolic acid, 138, 145

Carbon dioxide, 71-73

Carbonic acid in wine, 117

Cardiac paralysis in diphtheria, 272, 273

Carpanutrine, 313

Carpenter, Dr. Alfred, 86

Carson, Prof. J. W., 336

Casgrau, Dr., doctors who personally use alcohol less observant of its effects, 294

Catarrh, 144, 145, 345

Cells, 58-60, 68, 130, 271, 272

Chapman, Dr. C. W., 184

Charcoal, 179

Charrin, Dr., 287

Cheese, cannot be made from milk of cows fed on distillery slops, 236

Cheyne, Prof. W. W., snake-poison, 209, 210

Children, danger of alcohol for, 416

Children of beer-drinking mothers, 236, 237

Children, per cent. of deaths of those of abstaining and drinking parents, 397, 398

Chills, 146

Chittenden, Prof., 93, 403

Chloral, 127, 138, 190, 275, 332, 353

Chlorodyne, 127

Chloroform, 119, 120, 121, 270, 353

Cholera, 35, 147-152, 257, 258 infantum, 152, 153 morbus, 152

Christian Advocates, The, and patent medicines, 26

Christison, Prof., 34

Cincinnati Hospital, 254

Circulation, 76, 77, 184-186

Claret, 120, 177, 419

Clark, Dr. Alonzo, 336 Sir Andrew, 35, 101

Clinique, The, 180

Coal-tar drugs, 75, 180, 192, 339, 340

Coca wines, 319-324

Coca Cola, 427

Cocaine, 300, 319-325, 345-351, 427

Cod-liver oil, fraudulent preparations, 314

Coffee, 40, 141, 194, 236

Cohen, Dr. S. S., 365

Cold, as a heart stimulant, 184-186 as tonic, 125 pack, 186 treatment for pneumonia, 202

Colds, cause and treatment, 146

Colic, 147

Collier, Dr. Wm., 372

Collier's Weekly and nostrums, 26

Collins, Dr., 157

Coloring matter in wines arrests digestion, 176

Coma from waste retention, 115

Committee of Fifty, 19, 128, 279 on Pharmacy, 314, 315, 316

Condi, Dr., nursing mothers, 236

Constipation, 146

Consumption, 153-162, 326

Convalescence and alcohol, 292, 294

Convulsions, 147, 179

Cook County Hospital, 54, 159, 253

Cordials in dyspepsia, 176

Cough medicines, 310-312 simple remedies, 146, 147, 162

Cramps, 179

Cream, substitute for cod-liver oil, 160, 314

Crothers, Dr. T. D., 120, 131, 183, 218, 345, 390

Cures for inebriety, 329, 414

Deaths from alcohol, 28, 83, 87 from alcoholic diseases ascribed to other causes, 31-34

Death-rates, comparative, 75, 85, 247-261, 267 lowered by non-alcoholic treatment, 37, 46, 219

Debility, 171, 172

Davis, Dr. Nathan S., Sr., 11, 12, 29-31, 45, 66, 75, 80-82, 91-95, 107, 112, 117, 118, 125, 128, 178, 193, 217, 219, 244, 253, 262, 267, 289, 294, 358-360

De Garmo, Prof., 366

Delearde, Dr., Pasteur Institute, 279, 284

Delirium tremens, 388

Depression of spirits, 172, 179

Diabetes, 88, 89

Diarrhoea, 172

Digestion, 106, 155-157

Digestive organs, injured, 389

Digitalis, 128, 135

Diphtheria, 75, 85, 272

Diseases of women, 430 non-alcohol treatment, 140, 233

Distilled liquors, composition, 117

Doan's Pills, 315

Dodson, Dr. John M., 423

Dogbite, 211

Dock, Dr. George, 365, 371

Douches, 164, 431

Drowning, 193, 194

"Drugging", 335-355

Drug habits formed by patent medicines, 301

Drugs, medical opinions of, 336-338

Druggists' resolutions against whiskey drug-stores, 27

Druggist's Circular, 8, 429

Druggists, liquor selling by, 139

Drunkards made in infancy, 311

Drunkards, 126, 350

Drysdale, Dr., 372

Dubois, experiments, 119

Dysentery, 172, 173

Dysmenorrhea, 431

Dyspepsia, 65, 127, 173-177

Edmunds, Dr., 37, 38, 183, 238-243

Edsall, Dr. David L., 374

Epilepsy, 32, 36, 178

Erysipelas, 74, 388

Eshner, Dr. A. A., 364

Exhaustion, 178

Fainting and faintness, 177, 178, 180, 181

Fatigue, 178, 320, 430

Fatty degeneration, 34-36, 82-85, 114

Fats digested in small intestines, 60

Fere, Dr., 203

Fermentation, 116, 274

Fevers, 75, 85, 249-255, 388

Fibrine, 40, 62

Fits, 238

Flatulence, 179

Flick, Dr. Lawrence, 156

Fomentations, 147, 199, 229

Food, alcohol as indirect, 112-114, 29, 98-117, 128-130

Foods, proprietary, 313

Forel, Dr. A., 36, 105

Forrest, Dr., 160, 161

Foster, Dr., 68

Franco-Prussian War, wine, 110, 111

Francis, Surgeon Gen'l, cholera, 150

Frick, Dr. A., 388, 389

Fruit, 141, 146, 374 juice, 65, 232, 374

Gairdner, Dr., fevers, 251, 252

Garber, Dr., typhoid, 230

Garfield Memorial Hospital, 55, 254

Gastric juice, 62, 65

Gastritis from beer and gin, 246

Georgia law and alcohol prescriptions, 27

Germs, 70, 115, 223, 272, 286, 287

Giddiness, 179

Gilman, Prof., treatment leads to death, 337

Gin, 61, 117, 199, 246

Ginger drinking, 341

Gloria Tonic, 414

Gluzinski and digestion, 61, 176

Glycerine in pharmacy, 134, 135, 138

Glycogen, 85, 130

Gordon, Dr. A., 377

Gould, A. Pearce, 288, 367, 373

Gout, 31, 74

Grape juice, 65

Grehant, 288

Gruber, Prof., 128, 129

Guardian cells, see leucocytes

Gull, Sir Wm., 35, 104

Gum resins, non-alcoholic preparation, 134

Hagee's Cordial of Cod-Liver Oil, 314

Hall, Dr. W. S., 379, 405-409

Hamilton, Dr. Frank H., 285, 286

Hammond, Dr. W. A., 36, 95

Hargreaves, Dr. W., 35, 85, 86, 105, 236, 237

Harley, Dr., alcohol and diabetes, 88, 89

Harrington. Dr. Chas., 313, 316

Hart, Dr. Ernest, 126, 152, 269

Harvey, Dr., counsel to young physicians, 389

Hay Fever, 145, 146

Hayes, Dr., arctic work, 110

Headaches, 179, 180

Headache remedies, 301, 354

Health, how to preserve, 355

Health Grains, 315

Healy, Dr. H. H., 375

Heart abscesses, 277, 278 and alcohol, 31, 75-85, 263 beer-drinkers, 424 disease, 181, 182 failure, 83, 85, 184, 185-188, 227, 273 force diminished, 183 stimulants, 188 weak, 182

Hemaboloids, 313

Hemapeptone, 313

Hemaglobin, 30, 67, 114, 221

Hemorrhage, 34, 180, 197

Heredity of alcoholic diseases, 33

Herrick, Dr. James B., 365

Hewes, Dr. Henry F., 379

Heyburn, Senator, nostrums, 334

Hiccough, 179

Higginbotham, 13, 140, 180

Higginson, Col. T. W., 196

Hirschfeld, Dr., 360, 380

Hiss, Dr. A. Emil, 309, 310

History of study of alcohol, 9-20

Hob-nailed liver, 87

Hoffman drops, 349

Hoff's Consumption Cure, 316

Holmes, Dr. Oliver W., on drugs, 137, 344

Hop tea, 66, 142, 176

Hoppe, Dr. Hugo, beer, 425

Horsley, Sir Victor, 129, 372, 424, 425

Hospitals, Temperance, 37-53 death-rates, 252-261 decreased use of alcoholic liquors, 53-57

Hugounencq, alcohol and pepsin, 176

Hunt, Mrs. Mary H., temperance education, 17

Hunt, Dr. Reid, 369, 402

Hydrochloric acid, 173, 177

Hydrophobia, 281-283

Internal Rev, Dep't. and Nostrums, 27, 312

International Congress on Alcoholism, London, 1909, 9, 393 Encyclopedia of Surgery, 209 Medical Congress 1876, and National W. C. T. U., 23, 82

Immunity, influence of alcohol on, 281, 282, 393-395

Indigestion and alcohol, 32

Infant feeding, 242, 243

Infection, liability to increased, 392, 393

Infectious diseases, 288, 368, 369, 425

Inflammation in wounds, 74

Influenza and drinkers, 192, 193

Iron, injurious to stomach, 315

Jackson, Dr. Henry, 370

Jaundice, alcohol prejudicial, 89

Jayne's Expectorant, 310

Johnson, Lieut., arctic work, 110

Joslin, Dr. E. P., 364, 424

Journal Amer. Med. Ass'n., 129, 204-209, 211, 368, 369

Journal of Inebriety, 131, 192, 329, 413

Kansas prohibits whiskey drug-stores 27

Kassowitz, Prof. Max, 373, 374

Kellogg, Dr. J. H., 36, 89, 95, 121, 129, 141, 152, 166, 176, 185, 195, 199, 255, 378

Kerr, Dr. Norman, 150, 357

Kidneys, 30, 89-95, 276, 425

Koch, Dr., consumption, 153

Knopf, Dr. S. A., 155

Kola, see caffeine.

Kraepelin, 399, 400

Kress, Dr. Lauretta, 430-432

La grippe, 190-193, 337

Ladd, Prof., 332, 333

Ladies' Home Journal, 26

Laitinen, Prof. T., 368, 369, 392-398

Lambert, Dr. Alex., 415, 424

Lancet, The London, 191, 184, 252, 368, 429

Landis, Dr. J. H., and typhoid, 379

Laudanum, 137, 352

Laxative pills often harmful, 346

Lees, Dr. F. R., 106

Legrain, Dr., 426

Liebig, 116, 251, 424

Lemon, 146, 147, 179, 194, 411

Lesser, Dr. A. Monae, success in treating fevers in Cuban War, 53

Leucocytes, 271, 272, 274, 275, 278, 282, 283, 284, 285

Life insurance and total abstinence, 36, 423, 426, 432-435

Life saving stations and alcohol, 193

Liniments, non-alcoholic, 134, 135

Liquid Peptones, 313

Liver, 31, 33, 85-89, 404-409, 425

Lloyd, Prof. J. U., 328

London Temperance Hospital, 37-41, 132-135, 357

Loomis, Dr. A. L., 255 Dr. Henry P., 157

Lungs, 30, 201

Lying-in-Hospital, London, 37, 38

Martin, Dr. Newell, 63, 79, 84, 85, 91, 109, 119, 158

Massage, 166, 180, 213, 214

Mass. State Board of Health, 34, 310

Massart and Bordet, leucocytes, 277

McNicholl, Dr. T. A., 48, 378

Madden, Dr. John, 378

Magnesia, 179

Malaria[D], 195, 196

[Footnote D: Of late years malaria is attributed to the bite of a certain kind of mosquito. In preparing this edition that item was overlooked.]

Malt Extracts, 316-319

Manassein's Clinic, alcohol and kidneys, 93, 94

Mann, Dr. Matthew D., 365

Martin, Alexis St., 61, 293

McCormack, Dr. J. H., 370

Measles, 194

Meat extracts, valueless, 325, 326

Medical temperance department of W. C. T. U., 25-27

Menstruation, painful, 197

Mercer, Dr. Alfred, 363

Metchnikoff, 374, 398

Milk, 141, 153, 188, 236, 237, 251, 373

Miller, Dr. James Alex., 157

Mitchell, Dr. S. Weir, 207, 210

Miura, investigations, 379

Morphine, 300, 345, 351, 352

Mossop, Dr., experiments, 120

Mother Bailey's Quieting Syrup, 310

Munyon's Kidney Cure, 315

Mulford's Predigested Beef, 313

Muscles and alcohol, 33, 103, 124

Musser, Dr. John H., 369, 370

Mussey, Prof. R. D., 12

Nansen and polar expedition, 110

Narcotic drug dangers, 345, 346, 350-355, 357

Nausea, 199

Nerves, 32, 36, 76, 77, 105, 118, 185, 425

Nervous system affected by retention of waste, 115

Neuralgia, 198

New York State Board of Health, 154, 155

Newspapers and whiskey ads., 382 and patent medicine ads, 333

Nichol, Dr., experiments, 120

Nichols, Dr. Jas. R., 136, 138

Nitrite of amyl, 15, 181, 182

Non-alcoholic treatment, 37, 89, 140-233, 258-260, 360

Nurses, abstinence in cholera, 149

Nursing mothers and beer, 234, 426

Nutrition retarded by alcohol, 114

Oatmeal, 197, 235

Oils, essential, non-alcoholic preparation, 134

Opium, 127, 132, 149, 150, 172, 180, 189, 190, 300, 351, 352, 389, 412

Orangeine, 346

Osler, Dr., 158

Oxidations, 408

Oxidation checked by coal-tar drugs, 339, 340, 346 hindered by alcohol, 263

Oxidative powers of liver effected by alcohol, 404

Oxygen, 40, 67, 71, 75, 92, 113, 114, 118, 130, 187, 264

Page, Dr. C. E., on typhoid, 232

Pain after food, 203, 204

Palmer, Dr. A. B., 79, 121-123

Pepper, Cayenne, 147, 188

Pepsin, 62, 64, 173, 176

Peptonic Elixir, 313

Peruna, 312

Peterson, Dr. Frederick, 375

Phagocytes, 271, 272, 374

Pharmacy, non-alcoholic, 132-139

Phenacetine, 300, 339, 340, 346, 354

Physicians need awakening as to evils of alcohol, 379 responsibility for prescribing alcoholic liquor, 358, 359, 388 why they prescribe alcoholics, 291-298

Pneumonia, 40, 75, 85, 192, 200-203, 253, 254, 257, 280, 340, 346, 371, 388

Poheman, Dr. Julius, 200, 201

Poisons, 29, 204-211, 300, 301

Port Wine, 64, 65, 144, 172, 292

Porter, 236

Pregnancy, danger of alcohol in, 203 vomiting in, 199

Packs, hot 194, 202, 213

Panopepton, 313

Paralysis, caused by alcohol, 31, 36

Paregoric, 352

Parkes, 77-79, 100, 102

Patent medicines, 26, 27, 299-334, 350

Preble, Dr. Robert B., 375

Proprietary "Foods", 313, 314

Prostration, 179

Protoplasm and alcohol, 59, 60, 286, 287

Psychical treatment, Cabot, 57

Ptomaine poisoning, 152, 270

Puerperal fever, 229, 290

Pulse and alcohol, 79, 181

Pure Food Law, 299, 300

Putnam, Dr. J. J., 364

Quackery, cause, 337

Quinine, 128, 190, 196, 340, 345

Rattlesnakes, bite of, 210

Recent researches on alcohol, 276-284, 392-409

Reichert, alcohol and snake-bite, 207

Retina, blood-vessels and alcohol, 120, 124

Rheumatism, 211-214, 259, 260, 343

Richardson, Sir B. W., 15, 17, 31, 39, 63, 72, 105, 111, 121, 148, 153, 177, 259, 295-297, 356, 383, 385-387

Ridge, Dr. J. J., 73, 84, 124, 127, 143, 149, 180, 188, 196, 213, 216, 248, 250, 275, 286, 292, 356, 362

Riley, Dr. W. H., 223-227, 423

Ringer and Sainsbury, 80, 119

Ritchie, Dr. J. J., 383

Roberts, Sir W., 176

Robin, 264

Rusby, Dr. H. H., 429

Salicylic acid, 128

Saline injections, 187 solutions, 145

Sartoin Skin Food, 316

Scarlet fever, 91, 248, 337, 373

Schafer's physiology on alcohol, 129

Scientific temperance education, 17, 18

Sedatives, dangers of, 127

Shock, 215, 216

Sight impaired by alcohol, 120

Sleeplessness, 179

Small-pox, 247-250

Smith. Dr. E., 105, 238

Snake-bite, 207, 211

Soft drinks, dangerous, 427

Soldiers, 101, 102, 285

Soothing syrups, 310

Sore nipples, 215

Sore throat, 145

Sphygmograph, 79, 120, 122

Stammreich, investigations, 379

Starch, 116, 129, 130

Stimulant, definition, 118, 222

Stimulants, 105, 177, 179, 186, 188, 190, 194, 237, 338

Stimulation, fallacy of theory,, 385

Stockton, Dr. C. G., 158

Stomach, 32, 60, 63, 87, 293, 425

Strychnia, 222, 365

Strumpel, Prof., on beer, 425

Sudden illness, 217

Sugar, 86-88, 116, 117, 129, 130, 374

Sulphonal, 346, 353

Sunstroke, 217, 218

Switzerland and alcohol deaths, 36

Syncope, 177

Tannin, 124, 152, 164

Taylor's Headache Powders, 346

Tea, 236

Temperance hospitals, 37-53

Tonic Beef, 313

Toxins, 267-269, 406-409

Treves, Sir Frederick, 342, 372

Trudeau, Dr. Edward, 155, 161

Tuberculosis, 35, 154-158

Tetanus, 281, 282

Thompson, Sir Henry, 120

Tinctures, 131-137

Tissue changes, 113-115 waste retarded, 115

Tobacco and alcohol, 212, 343, 413

Todd, Dr. B., 250, 252

Turkish baths, 193, 208, 212, 213

Type-setters and alcohol, 400

Typhoid fever, 219-233, 251, 252, 253, 268, 365, 373, 379

Typhus, 252, 255, 388

Uric acid, 93, 404, 405

Urine and alcohol, 89, 92, 93, 267, 268

Uterine displacements, 163-171 hemorrhage, 180

Van Duyn, Dr. John, 374

Vasomotor nerves, 76, 77, 83

Vegetarian diet for drink crave, 414

Vinol, 314

Vita-Ore, 315

Vomiting, 140, 233

Water, 30, 95, 112, 128, 135, 143, 145, 150-152, 175, 177, 187, 188, 224, 225, 232, 411

Weakness in growing youth, 125, 178

W. Va. Medical Society resolutions, 371

Whisky, 28, 50, 112, 127, 155, 157, 173, 190, 193, 196, 210, 265, 370, 390

Willhite, Dr. O. C., 159

Wine, 13, 31, 64, 65, 109, 110, 117, 123, 125, 141, 176, 236, 325, 417, 424

Wampole's Cod-Liver Oil, 314

Warbasse, Dr. J. P., 375

Waste, retention invites disease, 70

Welch, Dr. W. H., 393

White, Dr. John E., 158

White Haven Sanitarium, 155

White Ribbon Remedy, 414

Wiley, Dr. H. W., 301, 428, 429

Willard, Miss Frances E., 23, 44-47

Williams, Henry Smith, 399 Pink Pills, 315

Willson, alcohol and snake-bite, 211

Winternitz, 184, 185, 225

Wolff, 176

Wollowicz, 77-79, 81

Woodhead, Dr. G. Sims, 211, 276-284, 366, 383

Woods, Dr. Matthew, 364

Wood, Dr. H. C., 119

Zwieback, 175



ERRATA

Page 346, third line from bottom omitted:

The use of cocaine is advancing rapidly in this

[Transcriber's Note: The text was emended to include the above correction.]

* * * * *

TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE:

Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible, including obsolete and variant spellings. Obvious typographical errors in punctuation (misplaced quotes and the like) have been fixed. Note that the index has not been resorted alphabetically.Corrections [in brackets] in the text are noted below:

page v: typo corrected

Sims Woodhead on immunity—Delearde's[Delearde's] experiments

page vi: typo corrected

Dr. Knox Bond on Scarlet Fever—Metchinkoff[Metchnikoff] on white blood-cells—Kassowitz describes his

page vii: typo corrected

to quit drinking—Dr. T. D. Crother's[Crothers'] remedy

page 21: typo corrected

THE WOMAN[']S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION IN OPPOSITION TO ALCOHOL AS MEDICINE.

page 48: typo corrected

department of the hospital was commissoned[commissioned] to treat diseases without the use of alcoholic liquids.

page 53: typo corrected

treatment for seven weeks for metorrhagia[metrorrhagia], nietortes[TN: unsure what this word is] and peritonitis

page 106: typo corrected

who, but for its mistaken use, might have recovered from the illness affecting then[them].

page 111: typo corrected

or influenced by alcoholism. If the clinical thermometor[thermometer] shows the temperature to be above

page 129: typo corrected

An editorial in the Journal of the Amercian[American] Medical Association said:

page 158: typo corrected

E. White, M. D., Medical Director Nordrach Ranch Sanatorium[Sanitorium], Colorado Springs, Colorado.

page 172: typo corrected

irritant of which the stomach is trying to be rid. Do not arrest it permaturely[prematurely], but assist it.

page 180

is usually a symptom of trouble somewhere else, often in the alimentary canal, and[an] overloaded stomach,

page 238: duplicate word removed

which they soon experience in the [the] supply of milk?

page 255: typo corrected

Dr. A. L. Loomis, in the treatmemt[treatment] of 600 typhus fever cases on Blackwell's Island in 1864, excluded

page 256: typo corrected

These cases include a number of hyterectomies[hysterectomies], and many cases so desperate that those who trust in alcohol

page 257: aded missing single quote

be called criminal. I certainly feel that punishment would be just.[']"

page 260: typo corrected

there is less frequent relapse, and there is quicker recovery. In brief, the experience of treament[treatment] of rheumatic

page 275: typo corrected

therefore, may open the door to fever or erysipelas.' A similiar[similar] experiment of Doyen confirms this.

page 301: added missing quote

a habit of gaining relief which becomes an obsession and incapable of being resisted.["]

page 302: added missing quote

harmful only, that so many people profess to have received benefit from them?["] There are different

page 313: added missing quote

no fatty substances present in these products; their food value from this point of view is, therefore, nil."]

page 314: added missing quote

show any oil. Analysis revealed sugar, alcohol, and glycerine, none of which is contained in cod-liver oil.["]

page 316: added missing quote

["]Hoff's Consumption Cure consists essentially of sodium cinnamate and extract of opium, a mixture at one time suggested

page 319: typo corrected

5233 Philadephia[Philadelphia] Porter

page 348: end of quote ambiguous

questions were put replied after careful consideration as follows: '[could not find ending single quote]Its physiological action is practically unknown.

page 360: typo corrected

"Dr. Hirschfield[Hirschfeld], a well-known physician of Magdeburg, Germany, was recently arrested on a charge

page 361: typo corrected

more than upon anything else, to screen it from opprobium[opprobrium], and just punishment for the evils which the traffic entails upon

page 381: added missing quote

in their denunciations of the current beliefs concerning alcohol in medicine.["]—Journal A. M. A., January 6, 1900.

page 392: typo corrected

RECENT RESEARCHES UPON ALCOLOL.[ALCOHOL]

page 402: typo corrected

strictly analagous[analogous] to sugar and fats, provided always that the amount used does not exceed that easily oxidized

page 421: added missing quote

and starve. But the next time they were sick, _I wasn't the doctor_.["]—"Physician" in Our Federation_.

Throughout the index, typos corrected:

Berkley and Friendenwald[Friedenwald], 279

Delearde[Delearde], Dr., Pasteur Institute, 279, 284

Fere[Fere], Dr., 203

Grehaut[Grehant], 288

Hirschfield[Hirschfeld], Dr., 360, 380

International Congress on Alcoholism, London, 1909, 9, 393 " Encyclopaedia[Encyclopedia] of Surgery, 209

Lesser, Dr. A. Monae[Monae], success in treating fevers in Cuban War, 53

Massert[Massart] and Bordet, leucocytes, 277

Panopeptone[Panopepton], 313

Phenacetin[Phenacetine], 300, 339, 340, 346, 354

Rushy[Rusby], Dr. H. H., 429

Stamreich[Stammreich], investigations, 379

Whiskey[Whisky], 28, 50, 112, 127, 155, 157, 173, 190, 193, 196, 210, 265, 370, 390

Zweiback[Zwieback], 175

THE END

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