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Albert Gallatin - American Statesmen Series, Vol. XIII
by John Austin Stevens
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Society, Literature, Science. His land speculations not profitable, 351; plans Genevese Colonization Association, 361; loses money through Morris's failure, 362; speculates in Virginia military lands, 362; estimates value of estates, 362, 363; ill at ease in general society, 363; his establishment at Washington described by Irving, 363; house burned by British, 364; builds at Friendship Hill, finds it lonely in winter, 364; visited by Lafayette in 1825, 364, 365; settles permanently in New York, 365; frequent changes of residence, 365; devotes last years to scientific studies, 366; conversational ability, 366; chosen member of "The Club," 366, 367; leads conversation, 367; described by Irving, 368; wishes to establish free university in New York, 368; presides over council of New York University, 369; resigns, owing to clerical opposition, 370; continued interest in French politics, 370; letter of Lafayette to, on marriage of his daughter, 371; assists Polish refugees, 372; interested in Indian customs, 373, 374; writes for Humboldt a synopsis of Indian tribes, 374; publishes Indian vocabularies, 375; issues circulars inviting information, 375; correspondence with individuals, 375, 376; republishes Synopsis, 377; scientific character of his results, 377, 378; his advice requested concerning Smithson's bequest, 378; its publications submitted to him, 378, 379; founds American Ethnological Society, 379; defrays cost of publishing its transactions, 379; essay on nations of Mexico and Central America, 380; authorizes General Scott to purchase documents in Mexico, 380; writes introduction to Hale's "Indians of Northwest America," 380; gathers information regarding gold in America for Humboldt, 381; describes his reasons for success, 381; his caution in reasoning, 382; fails to establish a literary periodical, 382; chosen president of New York Historical Society, 382; his inaugural address on course of United States History, 382-384; opinion of Washington, 383, 384; friendly greeting to Adams in 1844, 384; eulogized by Adams, 384, 385; his party career contrasted with that of Adams, 385; personal appearance and portraits, 385, 386; crushed by loss of wife, 387; death, 387; eulogized by Bradish before Historical Society, 388; acknowledges indebtedness to Bentham, 388; his brain, 389; summary of character and services, 389.

Characteristics. General estimates, 1, 388, 389; unfriendly views of, 90, 297, 338; his own estimate, 381; ambition, 5, 10, 58, 127, 180, 328; business ability, 28, 60, 361, 362; cosmopolitanism, 7, 389; courage, 75, 76, 84; debt, aversion to, 21; diplomatic ability, 303, 324, 325, 330, 345; financial ability, 45, 179, 185, 215; friendliness, 24, 30, 300, 372; geography, love of, 16; history, love of, 3, 302; indolence, 43; leadership, 128, 133, 159, 167, 357; literary interest, 382; maturity, early, 31; partisanship, 140, 147, 167; personal appearance, 385, 386, 389; political shrewdness, 76, 95, 128, 357; social habits, 44, 348, 363, 367, 368; temper, evenness of, 65, 152, 154, 303, 324; thoroughness, 182, 381.

Political Opinions. Alien Bill, 152, 158; appointments to office, 281, 282, 286, 359; army, 108, 123, 129, 180, 303; Bank of United States, 231, 252-256, 262, 266, 296; banking, 256, 268, 273, 277; cabinet, 188, 222, 245, 283; coinage, 140, 268; Congress, powers of, 109, 110, 112, 143, 144, 153, 161; constitution of Pennsylvania, 41, 42; debt, public, 45, 125, 126, 191, 203, 205, 208, 222, 269; democracy, 6, 8, 10, 33, 34, 42, 48, 55, 126, 389; education, 45, 291, 368-370; election of 1800, 164-166; embargo, 201, 206, 230, 291; England, diplomacy of, 304, 344; England, policy toward, 228, 292, 310, 327, 337, 343-347; ethnology, 373-381; excise, 53, 80; executive, 144-146, 359; Federalist party, 119, 129, 139, 140, 164, 179; financial measures of Hamilton, 184, 185; foreign correspondence bill, 155; foreign ministers, 142, 143, 145, 147; France, diplomacy of, 304, 344; France, policy toward, 134, 135, 148, 149, 157, 159, 167, 310, 332, 333, 338, 340; free trade, 240-243; French Revolution, 56, 76, 139, 328; gunboat scheme, 289; impeachment, 138; Indians, 108, 122, 320, 323, 373-381; internal improvements, 45, 224, 290; Jacksonian democracy, 359; Jay treaty, 119, 136; manifest destiny, 352; Mexican war, 352; military matters, 137, 289; money, relation to wealth, 260; navy, 123, 124, 130, 137, 186, 303; northeastern boundary, 347-349; northwest boundary, 343, 347, 351; panic of 1815, 262; paper money, 46, 207, 264, 267, 268; party management, 38, 41, 95, 128, 164, 359; peace, 149, 150, 167, 284; public lands, 46, 122, 238, 239; Republican party, 355, 359; revenue, internal, 221, 233, 234; revenue, sources of, 187, 223, 232; Sedition Act, 152, 158, 159; slavery, 47, 140; Spain, policy toward, 336, 337; suffrage, 42; surplus, use of, 206, 216; taxation, 123, 199, 200; Texas annexation, 351; territory, constitutional power to acquire, 285; Treasury, administration of, 64, 106-108, 125, 130, 154, 189, 205, 208, 217, 245-247; treaty of Ghent, 317, 318, 319, 323; treaty power, 114; United States, history of, 382, 383; war of 1812, 320; war finances, 190, 200, 203, 207, 208, 222, 224, 229, 232, 234, 298; Whiskey Insurrection, 94.

Gallatin family, 2; prominence in Geneva, 2; military reputation, 2; interest in all its members, 8; on oligarchic side in Genevese politics, 10; alarmed at report of Gallatin's death, 27; visited by Gallatin in 1814, 326; claims Roman descent, 386 n.

Gallatin, Frances, marries B. K. Stevens, 371; Lafayette's letter of congratulation to, 371; considered "a beauty" at French court, 372.

Gallatin, James, accompanies his father to Europe, 301.

Gallatin, Jean, father of Albert Gallatin, 2; his death, 2.

Gallatin, P. M., guardian of Albert, 10; his kindness on Gallatin's departure for America, 11; promises to aid him, and forwards letters of recommendation, 11.

Gallatin, Susanne Vaudenet, grandmother of Gallatin, her character, 7; friend of Frederick of Hesse-Cassel and of Voltaire, 7; controlling spirit of family, 8; quarrels with Albert over his refusal of a Hessian commission, 8.

Gambier, Lord, on English peace commission, 316.

Gardner, John L., at free-trade convention, 241.

Genet, Edmond C., effect of his intemperance on parties, 57; marries daughter of George Clinton, 102; aids Democratic societies, 102; condemned by Federalists, 134.

Geneva, place of Gallatin family in, 2; education in, 2, 3; religious spirit of, 3; a resort of foreigners, 4; political situation in, 6, 7, 10; parties in, 10; revolutions in, 20, 361; government of, 33; visited by Gallatin, 325, 326; colonization from, planned by Gallatin, 361.

Geneva Academy, studies of Gallati in, 2, 3; his friends at, 4, 5.

Germans, in Pennsylvania, oppose improvement of education, 45.

Gerry, Elbridge, on French mission, 139; remains to negotiate loan, 152.

Gibbs, ——, member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Gilbert, Ezekiel, on Committee on Finance, 107.

Giles, William B., Republican leader in debate, his character, 100, 133; bitterly opposes address to Washington, 128, 129; in debate on relations with France, 135; loses leadership to Gallatin, 140.

Gilman, Nicholas, on Committee on Finance, 106.

Girard, Stephen, assists Gallatin to float loan, 213, 214; his reasons, 259.

Goderich, Lord, renews convention of 1815 with Gallatin, 347.

Goldberg, ——, Dutch commissioner to make commercial treaty, 334.

Goodhue, Jonathan, at free-trade convention of 1831, 241.

Goodhue, ——, member of "The Club," 367.

Goodrich, Chauncy, in Congress, 99; in debate on foreign relations, 143; on resolution to punish foreign correspondence, 156.

Goulburn, Henry, on English peace commission, 316; informed of American request for instructions, 318; told by Castlereagh and Liverpool to moderate his demands, 319; protests against acceptance of Indian article, 321.

Grenville, Lord, sends Fauchet letter to Washington, 103; connection with Jay treaty, 117, 350; his proposition to Pinckney, 134.

Griswold, Roger, attacks Gallatin's account of sinking fund, 65; leader of Federalists in House, 98, 133; replies to Gallatin in debate on treaty power, 113; his collision with Lyon, 141; on doctrine of checks, 143; on bill to punish foreign correspondence, 156; on Senate bill to require annual financial reports, 161.

Gunboats, Jefferson's scheme for, 288; origin of his idea, 288; opposed by Gallatin, 289.

Gurney, ——, in Pennsylvania legislature, 183.

Hale, ——, introduction to his work on Indians written by Gallatin, 380.

Hamilton, Alexander, his career compared to that of Gallatin, 28, 32; amends excise law, 52; demands punishment of Pittsburgh leaders of opposition, 53, 54; drafts proclamation against them, 54; attacked by Gallatin in Senate, 64; deprecates demand for minute information, 64, 65; submits plan for crushing insurgents, 76, 77; impatient at delay, writes as "Tully" advocating punishment, 87; accompanies army to Pittsburgh, 88; investigates insurrection, 90; fails to find indictment against Gallatin, 90; dissuades troops from violence, 92; resigns from Treasury, 97; continues to lead party, 99; stoned in defending Jay treaty, 103; letters of Wolcott to, complaining of Republican opposition, 126, 154; attends Congress as general, 155; his influence on government, 168, 169; review of his career in the Treasury, 174-176; his place in history, 176; his enmity to Gallatin, 179; attacks of Gallatin upon his system, 184, 185; his revenue system maintained by Gallatin, 218, 234; and reenacted by Democrats in 1813, 235; his report on public lands, 237, 238; his organization of Treasury Department, 243; his financial reports, 245; on Bank of North America, 249; his report on national bank, 250, 251.

Hamilton, J. C., accuses Gallatin of cowardice in Whiskey Rebellion, 84.

Harper, Robert Goodloe, leader of Federalists in House, 98, 133; denounces call for Jay treaty papers as unconstitutional, 111, 112; closes argument on Federalist side, 114; recognizes Gallatin as leader of Republicans, 115; in debate on relations with France, 134, 135; called a "bungler" by Gallatin, 140; moves appropriation for foreign intercourse, 141; his share in debate, 142, 146; introduces bill to suspend intercourse with France, 151; altercation with Gallatin over Alien Bill, 152; on resolution to furnish foreign correspondence, 156; on Senate bill to require annual financial reports, 161.

Harvard College, gives Gallatin permission to teach French, 17; his connection with, 18; gives Gallatin certificate, 18.

Hassler, Ferdinand Rudolph, superintendent of coast survey, 290.

Hawks, ——, member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Henry, Patrick, recommends Gallatin to county surveyor and commissions him to locate lands, 24; advises Gallatin to go West, predicts success, 29.

Henry, Prof. Joseph, letter of Gallatin to, on Squier and Davis's "Ancient Monuments," 379.

Hillhouse, James, Federalist in Congress, 99; on committee on finance, 107.

Holland, vain attempt to sign commercial treaty with, 334; arbitrates northeast boundary, 347, 349; its decision rejected, 349.

House of Representatives, leaders of, in 1795, 98-100; debate in, over conduct of Washington's administration, 104-106; appoints Committee on Finance, 106, 107; debate in, on principle of appropriations, 108, 109; motion of Livingston to call for papers in Jay treaty brings on debate on treaty power, 109-114; asserts right to withhold appropriations, 115; considers foreign treaties separately, 118; debates Jay treaty, 118-121; votes to carry treaty into effect, 121; but condemns it, 121; refuses to adjourn on Washington's birthday, 126; adopts address complimentary to Washington, 129; new members in fifth Congress, 132; debates President's message on relations with France, 133-136; votes to support administration, 136; considers measures of defense, 137; impeaches Blount, 138; entertained by Adams, 140; encounter in, between Lyon and Griswold, 141; debate in, on foreign missions, 141, 142; on relation of executive to Congress, 142-147; rejects amendment to abolish foreign missions, 147; debates war with France, 148; requests President to furnish correspondence of envoys to France, 148; receives X Y Z dispatches, 149; altercation in, between Gallatin and Allen, 150; passes Alien Bill, 152; message of Adams to, on resumption of diplomatic intercourse with France, 152; passes bill abrogating treaty with France, 154; debates and passes bill to punish foreign correspondence, 155, 156; debates and passes bills to favor French West Indies, and punish Spanish and Dutch ports, 156, 157; refuses to repeal Sedition Act, 157; new members in sixth Congress, 158; replies to President's address, 158; refuses to repeal Sedition Law, 159; passes bill to suspend intercourse with France, 159, 160; votes a medal to Truxton, 160; refuses to amend Foreign Intercourse Act, 160, 161; debates and passes Senate bill to require annual Treasury reports, 161; refuses to continue non-intercourse, 162; again rejects bill to amend Sedition Act, 162; part played by Gallatin in, 167, 168; investigates Wolcott's management of Treasury, 177.

Howell, Richard, leads New Jersey militia against Whiskey Rebellion, 88.

Humboldt, Baron Alexander von, aided in study of precious metals in America by Gallatin, 278, 374, 381; brings Lafayette's letter to Gallatin, 315; meets Gallatin in Washington, 315; speaks of Gallatin's "glory," 325; letter to Gallatin, 381.

Husbands, Herman, on committee on resolutions of Parkinson's Ferry meeting, 80.

Huskisson, William, on impressment, 347.

Impressment, Gallatin's opinion of, 122; its abandonment by England insisted on by Monroe, 305; refused consideration by England, 322, 327, 335, 347.

Indians, relations of Gallatin with, at Machias, 15; trading posts with, opposed by Gallatin, 108; Wayne's treaty with, 117, 118; danger of war with, in 1795, 120, 121; Gallatin's opinion of, 122; influence of Choteau over, 287; fur trade of Astor with, 288; proposals of England concerning, in treaty of Ghent, 317, 319, 321; studies of Gallatin concerning, 373-378; the Canadian Indians, 373; tribes of, classified by Jefferson, 374; "Synopsis of Indian Tribes" by Gallatin, 374; vocabularies collected by Gallatin, 375, 376; studies of Du Ponceau concerning, 377; republication of Gallatin's "Synopsis," 377; his essay on Indian civilization, 380; his introduction to Hale's work on, 380.

Ingham, Samuel D., report of Gallatin to, on gold and silver, 268.

Internal improvements, Gallatin's scheme for, 224, 290; urged by Jefferson, 226, 227, 290; inconsistency of Jefferson, 227.

Irish, petition against Sedition Act, 157.

Irving, Washington, describes Mrs. Gallatin's manners and appearance, 363, 364; describes Gallatin in old age, 368.

Jackson, Andrew, votes against complimentary address to Washington, 129; his appearance described by Gallatin, 129 n.; orders removal of deposits, 270; Gallatin's opinion of, 270, 355; occupies Pensacola, 336; refuses to appoint Gallatin to French mission, 349; candidate for president in 1824, 358; defeated for president by Adams, 358; his idea of party, 359; Gallatin's opinion of, 359; character of his presidency, 360.

Jackson, F. J., his mission to United States, 295.

Jay, John, asked by Jefferson for information concerning Gallatin, 27; drafts letter for New York Convention calling for a new convention, 37 n.; burnt in effigy after his treaty, 103; his purpose in making treaty, 117; said by Sheffield to have duped Grenville, 117; his warning remark to Randolph during negotiations, 118; attacked by Gallatin, 119.

Jay, William, member of "The Club," 366.

Jay treaty, ratified, 102; made public by Mason, 103; popular dissatisfaction with, 103, 116; sent to House, 109; condemned in England, 117; debate over, 118-121.

Jefferson, Thomas, in behalf of Gallatin family writes to Jay for information concerning Albert Gallatin, 27; countersigns Washington's proclamation against excise rioters, 54; retires from cabinet, 97, 99; rupture with Hamilton, 99; imbued with French principles, 102; ridiculed as a sans-culotte, 104; influence complained of by Wolcott, 127; tries to moderate bitterness of Republicans, 128; Gallatin known to be in his confidence, 133; complains of weakness of Congress, 138; unable to influence Senate, 139; loses taste for French alliance, 139; thinks Sedition Bill aimed at Gallatin, 152; praises Gallatin's courage, 158; receives tie vote with Burr, 163; probably makes bargain with Federalists, 164; his inexplicable submission to Smith, 164; elected, 167; in triumvirate with Madison and Gallatin, 168; represents social equality, 169; his suggestions on coinage, 172; urges Gallatin to accept Treasury Department, 178-180; letter to Macon, 182; suggestions of Gallatin to, on financial policy, 186; not a practical statesman, 188; does not consult cabinet as a whole, 188; letters of Gallatin to, on finances, 189, 193, 201, 203, 216; summons Congress to ratify Louisiana purchase, 195; reelection helped by finances and Louisiana treaty, 197, 198, 223; urges Gallatin to retain post until extinction of debt, 203; wishes reduction of army and navy, 220; advocates application of surplus to internal improvement, 226; in so doing abandons his principles, 227; detests bank, 233, 251, 280; proposes impracticable economies in Treasury Department, 244; suggests issue of paper money, 264; an abandonment of republican principles, 266; introduces new principles of administration into government, 279; opposes Gallatin's civil service circular, 281; proposes to fill one half of offices with partisans, 282; submits draft of annual message to cabinet, 283; objects to appointing a woman to office, 283; lack of system in his cabinet, 284; does not consult Gallatin on military matters, 284; agrees with Gallatin's view on acquisition of territory, 285 advised by Gallatin concerning Louisiana treaty, 285; unfortunate in choice of political methods, 286; friendly with Duane, 286; promises to protect Astor, 288; his gunboat scheme, 288, 289; origin of his views on gunboats, 288; his plan of internal improvements, 290; recommends national university, 291; wishes amendments to Constitution, 291; advised by Gallatin not to rely on "general welfare" clause of Constitution, 291; shirks responsibility of decision with regard to English policy, 291, 292; urged by Gallatin to enforce non-intercourse, 293; calls Gallatin ablest man in administration except Madison, 298; regard of Gallatin for, 300; his love for Gallatin, 300; letters of Gallatin to, on reputation of United States in Europe, 327; on France, 327, 328; letter of Gallatin to, on difficulty of withdrawal from public service, 329; rejoices in Gallatin's acceptance of French mission, 331; his opinion of Louis XVIII., 331; relations with de Tracy, 331; supports Crawford for presidency, 356; favors state rights, 356; does not appreciate decay of his party, 358; on non-sectarian education, 369; his remarks on Indians in "Notes on Virginia," 374; on Washington's strong passions, 383 n.

Johannot, ——, educated at Geneva, 4, 17.

Johnston, ——, member of "The Club," 366.

Jones, William, secretary of navy, 312.

Kent, Chancellor James, member of "The Club," 366.

King, Charles, member of "The Club," 367.

King, Rufus, resigns mission to England, 342; tone of his correspondence, 345.

Kinloch, Francis, educated at Geneva, 4; letter to, given by Mlle. Pictet to Gallatin, 11.

Kirkpatrick, Major, defends United States marshal in Whiskey Insurrection, 68; his farm burnt by rioters, 73.

Kittera, Thomas, moves hostile amendment to pro-French resolution, 135.

Knox, Henry, resigns from War Department, 97.

Kosciusko, his nephew helped by Gallatin, 372.

Kramer brothers, in business with Gallatin, 60.

Lands, public, in Pennsylvania, 46; suggestions of Gallatin as to improved methods of sale, 122, 123; how acquired, 237; sales under Hamilton and successors, 238; organization of sales by Gallatin, 238, 239, 287.

Land speculation, in Virginia, 20, 21, 24, 361; in Ohio, 362.

Lafayette, Marquis de, his motives for aiding colonies, 9; his imprisonment, 102; saved by gunboats in 1781, 288, 289, 371; urged by Gallatin to help mediate between England and United States, 313; urges emperor of Russia to exert personal influence with England, 315; sends letter to Gallatin, 315; letter of Gallatin to, on French government, 328; visits Pennsylvania, 364; entertained by Lafayette at Friendship Hill, 365; his part in Revolution of 1830, 370, 371, 372; interested in marriage of Gallatin's daughter, 371; letter to Gallatin, 371, 372.

La Perouse, meets Gallatin at Machias, 16; later meets him in Boston, 16.

Laurens, John, educated at Geneva, 4.

La Vengeance, captured by Constellation, 160.

Lawrence, William B., gives anecdote of Washington and Gallatin, 22; accompanies Gallatin to England, 344; his ability as secretary, 346; presides at anniversary meeting of New York Historical Society, 384.

Lee, Henry, commands militia against Whiskey Rebellion, 88; requires oath of allegiance, 89; orders seizure of leaders, 90.

Lee, Thomas, founder of Ohio company, 20.

Legislature of Pennsylvania, calls Constitutional Convention, 40; Gallatin's career in, 45-47, 55, 60; rejects bill to improve education, 45; discharges paper money and other debt, 46; elects Gallatin senator, 47, 58; adopts resolutions condemning excise, 48, 49; protests against authorizing vessels to arm, 149; divides electoral vote between Adams and Jefferson, 163; Gallatin's financial report to, 183, 184; offers to take two millions of United States bonds, 214; interferes to regulate Bank of North America, 250; charters Bank of United States, 271.

Leopard, captures Chesapeake, 224.

Lesdernier, M. de, flies from Nova Scotia to Machias, 14; welcomes Gallatin, 14; on good terms with Indians, 16; attempt of Gallatin to obtain a pension for, 30; letter of Gallatin to, 154; introduces Gallatin to Indians, 373.

Lesdernier, Madame de, persuades Gallatin to visit Machias, 14.

Lieven, Count, Russian minister at London, 308; his friendship with Gallatin, 348.

Lincoln, Levi, views on unconstitutionality of acquiring territory, 285.

Livermore, E. S., on committee to consider Gallatin's eligibility to Senate, 61.

Liverpool, Lord, advised by Castlereagh to moderate his demands, 319; does so for fear of healing American dissensions, 319; accepts settlement of Indian question, 321; resolves to prosecute war vigorously, 321; abandons claim to territory and admits defeats, 322; letter of Castlereagh to, 326; death, 347.

Livingston, Edward, prominent Republican in Congress, 100; his precocity, 100; calls for instructions for Jay, 109, 110; votes against complimentary address to Washington, 129; attacks Adams's foreign policy, 135, 136; presents petitions against Alien and Sedition Laws, 157.

Livingston, Robert R., arranges terms of Louisiana purchase, 193.

Lorillard, Jacob, at free trade convention, 1831, 241.

Loring, Captain, takes Gallatin to America, 11.

Louis XVI., executed, 56.

Louis XVIII., Jefferson's opinion of, 331; gives audience to Gallatin, 332; his intimacy with Gallatin and his sarcasm, 332.

Louisiana, financial effect of its purchase, 192, 193, 195, 196, 222; effect of its acquisition on England, 224; constitutional question involved, 285, 286; occupation of, arranged by Gallatin, 286, 287.

Lynn, Mary, keeps boarding-house in Philadelphia, 19.

Lyon, Matthew, his collision with Griswold, 141; defended by Gallatin, 141.

Machias, expedition of Gallatin to, 14, 15; life at, 15, 16, 17.

Macon, Nathanael, votes against complimentary address to Washington, 129; aids Gallatin in sixth Congress, 159; moves repeal of Sedition Law, 159; opposes non-intercourse with France, 159, 160; letter of Jefferson to, 182; letter to Nicholson, 293; tries to pass Navigation Act against English and French decrees, 296; on decay of democratic principles in 1824, 356, 358.

Madison, James, secures adoption of ten amendments, 40; abandons Federalists through Jefferson's influence, 99; leads Republicans in House, 100; weakness in debate, 100; drafts address to Washington, 105; on Committee on Finance, 106; advocates bill to establish trading posts with Indians, 108; moves to amend call for Jay papers, 111; interprets treaty power in Constitution in Jay treaty debate, 113, 115; attacks Jay treaty, 118; influence complained of by Wolcott, 127; not reelected to Congress, 133; his inexplicable submission to Smith, 164; in triumvirate with Jefferson and Gallatin, 168; his weakness as financier, 179; summons Congress, 205; anxious to evade responsibility for peace or war, 205; communications on finance from Gallatin, 212, 259; his indecision as to financial situation, 230; does not accept Gallatin's resignation, 231; realizes indispensableness of Gallatin to him, 231; agrees with Gallatin as to minute appropriations, 245; vetoes bill to incorporate national bank, 265; signs a second bill, 265; his inconsistency, 266; urged by Gallatin to restore specie payment, 267; opposes Gallatin's civil service circular, 281; not superior on constitutional points to Gallatin, 284; refuses to support Astor's plans, 288; consults with Gallatin on inaugural address, 294; forced by senators to abandon plan to make Gallatin secretary of state, 294, 295; unable to control party, 295; favors England as against France, 295; fails to support Gallatin, his inexcusable weakness, 296; compelled to choose between Smith and Gallatin, 297; efforts of Duane to poison his mind against Gallatin, 297; not qualified to be a war president, 298, 299; sends Gallatin on Russian mission with leave of absence, 299; appoints Duane adjutant-general, 299; continues on good terms with Gallatin, 300; accepts English offer of direct negotiation, 312; appoints a new commission, 312; intends Gallatin for head of commission, 312; names Gallatin minister to France, 326; thanked by Gallatin, 327; leaves him at liberty to decide, 329; offers Gallatin secretaryship of treasury, 330; favors Crawford for presidency, 356.

Malesherbes, C. G. de L. de, his courage compared to that of Gallatin, 84.

"Manifest Destiny," Gallatin's opinion of, 352, 353.

Marie Antoinette, executed, 56.

Marshall, James, represents Fayette County in anti-excise proceedings, 51, 52, 69; joins Bradford in calling out militia, 70; his resolutions at Parkinson's Ferry meeting disapproved by Gallatin, 78, 79; withdraws them, 80; on committee to confer with United States commissioners, 81.

Marshall, John, offers Gallatin a place in his office, 29; on French mission, 139, 152; elected to Congress, 158; announces death of Washington, 158; draws reply to Adams's address, 158.

Mason, S. T., makes Jay treaty public, 103.

Mathews, Rev. Mr., member of "The Club," 367.

Mayer, member of Ethnological Society, 379.

McClanachan, Blair, chairman of anti-Federalist Conference, 38; his ultra-democratic remarks to Adams, 138.

McDuffie, George, estimates profits of bankers on state bank circulation, 263.

McKean, Thomas, in Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, 43; suggests sending a commission to confer with Whiskey insurgents, 77; asked to prevent civil war in 1800, 166.

McLane, Louis, reports extinction of national debt, 269.

McVickar, ——, member of "The Club," 366.

Mexico, war with, Gallatin's opinion of, 352.

Middleton, Henry, at free trade convention of 1831, 241.

Mifflin, Thomas, in Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, 43; deprecates use of force against Whiskey Rebellion, 77; summons legislature and obtains authority to employ militia, 88; succeeds by personal influence in filling ranks, 88.

Mirabeau, Vicomte de, friend of Dumont, 5.

Mississippi navigation, discussed in treaty of Ghent, 322, 323; in 1818, 335.

Mitchell, S. L., on committee to consider Gallatin's eligibility to Senate, 61.

Monroe, James, presents flag to French Convention, 132; arranges terms of Louisiana purchase, 193; supplants Smith as secretary of state, 296, 298; on necessity of renunciation of impressment in treaty of peace, 305; asked by Gallatin for further instructions, 308; receives proposals from England for direct negotiation, 311; asked by commissioners for authority to treat in any place, 314; warned by Gallatin of English war plans, 316, 317, 318; communications of Gallatin to, during negotiations, 319; urges Gallatin not to withdraw from public service, 329; appoints Adams secretary of state, 334; gives Gallatin leave of absence, 341; urges him to return to France, 341.

Montgomery, John, connected by marriage with Gallatin, 59, 60.

Montmorenci, Vicomte, negotiates with Gallatin, 340; succeeded by Chateaubriand, 340.

Moore, ——, member of "The Club," 366.

Moreau, General Jean Victor, career in America and France, 308; assures Gallatin of emperor's friendliness and warns him of British obstinacy, 308; reply of Gallatin, 309; his death, 310, 311.

Morgan, Daniel, leads militia against Whiskey Rebellion, 88, 93.

Morris, Gouverneur, snubbed by Washington for familiarity, 23; his precocity compared to Gallatin's, 32; suggests decimal system, 172.

Morris, Robert, receives drafts for Gallatin, 28; in United States Senate announces intention of neutrality on question of Gallatin's eligibility, 61; but votes against it, 63 n.; his rank as financier, 170-173; plans Bank of North America, 248, 249; buys land of Gallatin, 361; settles with Gallatin, 362; fails and is imprisoned, 362.

Morse, ——, member of "The Club," 367.

Morton, Dr., member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Muhlenberg, Frederick A., defeated for speaker by Dayton, 98; gives casting vote in favor of Jay treaty appropriations, 121.

Mueller, Johann von, teaches Gallatin history, 3.

Murray, William Vans, prominent Federalist in House, 99; on finance committee, 106; denies discretionary power of House over Jay treaty, 110.

Navy, opposed by Gallatin, 123, 124, 130, 137, 157, 186, 188; his course defended, 216; gunboat scheme, 288, 289.

Nesselrode, Count, leaves Russian foreign affairs in charge of Romanzoff, 304; inability of Crawford to secure audience with, 315.

New England, supports Adams in 1800, 163; refuses to support popular loan, 212, 213; plans disunion, 213; hoards specie, 260, 261; opposes embargo, 293; its secession hoped for by England, 313.

New York, calls for a second Federal Convention, 36, 37; Republican in 1800, 163.

New York city, first visit of Gallatin to, 18; abandoned by Congress for Philadelphia, 47; protests against Jay treaty, 103; settlement of Gallatin in, 365, 366; social life in, 366-368; attempt of Gallatin to establish a university in, 368, 369.

New York Historical Society, presidency of Gallatin, 382; his inaugural address to, 382-384; celebration of its fortieth anniversary, 384; honors Gallatin's memory, 388.

Nicholas, John, Republican leader in House, 100; on treaty power, 111; supports Gallatin in advocating specific appropriations, 130; moves amendment to Adams's message, 134; in debate on French relations, 135; desires to limit executive through power over appropriations, 143; aids Gallatin in sixth Congress, 159; opposes non-intercourse with France, 159; resists supposed encroachment of Senate on House, 161; confers with Jefferson and Gallatin on election of 1800, 164.

Nicholson family, connected by marriage with Gallatin, 59.

Nicholson, Hannah, marries Gallatin, 59; described by him, 59; her relations to her husband, 59; letters of Gallatin to, 138, 180; unhappy in Fayette County, 180; her property, 363; unfit for frontier life, 363; her success in Washington society, 363, 364; her death, 386, 387.

Nicholson, Commodore James, father-in-law of Gallatin, his family, 59; visited by Gallatin after marriage, 60; on Gallatin's political moderation, 138; commands gunboats in Lafayette's campaign of 1781, 371.

Nicholson, James Witter, in business with Gallatin, 60.

Nicholson, Joseph H., letter of Gallatin to, on war revenue, 224; furnished by Gallatin with questions to ask himself, 246; letter of Macon to, 293.

Non-importation, difficulty of enforcement in 1774, 293; enforced by Gallatin in 1808, 293.

Norris, Isaac W., at free trade convention, 241.

Odier, ——, takes shares in Gallatin's land scheme, 361.

Ohio Company, its formation and lands, 20.

Oregon question, discussion over, in 1818, 335; discussed in 1826, 343; determination of Adams not to give way in, 346; joint occupation of, continued, 347; views of Gallatin on, 351.

Otis, Harrison Gray, elected to Congress, 132; denounces Gallatin for attacking Federalist administration, 136; on resolution to punish foreign correspondence, 156; reports investigation of Wolcott's management of Treasury, 177.

Panama Congress, its importance, 342; mission to, declined by Gallatin, 342.

Paper money, its issue suggested by Jefferson, 264; Gallatin's opinion of, 268, 277.

Parish, David, assists Gallatin to float loan, 213, 214; his reasons, 259, 260.

Parker, Josiah, amends resolution to punish foreign correspondence, 156; offers resolution to amend non-intercourse, 160.

Pasquier, M., negotiates with Gallatin, 337; pacified by Gallatin after seizure of Apollon, 338.

Patton, John, on Committee on Finance, 107.

Peabody, George, at free trade convention of 1831, 241.

Pendleton Society of Virginia, adopts secession resolutions, 116.

Penn, John, letter to, given Gallatin by Lady Penn, 11.

Penn, Lady Juliana, gives Gallatin letter to John Penn, 11.

Penns, proprietors of Pennsylvania, educated at Geneva, 4.

Pennsylvania, ratifies federal Constitution, 35; movement in, to call a second convention, 37-40; education in, efforts of Gallatin to improve, 45; opposition to excise in, 48-55; Whiskey Rebellion in, 67-96; popularity of Gallatin in, 65; its law regarding slavery, 140; petitions against Alien and Sedition Acts, 157.

Pensacola, its seizure by Jackson, 336.

Philadelphia, visit of Gallatin to, 19, 21; removal of Congress to, 47; society in, 47, 48; angry feeling in, against Whiskey Insurrection, 92; protests against Jay treaty, 103; petitions legislature to repeal charter of Bank of North America, 250; nominates Gallatin for Congress, 329.

Pickering, Timothy, in Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, 43; secretary of war and postmaster-general under Washington, 97.

Pickering, —— member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Pictet, Mademoiselle, adopts Gallatin, her kindness, 2; her nephew taught by Gallatin, 5; regard of Gallatin for, 9; pained at Gallatin's departure, 11; gives him letter to Kinloch, 11; sends him money and secures interest of Dr. Cooper, 17; his ingratitude toward, regretted by Gallatin, 20; supposes his failure to write due to misfortune, 27; accuses Gallatin of indolence and ennui, 43, 44.

Pictet, ——, naturalist, relative of Gallatin, 5.

Pinckney, Charles C., refused reception as minister by France, 132; on second mission, 139; returns, 152; attends Congress as general, 155.

Pinckney, Thomas, makes treaty with Spain, 117.

Pitt, William, his precocity compared to Gallatin's, 32.

Poles, in New York, befriended by Gallatin, 372.

Powell, William H., his portrait of Gallatin, 386.

Preston, William C., at free trade convention in 1831, 241.

Quakers, in Pennsylvania, oppose general education, 45; petition against seizure of fugitive slaves, 140.

Randolph, Edmund, deprecates force against Whiskey Rebellion, on ground that only Washington's influence prevents civil war, 77; retires from cabinet, 97; damages reputation by dealings with Fauchet, 103; remark of Jay to, during negotiations with England, 118.

Randolph, John, elected to Congress, 158; opposes non-intercourse with France, 159; opposes giving a gold medal to Truxton, 160; advocates abolition of internal duties, 221; complains of want of system in Jefferson's cabinet, 284; on Madison's weakness, 295; unfitted to lead a party, 355.

Renwick, James, letter of Mrs. Irving to, on Mrs. Gallatin, 364; member of "The Club," 366.

Republican party, its origin, 57; its leaders in House of Representatives in 1795, 99, 100; its attitude toward France and Revolution, 101, 102; imitates Jacobins, 102; opposes resolution complimenting Washington's administration, 104-106; attacks administration of Treasury, 106; asserts right of House to share in treaty power, 110-114; leadership of Gallatin in, 115, 128, 133, 159; attacks Jay treaty, 118-121; objects to adjournment on Washington's birthday, 126; attacks Washington, 128; reluctant to affront France, 133-136; opposes increase of foreign missions, 141-147; attacks Alien and Sedition Laws, 159; profits by popular dislike of England and of Alien and Sedition Laws, 163; gives equal vote to Jefferson and Burr, 163; its policy to resist any Federalist usurpation by force, 166; success due to Gallatin's leadership, 167, 168; its share in building country, 169; opposes internal revenue, 221; its principles violated by Jefferson in suggesting internal improvements, 227; refuses to renew charter of bank, 231, 254; violates principles in chartering second bank, 265; introduces new principles of administration into government, 279; demands share of offices, 281, 282; refuses to confirm Gallatin for secretary of state, 294; factions in, under Madison, 295; incompetent to manage war, 298; lacks leaders after Gallatin, 355; its condition in 1824, 356; its caucus nominates Crawford and Gallatin, 357, 358; new developments of, under Jackson, 358, 359, 360.

Revenue, 218-238. See Finances.

Richelieu, Duc de, seeks explanation from Gallatin of American sympathy for Bonaparte, 331; declares impossibility of making full compensation for captures under Berlin and Milan decrees, 332; angered at American refusal to dismiss an impudent postmaster, 333; on Jackson's seizure of Pensacola, 336; urges peace with Spain, 336.

Richmond, society in, 23, 24.

Robinson, Dr., associate of Gallatin in founding American Ethnological Society, 379.

Rochefoucauld, D'Enville, Duc de, obtains letters for Gallatin from Franklin, 11.

Rollaz, Sophie Albertine, mother of Gallatin, 2; assumes husband's share in business, 2; death, 2.

Romanzoff, Count, originates plan of Russian mediation, 304; dealings of Gallatin with, 307; renews offer of mediation, 308; gives Dallas letter to Count Lieven, 310; thanked by Gallatin, 312.

Ross, James, appeals to Whiskey insurgents not to use violence, 70; on commission to confer with insurgents, 85.

Rousseau, J. J., Gallatin's opinion of, 6.

Ruggles, Benjamin, letter of Gallatin to, accepting nomination for vice-president, 358.

Rush, Richard, introduced to public life by Gallatin, 334; named minister to England, 334; joined with Gallatin to negotiate concerning convention of 1815, 334, 335; secretary of Treasury, 342; tone of his correspondence, 345.

Russell, Jonathan, on peace commission, 312; arrives at Gottenburg, 313.

Russia, offers to mediate between England and United States, 299; mission of Gallatin and Bayard to, 299, 301-312; refusal of England to accept its mediation, 306, 307; dealings of Gallatin with Romanzoff, 307, 308; renews its offer, 308, 315; displeased with recognition of Spanish colonies, 337.

Rutherford, John, on committee to consider Gallatin's eligibility to Senate, 61.

Rutledge, John, Jr., elected to Congress, 133.

Savary de Valcoulon, has claims against Virginia, 19; meets Gallatin at Philadelphia and uses him as interpreter, 19; goes with Gallatin to Richmond, 19; interests him in land speculation, 21; joins Gallatin in locating claims, 24.

Schoolcraft, Henry R., member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Scott, General Winfield, requested by Gallatin to aid in collecting ethnological data in Mexico, 380.

Scott, Thomas, appeals to Whiskey insurgents, 70.

Sedgwick, Theodore, leader of Federalists in House, 98; on committee to draft address to Washington, 105; on Committee on Finance, 106; offers resolution to execute four treaties, 118; taunts Gallatin with instigating Whiskey Rebellion, 124; elected speaker, 158; at free trade convention of 1831, 241.

Sedition Law, condemned by Gallatin, 152; petitions against, 157.

Senate of United States, election of Gallatin to, 58; appoints committees to consider his eligibility, 61, 62; votes to exclude him, 62, 63; prejudiced against him by his actions, 64, 65; ratifies Jay treaty, 102, 103; yields to House regarding specific appropriations, 130; controlled by Federalists, 139; passes bill authorizing convoys, 149; passes bill abrogating treaty with France, 154; amends House Bill to suspend intercourse with France, 160; debate over its bill to require annual treasury reports, 161; ratifies commercial convention with France, 162; still controlled by Federalists, 178; its hostility to Gallatin, 181; refuses to confirm his appointment as peace commissioner, 310.

Seney, Joshua, connected by marriage with Gallatin, 59.

Serre, Henri, friendship with Gallatin, 5; sails with him for America, 9; doings in Boston with Gallatin, 12-14; at Machias, 14; enjoys life in wilderness, 15, 17; returns to Boston, 17; teaches there, 19; joins Gallatin and dissolves partnership, 19; goes to Jamaica and dies, 19; his debt subsequently paid, 19; his letters to Badollet, 25.

Sewall, Samuel, elected to Congress, 132.

Shays's Rebellion, an argument for Federalist party, 101.

Sheffield, Lord, says Jay duped Grenville, 117.

Sherman, John, on accounting in Treasury Department, 247.

Sismondi, J. C. L. Simonde de, on paper money, 277; praises Gallatin, 325; letter of Gallatin to, 380.

Sitgreaves, Samuel, Federalist in Congress, 99; on committee to draft address to Washington, 105.

Slavery, resolutions concerning, in Pennsylvania legislature, 47; petitions concerning, in Congress, 140; negotiations concerning slave trade in treaty of Ghent, 323; at Congress of Aix la Chapelle, 337.

Smilie, John, represents Fayette County in Pennsylvania ratification convention, 35; leads opposition to Constitution, 36; in anti-Federalist convention, 37; his career and friendship with Gallatin, 37, 38; in Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, 43; member of state Senate, 44, 54; at anti-excise convention, 52; advises submission to law, 69.

Smith, Isaac, on Committee on Finance, 107.

Smith, John Augustine, invites Gallatin to join "The Club," 366.

Smith, Robert, head of faction of "invisibles," 295; leaves cabinet, 296, 297.

Smith, Samuel, leads Maryland troops against Whiskey Insurrection, 88; moves to continue non-intercourse, 162; probably makes bargain to secure election of Jefferson, 164; his inexplicable power over Jefferson and Madison, 164.

Smith, William, educated at Geneva, 4; Federalist in Congress, 99; on Committee on Finance, 106; controversy with Gallatin over increase of public debt, 126.

Smithson, John, his bequest to United States, 378.

Smithsonian Institution, connection of Gallatin with, 378, 379.

Southern States, Republican in 1800, 163; refuse to support loan of 1813, 213.

Spain, Pinckney's treaty with, 117; danger of war with, 335; peace with, urged by France, 336; negotiations over its revolted colonies, 336, 337; rupture with France in 1823, 341.

Spurzheim, on Gallatin's brain, 389.

Squier, E. G., member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Stael, Madame de, interview of Lafayette with emperor at her house, 315; letter of Gallatin to, 320; expresses admiration for Gallatin, 325.

Stephens, ——, member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Stevens, Byam Kerby, marries Frances Gallatin, 371; interest of Lafayette in, 371; meets Lafayette, 372.

Stevens, Colonel Ebenezer, Lafayette's chief of staff, 371.

Stevens, John A., at free trade convention of 1831, 241; member of "The Club," 367.

Stokely, ——, appeals to Whiskey insurgents, 70.

Stuart, Gilbert, his portrait of Gallatin, 386.

Swanwick, John, on Jay treaty debate, 111.

Szelesegynski, ——, Polish refugee, helped by Gallatin, 372.

Tahon, ——, keeps French cafe in Boston, 12.

Talleyrand, Prince, demands bribe in X Y Z affair, 149; makes overtures for reconciliation, 152, 153.

Taney, Roger B., removes deposits from bank, 269, 270; appointed chief justice, 270; his reasons for the removal, 270.

Texas, annexation of, protested against by Gallatin, 351.

Throop, Governor, recommends University for training teachers, 369.

Tracy, Destutt, his "Economie Politique" translated by Jefferson, 331.

Tracy, Uriah, leader of Federalists in House, 98; taunts Gallatin with connection with Whiskey Rebellion, 119; obliged to apologize, 120.

Treasury Department, Hamilton's management of, attacked by Gallatin, 64; resigned by Hamilton, taken by Wolcott, 97; management of, supervised by Committee of Finance, 106-108, 130; condition of, deplored by Gallatin, 125; charged with arbitrary action, 130, 154; annual reports from, required by Congress, 161; Morris's connection with, 171-173; organization under Hamilton, 174, 243; management by Wolcott, 176-178; appointment of Gallatin to, 179, 181; exalted idea of, held by Gallatin, 189; difficulty of learning management of, 189, 190; relieved of responsibility for other departments' expenditure, 223; administration of, by Gallatin, 244-246; reports from, 245; efforts of Gallatin to secure precision in, 245, 246; subsequent management of, 247; damaged by failure to re-charter bank, 259; in panic of 1815, 263; declined by Gallatin in 1816, 266, 330; in panic of 1837, 272-276; sub-treasury system invented, 273; aids resumption, 276; declined by Gallatin in 1843, 278; absence of partisanship in Gallatin's appointments to, 281, 282, 286, 287.

Treaty of Ghent, 316-325. See Diplomatic History.

Tripoli, war with, 222; tribute to, preferred by Gallatin to war with, 284.

Trist, N. P., negotiates treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 352.

Truxton, Captain, voted a medal by Congress, 160.

Turner, Professor, member of Ethnological Society, 379.

Tyler, John, as president, offers Treasury portfolio to Gallatin, 278.

University, National, proposed by Jefferson, 291; attempt to start one in New York, 368, 369; success prevented by clerical influence, 370.

Van Buren, Martin, told by Gallatin of willingness to accept French mission, 349; manages caucus of Republican Congresssmen, 357; letter of Gallatin to, withdrawing from nomination, 358.

Van der Kemp, ——, Dutch commissioner to make commercial treaty, 334.

Verplanck, Gulian C., member of "The Club," 367.

Virginia, claims of Savary against, 19; Gallatin's opinion of society in, 24; movement in, to secure amendment of Constitution, 36; disunion threats in, 116; ready to attack Federalists by force in 1801, 166.

Voltaire, friendship with Gallatin family, 7; writes verses for Madame Gallatin, 7; influence over Albert Gallatin, 7, 8.

Wainwright, Rev. Dr., member of "The Club," 367.

War of 1812, estimates of Gallatin as to cost of operations in, 289, 290; preparation for, advocated by Gallatin, 292; events leading to, 295; questions at issue in, 305; English hopes in, 313, 316; sack of Washington, 320.

Ward, Samuel, member of "The Club," 367.

Washington, Augustine, founder of Ohio Company, 20.

Washington, George, his military inactivity in 1780, 12; meets Gallatin in 1784, 22; snubs him for forwardness, 23; later wishes him to be his land agent, 23; his election as president disconcerts anti-Federalists, 40; unwilling to go to extremes against Whiskey Rebellion, 54; issues proclamation, 54; Randolph's opinion of his influence, 77; combines conciliation with force, 77; issues proclamation, calls out militia, and appoints commission to confer, 77, 78; accompanies army as far as Bedford, 88; refuses to stop march of troops, 89; dissuades troops from violence, 92; pardons convicted offenders, 96; reconstructs his cabinet, 97, 98; his influence, 102; convenes Senate to ratify Jay treaty, 102; attacked by Bache, 104; addresses Congress, 104; his administration criticised in debate over reply in House, 104-106; refuses call of House for Jay treaty papers, 114; refusal of House to adjourn on his birthday, 126; obtains surrender of Western posts, 128; issues Farewell Address, 128; attacked by Giles, 128; proposal of Gallatin concerning reply to his message, 129; sends tricolor to Congress, 130, 132; attends Congress as lieutenant-general, 155; his death announced by Marshall, 158; invites Wolcott to succeed Hamilton, 176; Gallatin's opinion of his character, 383, 384; and of his strong passions, 383 n.

Washington, Lawrence, founder of Ohio Company, 20.

Washington city, removal of Congress to, 161, 162; sack of, by English, 320.

Washington County, Pennsylvania, in Whiskey Insurrection, 49, 50, 51, 70, 71, 78, 94, 96; elects Gallatin to Congress, 93, 127.

Wayne, Anthony, makes treaty with Indians, 117.

Webster, Daniel, his speech on northeastern boundary published by Gallatin, 349; his manner of negotiating with Ashburton, 350.

Webster, Pelatiah, describes Gallatin at Philadelphia in 1783, 19.

Wellington, Lord, asked by cabinet to conquer a peace, 322; advises cabinet not to insist on cession of territory, 322; expresses friendly feelings, 335.

Wells, John, member of "The Club," 367.

Westmoreland County, in Whiskey Insurrection, 49, 51, 74, 78, 96.

Wheaton, Henry, requests Gallatin to furnish Humboldt with data on gold in United States, 381.

Whiskey Insurrection, opposition to excise in Pennsylvania, 48, 49; reasons for opposition, 49, 50; first meetings against excise in Washington County, 50, 51; combined meeting of four counties at Pittsburgh, 51; violence against inspectors, 51; modification of law, 52; second convention at Pittsburgh, 52; resolutions against collectors, 52, 53; petition to Congress, 53; proclamation issued by Washington and cabinet, 54; arrests and riots, 55; attempts to serve writs, 67, 68; rioting, burning of Marshall's house, 68, 69; flight of officers, 68; meetings of distillers, 69; efforts of Gallatin and others to prevent violence, 69, 70; stoppage of mails, 69; call for meeting of militia, 70; leaders of, 70, 71; meeting of militia at Parkinson's Ferry, 72, 73; estimates of numbers, 72; violence of feeling, 73, 74; renewed outrages, 74; use of liberty poles, 74; attitude of Gallatin toward, 75, 76; plans of Washington and Hamilton to suppress, 77; proclamation against carrying arms, 77; commissioners appointed, 77; convention of distillers at Parkinson's Ferry, 78, 79; proposals to raise troops, 79; efforts of moderates, 80, 81; committee of sixty appointed, 80; arrival of commissioners, their offer, 81; conference of committee at Red Stone Old Fort, 81, 82; vote to accept terms, 83; influence of Gallatin, 84; meetings for submission in counties, 85; apparent failure of terms of amnesty, 86; threats of secession, 86; Hamilton writes "Tully" letter, 87; report of commissioners, 87; proclamation calls out troops, 87; march of militia, 88; committee of sixty passes conciliatory resolutions, 88, 89; refusal of Washington to turn back, 89; final meeting at Parkinson's Ferry votes entire submission, 89; occupation of western counties by troops, 89, 90; arrest of rebels, 90, 91; journey of prisoners to Philadelphia, 91, 92; end of disturbances, 93; return of army, 93; confession of Gallatin, 94; trial of prisoners, 96; its effect on Federalist party, 101; Gallatin taunted with participation in, 119, 124.

Wirt, William, letter of Jefferson to, 298.

Wolcott, Oliver, succeeds Hamilton in Treasury Department, 97; his situation deplored by Gallatin, 125; complains to Hamilton of Republican opposition, 126; complains of Gallatin's purpose to break down department, 154; his career as Hamilton's successor, 176-178; his statement of a surplus denied by Gallatin, 190, 191.

Woodbury, Levi, reports extinction of debt, 270, 271; then deplores its absence, 271; alarmed at increase of circulation in 1836, 272; begins sub-treasury system, 273; promises to support resumption of payment by banks, 275.

X Y Z dispatches, 149.

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