Aether and Gravitation
by William George Hooper
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If, as spectrum analysis seems to teach us, there are nebulae in various stages of formation, there must be a period in their history of development when they had an origin. What, then, is the origin of a nebula, and what the physical explanation of that origin? From optical phenomena we learn that all space is not empty, but filled with the Aether which is universal (Art. 42). What is the relation, then, of this glowing nebulous matter to this universal Aether? If it be suggested that there is no relation, then we are in the unphilosophical position of having to admit, either that the nebulous matter of which the nebulae are composed never had any origin, or that it had its origin in some unknown and still undiscovered medium which exists in space. But both of these hypotheses are unphilosophical, as the former is contrary to all experience, while the latter is opposed to that simplicity of conception by which we only postulate one medium, the Aether, to fill all space.

Thus we are led to the conclusion, that the gaseous matter, be it hydrogen or nitrogen, must have some relation to the electro-magnetic Aether that is so universal in its extent. Already this relationship has been dealt with by one who has done more for the development of aetherial physics than any other scientist. Lord Kelvin, in his paper "On the Clustering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe,"[43] has solved this relationship, though in so doing he has had to depart somewhat from the idea of an incompressible Aether. In that paper he writes as follows: "If we consider Aether to be matter, we postulate that it has rigidity enough for the vibrations of light, but we have no right to say that it is absolutely incompressible. We must admit that sufficiently great pressure could condense the Aether in a given space, allowing the Aether in the surrounding space to come in towards the ideal shrinking surface." In another part of the paper, dealing with the same question, he writes: "In regions where the density was greater than in neighbouring regions, the density would become greater still; in places of less density, the density would become less, and large regions would quickly become void or nearly void of atoms. These large void regions would extend so as to completely surround regions of greater density." He then points out, that as soon as this density becomes something like the density of the atmosphere, then collisions would take place between the particles, and continues: "Each collision would give rise to a train of waves in the Aether. These waves would carry away energy, spreading it out through the void Aether of infinite space. The loss of energy thus taken away from the atoms would reduce large condensing clusters to the conditions of a gas in equilibrium under the influence of its own gravity, rotating like our sun or moving at moderate speed as in spiral nebulae. Gravitational condensation would at first produce rise of temperature, followed later by cooling, ultimately freezing, giving solid bodies, collision between which would produce meteoric stones such as we see them."

Here then we have a definitive relationship between Aether and nebulae given to us from one of the keenest intellects of the present time, but in order for that relationship to become strictly philosophical, the conception of the Aether as advanced in this work must be accepted. For with the present conception of a frictionless Aether, such a hypothesis is altogether untenable, because it supposes something that is contrary to all experience and observation.

On the basis of a condensing frictionless Aether into any kind of solid body, be it nebula, meteor, sun or star, we have to suppose that it is possible for a medium (the Aether, which is outside the Law of Gravitation according to the present theory) to be condensed into a body, that is, a nebula or meteor which is subject to the Law of Gravitation; and the question arises, at what point in the history of its condensation does this frictionless Aether pass out of the condition of having no weight, to the condition when it has weight; or, in other words, from the condition when it is outside the Law of Gravitation, to the condition when it comes under the Law of Gravitation?

No satisfactory solution can possibly be offered to such a problem. Therefore one of two results must follow, either that the Aether is not frictionless, but possesses weight; or, that the condensation of the Aether is not possible. With the theory of Aether presented in this work, the whole question receives a simple and philosophical solution. As Aether is matter, it is therefore atomic; and being atomic, it is subject to the Law of Gravitation; and therefore, possessing mass and weight, it can readily pass into other forms of matter, and with such a conception Lord Kelvin's hypothesis becomes not only possible but probable. So that it is exceedingly probable that nebulae are nothing more nor less than condensed Aether, the same as comets were suggested to be condensed Aether. It may be asserted that such a hypothesis lacks that experimental evidence which is so necessary for its establishment, but I hope to show in the last chapter that Faraday has given the world that very experimental evidence which will place this hypothesis upon a firm and solid foundation, and enable it to pass out of the region of the hypothetical into the region of fact and experiment.

According to our hypothesis, therefore, nebulae are simply condensations of the electro-magnetic Aether that exists in interstellar space, and the various spectra of the different nebulae indicate the stage of development to which the process has arrived. Where the spectra are bright, and continuous, and free from any dark lines, there we have simply the Aether in its very first stage of condensation; and where we have the dark lines appearing, such lines indicate a more advanced stage to which the process has arrived.

[Footnote 43: Philosophical Magazine, July 1902.]

ART. 121. Nebular Hypothesis.—The Nebular Hypothesis was first introduced by Kant in his work on the History of the Earth and Theory of the Heavens.

In that work he attempted to explain the origin of the universe on purely mechanical lines. Laplace, a French mathematician, about the same time came to similar conclusions as Kant had done, and published his views in his work on Exposition du Systeme du Monde, and later on in his more famous work the Mecanique Celeste.

A feature common to both these theories rested in the fact, that they supposed that all material bodies which exist in the universe once existed in a nebulous condition, and that they were formed out of this nebulous matter. Further, that this nebulous matter gradually condensed, and as it condensed, a rotational motion was imparted to them, which rotation quickened as the condensation was continued.

Then, as the rotation was accelerated, portions were flung off by the centrifugal force, and these portions of nebulous matter gradually condensed, forming the various planets of the system. As these condensed, they, in their turn, parted with some of their nebulous matter through the repulsive energy of the centrifugal force, and these secondary parts gave origin to the various satellites that exist round the planets.

Now, while the general principle involved in the nebular hypothesis is true, yet the conception according to Laplace is not verified by fact, as we learn that Uranus and Neptune are still in a state of self-luminosity, while their density is the smallest of all the planets. From this we should infer that the two outermost planets are the youngest planets of our solar system, but according to Laplace's theory, they ought to be the oldest, as they would have been flung off first by the parent body as it rotated; and therefore, being flung off first, should be in a more advanced stage of development than any of the inner planets. M. Faye has suggested a remedy for this defect in the theory. He supposes that the nebulous matter out of which the planets were formed, was not flung off by the central body the sun, but that each planet was formed at different centres of condensation within the nebular mass that existed in space. This would, undoubtedly, meet the difficulty already referred to, and solves the problem as to how the various planets were formed at different distances in space.

Further, such a solution is in perfect harmony with all the Rules of Philosophy. It is much more simple to conceive of Aether condensing at various points in what originally was the solar nebula, than it is to conceive of Aether condensing and shrinking towards one central point, and yet while condensing and shrinking, portions were flung off into space which would form the planet. A greater objection has to be met, when we come to deal with the origin of all the meteors and minor planets that exist in their numbers in the solar system. In relation to their origin, it is much easier to conceive of portions of the Aether condensing at different centres of condensation, than to suppose that each portion of aetherial matter that originally formed the meteor, or asteroid, was flung off as a separate portion from the central body.

With the conception of an atomic and gravitating Aether, the Nebular Hypothesis, therefore, for the first time is placed upon a sound and philosophical basis, because the condensation of Aether, which is matter and possesses mass, admits of the origin of other matter from it which also possesses mass, together with other properties, as elasticity, density, compressibility and inertia.

When there is added to the atomic Aether the conception of a rotatory aetherial atom, as was indicated in Art. 44, we have at once a source from whence the rotation of the whole mass may be derived. Thus, as the condensation continued, and the nucleus or central part of the body was gradually formed, the rotation would be accelerated, because of the inherent energy which would exist in the condensed part. Further, as the condensation continued, the body so formed would be more or less spherical in form, as the conception of our aetherial atom was spherical, and when we conceive of the primary point of condensation, we have to think of a large number of spherical atoms coming together; and, as all the motions of the Aether which give rise to light, heat, electricity and magnetism, and which now include gravitation, are spherical in their operations, so their effect upon any condensing Aether would take a spherical form. Thus such bodies as nebulae, comets, asteroids, satellites, planets and suns should possess bodies more or less of a spherical form, subject to certain qualifying conditions, as rotation and orbital velocity, and this is in harmony with observation and experience. For we shall find that even in the case of nebulae, we have globular, ring or annular nebulae, and elliptic nebulae, while in the case of comets, the nuclei and coma are more or less spherical. Further, it is a familiar fact that the shape of all asteroids, satellites, planets, and even the sun is spherical or that of an oblate spheroid, which latter is simply due to its rotational velocity on its axis.

Thus the principle involved in the nebular hypothesis receives its confirmation in the atomic and gravitating Aether, and with certain modifications of the different hypotheses advanced, is capable of uniting all those hypotheses that have ever been put forth in this direction into one perfect and harmonious whole.

Again, the condensation of the Aether, composed as it is of its atoms, ever in a state of rotation, does away with the Primitive impulse which was objected to in Art. 9. For in that article it was shown that the conception of a primitive impulse as conceived by Newton was unphilosophical, in that its conception was not simple, and failed to satisfactorily account for observed phenomena. With the hypothesis, however, of a rotatory aetherial atom, we have at once those conditions which at any time, in the history of the universe, may give rise to those conditions by which a body may be set rotating not only on its axis, but also revolving around some central body, as the process of condensation is continued.

So that in the primordial and universal electro-magnetic Aether that exists in all space, we get those conditions which will not only give rise to the phenomena of light, heat, magnetism and electricity, but also those properties, qualities and motions by which are produced, maintained and perpetuated, the various bodies that exist in the Aether, which is at once the physical source and cause of the bodies.

ART. 122. Kinds of Nebulae.—Nebulae may be classified into the following groups—

1. Irregular Nebulae. 2. Ring and Elliptical Nebulae. 3. Spiral or Whirlpool Nebulae. 4. Planetary Nebulae.

Irregular Nebulae.—Of this class the most conspicuous are those in the constellations of Orion and Andromeda. So clearly defined are they, that they are oftentimes seen by the naked eye on a clear night, and are often mistaken for comets.

The great nebula in Orion is one of the most noticeable objects in the heavens. It is noted for its size and brilliancy, and also for the successful observation which it has been subjected to from time to time. This large nebula is situated in that part of Orion which is occupied by several stars known as the Sword Handle. These multiple stars are known by the name of Theta. Around these multiple stars is to be seen the nebula, as though the multiple stars really were enveloped by the nebula extending for a great distance out into space. It is of a faint bluish colour, with the central parts possessing the greatest brilliancy. The suggestion arises in our mind as to whether the nebulae are in any ways indicative of the presence of the electro-magnetic aetherial field that each star undoubtedly possesses. We learned in Art. 88 that the sun is an electro-magnet, and that it possesses its electro-magnetic field. We have also seen in Art. 109 that the zodiacal light, which is to be observed in connection with our solar system, is really indicative of the presence of that electro-magnetic field, as it rotates round the central body. Now, if an observer were situated out in space, where the nebula of Orion is situated, and could look at our system with telescopes equally as powerful as those we possess, would not our sun present an equally nebulous light to them because of the presence of its electro-magnetic field?

Conversely, if every star possesses an electro-magnetic aetherial field, as they undoubtedly do, then it seems only reasonable to infer that that electro-magnetic field possesses a nebulosity which corresponds with our zodiacal light. The fact that the spectra of the nebulae are continuous, revealing no dark lines, seems to indicate the purity of some of the nebulae, and that therefore they are free from all known elements.

So that spectroscopic results seem to confirm this hypothesis, as the pure Aether that would surround every star, or multiples of stars, would certainly not reveal any dark lines by means of the spectroscope. Such a hypothesis, as to the real nature of a nebula, is entirely in harmony with the theory of the Aether presented in Chapter IV., because being gravitative it will surround each star or multiples of stars, and therefore be denser nearest to those stars, and being atomic, there will be a certain amount of nebulosity manifested by the denser parts of the medium, as is the case in our own solar system.

Ring or Elliptical Nebulae.—These forms of nebulae are so named from their ring-shaped appearance, sometimes being known as Annular Nebulae. The elliptical nebulae are usually classed with them, as they are supposed to be similar kinds of nebulae looked at edgeways. The best known of this class is that found in the constellation of Lyra, and known as 57M, which is the number of the star in Messier's catalogue of stars. It is small but well-defined, so that it looks more like a flat oval solid ring than a nebula.

The central part is not entirely dark, but is filled up with a hazy light. Another annular nebula is that situated to the south-west of Lambda Scorpii. Sir J. Herschel[44] writes of it thus: "It is a delicate but well-defined annulus. The field is crowded with stars, two of which are nebulae. A beautiful delicate ring of a faint ghost-like appearance, about 40" in diameter, in a field of about 150 stars, of 11 and 12 magnitude and under."

Of the elliptical nebulae the best known is the one in the constellation of Andromeda, which goes by the name of 31M. It is visible on a clear night, and can be seen by the naked eye as a hazy light. There are several other elliptical nebulae, lying to the north-west of this great nebula.

Planetary Nebulae.—The planetary nebulae represent a number of minute objects visible in the heavens. They look like globes of a bluish-coloured gas and are sometimes mistaken for small stars. Sir J. Herschel writes about them as follows: "Planetary nebulae are very extraordinary objects. They have, as their name implies, a resemblance to planets, presenting discs, round or slightly oval, some being quite sharply defined, terminating in others a little hazy or softened at the border. They are comparatively rare objects, not more than 25 having been observed, and of these nearly three-quarters are in the southern hemisphere. Their disc is circular or slightly elliptic, with sharp, clear, and well-defined outline, having exactly the appearance of a planet with the exception only of its colour, which is full blue, varying somewhat upon green. M. Arago has surmised that they may possibly be envelopes shining by reflected light from a solar body placed in their centre, invisible to us because of its excessive distance."

The suggestion which arises to our mind in view of the atomic and gravitating Aether is, that the planetary nebulae are exactly what their names imply, that is, nebulous matter around planets. We have already learned that each satellite and planet possesses an electro-magnetic field, which field takes more or less the shape of a spherical form, so that if there are planets existing in the far-off systems in space, as we are compelled to believe that there are, then they too would possess an electro-magnetic field, which would be composed of spherical envelopes surrounding the several planets. These planets would shine by reflected light, as suggested by M. Arago.

The possession by the planet of the nebulous matter, which we have already suggested is composed of the denser parts of the Aether around the planet, would give to the planet a nebulous appearance which would satisfactorily account for the term already given. They would indeed be what Sir John Herschel suggested they were, viz, planetary nebulae.

Spiral Nebulae.—The Spiral, or Whirlpool Nebulae, are remarkable objects, and were first discovered by Lord Rosse with his six-foot telescope. One of the best examples of the spiral nebulae is that known as 51M. Small telescopes show this as two clusters, one of them being surrounded by a ring, at a distance, which is divided into two parts. Lord Rosse, however, found it to be really a spiral nebula, the ring running into a series of spiral coils of nebulous matter, the outlying parts being connected with the main part by curved bands.

Huggins has found that the spectrum of this nebula is not gaseous. Other examples of this class are 99M and 33M. What these spiral or whirlpool nebulae are, is unknown, but, on the hypothesis of a condensing and gravitating Aether which is in a state of rotation, the spiral nebulae can be easily pictured. For, as the condensation goes on, rotation will set in, and if we can picture such a phenomenon taking place in a plane which is at right angles to the line of vision, then we should have a full view of a nebula which would present a spiral form. Indeed, there is no phenomenon in connection with nebulae that cannot be physically explained by a condensing, gravitating and rotatory Aether; and as Aether is universal, the same properties will apply to it in distant space as they do in the solar system; and apart from a gravitating and rotatory electro-magnetic Aether, the phenomena of our own solar system cannot be physically conceived or explained.

Therefore, if such an Aether can explain the phenomena associated with our own system, it ought also to explain, and that to the fullest extent, all phenomena incidental to and associated with the innumerable systems that flood the universe at large.

[Footnote 44: Outlines of Astronomy.]



ART. 123. The Universe.—In the preceding chapters we have endeavoured to deal with some of the principal phenomena that help to give a mechanical conception to the entire Universe.

It now remains for us to show, in this last chapter, how, underlying all the physical structure of the Universe, there is one fundamental and primordial medium, in which all the forms of matter and motion find their ultimate unity.

The Universe literally means one ultimate whole, though that whole may be compounded of many parts, the very essence of the term embodying the idea of a complete unity which runs throughout its whole physical structure.

Apart from some such hypothesis as will be suggested in this chapter, that ultimate unity is incapable of a physical or mechanical conception. In Art. 29 we learned that the Universe was composed of two classes of things, matter and motion, while in Art. 30 we learned that the sum total of matter according to the law of the conservation of matter ever remains the same; while further, in Art. 53, according to the law of the conservation of energy, the sum total of energy ever remains the same. We have also learned that the two are indissolubly united, so that wherever we found matter, whether that matter was in its atomic, molecular, planetary or stellar form, there, as its necessary complement and counterpart, was the ever-present and unceasing motion, in one or other of its many forms. Thus, throughout the entire Universe, we find the same two essentials ever working in unison and harmony.

Nowhere in the realm of infinite space is there such a phenomenon as rest or absolute death. The ideal that seems to be the key of the Universe, is that continuity of motion which science teaches us is so inseparably connected with all matter. Grouped, however, here and there throughout the Universe are modifications of this aetherial matter, termed molecules, satellites, planets, suns, or stars, which modifications are, however, not so real and abiding as the electro-magnetic Aether from which they receive their physical origin.

The physical character of the universe is progressive. Even in its ultimate unity there is no such thing as stagnation or standing still; for, while in some parts of the Universe new stars and suns and planets, yea, even new systems are being evolved out of the primordial Aether, in other parts of the Universe old stars and suns, with all their attendant planets and satellites, are passing on towards that final end, when they themselves will be again resolved into the original form of matter from which they were first made. This assertion is in perfect harmony not only with science, but also with revelation. For even revelation teaches us that all the stars shall grow old as doth a garment, and as a vesture shall they be folded up (Heb. i. 11), and that (out of their ruins) a new heaven and a new earth shall be created and the former shall not be remembered (Isaiah lxv. 17).

Thus amid all the modifications of that which is the real physical basis of all matter, we find indissolubly associated with each and all of the varied forms and modifications certain motions which are analogous to each other. In the aetherial atom itself, so infinitesimal in its proportions that even our imagination is almost strained in our attempt to conceive it, yet even here we have rotation and translation in an orbit, such rotation and translation being due to the motions of the electro-magnetic Aether. Then in the gaseous forms of matter into which these atoms may be condensed, we find the same two essentials, of matter and motion, of rotation and translation in an orbit, always working harmoniously together, through the motions of the selfsame Aether, which gives rise to the attraction and repulsions of the atoms.

Then following the principle into the planetary world, and taking the planet Saturn with its ring of satellites as an example, we find again the same two factors ever working in unison and in harmony, with their incessant rotation and translation in an orbit, forming a complete and perfect unity in themselves, such unity being due to the pressures and tensions of the Aether combined with its rotatory character. Then going a step further, we find a number of planets, with or without satellites, all rotating around one central body, that rotation and translation again being due to the motions of the rotating electro-magnetic Aether, combined with its pressures and tensions.

For millions of years, so far as we can tell, this solar system of ours has been moving through space as one complete unit.

Then out in stellar space there are millions of such systems, each distinct and perfect in themselves, each of which is made up of exactly similar parts to our solar system, these innumerable systems being doubtless joined together by the same electro-magnetic Aether, forming one larger and grander unity, known as a constellation. Then these constellations, increasing in their number, are again joined together, and form a still larger unity called a Galaxy; and galaxy being joined to galaxy, constellations to constellations, we get such an ocean of suns and stars like that known as the Milky Way, the ultimate whole revealing in all its beauty and harmony the unison of the two essentials of matter and motion. It may even be that all the oceans of suns and stars, that exist in far-off space, are joined together by one common bond, the universal electro-magnetic Aether by its two complementary motions, the centripetal and the centrifugal, the whole forming one ultimate unity which we call the Universe, having for its centre one common point or central orb, which indeed forms the centre of gravity of the entire Universe.

Thus the key to the physical conception of the Universe is to be found, and alone found, in that beauty of order, and harmony of motion, which are so inseparably associated with the varied forms of matter, graduating through a series of units or atoms, each with its dual nature complete in itself, through a series of minor entities termed elements, which in their aggregations form meteorites, satellites, planets, suns and stars, and systems of stars and oceans of suns and stars, until all are united into one ultimate unity where all are blended into one complete and perfect whole; the whole of the universal fabric being held together in its mechanical order and beauty by the electro-magnetic Aether. Then in the very centre of the Universe there dwells that Supreme Being whom we call God, who is at once the one real fountain and source of all the light and life of the Universe itself. For it is His universal Spirit that moulds and fashions the plastic matter into the many forms which it assumes, and uses the various modes of motion, as heat, light, electricity and magnetism, as instruments to build up and erect in all their beauty and harmony the innumerable systems that flood immensity and space.

For if there be a centre of gravity to an atomic system, and a centre of gravity to a planetary system, and a centre of gravity to a solar system, then there is also a centre of gravity to a group of systems, even to a constellation, or a galaxy; otherwise our philosophy relative to the centres of gravity of masses fails in its application to wider phenomena of an exactly similar kind.

Thus, if there is a centre of gravity to a galaxy, even to the Milky Way itself, then, going one step further, with a faith that laughs at scientific data and leaps beyond the narrow bounds of pure reasoning, we affirm that there must even be a centre of gravity to the entire Universe. Now let me ask the reader, What can be more fitting, more appropriate, more reasonable than to infer that the centre of gravity of the Universe is to be found in that celestial orb or orbs where the throne of God exists and endures, and where ultimately there will be congregated together in perfect felicity the spirits of just men made perfect, not only from our insignificant planet, but all the spirits of all beings from all the planets which in their almost infinite number are circled round their central suns by the electro-magnetic Aether? It is there, in these bright orbs, with their vision and powers spiritualized, quickened and intensified, that all perfected spirits shall look out into space, with increasing wonder, upon the birth and decay of worlds, the evolution and devolution of planets and systems and constellations, and shall watch the continuation and working out of that grand and glorious plan, which alone finds its perfection and its ultimate fulfilment in the wisdom, and power, and glory of the Eternal Spirit of the Living God.

To see if this conception of the Universe is borne out by scientific data, we will now address ourselves more particularly to those fundamental truths which underlie the unity of the Universe.

ART. 124. The Unity of the Universe.—The Unity of the Universe is a dream which has passed before the imagination of many philosophers in by-gone times, and has been a fruitful source of speculation to old-world, as well as more modern philosophers. The researches of such living scientists as Sir William Crookes, Professor J. J. Thomson and others, have, however, made this dream come within the range of practical research and direct experiment. Professor J. J. Thomson believes that it is possible to break off from an atom, a part which is only 1/1000 part of the whole, and these infinitesimal parts he has called corpuscles, which he considers are the carriers of the electric current.

If, therefore, it can be philosophically proved that the hypothesis of an atomic, gravitating, and condensing Aether can satisfactorily account for the physical existence of all atoms, and therefore of all matter, the dream of old-world philosophers will be helped on its way to a successful realization.

We have already suggested, that nebulae are formed out of the condensation of the electro-magnetic Aether that fills the Universe; and as that nebula, according to the Nebular Hypothesis, ultimately resolves itself into a sun, or planet, or satellite, as the case may be, it follows that the condensation of this electro-magnetic Aether forms the basis of all the various elements, as Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and the other seventy elements of which those bodies are composed. Thus the conclusion that we are compelled to come to in regard to the ultimate nature of matter, in its primordial condition, is, that all matter which exists in its varied forms throughout the entire Universe finds its physical origin and source in the universal electro-magnetic Aether, which is itself atomic, and possesses all the essential properties of matter.

With the conception of the Aether as advanced in this work, this hypothesis is perfectly philosophical and logical. For the conception is simple, in that it supposes one form of matter to spring out of another form, that is, from an aetherial form to gaseous, in a similar manner to that in which a gaseous form changes into a liquid form, that is, by condensation, or a closer drawing together of the aetherial elastic envelopes that surround each atom; each particular gas, as Hydrogen, Nitrogen, or Oxygen, representing different quantities of aetherial condensations, as will be seen in the next article.

The aetherial constitution of matter has received recognition from the hands of such scientists as Lord Kelvin and Dr. Larmor. The latter, in his Aether and Matter, writes on the subject as follows (page 7): "Matter must be constituted of isolated portions, each of which is of necessity a permanent nucleus or singularity in and belonging to the Aether, of some such type as is represented for example by a minute vortex ring in a perfect fluid, or a centre of permanent strain in a rotational elastic medium." And again on the same page he adds: "It is incumbent on us to recognize an aetherial substratum of matter, in so far as this proves conducive to simplicity and logical consistency in our scheme of physical relations, and helpful towards the discovery of hitherto unnoticed ones."

Dr. Larmor, as has already been pointed out in Art. 44, speaks of his aetherial atoms as electrons, which are of two kinds, negative and positive, and of these he states (page 97): "Each electron has an effective mass of aetherial origin, which forms part, and may be the whole of the mass of the matter to which it is attached."

Here, then, we have definite statements as to the hypothesis of all matter having a definite aetherial origin. If, therefore, it can be proved experimentally that matter does possess this aetherial basis, then the hypothesis will pass out of the region of speculation into the region of fact and science.

The question, therefore, suggests itself to our mind, as to whether among all the experiments that have ever been performed by any scientist, there are any which will conclusively confirm and establish the hypothesis as to the aetherial origin of all matter. In my opinion there are such experiments, which have been given to the world by such eminent scientists as Faraday and Sir Humphry Davy. Before, however, the value of their experiments can be rightly understood and valued, we shall have to ask ourselves another question, and that is, "What is the relation of Aether to electricity?" Upon the correct answer to this question depends the application of Faraday's experiments to the hypothesis of the aetherial constitution of all matter, and therefore of the great underlying principle of the unity of the Universe.

Is there any relation therefore between Aether and electricity? If so, what is that relation, and to what extent does it hold good? Professor Lodge, in his preface to Modern Views of Electricity, asks a similar question. "Electricity," he states, "has been thought to be a form of energy, it has been shown to be a form of Aether. There remains the question, What is Aether?"

While again he writes: "A rough and crude statement adopted for popular use is that electricity and Aether are identical. But that is not all that has to be said, for there are two opposite kinds of electricities, and there are not two Aethers. But there may be two aspects of one Aether, just as there are two sides to a sheet of paper."

That there is a definite relation between Aether and electricity is as certain as there is a definite relation between electricity and light. In order to find out how far the relationship and identity between Aether and electricity extend we will review our conception of the Aether as given in Chapter IV. According to the conception advanced in that chapter, on the hypothesis that Aether was matter, we philosophically came to the conclusion that Aether was atomic, and therefore gravitative. Because it was gravitative, it possessed density, and varying degrees of density; and having mass, it possesses the property of inertia the same as any other matter; and was also elastic.

We have now to add to these properties that of compressibility, which property we have ascribed to it from philosophical considerations when dealing with comets, and nebulae, and the origin of planets and satellites. Now, if there is any identity between Aether and electricity, then it follows that that identity will be more or less manifested, as we find electricity possessing more or less of the properties which have been ascribed to the electro-magnetic Aether. For, if we find two apparently different substances, or entities, possessing exactly the same properties, and occupying the same space at one and the same time, then the only logical conclusion that we can come to is, that these two apparently different substances are not two substances, but one.

We have already proved that they both occupy exactly the same space, that is, they occupy the planetary and interstellar regions of space, and fill indeed the entire Universe. The electro-magnetic theory of Light (Art. 78) indisputably proves this. We will therefore find out if electricity possesses the properties which have already been ascribed to the Aether. The first property, and indeed the fundamental property, of Aether is that it is atomic, and upon the atomicity of the medium depends the whole of the theory as worked out in relation to heat, light, electricity and so-called gravitational phenomena. Is there anything about electricity that can suggest the hypothesis that electricity is atomic? The answer is unquestionably in the affirmative. Many of the greatest scientists of the past and present century have believed and worked at the hypothesis of the atomic character of electricity, and none more so than Dr. Larmor in his Aether and Matter and Professor J. J. Thomson.

Now what is Dr. Larmor's opinion as to the atomicity of electricity? These are some of his statements quoted in the work. In the very first words of his preface he writes:[45] "The following essay was originally undertaken mainly as a contribution towards the development of the standpoint which considers electricity, as well as the matter, to be constituted on an atomic basis." He continues: "Since Faraday's work on Electrolysis, the notion of the atomic constitution of electrification in its electro-chemical aspect has never been entirely absent." While later on he adds: "Thus, for example, the present view of the atomic character of electricity, which is at length coming within the scope of direct experiment, has been in evidence with gradually increasing precision ever since theoretical formulations were attempted on the subject."

We are, however, possibly indebted to Professor J. J. Thomson for the most direct experimental evidence as to the atomic nature of electricity, for, as is well known to scientists, he has discovered what he termed corpuscles, in association with electricity, which he makes the carriers of the charges involved in electrical phenomena.

Here, then, we have one proof of the identity that exists between Aether and electricity, in that while they both fill the same space, they are both equally atomic; Dr. Larmor's ultimate atom, as we have already seen, being known as positive and negative electrons. Aether, we also learned, was gravitative (Art. 45), but we have since learned that gravitation is itself an electrical phenomenon, in that both the centripetal and centrifugal forces are due to the repulsions and attractions or pressure and tension of this electro-magnetic Aether.

So that when we affirm that Aether is gravitative, we do but affirm it is subject to the laws of electricity, which govern all electrical phenomena, and therefore we might just as truly affirm that electricity is gravitative, because such an affirmation is simply another way of saying that electricity gives rise to the attractions and repulsions incidental to, and associated with, all electrical phenomena. Here, again, we have further evidence of the identity that exists between Aether and electricity.

Then we learned that Aether possessed density, and also different degrees of density, and the question arises as to whether there is anything corresponding to this property in electricity. As a matter of fact, this very property of density is itself recognized and known to all scientists by the term Electric Density, the electric density being always proportionate to the charge of electricity on a given area.

We learned also in Art. 79 that aetherial density and electrical density were identical in relation to solar and planetary space; so that, wherever there was the denser Aether, there was also the denser electricity, the density of the one increasing or decreasing exactly in the same ratio as the other increased or decreased. From aetherial and electrical density, therefore, we have another proof of the close identity that exists between Aether and electricity.

Again, we learned (Art. 48) that Aether possessed inertia. Here at least, it may be thought, we shall find the first point of difference between the two entities. Surely such an intangible, aetherial manifestation as electricity cannot possess inertia. Let us see what Professor Lodge has to say on the subject. In the chapter on electrical inertia he writes (p. 89, par. 365 of Modern Views of Electricity): "A current does not start instantaneously: it takes a certain time, often very short, to rise to its full strength; and when started it tends to persist, so that if its circuit be suddenly broken, it refuses to stop quite suddenly, and bursts through the introduced insulating partition with violence and heat. It is this ram or impetus of the electric current which causes the spark seen on breaking a circuit; and the more sudden the breakage, the more violent is the spark apt to be. We shall understand them better directly; meanwhile they appear to be direct consequences of the inertia of electricity; and certainly if electricity were a fluid possessing inertia it would behave to a superficial observer just in this way."

From these statements we learn then that electricity does possess inertia, although there are other phenomena of electricity that would destroy the hypothesis. But undoubtedly an electric current possesses momentum, and it is philosophically impossible to associate momentum with any body that does not possess inertia, as one of the factors of momentum implies mass, even though it be a mass of an infinitesimal form, and mass is the very essence of the property of inertia (Art. 40).

Dr. Larmor, in the work already referred to, dealing with the subject of electric inertia, explains that it is concentrated at the nucleus of the electron (p. 230), while on p. 202 he states: "Each electron as it is moved by the aetherial displacement belonging to the radiation, resists with its own definite inertia."

Apart from this evidence, the philosophical evidence already adduced in Chapter X. is altogether in favour of the fact that electricity possesses inertia. So that we may say that, though the evidence as to the identity of electrical and aetherial inertia is not fully complete, the balance of opinion lies in favour of the identity rather than otherwise. See Appendix A.

It can further be demonstrated that electricity possesses elasticity the same as the Aether does. The charge and discharge of a Leyden jar are conclusive evidence of the elasticity associated with electrical phenomena, while further proof is to be found in the fact that Dr. Larmor attributes elasticity to his electrons, such elasticity being of a rotational type.

The identity, therefore, that exists between Aether is now almost complete. We have now only to prove that both are compressible, and the identity is fully established. This will be done by reference to certain of Faraday's experiments before the conclusion of this article. As we have established, logically, the identity that exists between Aether and electricity, the question arises now as to whether they are not one and the same medium. If they are not one and the same medium, then we are in the distinctly unphilosophical position of having to admit that all interplanetary and interstellar space are filled at one and the same time by two different media, and such an assumption is directly opposed to all observation and experience.

Therefore, to be strictly philosophical, one of these media must be done away with, and we may either assert that interplanetary and interstellar space is filled with electricity, or else it is filled with Aether, as it is much simpler to conceive of space being filled with one medium, than it is to suppose it to be filled with two media, which are absolutely identical in all their characteristic properties and functions. Both can give rise to exactly the same kind of phenomena, whether they are the phenomena of heat, light, electricity, or magnetism, and even gravitation itself. So that, if Science wishes to be distinctly philosophical in her statements in future, it will be necessary, it seems to me, to do away either with the Aether, or with the electricity, and as the latter is the better known entity, I am of the opinion that Science will retain the electric conception of space and matter, and do away with the aetherial, as being altogether unnecessary. See Appendix B.

Thus are we led to the conclusion that electricity is itself a form of matter, as indeed it must be if it is atomic, as suggested by Dr. Larmor and Professor Thomson.

Professor Lodge, on p. 9 of the work already referred to, states: "Electricity in this respect behaves just like a substance;" and again, p. 313, he writes: "We cannot assert that it is a form of matter, neither can we deny it; on the other hand, we certainly cannot assert that it is a form of energy, and I should be disposed to deny it. It may be that electricity is an entity per se, just as matter is an entity per se."

Whether electricity be a form of matter or not, as I believe it undoubtedly is, we have arrived at the fact, in view of the identity between Aether and electricity, that, wherever the one is present, the other is present also. So that if it can be demonstrated by direct experiment that matter can be changed into its equivalent quantities of electricities, or that equivalent quantities of electricities could produce their equivalent forms of matter, then the electrical basis of matter, and consequently the aetherial basis of matter, are proved beyond contradiction, and we are thus led one step nearer to the ultimate unity of the Universe, which unity is to be found in the universal electro-magnetic Aether, which is identical with universal electricity. For if Aether be the basis of all modes of motion, as heat, light, and gravitation, and it is identical with electricity, it follows that electricity is equally the basis of all the varied phenomena, and if to that we add the constitution of matter itself, then we are within sight of the medium in which the ultimate unity of the Universe is to be found.

This view of the subject has already been dealt with by a German scientist, Professor Vogt, in his book on The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism, a book, however, which is not translated into English. In that work I believe he shows the possibility of all matter having its origin in electricity; and if that be so, then that theory is really identical with an aetherial basis of matter, seeing that Aether and electricity philosophically seem to be one and the same medium. Let us therefore turn to Faraday's experiments, and see what they teach us on the subject of the electrical basis of matter, and therefore the aetherial basis at the same time.

In paragraph 852 of his Experimental Researches Faraday writes: "The theory of definite electro-chemical action appears to me to touch upon the absolute quantity of electricity, or electrical power, belonging to different bodies. Although we know nothing of what an atom is, yet we cannot resist forming some idea of a small particle which represents it to our mind, and though we cannot say what electricity is, so as to be able to say whether it is a particular matter or matters, or mere motion of ordinary matter, yet there is immensity of facts which justify us in believing that the atoms of matter are in some way endowed or associated with electrical powers to which they owe their most striking qualities, and amongst them their chemical affinity. As soon as we perceive, through the teaching of Dalton, that chemical powers are (however varied the circumstances in which they are exerted) definite for each body, we learn to estimate the relative degree of Force which resides in such bodies; and when upon that knowledge comes the fact that electricity, which we appear to be capable of loosening from its habitation for a while, or conveying from place to place, whilst it retains its chemical Force, can be measured out, and being so measured, is found to be as definite in its action as any of those portions which, remaining associated with the particles of matter, give them their chemical relation, we seem to have found a link which connects the proportion of that belonging to the particles in their natural state."

Then in paragraph 855 he writes as follows: "It seems a probable and almost a natural consequence, that the quantity which passes is the equivalent of, and therefore equal to, that of the particles separated, i. e. that if the electrical power which holds the elements of a grain of water in combination (or which makes a grain of oxygen and hydrogen, in the right proportions, unite into water when they are made to combine) could be thrown into the condition of a current, it would exactly equal the current required for the separation of that grain of water into its elements again."

Further, in Art. 857, he states, "I can have no doubt that, assuming hydrogen as 1, and dismissing small fractions for the simplicity of expression, the equivalent number or atomic weight of oxygen is 8, of chlorine 36, of bromine 78.4, of lead 103.5, of tin 59, etc., notwithstanding that a very high authority doubles several of these numbers." Then, writing upon the definite relationship of electro-chemical equivalents, he states, Art. 835: "Electro-chemical equivalents are always consistent; i. e. the same number which represents the equivalent of a substance A, when it is separating from a substance B, will also represent A when separating from a third substance C. Thus 8 is the electro-chemical equivalent of oxygen, whether separating from hydrogen or tin or lead; and 103.5 is the electro-chemical equivalent of lead, whether separating from oxygen or chlorine or iodine."

So that from Faraday's experiments we learn definitely that the electro-chemical equivalents coincide with and agree with the ordinary chemical equivalents according to Dalton's theory. From these experimental results of Faraday's we therefore learn that Faraday was of the opinion that each atom had a definite and certain quantity of electricity associated with it; and if this be true, then, in view of the identity of Aether with electricity, it follows that each atom must have definite and certain quantities of Aether associated with each atom. So that through Faraday's experimental researches we are again led to the hypothesis enunciated by Lord Kelvin in his paper "On the Clustering of Gravitational Matter in any part of the Universe," viz. that all matter has an aetherial, that is, an electrical basis, and that it is by the condensation of this electricity, and combinations of the condensational particles, that all the various elements are formed which compose the infinite variety of forms that constitute the entire Universe. Here, then, it seems to me, we have the evidence which gives to the aetherial Nebular Hypothesis (Art. 121) that experimental evidence which places that hypothesis upon a firm and philosophical foundation, and conclusively proves that it is possible for Aether out in the colder regions of interstellar space to be condensed into masses of gaseous matter, which form nebulae, and other masses in the cold regions of interplanetary space to condense and form comets and meteors.

[Footnote 45: Aether and Matter.]

ART. 125. Physical Constitution of Matter.—In Art. 31 we learned that all matter was made up of minute parts called atoms. When these atoms enter into combination with each other, they form the smallest particles of elementary substances as well as compound bodies, these particles or bodies being termed molecules.

A molecule, therefore, may consist of any number of atoms of the same element, or may be formed of the union of the atoms of two different elements. In the preceding article we have learned that the atom of hydrogen or carbon, however, is divisible, at least theoretically if not experimentally, as we came to the conclusion that all atoms are composed of infinitesimal aetherial atoms, which are synonymous with atoms of electricity.

Whether we shall ever be able to experimentally prove the existence of such an atom remains to be seen, though Dr. Larmor states that the atomicity of electricity is coming within the scope of direct experiment; while the researches of Professors Crookes and J. J. Thomson have undoubtedly given direct evidence of the existence of corpuscles, which are part of the atoms of the various elements.

When we try to conceive, however, of the manner in which the various elements can be formed from one primary medium, that is, the Aether or electricity, we find it difficult to arrive at a simple physical conception of the process involved.

We are indebted to Professor J. J. Thomson for what is practically the only simple physical conception of the method in which various elements may be formed from that medium, which gives unity to the whole of the universe. In the Adams Prize Essay of 1883 Professor Thomson indicated a theory based on the vortex atom (Art. 43) which satisfactorily accounted for the various laws which governed gaseous matter, and also showed how the varied chemical combinations might be physically conceived as being produced from one primary medium.

In this theory we have to conceive of the vortex atom as possessing a hollow core, while in our conception of an aetherial atom (Art. 43) we conceived it as being more of a spherical or globular form than ring-shaped. We have, then, to consider the atom of any element as being composed of a vortex ring of various thickness, the thickness of the ring being an indication of its atomic weight.

Each vortex ring must also be conceived as itself being composed of a number of aetherial atoms, or atoms of electricity, the number of such atoms being proportionate to the respective atomic weights of the various elements. Dr. Larmor suggests that a vortex ring may have this constitution in his work on Aether and Matter.

According to Professor J. J. Thomson, then, any vortex ring, which we have supposed to be constituted of aetherial atoms, or atoms of electricity, may unite with any other vortex ring, thus producing a vortex ring of double density, which would possess double the electricity of the unit vortex ring. If we united three vortex rings, then the result would be an atom of threefold the density and strength of the unit vortex ring.

We might conceive of four or any number of these rings uniting together to form a separate element, and then each element would simply be a multiple of the unit vortex ring, and so possess regular multiples of the atoms of electricity, each multiple representing a distinct element.

We will now let Professor Thomson speak for himself on the matter, and will describe the theory in his own words, always keeping in mind the hypothesis that the unit vortex ring is itself composed of a definite number of atoms of electricity or electrons, as proved by Faraday. See Appendix C.

In the work already referred to, Professor Thomson states: "We may suppose that the union or pairing in this way of two vortex rings of different kinds is what takes place, when two elements of which these vortex rings are atoms combine chemically; while, if the vortex rings are of the same kind, this process is what occurs when atoms combine to form molecules. Now let us suppose that the atoms of different chemical elements are made up of vortex rings, all of the same strength, but that some of these elements consist of only one ring, others of two rings linked together, others of three loops, and so on. Then if any of these rings combine to form a permanent combination, the strength of all the primaries in the system so formed by the combination must be equal."

"Thus an atom of one element may combine with another atom of the same kind, to form a molecule of that substance consisting of two atoms. Again, three of these atoms may combine, and form a system consisting of three primary elements, but the chance of their doing so is small compared with the chance of two pairing; so that the number of systems of this kind will be small compared with the number of the systems consisting only of two atoms. We might have systems of four atoms, but the number would be small compared with the number of systems that consist of three atoms."

"Now, suppose that an atom of one element is to combine with an atom of another. Suppose, to fix our ideas, that the atom consisting of two vortex rings linked together, is to combine with an atom consisting of one vortex ring; then, since, for the stability of connection, the strength of all the primaries which form the components of the compound must be equal, the atom consisting of two links must unite with molecules containing two atoms of the one with one link. Thus the compound formed will be the simplest combination, consisting of one of the atoms which consist of two vortex rings linked together with two of the atoms consisting of only one vortex ring. Similarly, if an atom consisting of three vortex rings linked together were to combine directly with atoms consisting of only one vortex ring, the compound formed would consist of the three linked atoms with three of the others, and so on for all the combinations of atoms formed by any number of vortex rings linked together. This suggests that the elements, called by the chemists monads, dyads, triads and so on, consist of one, two, etc. vortex rings linked together, for then we should know that a dyad could not combine with less than two atoms of a monad to form a stable compound, or a triad with less than three, and so on, which is just the definition of the terms monad, dyad, triad."

"On looking at chemical combination from this point, we expect to find that such compounds as Hydrochloric acid, where one atom of Hydrogen has only to meet one atom of Chlorine; or water, where one atom of Oxygen has only to meet two atoms or a molecule of Hydrogen, would be much more easily and quickly formed than a compound such as ammonia gas, to form which an atom of Nitrogen has to find itself close to three atoms of Hydrogen at once."

"It is the case, I believe, in direct combination, that simple compounds are formed more quickly than compound ones. We might call the ratio of the number of links in the atom of any element, to the number in the atom of Hydrogen, the Valency of the element. Thus the compounds H-CL, H-I, H-F, show that the atoms of Chlorine, Iodine, Fluorine have the same number of links as the atom of Hydrogen, so that the valency of each of these elements is unity. From the compound H{2}O we infer that the atom of Oxygen consists of twice as many links as the atom of Hydrogen. The compound H{2}S indicates that the atoms of Sulphur have twice as many links as the atom of Hydrogen."

"The molecules CO_{2} and Marsh Gas have each three primaries represented by C-O-O and C-H-H respectively. According to the view we have taken, atomicity corresponds to complexity of atomic arrangement, and the elements of high atomicity consist of more vortex rings than those whose atomicity is low."

"Thus high atomicity corresponds to complicated atomic arrangement, and we should expect to find the spectra of bodies of low atomicity much simpler than those of high. This seems to be the case, for we find that the spectra of Sodium, Potassium, Lithium, Hydrogen, Chlorine, which are all monad elements, consist of comparatively few lines."

Here then, on the vortex theory of matter, especially when that vortex theory is given an electric basis, as is the case in Dr. Larmor's electron theory, we have a thinkable and logical explanation of the physical and chemical properties of matter, by which all elements and compounds may be formed from the primordial aetherial or electric atom. As all Nature is composed of about seventy elements, and it has been conclusively demonstrated that an atom of Hydrogen is the same all over the universe, no matter whether it exists on this planet, or in some distant star or nebula, we arrive at the conclusion that all the other elements are exactly the same in their properties and qualities wherever they are found. If, therefore, we couple Faraday's experiments and results as to the electro-chemical equivalents of all atoms, with this theory of Professor J. J. Thomson's, then we are again compelled to come to the conclusion that the unity of the universe in all its universality, and infinite variety of forms and modes of matter, is to be found, and alone found, in the universal Aether, which is co-existent and coextensive with electricity.

ART. 126. Quod Erat Faciendum.—Before concluding this work let us briefly review the whole of the theory submitted herein to the reader.

That which was to be done consisted primarily in ascertaining the physical cause of Gravitation, by which would be accounted for on a philosophical basis all the phenomena incidental to and associated with the Law of Gravitation. Such phenomena included the physical cause of the Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces, the physical cause of Kepler's Laws, together with a physical conception of the application of Newton's Laws of Motion to all solar and stellar bodies. In addition to this, there were other outstanding problems in physics that it was premised would receive either a partial or an entire physical explanation. It was premised, for example, that the problem of the relative motion of Aether and matter would be solved, that the cause of the permanent magnetism of the earth would be revealed, and the great problem of the constitution of matter attacked, together with the unity of the universe which arose from that conception.

In order, however, for any theory to be philosophical in its initial stages, the rules of some of the greatest philosophers which govern the making of any hypotheses were briefly outlined, and were found to resolve themselves into three divisions.

The first rule dealt with the general simplicity of Nature's mode of working, and therefore the general simplicity which must govern our hypotheses in perfecting any theory as to the cause of all phenomena, gravitational or otherwise.

The second rule showed that the only sound basis from whence we could derive all our data upon which to speculate and reason, lay in our experience of all natural phenomena. Whatever else we might do, or not do, it was absolutely necessary, if we wished to be perfectly philosophical in our conclusions, that we should not traverse the direct results of observations and experiments.

The third rule laid down was the obvious axiom, that the theory so perfected by logical reasoning must satisfactorily account for and explain all the phenomena sought to be explained.

Now I wish to submit the whole theory as propounded in this work in its completion and in its entirety to the reader, and to ask him if the Rules of Philosophy have not been adhered to throughout the whole work? Can any theory be more simple than the one submitted in this work, by which we have endeavoured to account for all, and even more, than was premised in the opening chapters?

The very simplicity of the fundamental hypothesis that Aether is matter, in all its properties and qualities, has been the chief obstacle to the retardation of its earlier discovery.

Any proposition more simple, more easy of comprehension, is, to my mind, difficult of conception. Why, children in our homes and schools may be taught the truth, and grasp it in its concrete form, and that is the highest test of the simplicity of any hypothesis.

Thus the first Rule of Philosophy is satisfied and fulfilled in the initial hypothesis, and I venture to affirm that the same simplicity has characterized the development of the theory throughout its entire progress. Step by step, simple facts and simple truths which are known to any ordinary student have been shown to have a wider and more universal application than even the writer dreamed of, when he started out on his voyage of discovery in philosophical research.

When we consider the second Rule of Philosophy in its application to our theory, we find that experience, as revealed by observation and experiment, is fulfilled to the minutest detail. The simple hypothesis that Aether is matter, fulfils to the very fullest extent all requirements demanded by the experience of all the scientists and experimentalists that the world has ever known. To assert that Aether is not matter is to assert a proposition contrary to all the accumulated experience of the past generations. Therefore, if Aether is matter, then its fundamental qualities must be those which belong to and are associated with all matter, those qualities being atomicity, gravity, density, elasticity, inertia, and compressibility.

The objector to this statement is himself violating the chief rule of all philosophy, in that he is going contrary to the tenor and teaching of his own experience. Then, following out the second rule step by step we arrive at the one grand central truth, that electricity is also a form of matter, and that all the forces of the entire universe are but different modes of motion, different vibrations of the universal electro-magnetic Aether; while all the varied bodies that exist are themselves but different manifestations in a gaseous, liquid, or solid form of the same electro-magnetic substance.

Thus, step by step, we have tried to build up a theory of the physical cause of all phenomena, which will satisfactorily account for those phenomena, and even for the structure of the universe itself, from the mechanical standpoint, and by so doing have fulfilled the third Rule of our Philosophy as enunciated by Newton and others.

So that by the conception that Aether is matter, in its primordial state, we have more than fulfilled all that was premised should be done.

Thus the long-sought-for and long-expected cause of Gravitation, together with the cause of the two complementary forces, is found in the simple statement that Aether is matter, with all that is logically included therein. Kepler's Laws and Newton's Laws of Motion also receive a physical explanation in the same universal electro-magnetic Aether.

In addition to the solution of these problems, the transverse vibrations of light has received for the first time a physical conception, and a physical explanation, even admitting that that explanation may not be perfect in detail.

The origin of the permanent magnetism of the earth has also received a physical explanation through the motions of this same electro-magnetic Aether, while certain theories in relation to electricity given to the world by Ampere, Weber, Faraday, and Clerk Maxwell have found their consummation in this atomic electro-magnetic medium.

Further, astronomical hypotheses in relation to comets and nebulae are not untouched by the theory of a compressible and condensing atomic Aether. Indeed, there is not a phase of natural phenomena which is not affected in some way or other by the philosophical result arrived at that Aether is matter in its original state. Therefore, we claim, however imperfectly it may have been done, that not only have the Rules of Philosophy been fulfilled, but that the theory so advanced has accomplished more than even we in our wildest imagination hoped and dreamed for it.

Look at the problem of the Aether how we may, the advantages of the theory of an atomic electro-magnetic Aether far surpass and outweigh the advantages of a frictionless medium, which in some unknown way possesses mass and inertia, although the conception of such properties themselves disproves the existence of such a frictionless medium.

After all, how much of this theory is there which is entirely new or absolutely original? Age after age, men have had exactly similar dreams, and seen similar visions. In the old Grecian days similar views were expressed by their philosophers; and, even in the philosophy of less civilized countries, many of the suggested hypotheses found their place in a more or less perfect form.

Analyze the whole theory from its initial stages to the last chapter, and we shall find, with the exception of one or two features, that every hypothesis first had its origin in the mind of some of the greatest thinkers and philosophers that the world has ever known.

Take several hypotheses as examples. The hypothesis that Aether is atomic was suggested by such men as Newton, Huyghens, Descartes, Challis, Clerk Maxwell, and others.

That Aether is gravitative has been suggested by Young, Grove, Faraday, and Lord Kelvin. Huyghens, Fresnel, and Young postulated different degrees of density for the Aether, while Stokes and McCullagh have affirmed and proved different degrees of elasticity of the medium.

The inertia of the medium has received experimental evidence from Tyndall, Maxwell, Faraday, Lodge, and others, and its compressibility has received the adherence of men like Faraday, Maxwell, and Lord Kelvin.

Then, when we come to deal with the causes of the forces involved in gravitational phenomena, we find that exactly similar hypotheses in regard to the Centrifugal Force have been postulated by Herschel, Bredichin, M. Faye, and Lebedew; while Faraday, Gauss and others have suggested the close relationship that exists between electrical and gravitational phenomena.

The physical explanation of Kepler's Laws was suggested by Kepler himself, while Huyghens, Bernoulli, Descartes, and many of their contemporaries believed in the existence of some kind of vortices.

The unity of the universe has been a dream of philosophers for generations past, and that dream is now crystallized in the definite conception of an atomic universal electro-magnetic medium, while the electrical basis of matter receives the support of such men as Crookes, J. J. Thomson, Larmor and Vogt.

Thus we learn that all the dreams and thoughts, all the hypotheses and postulates of old-world as well as present-day philosophers find their consummation and ultimate realization in one universal, atomic, electro-magnetic medium.

If this fact does not stamp the theory with that authority which is undeniably associated with the names of some of the scientists quoted, then all the greatest men in the scientific world have lived and toiled, thought and dreamed in vain, while the priceless gems of their imagination and research are treated as worthless and valueless.

Again, what shall we say of the discoveries of to-day?

What is the key to the greatest scientific discovery of modern times, viz. wireless or aetherial telegraphy, which is girdling the earth with its mysterious communications? Is not the key to that discovery to be found in this universal electro-magnetic medium?

Whence come the X-rays, Rontgen rays, and other light rays with their adaptability to human suffering, if they come not from this same electro-magnetic medium? their adaptability to human suffering being dependent upon the intimate and close relationship that exists between the physical body and the electro-magnetic medium.

Where is the key to the principle underlying the gramophone, the phonograph and the telephone, if it be not in this self-same atomic and easily impressible medium?

Nay! let us go further, and ask ourselves where is the key to be found for the many marvellous effects of so-called spirit phenomena? Who can read F. W. Myer's Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death, and not feel that we are standing on the threshold of the unseen world?

Already men are asking themselves the meaning of the strange sensations which they receive from unseen sources; already men's spirits are vibrating in unison with vibrations that come from the unseen world; and to-day we see spiritual phenomena as through a glass darkly, and the question arises, what is the medium of all this communication, of all these vibrations?

Is there no medium at all which forms the medium of communication? To assert that would be to assert something opposed to all experience and therefore would be unphilosophical.

May not then the theory of an atomic universal electro-magnetic medium help us on in our groping and searching after light in this direction? Who will uplift the veil? Already we peer almost into the spirit world. A little more light, a little more truth, and then there will burst forth upon the hearts and minds of men the grandest and most glorious truth that Nature can reveal of her Creator, and then men shall come to know and understand the place that God holds in the Universe, such truth being advanced on its way by an atomic, universal electro-magnetic Aether which is as truly matter as our own bodies.

ART. 127. God and the Universe.—To the superficial reader it may appear at first sight, that the theory of the Aether suggested in this work leaves no place in the Universe for the operations and existence of an Infinite and living Spirit, a God. It may be objected, that if all matter and all modes of motion find their physical origin in one common and primordial medium, the electro-magnetic Aether, where is the necessity for the existence of an Eternal and Infinite Spirit?

At first sight there appears some force in the objection, but it loses its point when we come to view the Universe from the standpoint of spirit phenomena. The purpose of the writer in this work has been to deal with natural phenomena only, purely from the philosophical and scientific standpoint. Spirit phenomena (which is equally as real and obvious as natural phenomena) have no part or place in a work which deals with scientific facts and data, but demand and will receive in a future work equal consideration and philosophic treatment. A man must indeed be lacking in vision who cannot see behind all things the evidence of a richer and fuller truth than that which merely lies on the surface, or who fails to read and learn the greatest truth that circles the Universe in its ultimate unity, which indisputably points to the existence of an Eternal and ever-living Spirit, a God. I affirm that there is no scientific truth, even including the law of the conservation of matter and motion, which has been enunciated in this work, but what is reconcilable with the existence of an Eternal and Infinite Spirit; and although such a statement may seem a paradox, yet I am convinced that before many more years have passed, the reconciliation of natural with spiritual phenomena will be an accomplished fact. The fool to-day may say in his heart, there is no God, but ere long not only religion, but Science herself, shall expose his lack of wisdom and his folly.

For all things derive their existence primarily, with all the energies and powers they possess, from God. Look where we will, or at what we will, from the smallest atom or molecule up to the most stupendous world, or myriads of worlds that roll and sparkle in the blue infinity, in each and all we see the indisputable evidence of the existence of a mysterious spirit, or power, that controls and governs them. A spirit or power that we cannot see, but which is so indisputably evidenced that its existence cannot be denied. For example, we see forms of many kinds, some of which are simple entities of themselves, while others are complex and made up of many parts, but while each part is inseparably connected with the other, yet each part is itself distinct from the others in nature and substance. The whole combined forms a complete mechanism or organism, and, like all mechanisms of human make, not only needs a controlling and governing power, but also evidences a maker. Even the laws of Nature and modes of motion, whether it be heat, light, electricity, or magnetism, are, however, unable of themselves to control the mechanism, and therefore prove themselves to be but the servants of an infinite Intelligence, a GOD.

Thus, behind and beyond all we see, in every living form, there is the evidence of a hidden spirit, which is the governing and controlling and sustaining power, and without which the organism ceases to be an organism. A spirit which animates the mechanism, and uses its activities and powers as it wills for its own purposes and ends. This spirit or power we call its life, which gives to the form its existence, together with all that it possesses, as its powers, activities, energies and productions, for all are but the effects of the hidden life. If this mysterious something, termed its life, becomes in any way separated from the mechanism or organism, then as a distinct and separate organism it ceases to be; and though the mechanism may still exist for a time, yet all its powers are gone, while the organism, robbed of its very life, begins slowly to decay.

We cannot see this power; we cannot find it We may search for it, rend and tear part from part, only to find that it baffles all our skill, and laughs at our endeavours to discover the secret of its existence. We know that it is there, just as truly as we know that in these forms of ours, these living stoves, these perfect mechanisms called our bodies, there exists and dwells a spirit, a living, conscious, self-acting and controlling power. A spirit which we know is not the mechanism itself, and which by experience and observation we know to be distinct from the organism. It is this mysterious spirit which controls and governs all our acts, that rules and reigns as king of our bodies, and makes the physical mechanism, with all its wondrous parts, obey and do its bidding. That this is so, that the spirit is distinct from the body, and is the controlling and governing principle within us, is evident in a thousand ways. If, however, that spirit departs from the mechanism of our bodies, then the controlling and governing influence is gone; and the mechanism, robbed of its life, ceases to work, ceases to fulfil its functions, and ceases to exist in that particular form.

Just as it is with ourselves, so it is with the Universe. For look where we will, from the smallest atom to the great aggregation of atoms, as our earth, or even to the more stupendous orbs of heaven, the working of a secret and mysterious power or spirit meets our gaze. A spirit or power that is not the form or the mechanism, but is separate and distinct from the mechanism, while at the same time it is inseparably connected with each and all. For everything that we see, from an atom to the Universe itself, is a perfect mechanism, or complexity of mechanisms. The entire Universe is one vast, intricate, and elaborate piece of mechanism, beginning with the simple aetherial atom, ranging through all the atomic systems, graduating by successive steps through compound substances, which, in their aggregations, form meteors, satellites, planets, suns, and stars; until the ultimate whole is reached, where everything is blended into one vast whole; a perfect, infinite, complex mechanism, a Universe.

Now if philosophy teaches anything at all regarding mechanisms of human invention, it indisputably teaches that every machine or mechanism that has ever been made, implies the existence of a maker, and that the maker possessed intelligent attributes, as reason, judgment, perception, and imagination. For example, stand before some elaborate machine of human invention, as a lace machine, and watch the working of that machine in all its details. It is composed of many parts, each of which is perfect in itself. Each part may be distinct in nature and purpose, yet each and all are inseparably and unitedly connected with each other, and all work harmoniously together for the accomplishment of a definite and specific end, that is, the production of a lace curtain of exquisite design and pattern. As we watch the machine and its workings, we see therein the evidence of the existence of a spirit or power that gave it its birth. A spirit or mind that made and formed the machine, that constituted, arranged, and gave it its governing and controlling power; fitted and ordered every part, gave to each part its allotted task, and moulded all to the harmonious fulfilment of the definite end and purpose he had in view.

Thus in the machine we see evidence of contrivance and design, of method and arrangement, of conception, perception and judgment, which are all the effects and outflowings of intelligence which belong, and alone belong, to mind; and therefore we say, "The machine was made, and there was and must have been a maker." So universally is this fact accepted, that any one who seriously challenged the statement, or dared to deny it, would be at once pitied as insane or laughed at as a fool. Thus all experience proves, and philosophy testifies, that wherever we get a machine or mechanism of any kind or sort, there must have been a living, conscious being or person, who is distinct from and outside of the machine. He made it, and therefore must have existed before it, in order to make it. Wherever, therefore, we find a mechanism that bears the marks of intelligence and design, of judgment, perception and conception, it is only logical and philosophical to infer, that such a mechanism equally evidences the existence of an intelligent being. The more intricate and elaborate the mechanism, the greater the ingenuity displayed, the more complex and perfect the design, the more harmonious the working, the greater will be the wisdom, the more profound the judgment, the keener the perception, the more perfect the understanding, and the vaster, nobler, and more sublime the order of Being who originated and made it. This being so, according to philosophical reasoning, let us glance at the Universe in all its fulness and oneness, and we shall see the indisputable evidence of the existence of an Infinite Being, who made, controls and governs the infinite Universe.

In the atomic world we get an illustration of the perfect mechanism that underlies all atomic systems. Our conception of an aetherial atom was based upon the analogy of our own planet, and there is every reason to believe that the little world in which all atoms live and move and have their being, is analogous to a planetary or solar system, in which we find the two essentials of matter and motion ever associated together, to form a larger and more complete mechanism. For atoms are not simply mere points; they possess real dimensions, with a determinate and fixed form, differing in their relative weights, and in the amount of motion or force with which each is endowed. The very fact that they possess atomic weights which are unalterable throughout the long periods of time that mark the history of the Universe, and that they combine in definite and fixed proportions, indisputably evidence the fact that they but do the bidding of an Eternal and Infinite Spirit, a God. Thus each molecule, or atomic system forms a perfect mechanism in itself, with its own centre of gravity, and subject to the same laws of repulsion and attraction, or pressures and tensions—due to the vibrations and motions of the universal electro-magnetic Aether.

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