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Acetylene, The Principles Of Its Generation And Use
by F. H. Leeds and W. J. Atkinson Butterfield
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1 Vent-cock handle. 2 Residuum-cock handle. 3 Agitator handle. 4 Filling funnel. 5 Water overflow. 6 Hopper cap and lever. 7 Starting feed. 8 Rocker arm. 9 Feed connecting-rod. A Pawl. B Lever for working feed mechanism. C Guide frame. D Residuum draw-off cock. G Chain from hopper cap to feed mechanism. H Blow-off and vent-pipe connexion. I Gas outlet from generator. J Gas service-cock. K Filling funnel for gasholder tank. L Funnel for condensing chamber. M Gas outlet at top of purifier. N Guides on gas-bell. O Crosshead on swinging pawl. P Crane carrying pawl. Q Shaft connecting feed mechanism. R Plug in gas outlet-pipe. S Guide-frame supports. U Removable plate to clean purifier. Z Removable plate to expose feed-cups for cleaning same.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

Maker: RICH. KLINGER, GUMPOLDSKIRCHEN, NEAR VIENNA.

Type: Non-automatic; carbide-to-water.

The generating plant made by this firm consists of the generator A which is supported in a concrete water and sludge tank B, a storage gasholder J, and purifiers K. In the top of the generator are guide-ways F, through each of which is passed a plunger C containing a perforated cage charged with about 8 lb. of lump carbide. The plungers are supported by ropes passing over pulleys D, and when charged they are lowered through the guide-ways F into the water in the tank B. The charge of carbide is thus plunged at once into the large body of water in the tank, and the gas evolved passes through perforations in the washer G to the condenser H and thence to the storage gasholder J. After exhaustion of the charge the plungers are withdrawn and a freshly charged cage of carbide inserted ready for lowering into the generating tank. There is a relief seal f through which gas will blow and escape by a pipe g to the open should the pressure within the apparatus exceed the depth of the seal, viz., about 9 inches. There is a syphon pot N for the collection and withdrawal of condensed water. The sludge is allowed to accumulate in the bottom of the concrete tank B until it becomes necessary to remove it at intervals of about three months. Water is added to the tank daily to replace that used up in the generation of the gas. The gas passes from the storage holder through one of the pair of purifiers K, with water-sealed lids, which are charged with a chemical preparation for the removal of phosphoretted hydrogen. This purifying material also acts as a desiccating agent. From the purifiers the gas passes through the meter L to the service- pipes.



BELGIUM.

Maker: SOC. AN. DE L'ACETYLITHE, 65 RUE DU MARCHE, BRUSSELS.

Type: Automatic; contact.

The generating apparatus made by this firm uses, instead of ordinary carbide, a preparation known as "acetylithe," which is carbide treated specially with mineral oil, glucose and sugar. The object of using this treated carbide is to avoid the effects of the attack of atmospheric humidity or water vapour, which, with ordinary carbide, give rise to the phenomena of after-generation. The generator comprises a water-tank A with conical base, a basket C containing the treated carbide inserted within a cylindrical case B which is open at the bottom and is surmounted by a cylindrical filter D. At starting, the tank A is filled with water to the level N N'. The water rises within the cylindrical case until it comes in contact with the treated carbide, which thereupon begins to evolve gas. The gas passes through the filter D, which is packed with dry cotton-wool, and escapes through the tap M. As soon as the contained air has been displaced by gas the outlet of the tap M is connected by a flexible tube to the pipe leading to a purifier and the service-pipe. When the tap M is closed, or when the rate of evolution of the gas exceeds the rate of consumption, the evolved gas accumulates within the cylindrical case B and begins to displace the water, the level of which within the case is lowered from S S', first to S1 S'1 and ultimately to, say, S2 S'2. The evolution of gas is thereby gradually curtailed or stopped until more is required for consumption. The water displacement causes the water-level in the outer tank to rise to N1 N'1 and ultimately to, say N2 N'2. The lime formed by the decomposition of the carbide is loosened from the unattacked portion and taken more or less into solution as sucrate of lime, which is a soluble salt which the glucose or sugar in the treated carbide forms with lime. The solution is eventually run off through the cock R. The cover T of the filter is screwed down on rubber packing until gas- tight. The purifier is charged with puratylene or other purifying material.



Maker: L. DEBRUYNE, 22 PLACE MASUI, BRUSSELS.

Type: (1) Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The generating plant made by this firm, using granulated carbide, comprises an equalising gasholder E alongside a generating tank B, which is surmounted by a closed carbide receptacle A and a distributing appliance. The carbide receptacle is filled with granulated carbide and the lid N screwed down; the carbide is then withdrawn from the base of the receptacle by the distributing appliance and discharged in measured quantities as required into the water in the generating tank. The distributing appliance is actuated by a weighted cord H attached to the bell I of the gasholder and discharges at each time a quantity of carbide only sufficient nearly to fill the gasholder with acetylene. The gas passes from the generator through the pipe J and seal-pot D, or bypass F, to the gasholder. The generating tank is provided with a funnel G for replacing the water consumed, a sludge-stirrer and a draw-off cock L, and a water-level cock C. The gas passes from the gasholder through a purifier K, charged with heratol, to the service-pipe.



(2) Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The "Debruyne" generator comprises an equalising bell gasholder A placed alongside a generating tank B containing water into which lump carbide is discharged as necessary from each in turn of a series of chambers mounted in a ring above the generating tank. The chambers are removable for refilling, and when charged are hermetically sealed until opened in turn above the shoot C, through which their contents are discharged into the generating tank. The carbide contained in each chamber yields sufficient gas nearly to fill the gasholder. The discharging mechanism is operated through an arm E attached to the bell G of the gasholder, which sets the mechanism in motion when the bell has fallen nearly to its lowest position. The lip L serves for renewing the water in the generator, and the gas evolved goes through the pipe K with tap F to the gasholder. There is an eccentric stirrer for the sludge and a large-bore cock for discharging it. The gas passes from the gasholder through the pipe J to the purifier H, charged with heratol, and thence to the service-pipe.



Maker: DE SMET VAN OVERBERGE, ALOST.

Type: (1) Automatic; carbide-to-water.

This generating apparatus comprises an equalising gasholder A placed alongside a generating tank B, above which is mounted on a rotating spindle a series of chambers C, arranged in a circle, which are filled with carbide. The generating tank is closed at the top, but on one side there is a shoot D through which the carbide is discharged from the chambers in turn into the water in the tank. The series of chambers are rotated by means of a cord passing round a pulley E and having a weight F at one end, and being attached to the bell of the gasholder at the other. When the bell falls, owing to the consumption of gas, to a certain low position, the carbide chamber, which has been brought by the rotation of the pulley over the shoot, is opened at the bottom by the automatic liberation of a catch, and its contents are discharged into the generating tank. The contents of one carbide chamber suffice to fill the gasholder to two-thirds of its total capacity. The carbide chambers after filling remain hermetically closed until the bottom is opened for the discharge of the carbide. There is a sludge-cock G at the bottom of the generating tank. The gas passes from the gasholder through a purifier H, which is ordinarily charged with puratylene.



(2) Non-automatic; carbide-to-water.

This apparatus comprises a storage bell gasholder J placed alongside a generating tank in the top of which is a funnel E with a counter-weighted lever pivoted on the arm B. The base of the funnel is closed by a flap valve C hinged at D. When it is desired to generate gas the counter-weight A of the lever is raised and the valve at the bottom of the funnel is thereby opened. A charge of carbide is then tipped into the funnel and drops into the water in the generating tank. The valve is then closed and the gas evolved goes through the pipe G to the gasholder, whence it passes through a purifier to the service-pipe. There is a sludge-cock on the generating tank.



Maker: SOC. AN. BELGE DE LA PHOTOLITHE, 2 RUE DE HUY, LIEGE.

Type: Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The "Photolithe" generating plant made by this firm comprises an equalising bell gasholder A in the tank O, alongside a generating tank B which is surmounted by a carbide storage receptacle divided into a number of compartments. These compartments are fitted with flap bottoms secured by catches, and are charged with carbide. Through the middle of the storage receptacle passes a spindle, to the upper end of which is attached a pulley b. Round the pulley passes a chain, one end of which carries a weight n, while in the other direction it traverses guide pulleys and is attached to a loop on the crown of the gasholder bell. When the bell falls below a certain point owing to the consumption of gas, it pulls the chain and rotates the pulley b and therewith an arm d, which liberates the catch supporting the flap-bottom of the next in order of the carbide compartments. The contents of this compartment are thereby discharged through the shoot C into the generating tank B. The gas evolved passes through the cock R and the pipe T into the gasholder, the rise of the bell of which takes the pull off the chain and allows the weight at its other end to draw it up until it is arrested by the stop f. The arm d is thereby brought into position to liberate the catch of the next carbide receptacle. The generating tank is enlarged at its base to form a sludge receptacle E, which is provided with a sludge draw-off cock S and a hand-hole P. Between the generating tank proper and the sludge receptacle is a grid, which is cleaned by means of a rake with handle L. The gas passes from the gasholder through a purifier H charged with puratylene, to the service-pipe.



The same firm also makes a portable generating apparatus in which the carbide is placed in a basket in the crown of the bell of the gasholder. This apparatus is supplied on a trolley for use in autogenous soldering or welding.

FRANCE.

Maker: LA SOC. DES APPLICATIONS DE L'ACETYLENE, 26 RUE CADET, PARIS.

Type: Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The "Javal" generating plant made by this firm consists of an equalising bell gasholder A in the tank B with a series of buckets D, with removable bottoms h, mounted on a frame F round the guide framing of the holder. Alongside the gasholder stands the generating tank H with shoot K, into which the carbide discharged from the buckets falls. On top of the generator is a tipping water-bucket I supplied with water through a ball cock. The bell of the gasholder is connected by chains a and c, and levers b and d with an arm which, when the bell descends to a certain point, comes in contact with the catch by which the bottom of the carbide bucket is held in place, and, liberating the same, allows the carbide to fall into the shoot. When the bell rises, in consequence of the evolved gas, the ring of carbide buckets is rotated sufficiently to bring the next bucket over the shoot. Thus the buckets are discharged in turn as required through the rise and fall of the gasholder bell.



The carbide falling from the opened bucket strikes the end i of the lever k, and thereby tips the water-bucket I and discharges its contents into the shoot of the generator. The rise in the level of the water in the generator, due to the discharge of the water from the bucket I, lifts the float L and therewith, through the attached rod and chain u, the ball s of the valve t. The sludge, which has accumulated in the base N of the generator from the decomposition of the previous portion of carbide, is thereby discharged automatically into a special drain. The discharge- valve closes automatically when the float L has sunk to its original level. The gas evolved passes from the generator through the seal-pot M and the pipe r with cock q into the gasholder, from which it passes through the pipe x; with condensation chamber and discharge tap y into the purifier R, which is charged with heratol.

Maker: L'HERMITE, LOUVIERS, EURE.

Type: (1) Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The generating plant known as "L'Eclair," by this firm comprises an equalising bell gasholder A floating in an annular water-seal N, formed in the upper part of a generating tank B into which carbide enters through the shoot K. Mounted at the side of the tank is the carbide delivery device, which consists of the carbide containers J supported on an axis beneath the water-sealed cover H. The containers are filled with ordinary lump carbide when the cover H is removed. The tappet O attached to the bell of the gasholder come in contact with a pawl when the gasholder bell descends to a certain level and thereby rotates a pinion on the protruding end of the axis which carries the carbide containers J. Each time the bell falls and the tappet strikes the pawl, one compartment of the carbide containers discharges its contents down the shoot K into the generating tank B. The gas evolved passes upwards and causes the bell A to rise. The gas is prevented from rising into the shoot by the deflecting plates G. The natural level of the water in the generating tank, when the apparatus is in use, is shown by the dotted lines L. The lime sludge is discharged from time to time through the cock E, being stirred up by means of the agitator C with handle D. When the sludge is discharged water is added through M to the proper level. The gas evolved passes from the holder through the pipe with tap F to the service-pipe. A purifier is supplied if desired.



References

A Gasholder. B Generator. C Agitator. D Handle of agitator. E Sludge-cock. F Gas outlet. G Deflecting plates. H Cover. I Carbide. J Automatic distributor. K Shoot. L Water-level. M Water-inlet. N Water-seal. O Tappet.

(2) Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact.

A generating plant known as "L'Etoile" made by this firm. A tappet on the bell of an equalising gasholder depresses a lever which causes water to flow into a funnel, the outlet of which leads to a generating chamber containing carbide.

Maker: MAISON SIRIUS, FR. MANGIAMELI & CO., 34 RUE DES PETITS- HOTELS, PARIS.

Type: (1) Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The generating plant made by this firm comprises a drum-shaped carbide holder mounted above a generating tank, a condenser, a washer, an equalising gasholder, and a purifier. The drum A is divided into eight chambers a each closed by a fastening on the periphery of the drum. These chambers are packed with lump carbide, which is discharged from them in turn through the funnel B into the generating tank, which is filled with water to the level of the overflow cock b. A deflecting plate d in the tank distributes the carbide and prevents the evolved gas passing out by way of the funnel B. The gas evolved passes through the pipe O into the condenser, which is packed with coke, through which the gas goes to the pipe E and so to the washer P through the water, in which it bubbles and issues by the pipe G into the gasholder. The bell L of the gasholder is connected by a chain C to the axis of the drum A, on which is a pinion with pawl so arranged that the pull on the chain caused by the fall of the bell of the gasholder rotates the drum by 1/8 of a turn. The catch on the outside of the carbide chamber, which has thereby been brought to the lowest position, is at the same time freed, so that the contents of the chamber are discharged through the funnel B. The evolved gas causes the bell to rise and the drum remains at rest until, owing to the consumption of gas, the bell again falls and rotates the drum by another 1/8 of a turn. Each chamber of the drum holds sufficient carbide to make a volume of gas nearly equal to the capacity of the gasholder. Thus each discharge of carbide very nearly fills the gasholder, but cannot over-fill it. The bell is provided with a vent-pipe i, which comes into operation should the bell rise so high that it is on the point of becoming unsealed. From the gasholder the gas passes through the pipe J, with cock e, to the purifier, which is charged with frankoline, puratylene, or other purifying material, whence it passes to the pipe N leading to the place of combustion. The generating tank is provided with a sludge-cock g, and a cleaning opening with lid f. This generating plant has been primarily designed for the use of acetylene for autogenous welding, and is made also mounted on a suitable trolley for transport for this purpose.



(2) Automatic; carbide-to-water.

A later design of generating plant, known as the Type G, also primarily intended for the supply of acetylene for welding, has the carbide store mounted in the crown of the bell of the equalising gasholder, to the framing of the tank of which are attached a purifier, charged with frankoline, and a safety water-seal or valve. The whole plant is mounted on a four-legged stand, and is provided with handles for carrying as a whole without dismounting. It is made in two sizes, for charges of 5-1/2 and 11 lb. of carbide respectively.

GERMANY.

Maker: KELLER AND KNAPPICH, G.m.b.H., AUGSBURG.

Type: Non-automatic; carbide-to-water.

The "Knappich" generating plant made by this firm embodies a generating tank, one-half of which is closed, and the other half of which is open at the top, containing water. A small drum containing carbide is attached by a clamp to the end of a lever which projects above the open half of the tank. The lever is fastened to a horizontal spindle which is turned through 180 deg. by means of a counter-weighted lever handle. The carbide container is thus carried into the water within the closed half of the tank, and is opened automatically in transit. The carbide is thus exposed to the water and the evolved gas passes through a pipe from the top of the generating tank to a washer acting on the Livesey principle, and thence to a storage gasholder. The use of closed carbide containers in charging is intended to preclude the introduction of air into the generator, and the evolution and escape of gas to the air while the carbide is being introduced. Natural circulation of the water in the generating tank is encouraged with a view to the dissipation of heat and washing of the evolved gas. From the gasholder the gas passes in a downward direction through two purifiers arranged in series, charged with a material supplied under the proprietary name of "Carburylen." This material is stated to act as a desiccating as well as a purifying agent. The general arrangement of the plant is shown in the illustration. (Fig. 38).



Maker: NORDISCHE AZETYLEN-INDUSTRIE; ALTONA-OTTENSEN.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; "drawer."

The apparatus made by this firm consists of an equalising gasholder with bell D and tank E, a water-tank O, and two drawer generators C situated in the base of the gasholder tank. The water-supply from the tank O through the pipe P with valve Q is controlled by the rise and fall of the bell through the medium of the weight J attached to the bell. When the bell descends this weight rests on K and so moves a counter-weighted lever, which opens the valve Q. The water then flows through the nozzle B into one division of the funnel A and down the corresponding pipe to one of the generators. The generators contain trays with compartments intended to be half filled with carbide. The gas evolved passes up the pipe T and through the seal U into the bell of the gasholder. There is a safety pipe F, the upper end of which is carried outside the generator house. From the gasholder the gas is delivered through the cock M to a purifier charged with a special purifying material mixed with cork waste and covered with wadding. There is a drainage cock N at the base of the purifier. The nozzle B of the water-supply pipe is shifted to discharge into either compartment of the funnel A, according to which of the two generators is required to be in action. The other generator may then be recharged without interfering with the continuous working of the plant.



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

Maker: THE ACETYLENE CORPORATION OF GREAT BRITAIN LTD., 49 VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W.

Type: (1) Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed pans.

The "A1" generating plant made by this firm comprises a bell gasholder, with central guide, standing alongside the generator. The generator consists of a rectangular tank in which is a generating chamber having a water-sealed lid with pressure test-cock I. Into the generating chamber fit a number of pans J, which are charged with carbide. Water is supplied to the generating chamber from an overhead tank B through the starting tap D and the funnel E. It flows out of the supply-pipe near the top of the generating chamber through a slot in the side of the pipe facing the corner of the chamber, so that it runs down the latter without splashing the carbide in the upper pans. It enters first the lowest carbide pan through the perforations, which are at different levels in the side of the pan. It thus attacks the carbide from the bottom upwards. The evolved gas passes from the generating chamber through a pipe opening near the top of the same to the washer A, which forms the base of the generating tank. It bubbles through the water in the washer, which therefore also serves as a water-seal, and passes thence to the gasholder. On the bell of the gasholder is an arm C which, when the holder descends nearly to its lowest point, depresses the rod C, which is connected by a chain to a piston in the outlet-pipe from the water-tank B. The fall of the gasholder thereby raises the piston and allows water to flow out of the tank B through the tap D to the funnel E. The generating tank is connected by a pipe, with tap G, with the washer A, and the water in the generating tank is run off through this pipe each time the generating chamber is opened for recharging, thereby flushing out the washer A and renewing the water in the same. There is a sludge discharging tap F. With a view to the ready dissipation of the heat of generation the generating chamber is made rectangular and is placed in a water-tank as described. Some of the heat of generation is also communicated to the underlying washer and warms the water in it, so that the washing of the gas is effected by warm water. Water condensing in the gasholder inlet-pipe falls downwards to the washer. There is a water lip H by which the level of the water in the washer is automatically kept constant. The gasholder is provided with a safety-pipe K, which allows gas to escape through it to the open before the sides of the holder become unsealed, should the holder for any reason become over-filled. The holder is of a capacity to take the whole of the gas evolved from the carbide in one pan, and the water- tank B holds just sufficient water for the decomposition of one charge of the generator. From the gasholder the gas passes through a purifier, which is ordinarily charged with "Klenzal," and a baffle-box for abstraction of dust, to the service-pipe. With plants intended to supply more than forty lights for six hours, two or more generating chambers are employed, placed in separate compartments of one rectangular generating tank. The water delivery from the water-tank B then takes place into a trough with outlets at different levels for each generating chamber. By inspection of this trough it may be seen at once whether the charge in any generating chamber is unattacked, in course of attack, or exhausted.



(2) Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact.

The same firm also makes the "Corporation Flexible-Tube Generator," which is less costly than the "A1" (vide supra). The supply of water to the generating vessels takes place from the tank of the equalising bell gasholder and is controlled by a projection on the bell which depresses a flexible tube delivering into the generating vessels below the level of the water inlet to the tube.

(3) Automatic; water-to-carbide; "drawer."

The same firm also makes a generator known as the "A-to-Z," which is less costly than either of the above. In it water is supplied from the tank of a bell gasholder to a drawer type of generator placed in the base of the gasholder tank. The supply of water is controlled by an external piston- valve actuated through the rise and fall of the bell of the gasholder. The flow of water to the generator is visible.

Maker: THE ACETYLENE GAS AND CARBIDE OF CALCIUM CO., PONTARDAWE, R.S.O., GLAM.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; flooded compartment.

The "Owens" generator made by this firm comprises an equalising bell gasholder alongside which are placed two or more inclined generating cylinders. The front lower end of each cylinder is fitted with a lid which is closed by a screw clamp. There is inserted in each cylinder a cylindrical trough, divided into ten compartments, each of which contains carbide. Water is supplied to the upper ends of the cylinders from a high-level tank placed at the back of the gasholder. In the larger sizes the tank is automatically refilled from a water service through a ball-cock. The outlet-valve of this tank is operated through a counter- weighted lever, the unweighted end of which is depressed by a loop, attached to the crown of the gasholder bell, when the bell has nearly reached its lowest position. This action of the bell on the lever opens the outlet-valve of the tank and allows water to flow thence into one of the generating cylinders. It is discharged into the uppermost of the compartments of the carbide trough, and when the carbide in that compartment is exhausted it flows over the partition into the next compartment, and so on until the whole trough is flooded. The gas passes from the generating cylinders through a water-seal and a baffle plate condenser placed within the water link of the gasholder to the bell of the latter. There is a water seal on the water supply-pipe from the tank to the generators, which would be forced should the pressure within the generators for any reason become excessive. There is also a sealed vent- pipe which allows of the escape of gas from the holder to the open should the holder for any reason be over filled. The gas passes from the holder through a purifier charged with "Owens" purifying material to the service pipe. The plant is shown in Fig 41.



Maker ACETYLENE ILLUMINATING CO, LTD, 268-270 SOUTH LAMBETH ROAD, LONDON, SW

Type (1) Non automatic, carbide to water

The generator A of this type made by this firm is provided with a loading box B, with gas tight lid, into which the carbide is put. It is then discharged by moving a lever which tilts the hinged bottom D of the box B, and so tips the carbide through the shoot E on to the conical distributor F and into the water in the generating chamber. There is a sludge cock G at the base of the generator. Gas passes as usual from the generator to a washer and storage gasholder. Heratol is the purifying material supplied.



(2) Non-automatic; water-to-carbide; contact.

The generator A is provided with a carbide container with perforated base, and water is supplied to it from a delivery-pipe through a scaled overflow. The gas evolved passes through the pipe E to the washer B, which contains a distributor, and thence to the storage gasholder G. There is a sludge-cock F at the base of the generator. From the gasholder the gas passes through the purifier D, charged with heratol, to the service-pipe.



Maker: THE ALLEN CO., 106 VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

The generating plant made by this firm comprises an equalising bell gasholder, from the tank of which water is supplied through a flexible tube to the top of a water-scaled generating chamber in which is a vertical cylinder containing a cage packed with carbide. The open end of the flexible tube is supported by a projection from the bell of the gasholder, so that as the bell rises it is raised above the level of the water in the tank and so ceases to deliver water to the generator until the bell again falls. The water supplied flows by way of the water-seal of the cover of the generating chamber to the cylinder containing the carbide cage. Larger sizes have two generating chambers, and the nozzle of the water delivery-pipe may be switched over from one to the other. There is an overflow connexion which brings the second chamber automatically into action when the first is exhausted. One chamber may be recharged while the other is in action. Spare cylinders and cages are provided for use when recharging. There is a cock for drawing off water condensing in the outlet-pipe from the gasholder. The gas passes from the holder to the lower part of a purifier with water-scaled cover, through the purifying material in which it rises to the outlet leading to the service-pipe. Purifying material under the proprietary name of the "Allen" compound is supplied. The plant is shown in Fig. 44.



Maker: THE BON-ACCORD ACETYLENE GAS CO., 285 KING STREET, ABERDEEN.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

The "Bon Accord" generating plant made by this firm comprises an equalising displacement gasholder B immersed in a water-tank A. Alongside the tank are placed two water-jacketed generating chambers G1 and G2 containing cages K charged with carbide. Water passes from within the gasholder through the water inlet- pipes L1 L2, the cock H, and the pipes F1 F2 to the generating chambers, from which the gas evolved travels to the holder B, in which it displaces water until the water-level falls below the mouths of the pipes L1 and L2, and so cuts off the supply of water to the generating chambers. The gas passes from the holder B through the pipe with outlet-cock T to a washer containing an acid solution for the neutralisation of ammonia, then through a purifier containing a "special mixture of chloride of lime." After that through a tower packed with lime, and finally through a pressure regulator, the outlet of which is connected to the service-pipe. There is an indicator I to show the amount of gas in the holder. One generator may be charged while the other is in action.



Maker: FREDK. BRABY AND CO., LTD., ASHTON GATE WORKS, BRISTOL; AND 352-364 EUSTON ROAD, LONDON.

Type: (I) Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The "A" type of generator made by this firm comprises an equalising bell gasholder, round the bell of which are arranged a series of buckets which are charged with carbide. Those buckets are discharged in turn as the bell falls from time to time through a mechanism operated by a weight suspended from a wire cord on a revolving spindle. The carbide is discharged on to a different spot in the generating tank from each bucket. There is a cock for the periodical removal of sludge. Gas passes through a purifier charged with puratylene to the service-pipe. The disposition of the parts of the plant and the operating mechanism arc shown in the accompanying figure, which represents the generating apparatus partly in elevation and partly in section. The carbide buckets (1) are loosely hooked on the flat ring (2) bolted to the gasholder tank (3). The buckets discharge through the annular water-space (4) between the tank and the generator (5). The rollers (6), fitted on the generator, support a ring (7) carrying radial pins (8) projecting outwards, one pin for each bucket. The ring can travel round on the rollers. Superposed on the ring is a tray (9) closed at the bottom except for an aperture beneath the throat (11), on which is mounted an inclined striker (12), which strikes the projecting tongues (1a) of the lids of the buckets in turn. There is fixed to the sides of the generator a funnel (13) with open bottom (13a) to direct the carbide, on to the rocking grid (14) which is farther below the funnel than appears from the figure. Gas passing up behind the funnel escapes through a duct (15) to the gasholder. The ring (7) is rotated through the action of the weight (16) suspended by the chain or rope (17) which passes round the shaft (18), which is supported by the bracket (19) and has a handle for winding up. An escapement, with upper limb (20a) and lower limb (20b), is pivotally centred at (21) in the bracket (19) and normally restrains the turning of the shaft by the weight. There is a fixed spindle (24) supported on the bracket (23)—which is fixed to the tank or one of the guide-rods—having centred on it a curved bar or quadrant (25) running loose on the spindle (24) and having a crank arm (26) to which is connected one end of a rod (27) which, at the other end, is connected to the arm (28) of the escapement. The quadrant bears at both extremities against the flat bar (29) when the bell (22) is sufficiently raised. The bar (29) extends above the bell and carries an arm (30) on which is a finger (30a). There is fixed on the shaft (18) a wheel (31), with diagonal divisions or ways extending from side to side of its rim, and stop-pins (32) on one side at each division. A clutch prevents the rotation of the wheel during winding up.



(2) Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

The type "B" generator made by this firm comprises an equalising bell gasholder, a crescent-shaped feed water-tank placed on one side of the gasholder, and mechanism for controlling a tap on the pipe by which the feed water passes to a washer whence it overflows through a seal into a horizontal generating chamber containing cells packed with carbide. The mechanism controlling the water feed embodies the curved bar (25), connecting-rod (27) and flat guide-bar (29) as used for controlling the carbide feed in the "A" type of generator (Fig. 46). When the bell descends water is fed into the washer, and the water-level of the seal is thus automatically maintained. The gas evolved passes through a pipe, connecting the seal on the top of the generating chamber with the washer, into the gasholder. Plants of large size have two generating chambers with connexions to a single washer.

Maker: THE DARGUE ACETYLENE GAS CO., 57 GREY STREET, NEWCASTLE-ON- TYNE.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; "drawer."

The "Dargue" acetylene generator made by this firm comprises an equalising bell gasholder B floating in a water-tank A, which is deeper than is necessary to submerge the bell of the gasholder. In the lower part of this tank are placed two or more horizontal generating chambers which receive carbide-containing trays divided by partitions into a number of compartments which are half filled with carbide. Water is supplied from the gasholder tank through the tap E and pipe F to the generating chambers in turn. It rises in the latter and floods the first compartment containing carbide before gaining access to the second, and so on throughout the series of compartments. As soon as the carbide in the first generating chamber is exhausted, the water overflows from it through the pipe with by-pass tap J to the second generating chamber. The taps G and H serve to disconnect one of the generating chambers from the water-supply during recharging or while another chamber is in action. The gas evolved passes from each generating chamber through a pipe L, terminating in the dip-pipe M, which is provided with a baffle-plate having very small perforations by which the stream of gas is broken up, thereby subjecting it to thorough washing by the upper layers of water in the gasholder tank. The washed gas, which thus enters the gasholder, passes from it through the pipe N with main cock R to the service- pipes. The water-supply to the generator is controlled through the tap E, which is operated by a chain connected to an arm attached to the bell of the gasholder.

The water in the gasholder tank is accordingly made to serve for the supply of the generating chambers, for the washing of the gas, and as a jacket to the generating chambers. The heat evolved by the decomposition of the carbide in the latter creates a circulation of the water, ensuring thereby thorough mixing of the fresh water, which is added from time to time to replace that removed for the decomposition of the carbide, with the water already in the tank. Thus the impurities acquired by the water from the washing of the gas do not accumulate in it to such an extent as to render it necessary to run off the whole of the water and refill, except at long intervals. A purifier, ordinarily charged with puratylene, is inserted in many cases after the main cock R. The same firm makes an automatic generator on somewhat similar lines, specially designed for use in autogenous welding, the smaller sizes of which are readily portable.



Maker: J. AND J. DRUMMOND, 162 MARKET STREET, ABERDEEN.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact.

The generating plant made by this firm comprises two or more generating vessels B in which carbide is contained in removable cases perforated at different levels. Water is supplied to these generating vessels, entering them at the bottom, from an elevated tank A through a pipe C, in which is a tap F connected by a lever and chain L with the bell G of the equalising gasholder H, into which the evolved gas passes. The lever of the tap F is counter-weighted so that when the bell G descends the tap is opened, and when the bell rises the tap is closed. The gas passes from the generating chambers B through the pipe D to the washer-cooler E and thence to the gasholder. From the latter it passes through the dry purifier J to the service-pipe. The gasholder bell is sealed in oil contained in an annular tank instead of in the usual single-walled tank containing water. The purifying material ordinarily supplied is puratylene. The apparatus is also made to a large extent in a compact form specially for use on board ships.



Agents: FITTINGS, LTD., 112 VICTORIA STREET, S.W.

Type: Automatic; carbide-to-water.

The "Westminster" generator supplied by this firm is the "Davis" generator described in the section of the United States. The rights for the sale of this generator in Great Britain are held by this firm.

Maker: LOCKERBIE AND WILKINSON, TIPTON, STAFFS.

Type: (1) Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

The "Thorscar" generator of this firm comprises an equalising gasholder, the gas-space of the bell B of which is reduced by conical upper walls. When the bell descends and this lining enters the water in the tank A the displacement of water is increased and its level raised until it comes above the mouths of the pipes E, through which a portion then flows to the generators D. The evolution of the gas in the latter causes the bell to rise and the conical lining to be lifted out of the water, the level of which thereupon falls below the mouths of the pipes E in consequence of the reduced displacement of the bell. The supply of water to the generators is thus cut off until the bell again falls and the level of the water in the tank is raised above the mouths of the pipes E. The generating chambers D are provided with movable cages F in which the carbide is arranged on trays. The gas evolved travels through a scrubbing-box G containing charcoal, and the pipe J with drainage-pipe P to the water-seal or washer K inside the holder, into which it then passes. The outlet-pipe for gas from the holder leads through the condensing coil L immersed in the water in the tank to the condensed water-trap N, and thence by the tap Q to the supply-pipe. The generating chambers are water-jacketed and provided with gauge-glasses H to indicate when recharging is necessary, and also with sludge-cocks M. The object of the displacement cone in the upper part of the bell is to obtain automatic feed of water to the carbide without the use of cocks or movable parts. There is a funnel- shaped indicator in front of the tank for regulating the height of water to a fixed level, and also an independent purifier, the purifying material or which is supplied under the proprietary name of "Thorlite."



(2) Non-automatic; water-to-carbide; "drawer."

This generating plant, the "Thorlite," comprises a water-tank A from which water is admitted to the drawer generating chambers B, one of which may be recharged while the other is in operation. The gas evolved passes through a seal C to the gasholder D, whence it issues as required for use through the purifier E to the supply-pipe. For the larger sixes a vertical generating chamber is used. The purifier and purifying material are the same as for the automatic plant of the same firm.



Maker: THE MANCHESTER ACETYLENE GAS CO., LTD., ACRE WORKS, CLAYTON, MANCHESTER.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; "drawer."

The plant made by this firm comprises an equalising gasholder A from the tank of which water is supplied to generating cylinders B placed at the side of the tank, the number of which varies with the capacity of the plant. The cylinders receive tray carbide-containers divided into compartments perforated at different levels so that they are flooded in turn by the inflowing water. A weight C carried by a chain D from one end of a lever E pivoted to the framing of the gasholder is supported by the bell of the gasholder when the latter rises; but when the holder falls the weight C, coming upon the lever E, raises the rod F, which thereupon opens the valve G, which then allows water to flow from the gasholder tank through the pipe H to one of the generating cylinders. When the carbide in the first cylinder is exhausted, the water passes on to a second. One generating cylinder may be recharged while another is in action. The rising of the holder, due to the evolved gas, causes the bell to support the weight C and thus closes the water supply-valve G. The gas evolved passes through vertical condensers J into washing- boxes K, which are placed within the tank. The gas issues from the washing-boxes into the gasholder bell, whence it is withdrawn through the pipe L which leads to the purifier. Puratylene is the purifying material ordinarily supplied by this firm.



Maker: R,. J. MOSS AND SONS, 98 SNOW HILL, BIRMINGHAM.

Type: (1) Automatic; water-to-carbide; superposed trays.

The "Moss" generator, "Type A," made by this firm comprises an equalising gasholder, four, three, or two generating chambers, and an intermediate water-controlling chamber. Each generating chamber consists of a frame in which are arranged about a central tube trays half filled with carbide, having water inlet-holes at several different levels, and each divided into two compartments. Over this frame is put a bell-shaped cover or cap, and the whole is placed in an outer tank or bucket, in the upper part of which is a water inlet-orifice. The water entering by this orifice passes down the outside of the bell, forming a water-seal, and rises within the bell to the perforations in the carbide trays from the lowest upwards, and so reaches the carbide in successive layers until the whole has been exhausted. The gas evolved passes through the central tube to a water- seal and condensing tank, through which it escapes to the controlling chamber, which consists of a small water displacement chamber, the gas outlet of which is connected to the equalising gasholder. The bell of the equalising gasholder is weighted or balanced so that when it rises to a certain point the pressure is increased to a slight extent and consequently the level of the water in the displacement controlling chamber is lowered. In this chamber is a pipe perforated at about the water-level, so that when the level is lowered through the increased pressure thrown by the rising gasholder the water is below the perforations and cannot enter the pipe. The pipe leads to the water inlet-orifices of the generating tanks and when the equalising gasholder falls, and so reduces the pressure within the controlling chamber, the water in the latter rises and flows through the pipe to the generating tanks. The water supplied to the carbide is thus under the dual control of the controlling chamber and of the differential pressure within the generating tank. The four generators are coupled so that they come into action in succession automatically, and their order of operation is naturally reversed after each recharging. An air-cock is provided in the crown of the bell of each generator and, in case there should be need of examination when charged, cocks are provided in other parts of the apparatus for withdrawing water. There is a sludge-cock on each generator. The gas passes from the equalising gasholder through a purifier, for which the material ordinarily supplied is puratylene.



The "Moss Type B" generator is smaller and more compact than "Type A." It has ordinarily only two generating chambers, and the displacement water controlling chamber is replaced by a bell governor, the bell of which is balanced through a lever and chains by a weight suspended over the bell of the equalising gasholder, which on rising supports this counter-weight and so allows the governor bell to fall, thereby cutting off the flow of water to the generating chambers.



The "Moss Type C" generator is smaller than either "Type A" or "B," and contains only one generating chamber, which is suspended in a pocket in the crown of the equalising gasholder. Water enters through a hole near the top of the bucket of the generating chamber, when it descends with the holder through the withdrawal of gas from the latter.



(2) Semi-automatic; water-to-carbide; superposed trays.

The "Moss Semi-Non-Auto" generating plant resembles the automatic plant described above, but a storage gasholder capable of holding the gas evolved from one charging of the whole of the generating chambers is provided in place of the equalising gasholder, and the generation of gas proceeds continuously at a slow rate.

The original form of the "Acetylite" generator (vide infra) adapted for lantern use is also obtainable of R. J. Moss and Sons.

Maker: WM. MOYES AND SONS, 115 BOTHWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

Type: Automatic; carbide-to-water. The "Acetylite" generator made by this firm consists of an equalising gasholder and one or more generating tanks placed alongside it. On the top of each generating tank is mounted a chamber, with conical base, charged with granulated carbide 1/8 to 1/2 inch in size. There is an opening at the bottom of the conical base through which passes a rod with conical head, which, when the rod is lowered, closes the opening. The rod is raised and lowered through levers by the rise and fall of the bell of the equalising gasholder, which, when it has risen above a certain point, supports a counter-weight, the pull of which on the lever keeps the conical feed-valve open. The gas evolved in the generating tanks passes through a condensing chamber situated at the base of the tank into the equalising gasholder and so automatically controls the feed of carbide and the evolution of gas according to the rate of withdrawal of the gas from the holder to the service-pipes. The water in the gasholder tank acts as a scrubbing medium to the gas. The generating tanks are provided with sludge-cocks and a tap for drawing off condensed water. The gas passes from the equalising gasholder, through a purifier and dryer charged with heratol or other purifying material to the service-pipes. The original form of the "Acetylite" generator is shown in elevation and vertical section in Fig. 55. Wm. Moyes and Sons now make it also with a detached equalising gasholder connected with the generator by a pipe in which is inserted a lever cock actuated automatically through a lever and cords by a weight above the bell of the gasholder. Some other changes have been made with a view to securing constancy of action over long periods and uniformity of pressure. In this form the apparatus is also made provided with a clock-work mechanism for the supply of lighthouses, in which the light is flashed on periodically. The flasher is operated through a pilot jet, which serves to ignite the gas at the burners when the supply is turned on to them at the prescribed intervals by the clock- work mechanism.



Maker: THE PHOS CO., 205 AND 207 BALLS POND ROAD, LONDON, N. Type: Non-automatic; water-to-carbide; drip.

The type "E" generator made by this firm consists of a generating chamber placed below a water chamber having an opening with cap E for refilling. The generating chamber in closed by a door B, with rubber washer C, held in position by the rod A, the ends of which pass into slots, and the screw A'. The movable carbide chamber D has its upper perforated part half filled with carbide, which is pressed upwards by a spring D'. The carbide chamber when filled is placed in the generating chamber, which is closed, and the lever F of one of the taps F' is turned from "off" to "on," whereupon water drips from the tank on to the carbide. The evolution of gas is stopped by reversing the lever of the tap. The second tap is provided for use when the evolution of gas, through the water-supply from the first tap, has been stopped and it is desired to start the apparatus without waiting for water from the first tap to soak through a layer of spent carbide. The two taps are not intended for concurrent use. The evolved gas passes through a purifier containing any suitable purifying material to the pipes leading to the burners.



Maker: ROSCO ACETYLENE COMPANY, BELFAST.

Type: Non-automatic; carbide-to-water

The "Rosco" generating plant made by this firm comprises a generating tank A which is filled with water to a given level by means of the funnel-mouthed pipe B and the overflow O. On the top of the water-sealed lid of the generating tank is mounted the carbide feed-valve L, which consists of a hollow plug-tap with handle M. When the handle M is turned upwards the hollow of the tap can be filled from the top of the barrel with carbide. On giving the tap a third of a turn the hollow of the plug is cut off from the outer air and is opened to the generating tank so that the carbide contained in it is discharged over a distributor E on to the tray N in the water in the generating tank. The gas evolved passes through the scrubber and seal-pot J to the storage gasholder Q. From the latter the gas passes through the dry purifier T to the service-pipe. A sludge- cock P is provided at the bottom of the generating tank and is stated to be available for use while generation of gas is proceeding. The purifying material ordinarily supplied is "Roscoline."



Maker: THE RURAL DISTRICTS GAS LIGHT CO., 28 VICTORIA STREET, S.W.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

The "Signal-Arm" generating apparatus made by this firm comprises a bell gasholder A, from the tank B of which water is supplied through a swivelled pipe C to a generating chamber D. One end of the swivelled pipe is provided with a delivery nozzle, the other end is closed and counter-weighted, so that normally the open end of the pipe is raised above the level of the water in the tank. A tappet E on the bell of the gasholder comes into contact with, and depresses, the open end of the swivelled pipe when the bell falls below a certain point. As soon as the open end of the swivelled pipe has thus been lowered below the level of the water in the tank, water flows through it into the funnel-shaped mouth F of a pipe leading to the bottom of the generating chamber. The latter is filled with cages containing carbide, which is attacked by the water rising in the chamber. The gas evolved passing into and raising the bell of the gasholder causes the open end of the swivelled pipe to rise, through the weight of the counterpoise G, above the level of the water in the tank and so cuts off the supply of water to the generating chamber until the bell again descends and depresses the swivelled pipe. The tappet on the bell also displaces a cap H which covers the funnel-shaped mouth of the pipe leading to the generating chamber, which cap, except when the swivelled supply-pipe is being brought into play, prevents any extraneous moisture or other matter entering the mouth of the funnel. Between the generating chamber and the gasholder is a three-way cock J in the gas connexion, which, when the gasholder is shut off from the generator, brings the latter into communication with a vent-pipe K leading to the open. The gas passes from the holder to a chamber L under grids packed with purifying material, through which it passes to the outlet of the purifier and thence to the service-pipe. Either heratol or chloride of lime is used in the purifier, the lid of which, like the cover of the generator, is water-sealed.



Maker: ST. JAMES' ILLUMINATING CO., LTD., 3 VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W.

Type: (1) Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

This plant consists of the generators A, the washer B, the equalising gasholder C, the purifier D, and the water-tank E. The carbide is arranged in baskets in the generators to which water is supplied from the cistern E through the pipe F. The supply is controlled by means of the valve H, which is actuated through the rod G by the rise and fall of the gasholder C. Gas travels from the gasholder through the purifier D to the service-pipe. The purifier is packed with heratol resting on a layer of pumice. The washer B contains a grid, the object of which is to distribute the stream of gas through the water. There is a syphon-pot J for the reception of condensed moisture. Taps K are provided for shutting off the supply of water from the generators during; recharging, and there is an overflow connexion L for conveying the water to the second generator as soon as the first is exhausted. There is a sludge-cock M at the base of each generator.

(2) Non-automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

This resembles the preceding plant except that the supply of water from the cistern to the generators takes place directly through the pipe N (shown in dotted lines in the diagram) and is controlled by hand through the taps K. The automatic control-valve H and the rod G are omitted. The gasholder C is increased in size so that it becomes a storage holder capable of containing the whole of the gas evolved from one charging.



Maker: THE STANDARD ACETYLENE CO., 123 VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W.

Type: (1) Non-automatic; carbide-to-water.

This plant comprises the generator A, the washer B, the storage gasholder C, and the purifier D. The generator is first filled with water to the crown of the cover, and carbide is then thrown into the water by hand through the gas-tight lock, which is opened and closed as required by the horizontal handle P. A cast-iron grid prevents the lumps of carbide falling into the sludge in the conical base of the generator. At the base of the cone is a sludge-valve G. The gas passes from the generator through the pipe H into the washer B, and after bubbling through the water therein goes by way of the pipe K into the gasholder C. The syphon- pot E is provided for the reception of condensed moisture, which is removed from time to time by the pump M. From the gasholder the gas flows through the valve R to the purifier D, whence it passes to the service-pipes. The purifier is charged with material supplied under the proprietary name of "Standard."



(2) Automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed trays.

This plant comprises the generators A, the washer B, the equalising gasholder C, the purifier D, and the water-tank E. The carbide is arranged on a series of wire trays in each generator, to which water is supplied from the water-tank E through the pipe Y and the control-tap U. The gas passes through the pipes H to the washer B and thence to the holder C. The supply of water to the generators is controlled by the tap U which is actuated by the rise and fall of the gasholder bell through the rod F. The gas passes, as in the non-automatic plant, through a purifier D to the service-pipes. Taps W are provided for cutting off the flow of water to either of the generators during recharging and an overflow pipe h serves to convey the water to the second generator as soon as the carbide in the first is exhausted. A sludge-cook G is put at the base of each generator.



(3) Non-automatic; water-to-carbide; contact, superposed-trays.

This apparatus resembles the preceding except that the supply of water to the generators is controlled by hand through the taps W, the control valve U being omitted, and the gasholder C being a storage holder of sufficient dimensions to contain the whole of the acetylene evolved from one charging.

Maker: THORN AND HODDLE ACETYLENE CO., 151 VICTORIA STREET, S.W.

Type: Automatic; water-to-carbide; "drawer."

The "Incanto" generating plant made by this firm consists of a rising bell gasholder which acts mainly on an equaliser. The fall of the bell depresses a ball valve immersed in the tank, and so allows water to flow from the tank past an outside tap, which is closed only during recharging, to a generating chamber. The generating chamber is horizontal and is fixed in the base of the tank, so that its outer case is surrounded by the water in the tank, with the object of keeping it cool. The charge of carbide is placed in a partitioned container, and is gradually attacked on the flooding principle by the water which enters from the gasholder tank when the ball valve is depressed. The gas evolved passes from the generating chamber by a pipe which extends above the level of the water in the tank, and is then bent down so that its end dips several inches below the level of the water. The gas issuing from the end of the pipe is thus washed by the water in the gasholder tank. From the gasholder the gas is taken off as required for use by a pipe, the mouth of which is just below the crown of the holder. There is a lip in the upper edge of the gasholder tank into which water is poured from time to time to replace that consumed in the generation of the gas. There are from one to three generating chambers in each apparatus according to its size. The purifier is independent, and a purifying mixture under the proprietary name of "Curazo" is supplied for use in it.



Maker: WELDREN AND BLERIOT, 54 LONG ACRE, LONDON, W.C.

Type: Automatic; contact.

This firm supplies the "Acetylithe" apparatus (see Belgium).



INDEX

Absorbed acetylene, Acagine, Accidents, responsibility for, Acetone, effect of, on acetylene, solution of acetylene in, Acetylene-copper, Acetylene-oil-gas, Acetylene Association (Austrian)—regulations as to carbide, Acetylene Association (British)—analysis of carbide, generator rules, pressure gauges, purification rules, Acetylene Association (German)—analysis of carbide, holders, generator rules, standard carbide, Acetylene tetrachloride, production of, Ackermann burner, Advantages of acetylene, general, hygienic, intrinsic, pecuniary, "After generation," Air, admission of, to burners, and acetylene, ignition temperature of, composition of, dilution of acetylene with, before combustion, effect of acetylene lighting on, coal-gas lighting on, on illuminating power of acetylene, paraffin lighting on, in acetylene, in flames, effect of, in generators, danger of, objections to, in incandescent acetylene, in service-pipes, proportion of, rendering acetylene explosive, removing, from pipes, specific gravity of, sterilised by flames, Air-gas, and acetylene, comparison between, and carburetted acetylene, comparison between, effect of cold on, illuminating power of, Alcohol, action of, on carbide, for carburetting acetylene, holder seals, from acetylene, production of, Allgemeine Carbid und Acetylen Gesellschaft burner, Alloys, fusible, for testing generators, Alloys of copper. See Copper (alloyed) Aluminium sulphide, in carbide America (U.S.), regulations of the National Board of Fire Underwriters, American gallon, value of, Ammonia, in acetylene, in coal-gas, removal of, solubility of, in water, Analysis of carbide, Ansdell, compressed and liquid acetylene, Anthracene, formation of, from acetylene, Anti-freezing agents, Area of purifiers, Argand burners, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Arrangement of generating plant, Arsenious oxide purifier, Atkins, dry process of generation, Atmospheric moisture and carbide, Atomic weights, Attention needed by generators, Austrian Acetylene Association, regulations as to carbide, Austrian Government Regulations, Autogenous soldering and welding, Automatic generators. See Generators (automatic)

B

Baking of carbide Ball-sockets for acetylene, Barium peroxide purifier, sulphate in bleaching-powder, Barrel, gas, for acetylene, quality of Bell gasholders. See Holders (rising) Benz purifying material, Benzene, for carburetting acetylene, production of, from acetylene, Benzine. See Petroleum spirit Berge, detection of phosphorus, and Reychler, purification of acetylene, and Reychler's reagent, solubility of acetylene in, Bernat, formula for mains and pipes, Berthelot, addition of chlorine to acetylene, sodium acetate, sulphuric acid and acetylene, Berthelot and Matignon, thermochemical data, and Vieille, dissolved acetylene, Billwiller burners, Black, acetylene, Blagden, sodium hypochlorite, Bleaching-powder purifier (simple), Blochmann, copper acetylide, Blow-off pipes. See Vent-pipes Blowpipe, acetylene, Boiling-ring, Boistelle. See Molet Borek, enrichment of oil-gas, Bougie decimale, Brackets for acetylene, Bradley, Read, and Jacobs, calcium carbophosphide, Brame and Lewes, manganese carbide, Bray burners, British Acetylene Association. See Acetylene Association (British), Fire Offices Committee Regulations, regulations. See Acetylene Association (British); Home Office; Orders in Council Bromine-water purifier, Bullier, effect of heat on burners, phosphorus in acetylene, and Maquenne purifier, Bunsen burner, principle of, Bunte, enrichment of oil-gas, Burner orifices and gas density, Burners, atmospheric, principle of, design of, glassware for, heating, incandescent, Ackermann, Allgemeine Carbid und Acetylen Gesellschaft, Bray, firing back in, Fouche, Guenther's, illuminating power of, Jacob, Gebrueder, Keller and Knappich, Knappich, O.C.A., pressure for, principles of construction of, Schimek, Sirius, Trendel, typical, Weber, Zenith, self-luminous, Argand, as standard of light, Billwiller, Bray, choking of, corrosion of, cycle, Falk, Stadelmann and Co.'s, Konette, Phos, Wiener's, Dolan, Drake, effect of heat on, Elta, Falk, Stadelmann and Co.'s, firing back in, fish-tail, Forbes, Hannam's, illuminating power of, self-luminous injector, Javal, Kona, Luta, Naphey, Orka, Phos, Pintsch, pressure for, rat-tail, Sansair, Schwarz's, Stadelmann, Suprema, twin, angle of impingement in, injector, non-injector, warping of, Wiener's, Wonder, By-products, See also Residues

C

Cadenel, shape of incandescent acetylene mantle, "Calcidum," Calcium carbide, action of heat on, action of non-aqueous liquids on, analysis of, and carbon bisulphide, reaction between, and hydroxide, reaction between, and ice, reaction between, and steam, reaction between, and water, reaction between, as drying material, baking of, balls and cartridges. See Cartridges bulk of, chemical properties of, crushing of, decomposition of, by solids containing water, heat evolved during, imperfect, speed of, temperature attained during, deterioration of, on storage, drums of, dust in, explosibility of, fire, risk of, formula for, granulated, heat-conducting power of, of formation of, impurities in, inertness of, in residues, physical properties of, purity of, quality, regulations as to, sale and purchase of, regulations as to, scented, shape of lumps of, sizes of, small, yield of gas from, specific gravity of, heat of, standard, British, German, "sticks," storage regulations for, subdivided charges of, sundry uses of, swelling of, during decomposition, "treated," yield of acetylene from, Calcium carbophosphide, Calcium chloride, cause of frothing in generators, for seals, purifier, solubility of acetylene in, Calcium hydroxide, adhesion of, to carbide, and carbide, reaction between, milk of, solubility of acetylene in, physical properties of, space occupied by, Calcium hypochlorite, Calcium oxide, and water, reaction between, hydration of, hygroscopic nature of, physical properties of, Calcium phosphide, Calcium sulphide, Calorie, definition of, Calorific power of acetylene, various gases, Candle-power. See Illuminating power Capelle, illuminating power of acetylene, Carbide. See Calcium carbide Carbide-containers, air in, filling of, partitions in, water-jacketing, Carbide-feed generators. See Generators (carbide-to-water) Carbide impurities in acetylene, Carbide-to-water generators. See Generators (carbide-to-water) Carbides, mixed, Carbolic acid, production of, from acetylene, Carbon, combustion of, in flames, deposition of, in burners, gaseous, heat of combustion of, heat of combustion of, vaporisation of, pigment, production of, Carbon bisulphide and acetylene, reaction between, and calcium carbide, reaction between, in coal-gas, Carbon dioxide, addition of, to acetylene, dissociation of, effect of, on explosibility of acetylene, for removing air from pipes, heat of formation of, produced by respiration, benzene, coal-gas, in flame of acetylene, Carbon monoxide, in acetylene, heat of combustion of, formation of, temperature of ignition of, Carbonic acid. See Carbon dioxide Carburetted acetylene, composition of, effect of cold on, illuminating power of, manufacture of, pecuniary value of, Carburetted water-gas, enrichment of, Carburine. See Petroleum spirit Carlson, specific heat of carbide, Caro, acetone vapour in acetylene, addition of petroleum spirit to generator water, air in incandescent acetylene, calorific power of gases, colour of incandescent acetylene, composition of mantles, durability of mantles, heat production in generators, illuminating power of carburetted acetylene, of incandescent acetylene, oil of mustard, silicon in crude acetylene, Caro and Saulmann, "Calcidum," Carriage, cost of, and artificial lighting, Cartridges of carbide, Cast-iron pipe for acetylene, Castor oil for acetylene joints, Catani, temperature of acetylene flame, Caustic potash purifier, Cedercreutz, yield of gas from carbide, and Lunge, purification, Ceilings, blackening of, Ceria, proportion of, in mantles, Cesspools for residues, Chandeliers, hydraulic, for acetylene, Charcoal and chlorine purifier, Charging generators after dark, at irregular intervals, Chassiron lighthouse, Chemical formulae, meaning of, Chemical reactions and heat, of acetylene, Chimneys for stoves, &c., glass, for burners, Chloride of lime. See Bleaching-powder Chlorine and acetylene, compounds of, and charcoal purifier, in acetylene, Chromic acid purifier, Cigars, lighted, danger of, Claude and Hess, dissolved acetylene, Coal-gas, enrichment of, with acetylene, illuminating power of, impurities in, vitiation of air by, Cocks, hand-worked, in generators, Coefficient of expansion of acetone, air, dissolved acetylene, gaseous acetylene, liquid acetylene, simple gases, Coefficient of friction of acetylene, of coal-gas, Coke filters for acetylene, Cold, effect of, on acetylene, on air-gas, on carburetted acetylene, on generation, Colour judging by acetylene, of acetylene flame, of air-gas flame, Colour of atmospheric acetylene flame, of coal-gas flame, of electric light, of incandescent acetylene flame, of spent carbide, Combustion of acetylene, deposit from, Composition pipe for acetylene, Compounds, endo- and exo-thermic, explosive, of acetylene and copper, "Compounds," of phosphorus and sulphur, silicon, Compressed acetylene, Condensed matter in pipes, removal of, Condensers, Connexions, flexible, for acetylene, Construction of generators, principles of, regulations as to, Contact generators, Convection of heat, Cooking-stoves, Copper acetylide, (alloyed) in acetylene apparatus, (unalloyed) in acetylene apparatus, and acetylene, reactions between, carbides, chloride purifier Corrosion in apparatus, avoidance of, Corrosive sublimate purifier, as test for phosphorus Cost of acetylene lighting, Cotton-wool filters for acetylene, Council, Orders in. See Orders in Council Counterpoises for rising holders, Couples, galvanic, Coward. See Dixon Critical pressure and temperature of acetylene, Crushing of carbide, "Cuprene," Cuprous chloride purifier, Cycle lamps, burners for, dilute alcohol for, Cylinders for absorbed acetylene,

D

Davy, addition of chlorine to acetylene, Davy's lamp for generator sheds, Decomposing vessels. See Carbide containers Decomposition of acetylene, of carbide, See Calcium carbide (decomposition of) De Forcrand, heat of formation of carbide, Density. See Specific gravity Deposit at burner orifices, on reflectors from combustion of acetylene, Deterioration of carbide in air, Diameter of pipes and explosive limits, Diaphragms, flexible, in generators, Diffusion through gasholder seals, Diluted acetylene, Dimensions of mains and pipes, Dipping generators, Displacement gasholders. See Holders (displacement) Dissociation of acetylene, carbon dioxide, water vapour, Dissolution of acetylene, depression of freezing-point by, of gas in generators, Dissolved acetylene, Dixon and Coward, ignition temperature of acetylene, of various gases, Dolan burners, Doors of generator sheds, Drainage of mains, Drake burners, Driers, chemical, Dripping generators, Drums of carbide, Dry process of generation, Dufour, addition of air to acetylene, "Dummies" in gasholder tanks, Dust and incandescent lighting, in acetylene, carbide,

E

Effusion of gases, Eitner, explosive limits of acetylene, and Keppeler, estimation of phosphine, phosphorus in crude acetylene, Electric lamps in generator sheds, lighting, cost, and efficiency of, Elta burner, Endothermic compounds, nature of acetylene, Engines, use of acetylene in, Enrichment, value of acetylene for, with acetylene, epurene purifying material, Equations, chemical, meaning of, Erdmann, acetylene as a standard of light, colour of acetylene flame, production of alcohol, Ethylene, formation of from acetylene, heats of formation and combustion of, ignition temperature of, Exhaustion of air by flames, Exothermic compounds, Expansion of gaseous acetylene, coefficient of, of liquid acetylene coefficient of, various coefficients of, Explosibility of carbide, Explosion of chlorine and acetylene, of compressed acetylene, Explosive compounds of acetylene and copper, effects of acetylene dissociation, limits, meaning of term, of acetylene, of various gases, nature of acetylene, wave, speed of, in gases, Expulsion of air from mains,

F

Faced joints for acetylene, Falk, Stadelmann and Co., boiling-ring, burners, cycle-lamp burner, Ferric hydroxide purifier, Fery, temperature of flames, and Violle, acetylene as standard of light, Filters for acetylene, Filtration, Fire Offices Committee Regulations (British), risks of acetylene apparatus, carbide, flame illuminants, Underwriters, United States, Regulations, "Firing back" in incandescent burners, self-luminous burners, Fish, action of lime on, Fittings for acetylene, quality of, Flame, colour of, air-gas, atmospheric acetylene, coal-gas, incandescent, acetylene, self-luminous acetylene, Flame illuminants, risk of fire with, of acetylene containing air, steadiness of acetylene, Flame temperature of acetylene, temperature of various gases, Flames, distortion of, by solid matter, effect of air on, nitrogen on, evolution of heat in, light in, jumping of, liberation of carbon from, loss of heat from, shading of acetylene, size of, Flare lamps, Flash-point of paraffin, Flexible connexions for acetylene, Floats in holder seals, Flooded-compartment generators, Flow of gases in pipes, Flues for heating burners, Fog, transmission of light through, Forbes burner, Foreign regulations, Formulae, meaning of chemical, Fouche, absorbed acetylene, burner, dissolved acetylene, illuminating power of acetylene air mixtures, incandescent acetylene, liquid acetylene, oxy-acetylene blowpipe, Fournier. See Maneuvrier Fowler, enrichment of oil-gas, Fraenkel, deposit on reflectors from combustion of acetylene, silicon in acetylene, France, regulations of the Conseil d'Hygiene de la Seine, village acetylene mains in, Frank, freezing-point of calcium chloride solutions, preparation of black pigment, purifier, Frankoline, Freezing of generators, of holder seals, Freezing of portable lamps, of pressure-gauges, Freezing-point, depression of by dissolution of acetylene, of calcium chloride solutions, of dilute alcohol, of dilute glycerin, Freund and Mai, copper acetylide, Friction of acetylene, coefficient of, coal-gas, coefficient of, gas in pipes, Frost, effect of, on air-gas, on carburetted acetylene, Froth, lime, in acetylene, Frothing in generators, Fuchs and Schiff, olive oil, Furnace gases for removing air from pipes,

G

Gallon, American, value of, Galvanic action, Garelli and Falciola, depression of freezing-point by dissolution of acetylene, Gas barrel for acetylene, objection to, drying of, engines, acetylene for, escape of, from generators, firing, effects of, volumes, correction of, for temperature and pressure, yield of, from carbide, determining, standard, Gases, calorific value of, effusion of, explosive limits of, flame temperature of, illuminating power of, inflammable properties of, speed of explosive wave in, temperature of ignition of, Gasfitters' paint, Gasholders. See Holders Gatehouse, F. B., test-papers, J. W., estimation of phosphine, Gaud, blocking of burners, polymerisation of acetylene, Generation, dry process of, Generating plant, regulations as to construction of, Generator impurities in acetylene, pressure, utilisation of, sheds, lighting of, smoking in, water, addition of bleaching-powder to, of petroleum spirit to, Generators and holders, isolation of, attention needed by, Generators, charging after dark, chemical reactions in, construction of, copper in, corrosion in, dissolution of gas in, effect of tarry matter in, escape of gas from, failure of, for analytical purposes, for welding, frothing in, frozen, thawing of, gauge of sheet-metal for, heat dissipation in, economy in, produced in, high temperatures and impurities in, instructions for using, joints in, making, "lagging" for, lead solder in, materials for construction of, maximum pressure in, output of gas from, overheating in, polymerisation in, pressure in, protection of, from frost, purchase of, regulations as to, American (National Board of Fire Underwriters), Austrian Government, British Acetylene Association, Fire Offices Committee, Home Office Committee(1901), French (Council d' Hygiene de la Seine), German Acetylene Association, Hungarian Government, Italian Government, responsibility for accidents with, selection of, temperatures in, typical, vent-pipes for, waste-pipes for, water-jackets for, water-scale in, Generators (automatic), advantages of, carbide-to-water, definition of, flexible diaphragms for, holders of, interlocking in, mechanism for, pressure thrown by, speed of reaction in, store of gas in, supply of water to, use of oil in, water-to-carbide, worked by holder bell, by pressure, Generators (carbide-to-water), advantages of, frothing of, grids for, loss of gas in, maximum temperature in, pressure in, quantity of water required by, Generators (contact), (dipping), temperatures in, (dripping), temperatures in, (flooded compartment), (non-automatic), advantages of, carbide-to-water, hand-charging of, water required for, definition of, speed of reaction in, water-to-carbide, (portable), (shoot), (water-to-carbide), overheating in, with carbide in excess, with water in excess, Gerard, silicon in crude acetylene, Gerdes, acetylene copper, German Acetylene Association. (See Acetylene Association, German) Gin, heat of formation of carbide, Glassware, for burners, Glow-lamps, electric, in generator sheds, Glucose for treatment of carbide, Glycerin for holder-seals, for wet meters, Governor, displacement holder as, Governors, Graham, effusion of gases, Gramme-molecules, Granjon, illuminating power of self-luminous burners, phosphine in acetylene, pressure, purifier, Granulated carbide. See Calcium carbide, (granulated) Graphite, artificial, production of, Grease for treatment of carbide, Grids for carbide-to-water generators, in purifiers, Grittner, acetylene, and copper, Guides for rising holders, Guentner burner,

H

Haber, effect of heat on acetylene, Haldane, toxicity of sulphuretted hydrogen, Hammcrschmidt, correction of gas volumes, and Sandmann, milk of lime, Hannam's Ltd., burners, Hartmann, acetylene flame, Haze, on combustion of acetylene, Heat absorbed during change of physical state, action on acetylene. See Overheating carbide, and temperature, difference between, conducting power of carbide iron and steel, water, convected, developed by acetylene lighting, coal-gas lighting, electric lighting, paraffin lighting, dissipation of, in generators, economy in generators, effect of, on acetylene. (See Overheating) on burners, evolution of, in flames, expansion of gaseous acetylene by, liquid acetylene by, from acetylene, production of, latent. See Latent heat loss of, from flames, of chemical reactions, of combustion of acetylene, carbon, carbon monoxide, ethylene, of formation of acetylene, calcium carbide, hydroxide, oxide, carbon dioxide, monoxide, ethylene, water, of hydration of calcium oxide, of reaction between carbide and calcium hydroxide, between carbide and water, of solution of calcium hydroxide, of vaporisation of carbon, water, radiant, specific. See Specific heat Heating apparatus for generator sheds, Hefner unit, Heil, atmospheric acetylene flame, carburetted acetylene, Heise, acetylene flame, Hempel, enrichment of coal-gas, Heratol, Hess. See Claude Hexachlorethane, production of, High houses, supply of acetylene to, Holder-bells, for testing mains, supplying water to automatic generators, weighting of, Holder-seals, freezing of, level of liquid in, liquids in, and pressure, solubility of acetylene in, use of floats in, liquids in, for decomposing carbide, oil in, water in, for washing the gas, Holders (gas) and generators, isolation of, and pressure, relationship between, and purifiers, relative position of, exposed, roofs over, false interiors for, freezing of, gauge of sheet-metal for, loss of pressure in, moistening of gas in, of automatic generators, preservation of, from corrosion, situation of, size of, vent-pipes for, value of, Holders (displacement), action of, pressure given by, (rising), guides and counterpoises for, pressure thrown by, equalisation of, tanks for, Home Office, maximum pressure permitted by, prohibition of air in acetylene by, Committee, 1901, recommendations, report, Home Secretary's Orders. See Orders in Council Hoxie. See Stewart, Hubou, acetylene black, Hungarian rules for apparatus, Hydraulic pendants for acetylene, Hydrocarbons formed by polymerisation, illuminating power of, volatile, names of, Hydrochloric acid in purified acetylene, Hydrogen and acetylene, reactions between, effect of, on acetylene flame, ignition temperature of, in acetylene, liberated by heat from acetylene, silicide in crude acetylene, Hygienic advantages of acetylene,

I

Ice, reaction between carbide and, Ignition temperature of acetylene, various gases, Illuminating power and illuminating effect, definition of, of acetylene, after storage, carburetted, effect of air on, incandescent, nominal, self-luminous, of acetylene-oil-gas, of air-gas, of polymerised acetylene, of candles, of coal-gas, of electric lamps, of hydrocarbons, various, of paraffin, Illumination, amount of, required in rooms, of lighthouses, of optical lanterns, Impurities in acetylene, carbide, detection and estimation of, effect of, on air, generator, harmfullness of, water soluble, See also Ammonia and Sulphuretted hydrogen in coal-gas, in purified acetylene, maximum limits of, Incandescent acetylene, burners. See Burners (incandescent) mantles, Inertness of carbide, Inflaming-point of acetylene, Inflammability, spontaneous, Installations, new, removal of air from, Interlocking of automatic generators, Iron and acetylene, reactions between, and steel, heat-conducting power of, silicide in carbide, Insecticide, carbide residues as, Isolation of apparatus parts, Intensity, specific, of acetylene light, of oil light, Italian Government rules,

J

Jackets for generators, Jacob, Gebrueder, burner, Jacobs. See Bradley Jaubert, arsenious oxide purifier, Javal burners, blocking of, purifier, Jet photometer of acetylene, Joint-making in generators, pipes,

K

Keller and Knappich burner, Keppeler, lead chromate in acagine, Keppeler, purification, silicon in acetylene, test-papers, See also Eitner Kerosene. See Paraffin oil Klinger, vent-pipes, Knappich burner, Kona burner, Konette cycle-lamp burner,

L

La Belle boiling ring, Labour required in acetylene lighting, Lagging for generators, Lamps for generator sheds paraffin, portable, acetone process for, Landolt-Boernstein, solubility of acetylene in water, Landriset. See Rossel Lantern, optical, illumination of, Latent heat, Lead chromate in bleaching-powder, objection to, in generators, pipes for acetylene, salts in bleaching-powder, wire, &c., for faced joints, Leakage of acetylene, Leaks, search for, Le Chatelier, explosive limits, temperature of acetylene flame, thermo-couple Leduc, specific gravity of acetylene, Lepinay, acetylene for engines, Level alteration and pressure in mains, Lewes, ammonia in crude acetylene, blocking of burners, haze, heat of decomposition of carbide, production in generators, illuminating power of acetylene, phosphorus in crude acetylene, polymerisation of acetylene, presence of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in acetylene, reaction between carbide and calcium hydroxide, silicon in crude acetylene, temperature of acetylene flame, Lewes and Brame, manganese carbide, Lidholm, estimation of phosphine, Lifebuoys, acetylene for, Lifetime of burners, mantles, Lifting power of acetylene in holders, Light, acetylene as a standard of, colour of acetylene, incandescent, self-luminous, evolution of, in flames, from acetylene, production of, transmission of through fog, Lights, single, disadvantages of, strong and weak, comparison between, Lighthouse illumination, Lighting by acetylene, scope of, of generator sheds, Lime dust in acetylene, reaction with sodium carbonate, sludge. See Residues solubility of, in sugar solutions, water, solubility of gas in, Lime-light, acetylene for the, Limits, explosive, of acetylene, Linde-air, Linseed oil for acetylene joints, Liquid acetylene, properties of, condensation in pipes, in holder-seals and pressure, in pressure-gauge, Liquids, corrosive action of, on metals, for seals, purification by, solubility of acetylene in, Locomotive lighting, Loss of gas in generators, of pressure in holders, in mains, in purifiers, on distribution, Love, enrichment by acetylene, Lubricating oil for seals, Luminous burners. See Burners, self-luminous Lunge and Cedercreutz, determination of phosphorus in acetylene, purification, Luta burner, Lutes for holders. See Seals

M

Mahler, temperature of flames, Mai and Freund, copper acetylide, Mains, deposition of liquid in, diameter of, and explosive limits, dimensions of, escapes from, friction in, laying of, lead, quality of, removing air from, testing of, Make of acetylene from carbide, in generators, Manchester burners, Maneuvrier and Fournier, specific heat of acetylene, Manganese carbide, Mantles for acetylene, Manure for generator protection, Manurial value of generator residue, Maquenne. See Bullier Marsh gas, enrichment with acetylene, formed from acetylene, Matignon. See Berthelot, Mauricheau-Beaupre, epurene, estimation of phosphine, frothing in generators, phosphine in acetylene, silicon in acetylene, Mechanism for automatic generators, Mercaptans in acetylene, Mercuric chloride purifier, test for phosphorus, Merck test-papers, Metals for generators, gauge of, Meters for acetylene, Methane, enrichment with acetylene, formed from acetylene, ignition temperature of, Methylated spirit for generators, for holder seals, Meyer and Muench, ignition temperatures, Mildew in vines, use of acetylene in, Milk of lime, solubility of acetylene in, Mineral oil for lighting. (See Paraffin oil) for seals, Miner's lamp for generator sheds, Mist, transmission of light through, Mixter, thermo-chemical data, Mixtures of acetylene and air, illuminating duty of, Moisture, effect of, on carbide, in acetylene, Molecular volume of acetylene, weight of acetylene, weights, various, Molet-Boistelle acetylene-air mixture, Morel, formula for acetylene pipes, sodium plumbate purifier, specific heat of acetylene, of carbide, Mosquitoes, destruction of, Moths, catching of, Motion of fluids in pipes, Motors, acetylene for, Muench. See Meyer Muensterberg, acetylene flame, Mustard, oil of,

N

Naphey burners, Naphthalene, formation of, from acetylene, Neuberg, illuminating power of acetylene, radiant efficiency of acetylene, Nieuwland, mixtures of acetylene and chlorine, Nichols, illuminating power of acetylene after storage, temperature of acetylene flame, Nickel and acetylene, reactions between, Nipples, burner, materials for, Nitrides in carbide, Nitrogen in flames, effect of, Non-automatic generators. See Generators (non-automatic) Non-luminous acetylene flame, appearance of, burners. See Burners (atmospheric) Non-return valves,

O

O. C. A. burner, Odour of acetylene, Oil, action of, on carbide, castor, for acetylene joints, in generators, in residues, in seals, linseed, for acetylene joints, mustard, olive, for seals, (See also Paraffin oil) Olive oil for seals, Oil-gas, enrichment of, Optical efficiency of acetylene, Orders in Council, air in acetylene, compression of absorbed acetylene, acetylene-oil-gas, neat acetylene, Origin of petroleum, Orka burner, Ortloff, friction of acetylene, Overheating in generators, See also Polymerisation Oxide of iron purifier, Oxy-acetylene blowpipe, Oxygen required for combustion of acetylene, of benzene, combustion of acetylene with, flames burning in,

P

Paint, cause of frothing in generators, gas-fitters', Paraffin oil, action of, on carbide, flash-point of, illuminating power of, in residues, lamps, lighting, effect of on air, heat developed by, quality of different grades of, use of in automatic generators, seals, Paraffin wax, treatment of carbide with, Partial pressure, Pendants, water-slide for acetylene, Petroleum oil. See Paraffin oil spirit, addition of, to generator water, composition of, for carburetted acetylene, spirits, nomenclature of, theory of origin of, Pfeiffer, purifier, Pfleger, puratylene, Phenol, production of, from acetylene, Phos burners, Phosphine, cause of deposit at burner orifices, composition of, in crude acetylene, amount of, toxicity of, Phosphoretted hydrogen. See Phosphine Phosphorus and incandescent mantles, "compounds," in crude acetylene, in purified acetylene, detection and determination of, removal of, "Phossy-jaw," Photometer, jet of acetylene, Phylloxera, use of acetylene for, Physical properties of acetylene, Pickering, freezing-points of calcium chloride solutions, Pictet, freezing-points of dilute alcohol, purification of acetylene, Pintsch burners, Pipes, blow-off. See Vent-pipes diameter of, and explosive limits, vent. See Vent-pipes (See also Mains) Plant, acetylene, fire risks of, order of items in, Platinum in burners, Poisonous nature of acetylene, Pole, motion of fluids in pipes, pressure thrown by holders, Polymerisation, definition of, of acetylene, See also Overheating Porous matter, absorption of acetylene in, Portable lamps, acetone process for, temperature in, Potassium bichromate purifier, hydroxide purifier, permanganate purifier, Power from acetylene, production of, Precautions with generators, with new installations, Presence of moisture in acetylene, Pressure and leakage, after explosions of acetylene, atmospheric, automatic generators working by, correction of gas volumes for, critical, of acetylene, definition of (gas), for incandescent burners, self-luminous burners, gauge, liquid for, given by displacement holders, rising holders, in generators, utilisation of, in mains and pipes, in purifiers, loss of, irregular, caused by vent-pipes, maximum safe, for acetylene, necessity for regular, partial, regulators. See Governors Protection of generators from frost, holders from frost, Puratylene, Purchase of a generator, carbide, regulations as to, Purification by liquids and solids, in portable lamps, necessary extent of, reasons for, regulations as to, speed of, Purified acetylene, chlorine in, hydrochloric acid in, phosphorus in, sulphur in, Purifiers and holder, relative positions of, construction of, duplication of, exhaustion of, foul, emptying of, loss of pressure in, mechanical, for acetylene, Purifying materials, density of, efficiency of, quantity required, Pyralid, destruction of the,

Q

Quality of carbide, regulations as to, Quicklime. See Calcium oxide

R

Radiant efficiency of acetylene, heat, Railway lighting by acetylene, Ramie mantles for acetylene, Range of explosibility, meaning of term, of acetylene, Rat-tail burner, Reactions between copper and acetylene, chemical, of acetylene, physical, of acetylene, Reaction grids in generators, Read and Jacobs. See Bradley Rod lead for acetylene joints, Regulations, American (National Board of Fire Underwriters of U.S.A.), Austrian Acetylene Association, Government, British Acetylene Association, Fire Offices Committee, Home Office Committee (1901), for analysis of carbide, for construction of generating plant, for generators, for purification, for sale and purchase of carbide, for sampling carbide, for storing carbide, French (Conseil d'Hygiene de la Seine), German Acetylene Association, Hungarian Government, Italian Government, Residue from dry process of generation, Residues, carbide in, colour of, composition of, consistency of, disposal of, containing oil, manurial value of, utilisation of, Respiration of acetylene, Reversibility of reaction between calcium oxide and water, Reychler. See Berge Rising holders. See Holders (rising) Rossel and Landriset, ammonia in crude acetylene, purifier, sulphur in crude acetylene, Roofs over exposed holders, Rooms, amount of illumination required in, Rubber tubes for acetylene, Ruby for burners, Rules. See Regulations

S

Safety lamp, Davy's, for generator sheds, valves. See Vent-pipes Sale of carbide, regulations as to, Salt, common, in holder-seals, Salzbergwerk Neu Stassfurt, production of tetrachlorethane, Sampling carbide, Sandmann. See Hammerschmidt Sansair burner, Saulmann. See Caro Sawdust in bleaching-powder, Scale, water, in generators, Scented carbide, Schiff. See Fuchs Schimek burner, Schwander, carburetted acetylene, Schwarz burners, Seal-pots, Seals (holder). See Holder-seals Seams in generator-making, Self-luminous burners. See Burners (self-luminous) Sensible heat, Separation of holder from generator, Service-pipes. See Mains Shoot generators, Silicon compounds, in acetylene, in carbide, Sirius burner, Slaked lime. See Calcium hydroxide Sludge. See Residues Sludge-cocks, automatic locking of, Sludge-pipes, blocked, clearance of, Smell of crude and purified acetylene, Smith, purification, Smoke, production of, by flames, Smoking, danger of, in generator sheds, Soap, use of, in testing pipes, Soda, washing, for decomposing carbide, Sodium acetate solution for generator jackets, Sodium carbonate and lime, reaction between, crystallised, for decomposing carbide, chloride for holder-seals, solubility of acetylene in, hypochlorite purifier, plumbate purifier, sulphate in bleaching-powder, Soil, carbide residues as dressing for, Solder in generators, Soldering, autogenous, Solids containing water, decomposition of carbide by, purification by, Solubility of acetylene, in generators, in holders, in liquids, Soot, production by, of flames, Space occupied by purifying materials, Sparks from steel tools, danger of, Specific gravity and holder pressure, leakage, of acetylene, dissolved, gaseous, liquid, of air, of carbide, of gases, and burner construction, of water, heat of acetylene, of carbide, heats, various, intensity. See Intensity, specific Speed of reactions between carbide, water, and calcium hydroxide, of purification, Spent lime. See Residues Spontaneous inflammability, Spraying apparatus, Stable manure for warming generators, Stadelmann burners, Standard of illumination in rooms, of light, acetylene as, Steam, latent heat of, use of, specific heat of, reaction between carbide and, Steam-barrel for acetylene mains, Steatite for burners, Steel, heat-conducting power of, tools, danger of Sterilisation of air by flames, Stewart and Hoxie, radiant efficiency of acetylene, Storage regulations for carbide, vessels for carbide, temporary, Styrolene. formation of, from acetylene, Suckert. See Willson Suffocation by acetylene, Sugar solutions, solubility of lime in, Sulphur "compounds," in coal-gas, in crude acetylene, in purified acetylene, removal of, Sulphuretted hydrogen, solubility of, in water, toxicity of, Sulphuric acid and acetylene, reactions between as purifying material, Superficial area in purifiers, Supply of water to automatic generators, Suprenia burners, Swelling of carbide during decomposition, Symbols, chemical, meaning of, Syphons for removing water,

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