A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike
by Richard Rainolde
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The comparison.

[Sidenote: Hector. Achilles. Numa Pom[-] peius. Adrianus.] NEither Hector of Troie, nor Achilles of Grece, might bee compared with Epaminundas, Numa Pompili- us was not more godlie, Adriane the Emperour of Roome, no better learned, nor Galba the Emperour more valiaunte, Nerua no more temperate, nor Traianus more noble, neither Cocles nor Decius, Scipio nor Marcus Regu[-] lus, did more valianntly in the defence of their countrie, soche a one was this Epaminundas.

The conclusion.

OF many thynges, these fewe are recited, but if his whole life and vertues, wer worthely handeled: fewe would beleue, soche a rare gouernour, so vertuous a [Fol. xliij.v] Prince, so hardie and valiaunte a capitaine, to haue remai- ned in no age.

The parte of Rhetorike, called dispraise.

THis parte of Rhetorike, which is called dispraise, is a in- uectiue Oracion, made againste the life of any man.

This part of Rhetorike, is contrary to that, whiche is be- fore set, called laus, that is to saie, praise: and by contrary no- tes procedeth, for the Oratour or declaimer to entreate vpo[n].

This parte of Rhetorike, is called of the Grekes Psogos.

In praise, we extoll the persone: First by his countre.

Then by his auncestours and parentes.

In the third place, by his educacion and institucion.

Then in the fowerth place, of his actes in life.

In the fifte place vse a comparison, comparyng the per- sone with other, whiche are more inferiour.

Then the conclusion.

Now in dispraise, contrarily we doe procede.

Firste, in the dispraise of his countre.

Of his auncetours and parentes.

His educacion is dispraised.

Then his actes and deedes of life.

Also in your comparison with other, dispraise hym.

Then in the laste place, adde the conclusion.

All thynges that maie be praised, maie be dispraised.

The dispraise of Nero.

[Sidenote: Uertue.] AS vertue meriteth commendacion and immor- tall renoume, for the nobilite and excellencie reposed in it: so ougle vices for the deformite of them, are in mynd to be abhorred and detested, and with all diligence, counsaile, and wisedome [Sidenote: Uice.] auoided. As pestiferous poison extinguisheth with his cor- rupcion and nautinesse, the good and absolute nature of all thinges: so vice for his pestiferous nature putteth out vertue and rooteth out with his force all singularite. For, vice and [Fol. xliiij.r] vertue are so of nature contrary, as fire and water, the vio- lence of the one expelleth the other: for, in the mansion of ver- tue, vice at one tyme harboreth not, neither vertue with vice [Sidenote: What is ver- tue.] can be consociate or vnited, for, vertue is a singuler meane, or Mediocrite in any good enterprise or facte, with order and reason finished. Whose acte in life, doeth repugne order and reason, disseuered from all Mediocrite, soche do leaue iustice, equite, wisedome, temperaunce, fortitude, magnanimite, and al other vertues, bothe of minde and body: onely by ver- tues life men shewe theim selues, as chief creatures of God, with reason, as a moste principall gifte, beautified and deco- rated: In other giftes, man is farre inferiour to beastes, both in strength of bodie, in celerite and swiftnesse of foote, in la- bour, in industrie, in sense, nothyng to bee compared to bea- stes, with beastes as a peculier and proper thyng, wee haue our bodie of the yearth: but our minde, whiche for his diuini- te, passeth all thynges immortall, maketh vs as gods emo[n]g other creatures. The bodie therefore, as a aliaunt and forain enemie, beyng made of a moste base, moste vile and corrup- tible nature, repugneth the mynde. This is the cause, that wickednesse taketh soche a hedde, and that the horrible facte and enterprise of the wicked burste out, in that, reason exiled and remoued from the minde, the ougle perturbacions of the minde, haue their regiment, power, and dominio[n]: and where soche state of gouernemente is in any one bodie, in priuate and domesticalle causes, in forraine and publike affaires, in kyngdome and co[m]mon wealthe. Uertue fadeth and decaieth, and vice onely beareth the swaie. Lawe is ordered by luste, and their order is will, soche was the tyme and gouernment of this wicked Nero.

Of his countree.

NEro was a Romaine borne, though in gouerne- ment he was wicked, yet his cou[n]tre was famous, and noble: for, the Romaines wer lordes and hed- des ouer all the worlde. The vttermoste Indians, [Fol. xliiij.v] the Ethiopes, the Persians, feared the maiestie and auctho- [Sidenote: Rome.] rite of the Romaines. From Romulus, who was the firste founder, and builder of that Citee: the Romaines bothe had their name of hym, and grew afterward to marueilous pui- saunt roialnes. There was no nacion vnder the Sunne, but it dreaded their Maiestie, or felte their inuincible handes: there hath been many mightie kyngdomes, on the face of the yearth, but no kyngdome was able, with like successe and fe- licite in their enterprise, or for like famous gouernors, and continuance of their state, to compare with them. This was, and is, the laste mighte Monarchie in the worlde. Roome a olde aunciente cite, inhabited firste of the Aborigines, which [Sidenote: Carthage.] came from Troie. The prouidence of God, so disposeth the tymes and ages of the world, the state of kyngdomes, by the fall of mightier kyngdomes, meaner grewe to power and glorie. The Carthagineans, contended by prowes, and ma- gnanimitee, to be lordes ouer the Romaines. Carthage was a greate, mightie, olde, auncient & famous cite, in the whiche valiaunte, wise, and pollitike gouernours, helde therein re- giment, long warres was susteined betwene the Romaines and Carthagineans, emong whom infinite people, and ma- ny noble peres fell in the duste. Fortune and happie successe fell to the Romaines: the people of Carthage va[n]quished, and prostrate to the grounde. Scipio the noble Consull, beyng at the destruccion of it, seeyng with his iye, Carthage by fire brunte to ashes, saied: Talis exitus aliquando erit Rome: eue[n] [Sidenote: Destruction of Rome to ashes in time.] as of Carthage, like shall the destruccion of Rome bee, as for continuaunce of the Romaine state, of their glorie, power, and worthie successe, no nacion vnder the Sunne, can com- pare with theim: soche was the state of Rome, wherein wic- ked Nero raigned.

Of his anncestours.

DOmitianus Nero, the sonne of Domitius Enobar- bus, Agrippina was his mothers name: this Agrip- pina, was Empresse of Rome, wife to Claudius Ti- [Fol. xlv.r] [Sidenote: Agrippina.] berius, the daughter of his brother Germanicus. This A- grippina, the Chronicle noteth her, to be indued with al mis- chief and cruelte: For, Tiberius her housbande, hauyng by his firste wife children, thei were murthered by her, because she might, thei beyng murthered, with more facilite, fur- ther the Empire, to her soonnes handes, many treasons con- spired against them oftentimes, Agrippina poisoned her hus- bande, then Nero succeded.

Of his educacion.

[Sidenote: Seneca schol maister to Nero.] SEneca the famous Poete & Philosopher, was schole- maister to Nero, who brought hym vp in all nobili- tie of learnyng, mete for his state: though that Nero was wickedlie of nature disposed, as his beastlie gouerne- ment sheweth, yet wickednes in him, was by the seueritie of Seneca, and his castigacion depressed: for Traianus Empe- rour of Rome, would saie, as concernyng Nero, for the space of fiue yeres, no Prince was like to hym, for good gouerne- ment, after fiue yeres, losely and dissolutly he gouerned.

Of his actes.

[Sidenote: The dreame of Agrippina mother to Nero, in his concepcion.] THis Nero, at what tyme as his mother was con- ceiued of him, she dreamed that she was conceiued of a Uiper: for, the young Uiper alwaies killeth his dame. He was not onely a Uiper to his mo- ther whom he killed, but also to his kyngdome and common wealthe a destroier, whiche afterward shalbe shewed, what [Sidenote: Nero a viper[.]] a tyraunte and bloodie gouernour he was. This Nero made in the Citee of Rome, the rounde seates and scaffoldes, to be- holde spectacles and sightes, and also the bathes. He subdued [Sidenote: Pontus. Colchis. Cappadocia. Armenia.] Pontus a greate countre, whiche ioineth to the sea Pontus: whiche countre containeth these realmes, Colchis, Cappa- docia, Armenia, and many other countres, and made it as a Prouince, by the suffraunce of Polemon Regulus, by whose name it was called Pontus Polemoniacus. He ouer came the Alpes, of the king Cotteius, Cottius the king being dedde[.] [Fol. xlv.v] [Sidenote: Nero vnwor[-] thie to be chron[-] icled. Seneca.] The life followyng of Nero was so abhominable, that the shame of his life, will make any man a fraied, to leaue any memorie of hym. This Domitius Nero, caused his Schole- maister Seneca to be put to death, Seneca chosing his owne death, his veines beyng cutte in a hotte bathe died, bicause he corrected wicked Nero, to traine hym to vertue. He was out- ragious wicked, that he had co[n]sideracion, neither to his own honestie, nor to other, but in continuaunce, he tired hymself as virgines doe when thei marie, callyng a Senate, the dou- rie assigned, and as the maner of that solemnite is, many re- sortyng and frequentyng, in maidens tire and apparell. He [Sidenote: The shamful life of Nero.] went beyng a man, to be maried as a woman: beside this, at other tymes he cladde hymself with the skin of a wilde beast, and beastlie did handle that, whiche Nature remoueth from the sight. He defiled hymself with his owne mother, whom he killed immediatlie. He maried twoo wiues, Octauia, and Sabina, otherwise called Poppea, firste murtheryng their [Sidenote: Galba. Caius Iu- lius.] housbandes. In that tyme Galba vsurped the Empire, and Caius Iulius: as sone as Nero heard that Galba came nere towardes Rome, euen then the Senate of Rome had deter- mined, that Nero should bee whipped to death with roddes, accordyng to the old vsage of their auncestours, his necke yo- ked with a forke. This wicked Nero, seyng himself forsaken of all his friendes, at midnight he departed out of the Cite, Ephaon, and Epaphroditus waityng on hym, Neophitus and Sporus his Eunuche: whiche Sporus before tyme, had [Sidenote: The death of Nero.] Nero assaied to frame and fashion out of kinde. In the ende, Nero thruste himself through, with the poinct of his sworde, his wicked man Sporus, thrustyng foreward his trembling hande: this wicked Nero before that, hauyng none to mur- ther hym, he made a exclamacion, in these woordes. Is there neither friende nor enemie to kill me, shamefullie haue I li- ued, and with more shame shall I die, in the .xxxij. yere of his age he died. The Persians so entirely loued hym, that after his death thei sente Ambassadours, desiryng licence to erecte [Fol. xlvj.r] to hym a monumente, all countres and Prouinces, and the whole Cite of Rome, did so moche reioyce of his death, that thei all wearyng the Toppintant hattes, whiche bonde men doe vse to ware, when thei be sette at libertie, and so thei tri- umphed of his death, deliuered from so cruell a tyraunte.

A comparison.

[Sidenote: Nero. Caligula. Domitianus[.] Antoninus.] AS for wicked gouernement, Nero doeth make Ca- ligula like to Comodus, Domitianus, Antoninus Caracalla, thei were all so wicked, that the Senate of Rome thought it mete, to obliterate their name, from all memorie and Chronicle, because of their wickednesse.

The conclusion.

MOche more the life and gouernement of wicked Ne- ro, might be intreated of, but this shall be sufficient: to shewe how tyrannically and beastly, he gouerned vnmete of that throne.

A comparison.

A Comparison, is a certain Oracion, shewyng by a collacion the worthines, or excelle[n]cie of any thing: or the naughtines of thesame, compared with any other thyng or thynges, either equalle, or more in- feriour.

In a comparison good thynges, are compared with good as one vertue with an other: as wisedome & strength, whiche of them moste auaileth in peace and warre.

Euill thynges maie bee compared with good, as Iustice, with iniustice, wisedome with foolishnes.

Euill thynges maie be compared, with euill thynges, as wicked Nero, compared to Domitianus, or Caligula to Co[m]- modus, theft to homicide, drunkenes with adulterie.

Small thynges maie be compared with greate: the king with his subiect, the Elephant or Camell to the Flie, a Cro- codile to the Scarabe.

In a comparison, where argumente is supputated on [Fol. xlvj.v] bothe the sides, worthelie to praise, or dispraise.

Where a comparison is made, betwene a thyng excel- lente, and a thyng more inferiour: the comparison shall pro- cede with like facilitee.

All thynges that maie bee celebrated with praise, or that meriteth dispraise: al soche thynges maie be in a comparison.

The persone, as Cato being a wise man, maie be compa- red with Nestor, the sage pere of Grece: Pompei with Ce- sar, as Lucane compareth them, and so of all other men.

Thynges maie bee compared, as golde with siluer: one mettall with an other.

Tymes maie be compared, as the Spryng with Som- mer: Harueste with Winter.

Places maie be compared, as London with Yorke, Ox- forde with Cambridge.

Beastes without reason, as the Be with the Ante, the Oxe with the Shepe.

Plantes, as the Uine, and the Oliue.

First, make a proemium or beginnyng to your co[m]parison[.]

Then compare them of their countre.

Of their parentes.

Of their auncestours.

Of their educacion.

Of their actes.

Of their death.

Then adde the conclusion.

A comparison betwene De- mosthenes and Tullie.

TO speake moche in the praise of famous men, no argument can wante, nor plentie of matter to make of them, a copious and excellent Ora- cion. Their actes in life through nobilite, will craue worthelie more, then the witte and penne of the learned, can by Eloquence expresse. Who can worthelie expresse and sette foorthe, the noble Philosopher [Fol. xlvij.r] [Sidenote: Plato. Aristotle.] Plato, or Aristotle, as matter worthelie forceth to commend, when as of them, all learnyng, and singularite of artes hath flowen. All ages hath by their monuments of learning, par- ticipated of their wisedome. Grece hath fostered many noble wittes, from whom all light of knowlege, hath been deriued by whose excellencie Rome in tyme florishyng, did seeke by nobilite of learnyng, to mate the noble Grecians. So moche Italie was adorned, and beautified with the cunnyng of the Grecians. Emong the Romaines many famous Oratours and other noble men hath spronge vp, who for their worthi- nesse, might haue contended with any nacion: either for their [Sidenote: Tullie.] glorie of learnyng, or noble regiment. Emong whom Tul- lie by learning, aboue the rest, rose to high fame, that he was a renoume to his countree: to learnyng a light, of all singuler Eloquence a fountaine. Whom Demosthenes the famous Oratour of Athenes, as a worthie mate is compared with, whom not onely the nobilite, and renoume of their Coun- tre shall decorate, but the[m] selues their owne worthines & no- bilite of fame. No age hath had twoo more famous for lear- nyng, no common wealthe hath tasted, twoo more profitable to their countre, and common wealthe: for grauite and cou[n]- saile, nor the posterite of ages, twoo more worthie celebra- [Sidenote: Thusidides.] cion. Thusidides speakyng, in the commendacion of famous men sheweth: as concernyng the fame of noble men, whose [Sidenote: The enuious manne.] vertue farre surmounteth the[m], and passeth al other. Thenui- ous man seketh to depraue, the worthinesse of fame in other, [Sidenote: The igno- raunte.] his bragging nature with fame of praise, not decorated. The ignoraunte and simple nature, accordyng to his knowlege, iudgeth all singularite, and tempereth by his owne actes the praise of other. But the fame of these twoo Oratours, nei- ther the enuious nature can diminishe their praise, nor the ignoraunt be of them a arbitrator or iudge, so worthely hath all ages raised fame, and commendacion of their vertues.

Of their countree.

[Fol. xlvij.v]

IN Grece Demosthenes, the famous Oratour of A- thenes was borne, whose Countre or Citee, lacketh no co[m]mendacion: either for the nobilite of the lande, or glorie of the people. What nacion vnder the Sunne, hath not heard of that mightie Monarchie of Grece: of their migh- tie citees, and pollitike gouernaunce. What famous Poetes how many noble Philosophers and Oratours, hath Grece brede. What science and arte, hath not flowne from Grece, so that for the worthinesse of it, it maie bee called the mother of all learnyng. Roome also, in whom Tullie was brought vp, maie contende in all nobilite, whose power and puisant glorie, by nobilite of actes, rose to that mightie hed. In bothe soche excellencie is founde, as that no nacion might better contende, of their singularite and honour of countre, then Grece and Rome: yet first from the Grekes, the light of Phi- losophie, and the aboundant knowledge of all artes, sprange to the Romaines, from the Grecians. The Godlie Lawes, wherewith the Romaine Empire was decorated and gouer- ned, was brought from the Grecians. If the citee maie bee a honour and glorie, to these twoo Oratours, or their Citees a singuler commendacion, there wanteth in bothe, neither ho- nour, or nobilite.

Of their auncestours, and parentes.

BOthe Demosthenes and Tullie were borne, of ve- rie meane parentes and auncestours: yet thei tho- rowe their learnyng and vertues, became famous, ascendyng to all nobilite. Of their vertues and learnyng, not of their auncestours, nobilite rose to them.

Of the educacion.

THE singuler vertues of theim bothe, appered euen in their tender youth: wherupon thei being brought vp, in all godlie learnyng and noble Sciences, thei became moste noble Oratours, and by their copious Elo- quence, counsaile, and wisedom, aspired to nobilite & honor.

Of their scholyng.

[Fol. xlviij.r]

BOthe were taught of the mouthe of the best learned, Demosthenes of Iseus, a man moste Eloquent: Ci- cero of Philo and Milo, famous in wisedome and Eloquence.

Of their exercise.

CIcero did exercise hymself verie moche, to declaime, bothe in Greke and Latine, with Marcus Piso, and with Quintus Pampeius. Demosthenes wanted not industrie and labour, to attain to that singularite, whi- che he had, bothe in Eloquence, and pronounciacion.

Of the giftes of their minde.

IN bothe, integritee, humanitee, magnanimitee, and all vertue flowed: at what time as Demosthe- nes was commaunded of the Athenians, to frame a accusacion, againste a certaine man, Demosthe- nes refused the acte. But when the people, and the whole multitude, were wrothe with hym, and made a exclamacion against hym, as their maner was. Then Demosthenes rose, and saied: O ye men of Athenes, againste my will, you haue me a counsailer, or pleater of causes before you: but as for a accuser, & calumniator, no, not although ye would. Of this sorte Tullie was affected, excepte it were onely in the saue- gard of his conutre: as against Catiline, bothe were of god- lie, and of vpright conuersacion, altogether in Mediocrite, and a newe leadyng their life.

Of their actes.

DEmosthenes and Tullie bothe, gaue them selues to trauail, in the causes and affaires of their com- mon wealthe, to the preseruacion of it. How ve- hemently did Demosthenes pleate, and ingeni- ouslie handle the cause of all his countre, against Philip, for the defence of their libertee: whereupon he gatte fame, and greate glory. Whereby not onely, he was coumpted a great wise counsailour: but one of a valiaunte stomacke, at whose [Fol. xlviij.v] [Sidenote: Darius. Philip. Demosthe- nes.] wisedome, all Grece stode in admiracion. The kyng of Per- sia, laboured to enter fauour with him. Philip the king of the Macedonians, would saie often tymes, he had to doe against a famous man, notyng Demosthenes. Tullie also by his E- loquence and wisedome, saued Roome and all partes of that dominion, from greate daungers.

Of their aucthoritee.

THeir aucthoritee and dignitee was equalle, in the common wealthe: For, at their twoo mouthes, Roome and Athenes was vpholed. Demosthenes was chief in fauour with Caretes, Diophetes, Le[-] ostines, Cicero with Pompei: Iulius Cesar, ascending to the chief seate and dignite of the Consulship.

Of a like fall that happened to them, before their death.

YOu can not finde soche twoo Orators, who borne of meane & poore parentes, that attained so greate honour, who also did obiecte themselues to tyran- tes a like, thei had losse of their children a like, bothe were out of their countree banished men, their returne was with honour, bothe also fliyng, happened into the han- des of their enemies.

Of their death.

[Sidenote: Antipater. Demosthe- nes. Archias. Marcus Antonius. Tullie.] BOthe a like, Demosthenes and Tully wer put to death, Demosthenes died, Antipater gouernyng by the handes of Archias. Cicero died by the com- maundement of Marcus Antonius: by Herenius his hedde was cutte of, and sette in Marcus Antonius halle. His handes also were cutte of, with the whiche he wrote the vehement Oracions against Marcus Antonius.

The conclusion.

TO speake as moche as maie bee saied, in the praise of theim: their praise would rise to a mightie volume, but this is sufficiente.

[Fol. xlix.r]


Ethopoeia is a certaine Oracion made by voice, and la- mentable imitacion, vpon the state of any one.

This imitacion is in { Eidolopoeia. } iij. sortes, either it is. { Prosopopoeia. } { Ethopoeia. }

That parte, whiche is called Ethopoeia is that, whiche hath the persone knowne: but onely it doeth faigne the ma- ners of thesame, and imitate in a Oracion thesame.

Ethopoeia is called of Priscianus, a certaine talkyng to of any one, or a imitacio[n] of talke referred to the maners, apt- ly of any certaine knowen persone.

Quintilianus saieth, that Ethopoeia is a imitacion of o- ther meane maners: whom the Grekes dooe calle, not onelie Ethopoeia, but mimesis, & this is in the maners, and the fact.

This parte is as it were, a liuely expression of the maner and affeccion of any thyng, whereupon it hath his name.

The Ethopoeia is in three sortes.

The firste, a imitacion passiue, whiche expresseth the af- fection, to whom it parteineth: whiche altogether expresseth the mocion of the mynde, as what patheticall and dolefull o- racion, Hecuba the quene made, the citee of Troie destroied, her housbande, her children slaine.

The second is called a morall imitacio[n], the whiche doeth set forthe onely, the maners of any one.

The thirde is a mixt, the whiche setteth forthe, bothe the maners and the affection, as how, and after what sorte, A- chilles spake vpon Patroclus, he beyng dedde, when for his sake, he determined to fight: the determinacion of hym she- weth the maner. The frende slaine, the affection.

In the makyng of Ethopoeia, lette it be plaine, and with- out any large circumstaunce.

[Fol. xlix.v]

In the makyng of it, ye shall diuide it thus, to make the Oracion more plaine, into three tymes.

{ A presente tyme. } { A tyme paste. } { A tyme to come. }

Eidolopoeia is that part of this Oracion, whiche maketh a persone knowne though dedde, and not able to speake.

[Sidenote: Eidolopoeia[.]] Eidolopoeia is called of Priscianus, a imitacion of talke of any one, vpon a dedde manne, it is then called Eidolopoeia, when a dedde man talketh, or communicacion made vpon a dedde manne.

Eidolopoeia, when a dedde manne talketh, is set forthe of Euripides, vpon the persone of Polidorus dedde, whose spi- rite entereth at the Prologue of the tragedie.

Hector slain, speaketh to Eneas in Eidolopoeia. O Eneas thou goddes sonne, flie and saue thy self, from this ruine and fire: the enemies hath taken the walles, and loftie Troie is prostrate to the grounde. I would haue thought, I had died valiantlie inough to my countre, and my father Priamus, if with this my right hande, Troie had bee defended.

Polidorus beyng dedde, in Eidolopoeia talketh to Eneas whiche Uirgil sheweth in his thirde booke of Eneados.

Iulia the wife of Pompei beyng dedde, spake to Pompe, preparyng his arme against Cesar, Eidolopoeia. Reade Lu- cane, in the beginnyng of his thirde booke.

Tullie vseth Eidolopoeia, when he maketh talke vpon Hiero beyng dedde.

If that kyng Hiero were reduced fro[m] his death, who was a aduauncer of the Romaine Empire, with what counte- naunce, either Siracusa or Rome, might be shewed to hym, whom he maie beholde with his iyes. His countree brought to ruin, & spoiled, if that kyng Hiero should but enter Rome, euen in the firste entryng, he should beholde the spoile of his countree.

Tullie also vseth the like Eidolopoeia, as thus, vpon Lu- [Fol. l.r] cius Brutus dedde.

[Sidenote: Lucius Brutus.] If it so wer, that Lucius Brutus, that noble and famous manne were on liue, and before your presence: would he not vse this oracion: I Brutus, somtyme did banishe and cast out for crueltee, the state and office of kinges, by the horrible fact of Tarquinius, againste Lucretia, and all that name bani- shed, but you haue brought in tyrauntes. I Brutus did re- duce the Romain Empire, to a fredome and liberte: but you foolishly can not vphold and maintein, thesame giuen to you. I Brutus, with the daunger of my life, haue saued my coun[-] tree of Roome, but you without all daunger, lose it.


AS co[n]cerning Prosopopoeia, it is as Pristianus saith, when to any one againste nature, speache is feigned to bee giuen.

Tullie vseth for a like example this, when he maketh Roome to talke againste Cateline.

Prosopopoeia of Roome.

[Sidenote: Catiline.] NO mischief hath been perpetrated, this many yeres, but by thee Catiline, no pestiferous acte enterprised, without thee: thou a lone, for thy horrible murther perpetrated vpon the citee of Rome, for the spoile and robbe- ries of their gooddes art vnpunished. Thou onelie haste been of that force and power, to caste doune all lawes and aucthori- tee. Although these thinges were not to be borne, yet I haue borne them: but now thy horrible factes are come to soche an issue, that I feare thy mischiues. Wherfore leaue of Cateline and deminishe this feare from me, that I maie be in securite[.]

Lucane the Poete, intreating of mightie and fearce war- res, againste Pompei and Cesar, maketh Roome to vse this Prosopopoeia againste Cesar.

Quo tenditis vltra quo fertis mea signa viri, Si iure venitis si aues hucusq[ue] licet.

Prosopopoeia is properlie, when all thinges are faigned bothe the maners, the persone, as of Roome in this place.

[Fol. l.v]

What lamentable Oracion Hecuba Quene of Troie might make, Troie being destroied.

[Sidenote: Kyngdomes.] WHat kyngdome can alwaies assure his state, or glory? What strength can alwaies last? What [Sidenote: Okes. Cedars.] power maie alwaies stande? The mightie O- kes are somtyme caste from roote, the Ceadars high by tempestes falle, so bitter stormes dooe force their strength. Soft waters pearseth Rockes, and ruste the massie Iron doeth bryng to naught. So nothyng can by stre[n]gth so stande, but strength maie ones decaie: yea, mightie kingdoms in time decaie haue felt. Kingdomes weake haue rose to might, and mightie kyngdomes fallen, no counsaile can preuaile, no power, no strength, or might in lande. God disposeth Princes seates, their kyngdome there with stan- des. I knewe before the brickell state, how kyngdomes ruine caught, my iye the chaunge of fortune sawe, as Priamus did aduaunce his throne, by fauour Fortune gat, on other For- tune then did froune, whose kingdom did decaie. Well, now [Sidenote: Fortune hath no staie.] I knowe the brickle state, that fortune hath no staie, all rashe her giftes, Fortune blind doeth kepe no state, her stone doth roule, as floodes now flowe, floodes also ebbe. So glory doth remaine, sometyme my state on high, was sette in Princelie throne, my porte and traine ful roiall was, a kyng my father also was, my housband scepter held. Troie and Phrigia ser- ued his becke, many kynges his power did dreade, his wille their power did serue. The fame of Troie and Brute, his glorie and renoume, what landes knoweth not? But now his falle, all toungues can speake, so greate as glorie was, though kyngdomes stronge was sette, loftie Troie in duste prostrate doeth lye, in blood their glorie, people, kyng are fal- len, no Quene more dolefull cause hath felte. The sorowes depe doe passe my ioyes, as Phebus light with stormes caste [Sidenote: Hector.] doune. Hectors death did wounde my hart, by Hectors might Troie stiffe did stande, my comforte Hector was, Priamus ioye, of Troie all the[m] life, the strength, and power, his death [Fol. lj.r] did wound me for to die, but alas my dolefull and cruell fate to greater woe reserueth my life, loftie Troie before me felle, sworde, and fire hath seate and throne doune caste. The dedde on heapes doeth lye, the tender babes as Lions praies [Sidenote: Priamus.] are caught in bloode, before my sight, Priamus deare mur- dered was, my children also slain, who roiall were, and prin- ces mates. No Queene more ioye hath tasted, yet woe my io- yes hath quite defaced. My state alwaie in bondage thrall, to serue my enemies wille, as enemie wille, I liue or dye. No cruell force will ridde my life, onely in graue the yearth shal close my woes, the wormes shall gnawe my dolefull hart in graue. My hedde shall ponder nought, when death hath sence doune caste, in life I sought no ioye, as death I craue, no glorie was so wished as death I seeke, with death no sence. In prison depe who dolefull lieth, whom Fetters sore dooeth greue. Their dolefull state moste wisheth death, in dongion deepe of care my harte moste pensiue is, vnhappie state that wisheth death, with ioye long life, eche wight doeth craue, in life who wanteth smart? Who doeth not fele, or beare som- time, a bitter storme, to doleful tune, mirth full oft chaunged is, the meaner state, more quiet rest, on high, who climes more deper care, more dolefull harte doeth presse, moste tempestes hie trees, hilles, & moutaines beare, valleis lowe rough stor- mes doeth passe, the bendyng trees doeth giue place to might by force of might, Okes mightie fall, and Ceders high ar re[n]t from the roote. The state full meane in hauen hath Ancre caste, in surgyng seas, full ofte in vaine to saue the maste, the shippe Ancre casteth.

The descripcion.

THis exercise profitable to Rhetorike, is an Ora- cio[n] that collecteth and representeth to the iye, that which he sheweth, so Priscianus defineth it: some are of that opinion, that descripcion is not to bee placed emo[n]g these exercises, profitable to Rhetorike. Because [Fol. lj.v] that bothe in euery Oracion, made vpon a Fable, all thyn- ges therein conteined, are liuely described. And also in euery Narracion, the cause, the place, the persone, the time, the fact, the maner how, ar therin liuely described. But most famous and Eloquente men, doe place descripcion, in the nomber of these exercises. Descripcio[n] serueth to these things, the person, as the Poete Lucane describeth Pompei & Cesar: the person is described, thynges or actes, tymes, places, brute beastes.

Nec coiere pares, alter vergentibus annis In senium longo que toge, tranquilior vsu. Dedidicit. &c.

Homer describeth the persone of Thersites, in the second booke of his Ilias.

Homer setteth out Helena, describing the persone of Me- nalaus and Ulisses, in the fowerth booke of Ilias.

Thynges are described, as the warres attempted by sea and lande, of Xerxes.

Lucan describeth the war of the Massilia[n]s against Cesar[.]

Thusidides setteth forthe in a descripcion, the warres on the sea, betwene the Corcurians, and the Corinthians.

Tymes are described, as the Spryng tyme, Sommer, Winter, Harueste, Daie, Night.

Places are described, as Citees, Mountaines, Regions, Floodes, Hauens, Gardeines, Temples: whiche thynges are sette out by their commoditees, for Thusidides often ty- mes setteth forthe Hauens and Citees.

Lucane also describeth at large, the places, by the whiche the armie of Cesar and Pompei passed. The descripcion of a- ny man, in all partes is to bee described, in mynde and bodie, what he was.

The acttes are to bee described, farre passed, by the pre- sente state thereof, and also by the tyme to come.

As if the warre of Troie, should be set forthe in a descrip- cion, it must be described, what happened before the Greci- ans arriued at Troie, and how, and after what sorte it was [Fol. lij.r] ouerthrowne, & what thing chaunced, Troie being destroid.

So likewise of Carthage, destroied by the Romaines. Of Hierusalem, destroied by Titus Uespasianus, what ad- monicion thei had before: of what monsterous thynges hap- pened also in that ceason: Of a Comete or blasyng Starre, and after that what followed.

Lucane also setteth forthe the warres of Pompe and Ce- sar, what straunge and marueilous thynges fell of it.

A descripcion vpon Xerxes.

WHen Darius was dedde, Xerxes his soonne did succede hym, who also tooke vpon him to finishe the warres, bego[n] by his father Darius, against Grece. For the whiche warres, preperacion was made, for the space of fiue yeres, after that [Sidenote: The armie of Xerxes.] Xerxes entered Grece, with seuen hundred thousande Persi- ans, and thre hundred thousande of forrain power aided him that not without cause, Chronicles of aunciente tyme dooe shewe, mightie floodes to be dried vp of his armie. The migh[-] tie dominions of Grece, was not hable to receiue his houge, and mightie power, bothe by sea and lande: he was no small Prince, whom so many nacions, so mightie people followed hym, his Nauie of Shippes was in nomber tenne hundred [Sidenote: Xerxes a cowarde.] thousande, Xerxes had a mightie power, but Xerxes was a cowarde, in harte a childe, all in feare the stroke of battaile moued. In so mightie an armie it was marueile, the chiefe Prince and Capitaine to be a cowarde, there wanted neither men, nor treasure, if ye haue respecte to the kyng hymself, for cowardlinesse ye will dispraise the kyng, but his threasures beeyng so infinite, ye will maruaile at the plentie thereof, whose armie and infinite hoste, though mightie floodes and streames, were not able to suffice for drinke, yet his richesse [Sidenote: Xerxes laste in battaile, and first to runne awaie.] semed not spente nor tasted of. Xerxes hymself would be laste in battaile to fight, and the firste to retire, and runne awaie. In daungers he was fearfull, and when daunger was paste, [Fol. lij.v] he was stoute, mightie, glorious, and wonderfull crakyng, [Sidenote: The pride of Xerxes.] before this hassarde of battaile attempted. He thought hym self a God ouer nature, all landes and Seas to giue place to hym, and puffed with pride, he forgatte hymself: his power was terrible, his harte fainte, whereupon his enteryng into Grece was not so dreaded, as his flight fro[m] thence was sham[-] full, mocked and scorned at, for all his power he was driuen backe from the lande, by Leonides king of the Lacedemoni- ans, he hauing but a small nomber of men, before his second battaile fought on the Sea: he sente fower thousande armed men, to spoile the riche and sumpteous temple of Apollo, at Delphos, from the whiche place, not one man escaped. After that Xerxes entered Thespia, Platea, and Athenes, in the whiche not one man remained, those he burned, woorkyng his anger vpon the houses: for these citees were admonished to proue the maisterie in wodden walles, whiche was ment to bee Shippes, the power of Grece, brought into one place [Sidenote: Themi- stocles.] Themistocles, fauoryng their part, although Xerxes thought otherwise of Themistocles, then Themistocles perswaded Xerxes to assaie the Grecians. Artemisia the Quene of Hali- carnasis aided Xerxes in his battaile: Artemisia fought man[-] fullie, Xerxes cowardly shronke, so that vnnaturally there was in the one a manlie stomacke, in the other a cowardlie harte. The men of Ionia, that fought vnder Xerxes banner, by the treason of Themistocles, shra[n]ke from Xerxes, he was not so greate a terrour or dreade, by his maine hoste, as now smally regarded & least feared. What is power, men, or mo- ney, when God chaungeth and pulleth doune, bothe the suc- cesse, and kyngdome of a Prince. He was in all his glorie, a vnmanlie, and a cowardly prince, yet for a time happie state fell on his side, now his might and power is not feared. He flieth awaie in a Fisher boate, whom all the worlde dreaded and obaied, whom all Grece was not able to receiue, a small boate lodgeth and harboureth. His owne people contemned hym at home, his glorie fell, and life ingloriously ended, who[m] [Fol. liij.r] whom God setteth vp, neither treason nor malice, power nor money can pull doune. Worthelie it is to be pondered of all Princes, the saiyng of Uespasianus Emperour of Rome, at a certain time a treason wrought and conspired against him, the conspiratours taken, Uespasianus satte doune betwene [Sidenote: The saiyng of Uespasi- anus.] theim, commaunded a sworde to be giuen to either of theim, and saied to them: Nonne videtis fato potestatem dari. Dooe you not see? Power, aucthorite, and regimente, by the ordi- [Sidenote: A sentence comfortable to al princes.] naunce of God, is lefte and giuen to princes: A singuler sen- tence, to comforte all good Princes in their gouernemente, not to feare the poisoned hartes of men, or the traiterous har- tes of pestiferous men. No man can pull doune, where God exalteth, neither power can set vp and extoll, where God dis- plaseth or putteth doune: Soche is the state of Princes, and their kyngdomes.


THesis, is a certain question in consultacion had, to be declaimed vpon vncertaine, notyng no certaine per- sone or thyng.

As for example.

Whether are riches chieflie to be sought for, in this life, as of all good thynges, the chief good.

Whether is vertue the moste excellente good thynge in this life.

Whether dooe the giftes of the mynde, passe and excelle the giftes and vertues of Fortune, and the bodie.

Whether doeth pollicie more auaile in war, then stre[n]gth of menne.

Who so will reason of any question of these, he hath nede with reason, and wittie consultacion to discourse, and to de- claime vpon thesame.

The Greke Oratours doe call this exercise Thesis, that is to saie, a proposicion in question, a question vncertain, in- cluded with no certainte, to any perticuler thyng.

[Fol. liij.v]

The Latine men doeth call it a question infinite, or vni- uersall: Tullie in his booke of places called Topickes, doeth call Thesis, Propositum, that is to saie, a question, in deter- minacion. Priscianus calleth it positionem, a proposicion in question on ether parte to be disputed vpon.

As for example.

Whether is it best to marie a wife?

Whether is frendship aboue all thynges to be regarded.

Is warre to be moued vpon a iuste cause?

Is the Greke tongue mete, and necessarie to be learned?

There is an other kinde of question called hypothesis, hy[-] pothesis is called questio finita, that is to saie, a question cer- taine notyng a certaine persone, or thyng, a certaine place, tyme, and so forthe.

As for example.

Is it mete for Cesar to moue warre against Pompei?

Is not there a certain persone?

Is the Greke tongue to be learned of a Diuine?

Is the Greke tongue meete for a Phisicion?

In this kinde of exercises, famous men of auncient time did exercise youth, to attain bothe wisedome and Eloquence therby, to make a discourse vpo[n] any matter, by art of lerning[.]

Aristotle the famous Philosopher, did traine vp youthe, to be perfite in the arte of eloquence, that thei might with all copiousnes and ingenious inuencion handle any cause.

Nothing doeth so moche sharpe and acuate the witte and capacite of any one, as this kinde of exercise.

It is a goodly vertue in any one man, at a sodain, to vtter wittely and ingeniouslie, the secrete and hid wisedome of his mynde: it is a greate maime to a profounde learned man, to wante abilite, to vtter his exquisite and profounde knowe- ledge of his mynde.


THis question Thesis, which is a question, noting no cer- taine persone or thyng: is moche like to that Oracion, [Fol. liiij.r] intreated of before, called a Common place.

A Common place.

BUt a Common place, is a certaine exaggeracion of matter, induced against any persone, conuicted of a- ny crime, or worthie defence.


Thesis is a reasonyng by question, vpon a matter vncer- taine.

Thesis, that is to saie, a questio[n] generall is in two sortes.

{ Ciuill. A question { { Contemplatiue.

QUestions Ciuill are those, that dooe pertaine to the state of a common wealth: and are daily practised in the common wealthe.

As for example.

Is it good to marie a wife.

Is Usurie lefull in a citee, or common wealthe.

Is a Monarchie the beste state of gouernement.

Is good educacion the grounde and roote, of a florishyng common wealthe.

A contemplatiue question.

THe other Thesis is a question contemplatiue, which the Grekes dooe call Theoricas, because the matter of them is comprehended in the minde, and in the in[-] telligence of man.

The example.

Is the soule immortall?

Had the worlde a beginnyng?

Is the heauen greater then the yearth?

{ Simple. A question is either { { Compounde.

Is it good for a man to exercise hymself in wrastlyng, or [Fol. liiij.v]

Is it profitable to declaime.

[] A compounde.

Is vertue of more value then gold, to the coueitous man[?]

Doeth wisedome more auaile, then strength in battaile?

Doe olde men or young men, better gouerne a common wealthe?

Is Phisicke more honourable then the Lawe?

A Oracion made vpon Thesis, is after this sorte made.

Use a exordium, or beginnyng.

Unto the whiche you maie adde a Narracion, whiche is a exposicion of the thyng doen.

Then shewe it lawfull.



And possible.

Then the conclucion.

To this in some parte of the Oracion, you maie putte in certaine obieccions, as thus.

Upon this question: Is it good to marie a wife?

In Mariage is greate care, and pensiuenesse of minde, by losse of children, or wife, whom thou loueste. There is also trouble of dissolute seruauntes. There is also greate sorowe if thy children proue wicked and dissolute.

The aunswere to this obiection, will minister matter to declaime vpon.

Is it good to Marie.

SInce the tyme of all ages, and the creacio[n] of the worlde, GOD hath so blessed his creacion, and meruailous workemanship in manne: as in all his other creatures, that not onelie his omnipo- teucie, is therby set forthe. But also from tyme to tyme, the posteritee of men, in their ofspring and procrea- [Sidenote: Kyngdomes continue by mariage and co[m]mon welth[.]] cion, doe aboundantlie commonstrate thesame. The state of all kyngdomes and common wealthes: by procreacion deri- ued, haue onelie continued on the face of the yearth, thereby [Fol. lv.r] many hundred yeres. How sone would the whole worlde be dissolued, and in perpetuall ruine, if that God from tymes and ages, had not by godlie procreacion, blessed this infinite [Sidenote: The dignitee of man, she- weth the worthines of mariage.] issue of mankinde. The dignite of man in his creacion, she- weth the worthie succession, maintained by procreation. In vaine were the creacion of the worlde, if there were not as manne so excellente a creature, to beholde the creatour, and his meruailous creacion. To what vse were the Elementes and Heauens, the Starres and Planettes, all Beastes and Foules, Fisshe, Plantes, Herbes and trees, if men wer not, for mannes vse and necessite, all thinges in the yearth were made and procreated. Wherein the Stoike Philosophers do note the excellencie of man to be greate: for saie thei, Que in terris gignuntur omnia ad vsum hominum creari. To what vse then were all thynges, if man were not, for whose cause, vse, & necessite these thynges were made. If a continuaunce of Gods procreacion were not, immediatlie a ruine and ende would ensue of thinges. What age remaineth aboue a hun- dred yeres? If after a hu[n]dred yeres, no issue wer to be, on the [Sidenote: Godlie pro- creacion.] face of the yearth, how sone wer kyngdoms dissolued, where as procreacion rooteth, a newe generacion, issue and ofspring, and as it were a newe soule and bodie. A continuaunce of la- wes, a permanente state of common wealthe dooeth ensue. Though the life of manne be fraile, and sone cutte of, yet by Mariage, man by his ofspryng, is as it were newe framed, his bodie by death dissolued, yet by issue reuiued. Euen as Plantes, by the bitter season of Winter, from their flowers fadyng and witheryng: yet the seede of them and roote, vegi- table and liuyng, dooe roote yerelie a newe ofspryng or flo- [Sidenote: A similitude.] wer in them. So Mariage by godlie procreacion blessed, doth perpetually increase a newe bodie, and therby a vaste world, and infinite nacions or people. Xerxes the mightie kyng of Persia, vewing and beholding his maine and infinite hoste, weped: who beyng demaunded, why he so did. Doleo inquit post centum annos, neminem ex hijs superesse. It is a pite- [Fol. lv.v] fulle and dolefull case, that after a hundred yeres, not one of these noble capitaines, and valiant soldiers to be left.

The obieccion.

But you will saie parauenture, mariage is a greate bon- dage, alwaies to liue with one.

The solucion.

To followe pleasure, and the beastlie mocions of the mynde: what liberte call you that, to liue in a godly, meane, [Sidenote: The libertie in mariage.] and Mediocrite of life, with thy spoused wife. There is no greater ioye, liberte, or felicite, who so practiseth a dissolute life: whose loue and luste is kindeled, and sette on fire with a [Sidenote: A brutishe societie with harlottes.] harlotte, he followeth a brutishe societe. What difference is there, betwene them and beastes? The beaste as nature lea- deth, he obaieth nature. Reason wanteth in beastes, manne then indued with reason, whiche is a guide to all excellencie how is it that he is not ruled by reason. Whom GOD hath clothed and beautified, with all vertue and all singularite: If a godly conuersacion of life, moueth the to passe thy daies without mariage, then must the mocions of thy minde, be ta- [Sidenote: Chastitee in mariage.] med and kepte vnder. Other wise, execrable is thy purpose, and determinacio[n] of the life. If thou hopest of loue of a harlot though thou enioye her otherwise, thou art deceiued. Bac- chis the harlot, whom Terence maketh mencion of, in the persone of her self, sheweth the maners of all harlots to An- tiphila, saiyng.

Quippe forma impulsi nostra nos amatores colunt: Hec vbi immutata est, illi suum animum alio conferunt. Nisi prospectu[m] est interea aliquid nobis, deserte viuimus.

For saieth she, the louer anamoured with our loue, and sette on fire therewith, it is for our beautie and fauour: but when beautie is ones faded, he conuerteth his loue to an o- ther, whom he better liketh. But that we prouide for our sel- ues in the meane season, we should in the ende liue vtterlie forsaked. But your loue incensed with one, whose maners and life contenteth you: so you bothe are linked together, [Fol. lvj.r] [Sidenote: The loue of a harlotte.] that no calamite can separate you: who so hopeth loue of a harlotte, or profite, he maie hope as for the fructe of a withe- red tree, gaine is all their loue, vice their ioye and delite. In vertue is liberte, in vertue is felicitee, the state of mariage is vertuous, there can be no greater bo[n]dage, then to obaie ma- ny beastly affections, to the whiche whoredome forceth hym vnto, Loue is fained, cloked amite, a harte dissembled, ma- ny a mightie person and wise, hath been ouerthrowen by the deceiptes of harlottes: many a Citee plagued, many a region ouerthrowen for that mischief, to obaie many affections is a greate bondage. Who so serueth the beastlie affections of his [Sidenote: Hercules. Omphala.] mynde to that purpose, he must also as Hercules to Ompha- la bee slaue, not onely to his owne will and affection: but to the maners, will, and exspectacion of the harlotte. So serued Thraso, and Phedria Thais, that Gorgious harlot, Antony and Iulius Cesar, Cleopatra, this is a bondage, to liue slaue from reason and all all integritee, to a monsterous rableme[n]t [Sidenote: The harlot- tes lesson, to her louers.] of vices, who so serueth a harlot, thei must learne this lesson. Da mihi & affer, giue and bryng.

The women of Scithia, abhorryng the godly conuersa- cion of mariage, with their housbandes, lefte theim, who in tyme ware so mightie, that thei repelled theim by force: thei called mariage not Matrimonie, but bondage. For, the chro- nicles doe testifie, thei became conquerours ouer many kyn- ges, all Asia obaied them: thei did builde many a great citee, and for theire successe, thei might compare with many prin- [Sidenote: The life of the Amazo- nes.] ces. These women were called Amazones afterwarde, the order of their life was this, ones in the yere thei would en- ioye the compainie of a man: if it so were that thei had a man childe, the father to haue it, if a daughter, then thei possessed her, and foorthwith burned her right pappe: for thei were all Archers, and wonderfully excelled therein, but in the ende, [Sidenote: Thalestris.] thei came all to ruine. One of them, Thalestris their Quene in the tyme of Alexander the Greate, came to Alexander, thinkyng that he had been, some monstrous man of stature: [Fol. lvj.v] [Sidenote: The offer of a woman to Alexander.] whom, when she did beholde (for Alexander was of no migh- tie stature) did contemne hym, and offered him hand to hande [Sidenote: The answer of Alexander to the offer.] to fight with hym. But Alexander like a wise Prince, saied to his men, if I should ouercome her, that were no victorie, nor manhoode againste a woman: and being ouercome, that were greater shame, then commendacion in all my victories and conquestes, but afterwarde, there was a greate familia- rite betwene them. The adulterer and the adulteris, neuer prospereth, for many mischiues are reserued, to that wicked and beastly loue. Sincere loue is not rooted, frendship colou- red: the sober and demure countenaunce, is moche to be com- mended in a chaste woman, whose breaste pondereth a chaste [Sidenote: The facte of the matrones of Rome.] life. The facte of the matrones of Rome, semeth straunge to be tolde, of Papirius a Senators soonne, beyng taken to the Senate house, of his father: the childe beyng indued with a singuler wit, harde many causes in the assemble, talked and consulted vpo[n], at his retourne home, his mother was inqui- sitiue of their consultacion, to heare somewhat. The childe was commaunded by his father, to vtter no secrete that he heard, wherevpon of a long tyme, he refused his mothers de- maunde: but at the laste subtelie, he satisfied his mothers re- [Sidenote: Papirius.] quest. Truth it is, my father willed me, to vtter no secret, you keping my counsaill, I will shewe you, it is concluded by the Senate house, that euery man shall haue twoo wiues, that is a straunge matter, saieth the mother: foorthwith she had communicacion with all the matrones of Roome, that could doe somewhat in this matter, thei also full willyngly assem- bled themselues, to let this purpose, to the Senate house, thei went to vtter, their swollen griues. The Senators were a- mased at their commyng, but in this matter bolde thei were, [Sidenote: The Oracio[n] of a matrone, to the Sena- tours.] to enterprise that, whiche thei wer greued at. A Dame more eloquente then all the reste, and of stomacke more hardie, be- gan in these woordes. Otherwise then right, we are iniuri- ously handled, and that in this assemble, that now we should be caste of and neclected: that whereas it is concluded in this [Fol. lvij.r] counsaile, that euery manne should haue twoo wiues, more meter it were, that one woman should haue twoo housban- des. Straunge it was in the Senators eares soche a request, whereupon a proofe made how that rumour rose, Papirius was found the aucthor, who tolde before the Senate, his mo- ther alwaies inquisitiue to knowe that, whiche he should not tell, and thereupon he faigned that, whiche he might better tell. It is to be supposed the Senators mused thereat, and the matrones of Rome went home ashamed: but their secrete co- gitacion of minde was manifest, what willingly in hart thei wished. What greater felicitee can there bee, then in a vnite of life, the housebande to liue with his wife. The beastes in their kinde, doe condemne mannes brutishe affections here- in: there is no facte that sheweth a man or woman, more like to beastes, then whoredome.

The obieccion.

But you will saie, many calamites happeneth in mariage?

The solucion.

Fortunne herein is to bee blamed, and not mariage, if a- ny misfortune happeneth to manne therein, the felicite and [Sidenote: Eleccion in Mariage.] quiet state that any man enioieth thereby. The discrete elec- cion is therein approued, in the state it self, nothyng can bee founde worthie reprehension, if a man will impute the bit- ter stormes of life to mariage: whatseouer happeneth, our owne reason maie iudge contrary. Place before thy iyes all the affaires, and occupacions of this life, bee all tymes plea- saunte to the housebande man, many a colde storme perceth his bodie, and many a mightie tempeste, dooeth molest hym and greue hym. Sommer is not the tyme, to caste his seede in the grounde, or implowyng to occupie hymself: shall he ther- fore leaue his housebandrie, or doeth he rather neclecte it, his diligence therein is the more, and labour more industrious. From whence commeth the tempeste, the stormes and bitter seasons? From his house, from his wife, from his art and oc- cupacion, all those thynges by violence are expelled from the [Fol. lvij.v] aire. No state of life is able to giue riches, healthe, or securite [Sidenote: Emperours.] to his state. There hath been princes and Emperours, nedie, full of infirmites and sickenes, in daungerous state, oppres- sed with many calamites: was their dignitie and office, the cause of their calamites? No, God tempreth the state of eue- ry one, how, and after what sorte to possesse thesame. Some [Sidenote: Mariage.] are fulle fortunate in Mariage, if Mariage were of necessite the cause, then all should be onely fortunate, or onely vnfor- tunate: then in mariage is not the cause, if in marige the ma- ners doe disagre, and loue is extinguished, blame thyn own [Sidenote: The Mari- ners.] maners, thy choise, and thy eleccion. The Mariner that pas- seth the daungerous Seas, and by dreadfull tempestes, and huffyng waues is alwaies in perille, and many often tymes [Sidenote: The Mar- chauntes.] drouned. The Marchaunt lesyng his marchaundise by ship- wrack, shall thei impute the daunger and losse, to their wife at home? Or doe the Mariners leaue for all these tempestes, their arte of Nauigacion? Or the owner breake his shippe? Or the Marchaunt proue no aduentures, because of his losse, and many haue been of this sort drouned. No. But more ear- [Sidenote: Warre.] nestlie thei dooe assaie theim selues thereto. Because warre spoileth many a man of his life, doe Princes therefore, leaue to moue armour againste the enemie, but because, who so in the defence of his countre, dieth manfullie, is worthelie ad- uaunced, and in perpetuall memorie, no daunger is refused, because euill thynges happeneth in life, is the state of good thynges to be auoided and eschued. Were it not vnsemelie, if housebande men, for no storme or tempeste, doe leaue their state, their laborious and rough co[n]dicion of life, nor the ship- man his arte of Nauigacion, because he seeth many drouned venteryng thesame, and he hymself often tymes in daunger, nor the soldiour or capitain, their perilous condicion of life, doe leaue for daunger. Should Mariage be lesse sette by, be- cause alwaies riches and quietnes happeneth not.

The obieccion.

The losse of a good wife and children, is a greate grefe to [Fol. lviij.r] any man, and a cause to blame mariage.

The aunswere.

[Sidenote: The lawe of Nature.] You your self are borne to dye, thei also by death obaye likewise Nature, this is the Lawe of Nature ones to dye, whiche you seme to blame. Then the death of thy wife and childre[n], is not the blame in Mariage. What is the cause that you dye? Natures imbecillite and weakenes, then in theim[.] Mariage is not the cause: Nature in her firste molde hath so framed all, wherefore doe you ascribe that to mariage, that is founde faulte in Nature. Thei die that marie not, what infirmitie, daunger or peril happeneth to any in mariage, as sharpe and perilous, doe molest and torment the other. If any manne by death, leaseth a right honeste wife, clothed with all chastite, demurenesse, sobriete, and also with all singulari- te of vertue adorned: he hath loste a rare treasure, a iewell of [Sidenote: A chaste wo- man.] price, not in all to bee founde. Did you loue your wife, that was so goodlie, so honeste and vertuous: there was greate cause saie you, for her vertuous sake, God hath chosen her fro[m] a mortall creature, to immortalite, with her it can not be better. There is no cause why you should blame mariage, for the losse of her, or of thy children, or for the losse of thee, she to blame mariage. If for thy owne sake, this sorowe bee, Est seipsum amantis non amici, it is then of a self loue, to thy self, not for her cause: for I muste aunswere as Lelius did to Affricanus, Cum ea optime esseactu[m] quis neget, quid est quod no[n] assecuta est immortalitatem. Who can deny saieth he, but that with her it can not bee better? What is it that she hath not attained. Immortalite. She was vertuous, chaiste, so- ber, descrete, of behauiour womanlie: for her vertues belo- ued. Well, now she hath immortalitee and blesse, are you so- rie thereat, that were enuious. Did you loue her liuyng, loue her also departed, her vertuous shewed vnto vs, her immor- talite.

The obieccion.

There is a care for the wife and children, if the housband [Fol. lviij.v] dye before theim.

The aunswere.

[Sidenote: A wretched executour.] If thou leaue them riches, hope not that thy riches shalbe a staie to theim, though thei bee innumerable: a wretched, a miserable executour, wasteth and destroieth oftentymes, the fruictes of thy trauaile, who reioyseth more of thy death, then of thy life. Or thy childrens father in Lawe, shall spoile and spende with a merie harte, that whiche thou haste long tera- [Sidenote: Gods pro- uidence.] uailed for. Staie thy self and thyne vpon Gods prouidence, for it hath been seen, many a riche widowe, with infinite treasure lefte, to her children also like porcions descendyng: afterwarde bothe wife and children, haue been brought to miserie and beggerlie state. Otherwise, poore children com- mitted to the prouidence of God, and vertuouslie brought vp, and the wife in like state, yet thei haue so passed their daies, that thei haue rose to a goodlie state. See that thy richesse be not iniuriouslie gotten by falshode, by liyng, by Usurie, if it so be, then Male parta male dilabuntnr. That is this, gooddes euill gotte, euill spente, soche riches neuer giue depe roote to their ofspryng. That is an euill care, by a iniurious care, to purchase thynges and gooddes wickedlie.

Also mariage taketh awaie widowhed, and doeth repare with a newe freshe mariage, the lacke and priuacion of the [Sidenote: Death. Mariage.] other. She that was by death left a widowe, mariage again hath coupled her to a newe housbande: and doeth restore that whiche death tooke awaie. That that death dissolueth and destroieth, mariage increaseth, augme[n]teth, and multiplieth. Bee it so, but mariage is a painfull life, it forceth euery one to trauaile, to vpholde and maintaine his state, I commende not the idell life, neither a life occupied to no vertuous ende. Nature moueth euery manne to loue hymself and his, so thy care and paine be to a godlie purpose. It is commendable. It is the duetie of euery man, as his power, witte, and industrie is able, to emploie thereto his cogitacion. To laboure for thy wife, whom thou loueste, and deare children, thy laboure is [Fol. lix.r] pleasure, the ioye easeth thy labour. To behold thy self in thy children, thei beyng vertuouslie broughte vp, it is a goodlie [Sidenote: The mariage of a chaste woman.] comfort, to liue with a chaste woman, sober and continente, her vertues be a continuall pleasure, a passyng ioye. In ma- riage ought to be greate deliberacion, whom thou chosest to thy continuall compainie or felowshippe, her life paste well knowen, her parentes and kindrede how honeste and vertu- ous, her maners, her fame, how commendable, her counti- [Sidenote: The choise of a wife.] naunce sober, a constaunt iye, and with shamefastnes beau- tified, a mouthe vttering fewe woordes discretlie. She is not to be liked, who[m] no vertuous qualites in her educacio[n], beu- tifieth and adorneth, the goodlie qualitees sheweth, the well framed and nurtured mynde. These thynges maie be suffi- ciente, to shewe what excellencie is in mariage and how ne- cessarie it is, to the procreacion and preseruacio[n] of mankind.


A Oracion either in the defence of a Lawe, or againste a Lawe.

MAny learned menne are in this opinion, that vpon a Lawe alledged, a Oracion maie bee made in the defence of it: or matter maie be suppeditated, to in- uaigh by force of argument againste it.

Although the lawe alleged be in maner the whole cause, bicause it doeth co[n]tain al the matter included in the oracion.

In this Oracion, the persone is induced to be spoken vp- pon, vnknowne, vncertaine: wherefore it is to be placed, ra- ther in the state and forme of consultacion, and to be exami- ned with iudgement.

The induccion of a Lawe, is in twoo sortes.

A confirmacion of any olde Lawe, or a confutacion.

As for example.

The Ciuill Lawe doeth well commende, bondmen to be manumised, that is, to be made free.

The lawe is herein to be praised, that willeth the cou[n]sail of the parentes & frendes, to be knowne before the contracte. [Fol. lix.v] Upon a Lawe alledged, worthelie matter maie rise, waigh- yng the godlie ende, whereunto the Lawe was firste inuen- ted, decreed and stablished, what profite thereof ensueth and foloweth. What it is to vertue a mainteiner, otherwise if it be not profitable? What moued any one to frame and ordain soche a Lawe, as was to a common wealthe vnprofitable, to vertue no aider, if it were a profitable Lawe and godlie, it is as Demosthenes saieth, of God inuented, though by famous [Sidenote: Lawe.] wise, and godlie menne, stablished and decred. Good Lawes tempereth to all states equitee and iustice, without fauour or frendship, no more to the one then the other.

The order to make an Oracion by a lawe, is in this sort. First, make a prohemiu[m] or beginning to enter your matter.

In the seconde place, adde a contrary to that, whiche you will entreate vpon.

Then shewe it lawful.




You maie as in Thesis, whiche was the Oracion before, vse a contradiction or obiection: and to that make an answere or solucion.

A confutacion of that Lawe, whiche suffered adultrie to bee punished with death, no iudgement giuen thereupon.

[Sidenote: The moste rigorous and moste cruell lawe of Solo[n][.]] SOlon, who was a famous Philosopher, in the time of Cresus king of Lidia, and a lawe giuer to the Athenians: by whose Lawes and godlie meanes, the Athenians were long and prospe- rouslie gouerned. Emong many of his lawes, this Solon set forthe againste adulterers. Fas esse deprehen- denti mchum in ipso adulterio interficere: it shalbee lawfull saieth he, who so taketh an adulterer in his beastlie facte, to kill hym. Solon beyng a wise man, was more rigorous and cruell, in this one Lawe, then he ought to be. A meruailous [Fol. lx.r] matter, and almoste vncredible, so wise, so noble and worthy a Lawe giuer, to bruste out with soche a cruell and bloodie lawe, that without iudgement or sentence giuen, the matter neither proued nor examined, adulterie to be death. Where- fore, reason forceth euery manne, to Iudge and ponder with [Sidenote: Adulterie a horrible vice.] hymself, that either adulterie is a moste horrible vice, moste beastlie & pestiferous, and not mete to tary vpon the censure, and sentence of a Iudge: or Solon was not so wise, discrete, and a politike persone, but a rashe and fonde lawe giuer, that in soche a terrible voice, he should burste out, as adulterie so horrible, as not worthie to be pondered, examined and boul- ted of in Iudgemente. The Athenians receiued that Lawe, thei did also obaie his other lawes. Their dominions there- by in felicite was gouerned: there was no populous nom- ber of adulterers, to let that Lawe, thei liued moste godlie, a straunge worlde, a rare moderacion of that age and people. [Sidenote: Plato aga- inste adultrie made a lawe.] Plato the godlie Philosopher, who lefte in his woorkes, and monumentes of learnyng, greate wisedome and also godlie Lawes in his bookes: intiteled vpon Lawes, and gouerne- ment of a common wealth, did not passe by in silence, to giue and ordain a Lawe against adulterie. Who also as it semed Iudged adulterie as moste horrible and detestable, in his .ix. booke de Legibus. This is the Lawe. Adulteram deprehen- sam impune occidi a viro posse. The adultrous woman saith he, taken in the crime, her housbande maie without daunger of death, or feare of punishement slea her. A straunge matter twoo so noble, so famous for wisedome, to make adulterie present death, no Iudgement or sentence of Magistrate, pro- cedyng to examine and iudge, vpon the state of the cause. A man maie saie, O goodlie age, and tyme in vertue tempered, eche state as seemeth brideled and kepte vnder, and farre fro[m] voluptuousnes remoued. There was no stewes or Baudes houses, where soche Lawes and Lawmakers were. Sobrie- te was in maides, and chastite harboured in matrones and wedded wiues, a harte inuiolable to honeste conuersacion. [Fol. lx.v] Where adulterie is cutte of, there many detestable vices, [Sidenote: Catos sen- tence vpon adulterie.] and execrable purposes are remoued. Cato the sage Peere of Rome, indued with like seuerite, did fauour that lawe and highlie extolled it. Although adulterie bee a detestable vice horrible, yea, although it be worthie death, better it were by iudgemente, and the sentence of the Magistrate, the faute to [Sidenote: Lawe.] bee determined: then at the will of euery manne, as a Lawe by death to bee ended, the common wealthe shalbee in more quiet state, when the horrible factes of wicked menne, by the [Sidenote: The Iudge, a liuely lawe.] Lawe made worthie of deathe: are neuerthelesse by a liuelie Lawe, whiche is the Iudge, pronounced and condemned, ac- cordyng to the Lawe. Els many mischiues might rise in all kyngdomes and common wealthes, vnder a colour of lawe, many a honeste persone murthered: and many a murtherer, by cloke of a Lawe, from daunger saued. In Rome somtime a Lawe there was ordained againste adulterie, whiche was called Lex Iulia, this Lawe Octauius Augustus set foorthe. The Lawe was thus, Gladio iussit animaduerti in adulteros[.] The lawe commaunded adulterers to be hedded. The chro- nicles of aunciente tymes herein doe shew, and the decres of auncient elders also, how horrible a thing adulterie is, when thei punishe it with death. Who knoweth not emo[n]g the Is- raelites, and in the olde lawe thei wer stoned to death. Well as Magistrates are in common wealthes remoued, or as ti- mes chaunge, lawes also are chaunged and dissolued: and as the Prouerbe is, Lex vt Regio, the Lawes are accordyng to the Region. Afterwarde Ualerius Publicola, a man ascen- dyng to high nobilite of honour, and fame emong, the Ro- maines gaue this Lawe. Qua neminem licebat indicta causa necare. By this lawe it was not lefull, any manne to be put [Sidenote: A godly law.] to death, their cause not examined in Iudgemente, this was a goodlie Lawe. Then afterwarde, Lawe giuers rose in the common wealth, that with more facilitee tolerated that vice, then wickednesse flowed, adulterie not punished by death. And sence that, the Romaine Empire, wrapped and snared [Fol. lxj.r] with soche mischiues hath decaied, in fame, nobilite and ver- tue. Many a parte of their dominion plagued, deuoured, and [Sidenote: The good manne.] destroied. The good and godlie menne, nede not to feare any Lawe godlie, their life beyng in vertue and godlines nurtu- red. The terrible sentence of a lawe, forceth the good and god- lie, to perseuere and continue in godlines. The terrible sen- [Sidenote: Lawe.] tence of a Lawe, cutteth of the wicked enterprises of pestife- rous menne. Uice where lawe is not to correcte, will inure it [Sidenote: Uice as a lawe by cu- stome.] self by custome as a Lawe, or borne and tolerated againste a [Sidenote: Adulterie.] Lawe. Therefore as adulterie without Iudgemente, to bee punished worthie of death is vngodlie: so it ought not to bee passed ouer, or tolerated in any Region or common wealth, as no lawe seuerely to punishe thesame.

The contrarie.

AL other lawes doe differ, from that rigorous lawe of Solon and Plato herein, yea, and though thei be vices horrible, yet thei ar not determined, with out the sente[n]ce of the Magistrate and Iudge. But this cruell Lawe of Solon, doeth repugne all lawes, stabli- [Sidenote: The lawe v- niuersall and equall to all menne.] shed in all Citees and common wealthes. And sithe the lawe is of hymself vniuersall, with equite, giuing and tempering to all states. Fonde muste that Lawe bee of Solon, whiche rashely, without consideracion of iudgement doeth procede, no man ought in his own cause, to be his own iudge or Ma- gistrate. This is argument sufficient to confounde the lawe of Solon. All Lawes are repugnaunte to that, because with Iudgement thei procede against vices moste pestiferous. In [Sidenote: Thefte.] common wealthes Theft is by lawe, pronounced worthie of death, whereupon also the Magistrate and Iudge, determi- neth the matter, and heareth of bothe the action of the case, before he condempneth, so in all other mischiues.

But you maie saie, many mischiues riseth of adulterie.

Although it so be, the Iudge determineth vpon Murder, whiche is in like sort horrible, soche also as dooe seke to caste into perill their countre, and by treason to destroie thesame, [Fol. lxj.v] Iudgemente proceadeth by determinacion of the Lawe and Iudge. And so in all other wicked factes, and mischiuous en- terprises, the Iudgement in euery cause procedeth, as Lawe [Sidenote: The Iudge a liuely lawe.] and right willeth, from the mouthe of the Iudge, he beyng a liuelie Lawe, to the Lawe written. The cruell Lawe of So- lon, is like to the phantasie and wille of a tyraunte, who, as phantasie and will leadeth, murdereth at his pleasure, whose will is alwaies a sufficient Lawe to hymself, as who should [Sidenote: The will of a tyraunte his owne lawe.] saie, so I wille, so I commaunde, my wille shall stande for a Lawe: but godlie lawes doe iustlie, accordyng to reason and vertue, tempereth the cause of euery man. No godlie Lawe, maketh the accuser his owne Iudge.


[Sidenote: Lawes were made for two causes.] WHo so by Lawe is iudged, and the offence proued, there is no excuse in the malefactour, nor suspicion seing that, accordyng to lawe, the fact is punished, and as Demosthenes saieth, twoo thynges moued the wise Elders to make Lawes, that the wicked should bee hindered, and cutte of from their purpose, and that good men seyng by a lawe, the actes of pestiferous men kepte vnder, by the terrour of them, are afraied to commit the like facte. This was euen accordyng to lawe. The terrible sentence of a law executed, vpon moste wicked persones, doe kepe vnder many a mischiuous enterprise, whiche through the dolefull and la- mentable ende of the wicked, doe driue and force all other to all godlines.


THe accuser by Lawe and Iudge, is able to defende hymself, whe[n] his cause is ended accordyng to law. Uertue thereby vpholded, when by order of lawe, vice is condempned. The malifactour hath no ex- cuse, all staie and colour remoued, the accuser by iuste Lawe pleateth, when the law is thereby supported and saued. And herein a greate parte of Iustice is placed, when the fauour of the Iudge or frendship, is onely on the cause, the persone nec- [Fol. lxij.r] lected, that is Iustice, to giue to euery one his owne.


IT must be profitable to the whole bodie of the com- mon wealthe, when by the Iustice of godlie lawes, vertue is in high price aduaunced, vice by the open sentence, and manifeste profe conuicted, the malefa- ctour shall be knowen, the sincere and godlie deliuered, and from tyme to tyme maintained. Lawes as thei be vniuersall so thei openlie ought to giue sentence.


THen without lawe to procede, and iudgemente of the Magistrate, as Solon did in this lawe, it were not possible, any common wealthe to florishe ther- by. Therefore in Iudgemente ought the cause of euery one to be pleated and examined, that thereby all suspi- cion, & greuous enormites, maie be put of. Uice is not there- fore tolerated, because for a tyme, Iudgemente ceaseth, but hereupon vices are more depely rooted out, all people know- yng the determinacion of the lawe, and the manifest sente[n]ce of the Iudge heard. A terrour ensueth to al malefactours and pestiferous men, good men are incensed to all godlines, whe[n] vice by Lawe is condempned, cutte of, and destroied. Good menne by Lawe and aucthorite, vpholded and maintained.

[Sidenote: The state of good lawes.] This is the state of good lawes, by order to procede, the cause in Iudgemente examined, the facte proued, vertue in any persone vpholded, vice in all caste doune and defaced, so there is good Lawe, as Demosthenes saieth, sincere Iudge, and sentence inuiola- ble.

* * * * *

[Transcriber's Note: The following is a list of printer errors in the original.]

Page Original Correct

Fol. j.r faith he faith be Fol. ij.r Poloponesians Peloponesians Fol. ij.r oracions, when oracion, when Fol. v.r Perthesius Parthesius Fol. vj.v Romai- Romains [or Romaines] Fol. vij.r valianntes valiauntes Fol. vij.r commo wealth commo[n] wealth Fol. ix.r uot not Fol. ix.r state or state of Fol. ix.v comparson comparison Fol. x.r aboundauute aboundaunte Fol. x.v oneie onelie Fol. xj.r fanour fauour Fol. xiiij.r vengauce vengau[n]ce Fol. xiiij.v Fenche Frenche Fol. xv.r Bristaines Britaines Fol. xvj.r porfite profite Fol. xvj.v learnng learning [or learnyng] Fol. xvij.r is was was Fol. xvij.r Pholosopher Philosopher Fol. xvij.v faundacion foundacion Fol. xviij.v aud and Fol. xviij.v Catona Crotona Fol. xix.r celebraied celebrated Fol. xx.v intteled intiteled Fol. xxj.r gouerme[n]t gouernme[n]t Fol. xxij.v Politcia Politia Fol. xxiiij.v Rhetotike Rhetorike Fol. xxiiij.v exposion exposicion Fol. xxiiij.v Incrediblie Incredible Fol. xxv.r The feigne Thei feigne Fol. xxvij.r the the the Fol. xxvij.r moderaciou moderacion Fol. xxviij.v Prossible Possible Fol. xxviij.v Rhetotike Rhetorike Fol. xxix.r Fol. xxxj. Fol. xxix. Fol. xxix.v Historiogriphers Historiographers Fol. xxxj.r Fol. xxxiij. Fol. xxxj. Fol. xxxj.r lineth liueth Fol. xxxj.v ouerthowe ouerthrowe Fol. xxxj.v Epamniundas Epaminundas Fol. xxxij.r Epameunndas Epaminundas Fol. xxxiij.r Zopryus Zopyrus Fol. xxxiiij.r or God of God Fol. xxxiiij.r wekedned wekened Fol. xxxv.r destetable detestable Fol. xxxv.v Theodosiuus Theodosius Fol. xxxv.v prouulgate promulgate Fol. xxxv.v hane haue Fol. xxxvj.r goddes goodes [or gooddes] Fol. xxxvj.r lo liue to liue Fol. xxxvj.r the:m theim Fol. xxxvij.r Fol. xxxix. Fol. xxxvij. Fol. xxxvij.v dangerous gaue dangerous game Fol. xxxviij.v cut af cut of Fol. xxxviij.v gouernuurs gouernours Fol. xxxix.r Fol. xxxvij. Fol. xxxix. Fol. xxxix.r His Oracion THis Oracion Fol. xxxix.v goueruours gouernours Fol. xl.v Traianns Traianus Fol. xlij.r nobilite) for nobilite (for Fol. xliij.r valianntly valiauntly Fol. xliiij.v anncestours auncestours Fol. xlviij.r conutre countre Fol. liiij.v omnipoteucie omnipotencie Fol. lvj.r all all all Fol. lvij.r whatseouer whatsoeuer Fol. lviij.v terauailed trauailed Fol. lviij.v dilabuntnr dilabuntur

The original contains the following additional printer errors:

Fol. j.r Decorative capital "N" reversed Fol. xxxiij.r Last sentence repeated Fol. xxxviij.v Section heading repeated Fol. liij.r First word repeats last word on previous page Fol. liiij.r Remainder of last sentence missing?

The following do not appear to be printer errors, as they are consistently used in the original: "thesame" for "the same"; "shalbe" for "shall be"; the use of "a" instead of "an" before a noun beginning with a vowel; the combination of "the" and a word beginning with "e" into a single word, as in "theight" for "the eight."


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