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A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike
by Richard Rainolde
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Qui facere et qui nosce, cupit quam plurima et altum, In terris virtute aliqua sibi querere nomen: Hunc vigilare opus est, nam non preclara geruntur, Stertendo, et molles detrectat gloria plumas.

Who so coueteth to purchase fame by actes, or whose minde hunteth for aboundaunte knowledge, or by vertue in this life, to purchause good fame. He had not nede to slugge [Fol. xix.v] and slepe in his doynges: for good fame is not vpholded by gaie Pecockes feathers. Of this, Demosthenes the famous Oratour of Athens, vttereth a worthie saiyng to the Athe- nians in his Epistle: if any will iudge Alexander the greate, to be famous and happie, in that he had successe in all his do- [Sidenote: Alexander the great, co[m]- mended for diligence.] ynges, let this be his cogitacion, that Alexander the greate, alwaies did inure hymself to doe thynges, and manfullie to assaie that he enterprised. The felicitie of his successe came to hym not slepyng, or not cogitatyng thereof: Alexander the greate now dedde, Fortune seketh with whom she maie ac- companie, and associate her self.

Thusidides comparyng the Lacedemonians, and the A- thenians together, shewed a rare moderacion, and tempera- ture of life, to be in the Athenians: wherupon thei are moste commended, and celebrated to the posteritie.

The contrarie.

EUen as idlenes and a sluggishe life, is moste pleasant to all soche, as neglecte vertuous exercises, and god- lie life. So paine, labour, and studie, bestowed and emploied, in the sekyng out of vertue, arte, or science is moste pleasaunt to well affected mindes: for no godlie thyng can be attained to, without diligence and labour.

The similitude.

EUen as housbandmen, with labour and trauaile, dooe labour in plantyng and tillyng the grounde, before thei receiue any fruicte of thesame. Euen so no vertue, arte, or science, or any other thyng of ex- cellencie is attained, without diligence and labour bestowed thereto.

The example.

LEt Demosthenes, the famous Oratour of Athenes, bee an example of diligence to vs, who to auoide all let from studie, vsed a meanes to kepe hymself ther- to: preuentyng also the industrie of artificers. Thesame De- [Fol. xx.r] mosthenes, wrote seuen tymes out the storie of Thusidides, to learne thereby his eloquence and wisedome.

The testimonie.

PLinie, Plato, and Aristotle, with many other mo, are like examples for diligence to vs: who wrote vpon vertue and learnyng like sentences.

The conclusion.

THerefore, Isocrates dooeth pronounce worthelie, the roote of learning and vertue to be bitter, and the fru- tes pleasaunte.

A Sentence.

THe Oracion, whiche must be made by a sente[n]ce is in al partes like to Chria, the profitable exer- cise, onelie that the Oracion made vpon a sen- tence, as aucthours do saie: hath not alwaie the name of the aucthour prefixed in the praise, a small matter of difference, who so can make the one, is ex- pert and exquisite in the other, aucthours doe define a sente[n]ce in this maner. A sentence is an Oracion, in fewe woordes, shewyng a godlie precept of life, exhorting or diswadyng: the [Sidenote: Gnome.] Grekes dooe call godly preceptes, by the name of Gnome, or Gnomon, whiche is asmoche to saie, a rule or square, to direct any thyng by, for by them, the life of manne is framed to all singularitie. Thei are diuers sortes of sentences, one exhor- teth, an other diswadeth, some onely sheweth: there is a sen- tence simple, compounde, profitable, true, & soche like. Frame your Oracion vpon a sentence, as in the Oracion before.

{ 1. The praise of the aucthour. { 2. The exposicion of the sentence. { 3. A confirmacion in the strength of the cause. { 4. A conference, of the contrarie. { 5. A similitude. { 6. The example. { 7. The testimonie of aucthors, shewing y^e like. { 8. Then adde the conclusion.

[Fol. xx.v]

An Oracion vpon a sentence.

The sentence.

In a common wealthe or kyngdome, many kynges to beare rule, is verie euill, let there be but one kyng.

The praise of the aucthour.

HOmere, who of all the Poetes chiefly excelled, spake this sentence in the persone of Ulisses, vpon the king Agamemnon, kyng of Grece. This Homere intrea- ting of all princely affaires, and greate enterprices of the Grecians: and of the mightie warre againste the Troians, emong whom soche discorde rose, that not onely the warre, for lacke of vnitie and concorde, continued the space of tenne yeres. But also moche blood shed, hauocke, and destruccion, came vpon the Grecians, vttered this sente[n]ce. This Homere for his learnyng and wisedome remaineth, intteled in many monumentes of learnyng: with greate fame and commen- [Sidenote: The praise of Homere.] dacion to all ages. What Region, Isle, or nacion is not, by his inuencion set foorthe: who although he were blinde, his minde sawe all wisedome, the states of all good kyngdomes [Sidenote: The content of Homers bookes.] and common wealthes. The verie liuely Image of a Prince or gouernour, the faithfull and humble obedie[n]ce of a subiect, toward the prince, the state of a capitaine, the vertue and no- ble qualities, that are requisite, in soche a personage, be there set forthe. The perfite state of a wiseman, and politike, is in- treated of by hym. The Iustice, and equitie of a Prince, the strength of the bodie, all heroicall vertues: also are set forthe his eloquence and verse, floweth in soche sorte, with soche pleasauntnes: so copious, so aboundaunt, so graue and sen- tencious, that his singularitie therein excelleth, and passeth.

[Sidenote: Alexander.] The mightie prince Alexander, in all his marciall enter- prices, and great conquestes, did continually night by night, [Sidenote: The Ilias of Homere, mete for prin- ces to looke vpon.] reade somewhat of the Ilias of the Poete Homere, before he slepte, and askyng for the booke, saied: giue me my pillowe. Alexander as it semeth, learned many heroical vertues, poli- cie, wisedome, & counsaill thereof, els he occupied in so migh- [Fol. xxj.r] tie and greate warres, would not emploied studie therein.

Iulius Cesar the Emperour, commendeth this Poete, for his singularitie, his commendacion giueth, ample argu- ment, in this singulare sentence, whiche preferreth a Monar- chie aboue all states of common wealthes or kyngdome.

The exposicion.

HOmere the Poete, signified by this one sentence, no kyngdome or common wealthe can prospere, or flo- rishe to continue, where many holde gouernement as kynges. For, the mindes of many rulers and princes, doe moste affecte a priuate wealthe, commoditie and glorie: and where, many doe beare soche swaie and dominion, the com- mon wealth can not be good. For, thei priuatly to theim sel- ues, doe beare that regiment, and alwaie with the slaughter of many, do seke to attain and clime, to the whole gouerme[n]t[.]

The cause.

[Sidenote: The state of many kinges in one lande.] MAny occasions dooe rise, whereby many princes, and gouernours in a common wealth, be diuerslie affec- ted, so that the gouernme[n]t of many, can not prosper. For, bothe in quiete state, their counsailes must bee diuerse, and vncertaine: and where thei so differ, the kyngdome stan- deth in great ieopardy and daunger. Isocrates intreatyng of [Sidenote: Athenes.] a Monarchie, sheweth that the common wealth of Athenes, whiche detested and refused, that forme and state, after the ruine and fall of their citee: beyng vnder the thraldome of the Lacedemonia[n]s, bothe in their externall chiualrie and feates, bothe by sea and by lande, and also in regimente otherwise, their citee grewe mightie, and state stedfast.

[Sidenote: Carthage in a monarchie.] The Carthagineans also, gouerned by one, had their go- uernment stedfaste, and kyngdome roiall: who in puisaunte actes, might compare with the noble Romaines. As the obe- dience to one ruler and chief gouernour, sekyng a common wealth, is in the hartes of the subiectes: feruent and maruei- lous with loue embraced, so the Maiestie of hym is dreade, [Fol. xxj.v] with loue serued, and with sincere harte, and fidelitie obeied, [Sidenote: The state of many kinges in one lande.] his maners folowed, his lawes imitated. Many gouernours bearyng regiment, as their maners be diuers, and fashion of life: euen so the people bee like affected, to the diuersitie of di- uers princes. And if we weigh the reuolucion of the heauens and the marueiles of God therein, the maker of thesame, who [Sidenote: A monarchie in heauen.] beyng one God, ruleth heauen and yearth, and all thynges co[n]tained in thesame. The heauen also adorned with many a [Sidenote: One Sunne[.]] starre, and cleare light, haue but one Sunne to gouerne the[m]: who being of a singulare vertue aboue the rest, by his vertue and power, giueth vertue to the reste. Also in small thynges [Sidenote: The Ante. The Bee.] the Ante and the Bee, who for prouidence and wisedome, ar moche commended: haue as it were a common wealth, and a king to gouerne the[m], so in all thinges as a confusion, the state of many kings is abhorred in gouernme[n]t. After the death of [Sidenote: Constancius[.] Licinius[.] Marabodius[.]] Constantinus the greate, Constancius his sonne was made Emperour, and Licinius with him, partaker in felowship of the Empire. But forthwith, what blood was shed in Italie, with all crueltie, vntill Constancius had slaine Licinius, partaker of the Empire, and Marabodius was slaine also, whom Licinius did associate with hym in the gouernment. So moche princes and chief gouernours, doe hate equalitie, [Sidenote: Pompey. Cesar. Marius. Silla.] or felowship in kingdomes. After thesame sort, in this migh- tie Monarchie of Rome, diuerse haue attempted at one and sondrie tymes, to beare the scepter and regiment therein, but that mightie Monarchie, could not suffer but one gouernor. The kyngdome of Thebes, was in miserable state, the twoo sonnes of Oedipus, Eteocles, and Polunices: striuing bothe [Sidenote: Assiria the first monar- chie.] to be Monarche, and onely kyng. The kyngdome of Assiria, whiche was the golden kyngdome, and the first Monarchie: hauyng .36. kynges by succession, continued .1239. yeres, this kyngdome for all nobilitie and roialnes excelled, and all in a Monarchie. The kyngdome of the Medes, in a Monarchie florished in wealthe and glorie and all felicitie: who in domi- nion had gouernmente .300. lackyng .8. yeres. After that, the [Fol. xxij.r] [Sidenote: The monar- chie of the Medes. The Persia[n]. Macedonia.] monarchie of the Medes ceased, the Persia[n] people rose migh- tie, bothe in people and Princes, and continued in that state 236 and 7 monethes. Macedonia rose from a base and meane people, to beare the whole regiment, and power ouer all king[-] domes. So God disposeth the state and seate of princes, ouer- throwyng often tymes mightier kyngdomes at his will: the continuaunce of this Monarchie was .157. and eight mone- [Sidenote: Asia[.] Siria[.]] thes, ten kynges linealie descendyng. Asia and Siria, was gouerned by one succedyng in a sole gouernement. Nicanor gouerned Siria .32. yeres. In the other Antigonus raigned, Demetrius Poliorchetes one yere, Antiochus Soter also, the scepter of gouernment, left to the succession of an other, then Antiochus Soter, ruled all Asia and Siria, hauyng .16. kin- [Sidenote: Egipte in a Monarchie[.]] ges whiche in a monarchie, co[n]tinued 189 yeres. The Egipci- ans, had famous, wise, and noble princes, whose kyngdome and large dominion, in all felicite prospered: whiche was in the tyme of Ninus, the first king of the Assiria[n]s, who hauing 10. princes, one by one succedyng, Cleopatra their Quene, gouerning, stoode in a monarchie .288. This one thyng she- weth, that kinde of gouernmente to bee roiall, and moste fa- mous, not onely for the felicite and glory therof: but also for the permanent and stedfast state thereof. Aristotle and Plato setteth forthe, thother formes of gouernme[n]t. But in all those, no long co[n]tinuaunce of felicitee, nor of happy state can appere [Sidenote: Tirannis[.] Nero[.] Domicianus[.] Caligula.] in them, as for the contrarie to a Monarchie, is tirannis, pe- stiferous, and to be detested, where one man gouerneth to his priuate gaine, pillyng and polyng his subiectes, murderyng with all crueltie, neither Lawe nor reason, leadyng thereto: but will bearyng regiment ouer lawe, Iustice and equitee, whiche princes often tymes see not. How the wilfull rashe- nes, or tirannicall minde doeth abase them, and make them, though in vtter porte thesame princes, yet in verie dede, thei [Sidenote: What doeth beautifie the throne of a Prince[.]] bee thrall and slaue to beastlie affeccion. Nothyng dooeth so moche adorne and beautifie, the seate and throne of a prince, as not onely to beare dominion, ouer mightie people and re- [Fol. xxij.v] [Sidenote: Aristocratia.] gions, then to be lorde ouer hymself. The state of a fewe pe- res or nobles, to holde the chief and whole gouernment, who bothe in vertue, learnyng, and experience dooe excelle, is a goodlie state of common wealth. But the profe of that com- mon wealthe and ende sheweth, and the maner of Princes: who, although thei be, of life godlie, wise, graue, expert and politike. For, these vertues or ornamentes, ought to be repo- sed in soche noble personages, thei doe marueilously chaunge and alter: So honour and preeminente state, puffeth theim vp, and blindeth theim, that euery one in the ende, seeketh to climbe ouer all, as hed and gouernour. Shewe me one kinde of this state, and forme of gouernmente, whiche either longe prospered, or without bloodshed, and destruccion of the rest of the nobles and peres, haue not caught the whole regimente. Seyng that in all common wealthes and kingdomes, equa- lite or felowshippe, will not be suffred in gouernmente: for, it can not bee, that this forme of common wealthe maie be [Sidenote: The ende of Aristocratia.] good, as Aristotle and Plato sheweth: The ende of this go- uernemente, fell euer to one, with a ruine of the kingdome [Sidenote: Politcia.] and people. The multitude to beare dominion, and though a publike wealth be sought for a tyme, moche lesse thei conti- nue in any good state: for in the ende, their rule and gouerne- ment, will be without rule, order, reason, modestie, and their lawe must bee will. The other three states, are the refuse of good common wealthes, not to be tollerated in any region. [Sidenote: Tirannis.] The one of them is a tyraunte, to be gouernour onely to his owne glorie, with crueltie tormented his subiectes, onelie to [Sidenote: Oligarthia.] haue his will and lust, ouer all lawe, order, and reason. The nobilite rulyng to them selues, euery one for his owne time[.] [Sidenote: Democratia.] The third, the base and rude multitude, euery one for hym- self, and at his will. This troublous state, all Regions and common wealthes, haue felte in open sedicions and tumul- tes, raised by theim, it is a plagued and pestiferous kinde of gouernemente. The example of a good Monarchie, is of greate force, to confounde the state of al other common weal- [Fol. xxiij.r] thes, and formes of Regimente.

[Sidenote: A monarchie preferred of the Persians[.]] The nobilite of Persia hauyng no kyng, linially des- cendyng, to rule that mightie dominion of Persia, Cambises beyng dedde, the vsurper murthered, thei tooke counsaill in their assemble, what state of gouernment was beste, thei ha- uyng the profe of a Monarchie: in their longe counsaill, thei knewe the felicitie of that state, thei knewe as it seemed, the perilous state of the other gouernmentes. If these noble and peres had been ambicious, and that eche of them would haue had felowshippe, or participacion in kyngdomes: thei would not haue preferred a Monarchie aboue the reste. The anti- quitie of that tyme sheweth, their personages, wisedome, grauitie, and maiestie was soche, that eche one of theim was mete for his vertues, to haue a whole kyngdome. If Aristo- cratia would haue contented them, then was tyme and occa- sion offered, no kyng remainyng to haue preferred that state. [Sidenote: The duetie of al noble peres[.]] But thei as vpright nobles, sincere and faithfull, hauyng al- together respecte to a publique wealthe: to a permanent state and felicitie of kingdome, sought no participacion by priuate wealthe, to dissolue this Monarchie. But thei beyng moste godlie, eche were content to proue, whose chaunce might be, to set vp againe that Monarchie. The kyngdome at the laste [Sidenote: Darius.] came to the handes of Darius, who was after kyng of the Persians. This is a goodly example, to shewe the worthines of a Monarchie, the Persian kingdome after many yeres de- clinyng, from his power and state, not for any faulte of go- [Sidenote: Kyngdomes rise and fall.] uernment, but God as he seeth tyme, raiseth vp kyngdomes and plucketh them doune. Afterward Darius the kyng, not able to make his parte good with Alexander the Greate: of- fered to hym the greatest parte of his kyngdome, euen to the flood of Euphrates, and offred his daughter to wife: Alexan- der was content to take the offer of Darius, so that he would bee seconde to hym, and not equall with hym in kyngdome. [Sidenote: The answer of Alexander to Darius, as co[n]cernyng a monarchie.] For, Alexander saied, that as the worlde can not bee gouer- ned with twoo Sunnes, neither the worlde can suffer twoo [Fol. xxiij.v] mightie kingdomes: wherupon it is manifest, that no king- dome will suffer equalitie or felowship, but that if the will & minde of Princes might brust out, the state of all the worlde, would bee in one mightie gouernours handes. For, alwaies [Sidenote: Alexa[n]der the great prefar- red a Mo- narchie.] Princes dooe seke to a sole regimente. Alexander the greate co[n]querour also, preferring for worthines a Monarchie, at the tyme of his death, demaunded who[m] he would haue to succede him in his mightie dominio[n]s, he by one signifiyng a Monar- chie, saiyng: Dignissimus, that is to saie, the worthiest. After [Sidenote: Alexanders monarchie fel by many kin- ges. Antipater. Crates. Meliagrus. Perdiccas. Ptolomeus. Learcus. Cassander. Menander. Leonatus. Lusimacus. Eumenes[.] Seleucus.] the death of Alexander, Antipater caught the gouernmente of Macedonia and Grece, and Crates was Treasurer. Me- leagrus and Perdiccas caught other of his dominions, then Ptolemeus possessed Egipte, Africa and a parte of Arabia, Learcus, Cassander, Mena[n]der, Leonatus, Lusimachus, Eu- menes, Seleucus and manie other, who were for their wor- thines in honor and estimacion with Alexander, caught in- to their handes other partes of his dominions, euerie one se- kyng for his time, his owne priuate glorie, dignitie, and ad- uauncemente, but not a publike wealthe, and so in fine, am- bicion broiled in their loftie stomackes, eche to attaine to o- thers honor. Whereupon bloodshed, destruction of the peo- ple and countries, the fall of these Princes ensued. So moche kingdomes hate equalitie or felowship: let vs laie before our [Sidenote: Fraunce. Spaine. Germanie. Britaine.] iyes, the kyngdomes nere at hand. Fraunce, from the tymes of Faramundus vntill this daie haue stoode, and did florishe in a Monarchie. The state of Spaine, from the tyme of the firste kyng, vntill this daie, hath florished continually in a Monarchie. The great seigniories of Germanie, by one suc- cedyng in gouernment, haue been permanent in that good- lie state. Our noble Isle of Britain from Brutus, hath stoode by a Monarchie: onely in those daies, the state of gouernme[n]t chaunged, at the commyng of Iulius Cesar, Emperour of Rome. The lande beyng at diuision, and discorde, through the diuersitie of diuerse kynges: so moche the state of diuerse kynges in one lande, is to be expelled, or the gouernment of [Fol. xxiiij.r] the base multitude, to haue vniuersally power of dominion, or the state of peres, to bee chief in regiment, no kyng lefte to commaunde ouer the people, and nobles, or els there can not be but discorde in thende, whiche pulleth doune moste migh- tie Regions and dominions, so that the beste state, the moste stedfaste and fortunate, is in all tymes, in all ages, in all la- wes, and common wealthes, where one king sekyng the ad- uauncement, wealthe, glorie, of hym and his people.

The contrarie.

THat housholde or familie, can not be well gouerned, where many and diuerse beareth gouernment, nec- lectyng the state prosperous vniuersallie: for where obedience is drawen to diuers and many, there can not bee good gouernment, nor faithfull obedience. And so in a king- dome where one chiefly gouerneth, and to a common wealth there the hartes of the subiectes, be moste knitte to obaie.

The similitude.

EUen as thei, whiche serue one maister, shall soneste with labour please, and with fidelitie, accomplishe his will and pleasure. For, the maners of many me[n] be diuerse, and variable, so in a Monarchie, the state of one is sone obaied, the minde and lawe of one Prince sone folowed, his Maiestie dreaded and loued.

The example.

LET the fower chief Monarchies of the Assirian, the Persian, Grecian, and the Romaine, whiche haue continued from the beginnyng mightie, moste hap- pie, bee an example herein. If that state of gouernement, had not been chiefe of all other, those mightie kyngdomes would not haue preferred, that kinde of gouernment.

The testimonie of auncient writers.

THerefore, Aristotle, Plato, and all the chief Philoso- phers, intreatyng of the administracion of a common wealthe: doe preferre before all states of gouernment [Fol. xxiiij.v] a Monarchie, bothe for the felicitie of it, and stedfaste state.

The conclusion.

HOmere therefore deserueth greate commendacion, for this one sentence, whiche preferreth a Monarchie before all states.

The destruccion.

THis exercise of Rhetotike, is called destruccion, or subuersion, because it is in a oracion, a certain re- prehension of any thyng declaimed, or dilated, in the whiche by order of art, the declaimer shall pro- cede to caste doune by force, and strengthe of reason, the con- trarie induced.

In this exercise of Rhetorike, those proposicions are to be subuerted, whiche are not manifeste true, neither it so repu- gnaunt from reason, as that there can appere no holde, to in- duce a probable reason to confounde thesame. But soche pro- posicions are meete for this parte, as are probable in both si- des, to induce probabilitie of argument, to reason therupon.

1. It shall behoue you firste, for the entryng of this matter, to adde a reprehension there against those, whiche haue con- firmed as a truthe, that, whiche you will confute.

2. In thesame place, adde the exposion, and meanyng of his sentence.

3. Thirdly, shew the matter to be obsure, that is vncertain[.]

4. Incrediblie.

5. Impossible.

6. Not agreyng to any likelihode of truthe.

7. Uncomlie to be talked of.

8. Unprofitable.

This exercise of Rhetorike doeth contain in it al strength of arte, as who should saie, all partes of Rhetorike, maie co- piouslie be handled in this parte, called confutacion, so am- ple a matter Tullie doeth note this parte to be.

The theme or proposicion of this Oracion.

[Fol. xxv.r]

It is not like to be true, that is said of the battaill of Troie.

The reprehension of the auc- thor, and of all Poetes.

NOt without a cause, the vanities of Poetes are to bee reproued, and their forged inuencions to bee reiected: in whose writynges, so manifestlie are set forthe as a truthe, and Chronicled to the posteritie of ages and times, soche forged mat- [Sidenote: The vanities of Poetes.] ters of their Poeticall and vain wittes. Who hath not heard of their monsterous lies against God, thei inuentyng a gene- alogie of many Goddes procreated, where as there is but one God. This vanitie also thei haue set forthe, in their mo- numentes and woorkes. How a conspiracie was sometyme emong the Goddes and Goddes, to binde the great God Iu- piter. How impudentlie doe thei set forthe the Goddes, to bee louers of women, and their adulterous luste: and how thei haue transformed theim selues, into diuers shapes of beastes and foules, to followe after beastly luste. The malice and en- uie of the Goddes, one to an other: The feigne also the heaue[n] to haue one God, the sea an other, helle an other, whiche are mere vanities, and false imaginacio[n]s of their Poeticall wit- tes. The like forged inuencion haue thei wrote, of the migh- [Sidenote: The battaill of Troie .x. yeres for a herlotte.] tie and terrible battaill bruted of Troie, for a beautifull har- lot susteined ten yeres. In the whiche, not onely men and no- ble peres, gaue the combate of battaile, but the Goddes toke partes against Goddes, and men wounded Goddes: as their [Sidenote: The vain in- uention of Poetes.] lies exceade all nomber, because thei bee infinite, so also thei passe all truthe, reason, and iudgemente. These fewe exam- ples of their vanities and lies, doe shewe the feigned ground and aucthoritie of the reste. Accordyng to the folie and super- sticiousnes of those tymes, thei inuented and forged folie vp- pon folie, lye vpon lye, as in the battaill of Troie, thei aggra- uate the dolour of the battaill, by pitifull and lamentable in- [Sidenote: Plato reie- cteth Poetes from the com[-] mon wealth.] uencion. As for the Poetes them selues, Plato in his booke, made vpon the administracion of a common wealth, maketh [Fol. xxv.v] theim in the nomber of those, whiche are to bee banished out of all common wealthes.

The exposicion.

HOmere dooeth saie, and many other Poetes, that the warres of the Grecians against the Troians, was for beautifull Helena, and continued tenne yeres. The Goddes and Goddis toke partes, and all the people of Grece, aided Menelaus, and the kyng Aga- memnon, to bryng home again Helena, neclecting their own countrie, their wife and chidre[n], for one woma[n]. The Grekes inuentyng a huge and mightie horse made of Firre tre, and couered with brasse, as huge as a mou[n]tain, out of the whiche the Grecians by treason issuyng, brought Troie to ruine.

The obscuritie of the matter.

IT semeth a matter of folie, that so many people, so mightie nacions should bee bewitched, to raise so mightie a armie, hassardyng their liues, leauyng their countrie, their wiues, their children, for one [Sidenote: Helena.] woman: Be it so, that Helena passed all creatures, and that Nature with beautie had indued her with all vertue, and sin- gularitie: yet the Grecians would not be so foolishe, that vni- uersallie thei would seke to caste doune their owne wealthe, and moche more the common wealthe of Grece, and kyng- dome to stande in perill. Neither is it to be thought, the Gre- cians, sekyng to aduau[n]ce the beautie of Helena: would leaue [Sidenote: The cause of the forged in- uencion.] their owne state. But it is like, the wittes of Poetes did im- magine so forged a Chronicle, that the posteritie of ages fol- lowyng, should rather wounder at their forged inuencion, then to beleue any soche warre truly mencioned. There was no soche cause, seyng that the kyngdome of Grece, fell by no title of succession to Helena, for them to moue warre, for, the bringyng backe of that beutifull harlotte Helena. Neither in Helena was there vertue, or honestie of life, to moue and ex- asperate the Grecians, to spende so greate treasures, to raise [Fol. xxvj.r] [Sidenote: No commen- dacion in vp- holdyng and maintainyng of harlottes.] so mightie an armie on euery side. What comme[n]dacion had the Troians to aduaunce Helena, and with all roialnesse to entreate her, she beyng a harlotte: the folie of the Grecians and the Troians, is so on euery side so greate, that it can not be thought, soche a warre truely chronicled. If violence and power, had taken Helena from her housebande, and not her [Sidenote: Helena follo- wed Paris.] owne will and luste, caught with the adulterous loue of Pa- ris, beyng a straunger. If her moderacion of life had been so rare, as that the like facte for her chastitie, had not been in a- ny age or common wealthe, her vertues would haue giuen occasion: The Princes and nobles of Grece to stomacke the matter. The example of the facte, would with all praise and [Sidenote: Uertuous life, worthie commendaci- on in al ages. Lucrecia. Tarquinius the kyng ba- nished for ra- uishyng Lu- crecia, and all of his name banished.] commendacion be mencioned, and celebrated to al ages. Lu- cretia for her chastite, is perpetuallie to be aduanunced, wher- vpon the Romaines banished Tarquinius their kyng, his stocke and name from Rome. The rare chastite of Penelope, is remainyng as a example herein: So many snares laied to caste doune her vertuous loue towarde her housebande U- lisses. But Ulisses made hauocke by murder, on these gaie and gallante Ruffins, who in his absence sought to alienate [Sidenote: Penelopes chastitie.] and withdrawe, the chaste harte of Penelope, consumyng his substance. A greater example remaineth in no age, of the like chastite. As for the battaile of Troie, raised for Helena, could wise men, and the moste famous nobles of Grece: So occupie their heddes, and in thesame, bothe to hasarde their liues for a beautifull strumpet or harlot. The sage and wise [Sidenote: Nestor. Ulisses.] Nestor, whom Agamemnon for wisedome preferred, before the moste of the peres of Grece, neither it Ulisses wanted at thesame tyme, hauyng a politike and subtill hedde, to with- drawe theim from so leude and foolishe a enterprise. Grece [Sidenote: Grece the lande of faire women.] wanted not beautifull creatures, Nature in other had besto- wed amiable faces, personage, and comelie behauiour. For, at those daies, Grece thei called Achaida calligunaica, that is, Grece the lande of faire women. The dolorous lamentacion of the Ladies and Matrons in Grece, would haue hindered [Fol. xxvj.v] soche a foolishe enterprise, seyng their owne beautie neclec- ted, their honestie of life caste vp to perilles, one harlot of in- [Sidenote: Uncomelie.] numerable people followed and hunted after, in whom neither honestie, vertue, nor chastite was harbored.

Uncredible.

ALthough the folie of men is greate, and the will of princes and gouernours beastlie and rashe, yet by no meanes it can be so many yeres, so greate folie to take roote in their hartes, and that the wisedom [Sidenote: Beautie without ver- tue, nothyng of valour.] of the Grecia[n]s, should not rather caste of as naught, the beau- tie of Helena: rather then the whole multitude, the state of the Prince, the welfare of the subiecte, to stande in perill for [Sidenote: Beautie a poison, in a adulterous mynde.] the beautie of one. What is beautie, when a beastlie and ad- ulterous minde is possessed: Beautie without chastitie, har- boreth a monsterous rabelmente of vices, a snare and baite, [Sidenote: Beautie sone fadeth.] to poison other. Beautie in fewe yeres, is not onely blemi- shed, but decaied, and wholie extinguished: it is vncredible, that the Grecians would seeke to bryng home Helena, who had loste the chaste loue toward her housband, beyng caught [Sidenote: Paris Hele- nas louer. Phrigia.] with the adulterous loue of Paris, soonne to Priamus kyng of Troie. The lande of Phrigia was a mightie Region, the people noble, puissaunte in warre: the kyng for nobilitie of actes famous. The Citee of Troie, wherein the kyng helde his Scepter of gouernement, was riche, mightie, and popu- lous: ruled and gouerned, by the wisedome and policie of fa- mous counsailours, so that by all meanes it is vncredible, [Sidenote: Uncomelie.] without any possibilitie. Thei neclectyng their owne state and kyngdo[m], so to preferre the beautie of one, that the whole multitude of Grece thereby to perishe. It is a matter vncre- [Sidenote: Grece the fountain of al learnyng.] dible in all Grece, whiche for the fame of wisedome, is moste celebrated emong all nacions, not one wiseman at thesame tyme to be therein: whose cou[n]saile and politike heddes, might ponder a better purpose. Grece, whiche was the mother and fountaine of all artes and sciences, all Eloquence, Philoso- phie, wisedome flowyng from theim, and yet wisedome to [Fol. xxvij.r] want in their breastes. Reason can not make any perswasion that any probabilitie can rise, of any soche matter enterpri- sed, what could the intent be of the Grecians, as concerning [Sidenote: Menelaus housbande to Helena.] Menelaus. In Menelaus there was no wisedom, to seke and hunte after Helena, or by any meanes to possesse her, she be- yng a harlotte, her loue alienated, her hart possessed with the loue of an other manne: foolishlie he hopeth to possesse loue, [Sidenote: Harlottes loue dissem- bled.] that seeketh to enioye the cloked, poisoned, and dissembled harte of a harlotte, Grece was well ridde of a harlotte, Troie [Sidenote: Troians.] harbouryng Helena. In the Troians it is not to be thought, that either the kyng, or nobles, for a harlotte, would see the the people murthered, their owne state, the king to be in dan- [Sidenote: Grecians.] ger of ruine. In the Grecians there was neither wisedome, neither commendacion, to pursue with a maine hoste, with a greate Nauie of Shippes, to bryng backe againe a harlotte, whose enterprise rather might better bee borne, to banishe & exile soche a beastlie disposed persone. The Troians mighte [Sidenote: Absurditie.] well scorne the Grecians, if that the possession of a beautifull moste amiable, and minsyng harlotte, was of soche valour, estimacion, and price with theim, not onely the beautie of all other to bee reiected. But moste of all the vertuous life, and chastitie of all their matrons and honourable Ladies, to bee caste of as naught. Grece that had the name of all wisedome, [Sidenote: The defence of Helena.] of all learnyng and singularitie, might rather worthelie bee called, a harbouryng place of harlottes: a Stewe and vphol- der of whoredome, and all vncleanes. Wherefore, these ab- surdities ought to bee remoued, from the minde and cogita- cion of all menne, that should worthelie ponder the state of [Sidenote: Troie a king[-] dome of whor[-] dome.] Grece. Troie of like sorte to bee a kyngdome and common wealthe of all vice: whoredome in soche price with the kyng, and people, that moste fortunate should the harlotte bee, and the adulterour in soche a common wealthe, that for adulte- rous loue, putteth rather all their state to hasarde and perill, for the maintenaunce of beastlie loue, brutishe societie moste in price with soche a nacion, chastitie, and moderaciou of life, [Fol. xxvij.v] abandoned and caste of.

Unpossible, and not agreyng.

[Sidenote: Nature ab- horreth the warre of the Grecians.] IF wee weigh naturall affeccion, it can not bee, that the Grecians so moche abhorring fro[m] nature, should cast of the naturall loue of their wifes, their children and countrie, to bryng home againe, by slaughter of infinite people: soche an one as had left honestie, and chaste loue of her housbande. For, what praise can redounde to the Greci- [Sidenote: Helena.] ans by warre, to bryng home Helena, though she of all crea- tures was moste beautifull, beyng a harlotte: followyng the bridell and will of an other man. Maie shame or commenda- cion rise to the Troians, can wisedome, counsaile, or grauitie, [Sidenote: Priamus.] defende the adulterous luste of Priamus soonne, yea, could Priamus so loue Helena, for Paris his sonnes sake, as that he had rather venter the ruine and destruccion of his cite, and the falle of his people, the murder and ruine of his children, and wife for the beautie of one. For what is beautie, where honestie and vertue lacketh, it is an vncomly matter, though the Poetes so faigne it, not onely that in heauen, a contencio[n] should fall emong the Goddises of their beautie, or that Iu- piter of whom thei make an ignoraunt God, to chuse Paris the kynges sonne of Troie, chief arbitratour & Iudge of that matter, to who[m] he should giue the golde[n] Apell to her beautie, as chief of al other, was ascribed these thynges, are vndecent to thinke of the Goddeses, and moste of all, to thinke there is more Goddes then one. And euen as these are vanities, and forged imaginacions of the Goddes, so of the battaile.

Uncomelie and vnprofitable.

THE daunger of many people doeth shewe, that no soche thyng should happen, either of the Grecians or of the Troians: for, it is a matter dissonaunt fro[m] all truthe, that thei should so moche neclecte the quiete state, and prosperous renoume of their kyngdome, in all tymes and ages, since the firste constitucion of all Monar- [Fol. xxviij.r] chies and kyngdomes. Who euer harde soche a forged mat- ter to be Chronicled, and set forthe. Or who can giue credite to soche warre, to be enterprised of so small a matter: to leaue the state of waightier thynges for one woman. All the wo- men of that countrie to stande in perill, the slaughter of their deare housbandes, the violent murder of their children to in- sue. Therefore, the wilfulnesse of people and princes, are the cause of the falle and destruccion, of many mightie kyngdo- mes, and Empires. The fall of Grece ensued, when the chief [Sidenote: Ambicion. Cesar fell by ambicion.] cites, Athenes and Lacedemonie tooke partes, and did con- federate diuers citees to them, to assiste theim, and aide theim in battaile onely: ambicion and desire of glorie, moued bothe [Sidenote: Discorde.] the Athenians and Lacedemonians, fro[m] concorde and vnitie by whiche meanes, the power, glory, and stre[n]gth of all king- [Sidenote: Pompey.] domes falleth. Ambicion was the cause that mightie Pom- pey fell, and died violently. Cesar likewise caught with am- bicion, not bearyng the equalite, or superioritie of Pompei, was tourned of violentlie fro[m] Fortunes whele. Many prin- ces of like sorte and kingdomes. By ambicion onely, had the cause of their ruine. The glorie of the Assirian Monarchie grewe moste mightie, by the ambicion of Ninus kyng of Babilon: the ofspring of Ninus, whiche were kynges line- allie descendyng to the firste kyngdome of the Medes, bothe inlarged their kyngdomes, and also had the decaie of theim by ambicion. Let the Medes also associate them selues to the[m], from Arbactus the first kyng, vnto Astiages the laste: the be- ginnyng and falle of the Persian Monarchie. The mightie [Sidenote: Romulus kil[-] led Remus by ambicion.] state of Grece, the seate Imperiall of Rome, by ambicio[n] first extolled theim selues: and also by it, their glorie, scepter, and kyngdome was translated, but the falle of Troie came not, by ambicion, that the Grecians sought. But as the Poetes doe faigne, the beautie of one woman so wounded their har- tes, that the Grecians did hasarde, the perilles of their coun- trie. The Troians so moche estemed, the beautie of Helena, as that the state of all their kyngdome perished. It was no [Fol. xxviij.v] glorie nor honour to the Grecians, to resiste by armour, and to defende the violente takyng awaie of Helena, from her housbande: nor it was no honour, the Grecians to pursue by armour, the takynge awaie of Helena, beyng a harlotte. So that by no meanes it can followe, these thynges to bee true, of the battaile of Troie.

Confirmacion.

The other part, contrary to destruccion or subuersion, is called confirmacion.

Confirmacion, hath in it so greate force of argumente, to stablishe and vpholde the cause or proposicion: as destruccion hath in castyng doune the sentence or proposicion.

Confirmacion is a certain oracion, whiche with a certain reprehension of the persone or facte, by order and waie of art, casteth doune, the contrary propounded.

As in the other parte called destruccion, those proposici- ons are to bee subuerted, whiche are not manyfestlie true, with all other notes before specified: so in contrariwise, this oracion by contrary notes is declaimed by, as for example.

1. It shall behoue you first, for the entring of the oracion, to induce a reprehension againste those, whiche haue confuted as a truthe, that whiche you will confirme.

2. In the seconde parte, place the exposicion and meanyng of the aucthours sentence.

3. Shewe the matter to be manifest.

4. Credible.

5. Prossible.

6. Agreyng to the truthe.

7. Shewe the facte comelie.

8. Profitable.

This exercise of Rhetotike, doeth contain in it all stre[n]gth of arte, as who should saie, all partes of Rhetorike maie co- piouslie bee handled in this parte, called confirmacion. You maie as matter riseth, ioigne twoo notes together, as the reason of the argumente cometh in place, whiche Apthonius [Fol. xxix.r] a Greke aucthour herein vseth. As manifest and credible, pos- sible and agreyng to truthe, comelie and profitable, but in al these, as in all the reste: the theme or proposicion by it self, is to bee placed, the reprehension of the aucthour by it self, the exposicion of the theme by it self.

The theme or proposicion.

IT is true that is saied of Zopyrus, the noble Per- sian, who ve[n]tered his life: & did cause the deformi- tie of his bodie, for the sauegarde of this countrie.

The praise.

[Sidenote: Iustinus.] IUstinus the Historiographer, for worthinesse of fame and wisedome, deserueth in the poste- ritie of all tymes, immortall fame, by whom the famous actes of Princes, and other noble [Sidenote: Chronicles moste neces- sary to be red.] men, doe remaine Chronicled. Giuyng exam- ples of all valiauntnesse and vertue: for, bothe the actes and worthie feactes of Princes, would passe as vnknowen in all ages, excepte the worthinesse of them, were in monumentes of writyng Chronicled. For, by the fame of their worthines, and vertues, co[m]mon wealthes and kyngdomes, doe stablishe and make Lawes, the hartes of people are incensed, and in- flamed, to the like nobilitie of actes, and famous enter- [Sidenote: The worthi- nesse of histo- ries.] prices, Histories of auncient tymes, bee vnto vs witnesses of all tymes and ages, of kyngdomes and common wealthes, a liuely example. A light to all truthe and knowlege, a schole- [Sidenote: What is a hi- storie.] maister: of maners a memorie of life, for, by it we se the wise- dom of all ages, the forme of the beste and florishing common wealthes. We learne by the vertues of Princes and gouer- nours, to followe like steppe of vertue: to flie and auoide vi- ces, and all soche thynges, as are to the destruccion and de- [Sidenote: An ignorant life, a brutish life.] caie, of realme and countrie. How brutishe wer our life, if we knewe no more then we se presently, in the state of our com- mon wealthe and kyngdome. The kyngdomes of all Prin- ces and common wealthes that now florisheth, doe stande by [Fol. xxix.v] the longe experience, wisedome, pollicy, counsaile, and god- lie lawes of Princes of auncient times, no smal praise and [Sidenote: The know- lege of Histo- ries maketh vs as it were liuyng in all ages. Historiogri- phers.] commendation can be attributed, to all suche as doe trauell in the serching out the veritie of auncient Histories, for bi the knoledge of them, we are as it were liuyng in all ages, the fall of all kyngdomes is manifeste to vs, the death of Prin- ces, the subuersions of kingdomes and common wealthes, who knoweth not the first risyng & ende of the Assiriane mo- narchie, the glorie of the Persians, and the ruynge of the same, the mightie Empire of the Grekes, risyng & fallyng, the Romane state after what sorte florishyng and decaiyng, so that no state of common wealthe or kyngdome is vnkno- wen to vs, therefore Iustine, and all suche as doe leue to the posteritie, the state of al things chronicled, deserue immortal commendacions.

The exposicion.

[Sidenote: The treason of the Assy- rians.] IN the time of Darius kyng of the Persians, the Assyria[n]s who ware subiects to him, sence the time of Cirus the firste kynge of the Persians, rebel- led, inuaded and toke the myghtie Citie of Babi- lon, whiche beyng possessed, with much difficultie, and not [Sidenote: Darius.] withoute greate daungers coulde bee attained. Darius the kynge hearyng of the treason of the Assyrians and that the [Sidenote: Babilon ta- ken of the As- syrians.] mightie Citie of Babilon was taken, was very wroth wai- ynge with him selfe, that there by, the ruyne of the Persian kyngdome mighte happen. Zopyrus one of the .vij. noble Peres of Persia, seing the daunger of the countrie, the state of the Prince, and the welfare of the subiectes to decaie, in the safegarde of his countrie, leuyng all priuate commoditie, for the behoufe and felicitie of the Persian kyngdome, did ven- [Sidenote: The fact of Zopyrus.] ter his owne life, commaunded his seruauntes at home to teare and re[n]te his bodie with whippes, to cut of his nose, his lippes and his eares, these thinges being vnknowen to Da- rius the kynge. As sone as Darius sawe Zopyrus so torne [Fol. xxx.r] [Sidenote: Zopyrus cau[-] sed the defor- mitie of his bodie, for the good state of his countrie.] and deformed, bewailed his state being astonished, at so hor- rible a faict: but Zopyrus shewed to the kynge his hole in- tente and purpose that he mynded to go to Babylon, whiche the Assyrians dyd traitorouslie possesse, & complained as that these things had ben don by the tyrannie and crueltie of Da- rius, he we[n]t to Babilon, and there complained of the cruel- tie of his kyng, whereby purchasyng the fauor and loue of the Assyrians, he shewed them how Darius came to be kyng not by worthines, not by vertue, not by the common consent of men, but by the neynge of a horse. Zopyrus therefore ad- monished them, that they should trust more to their armour, [Sidenote: The pollicie of Zopyrus.] then to their walles, he willed them to proclame ope[n] warre, forthwith they encountred with the Persians, and for a time victorie fel on the Babilonians side, suche was the pollice of Zopyrus. The Assyrians reioised of the successe and felicitie of their warres, the king of the Babilonians gaue to Zopy- rus, the chiefe power & office, to leede a mightie armie, of the whiche beynge Lieutenaunt, he betraied the Babilonians and their Citie.

Manifeste.

[Sidenote: Trogus Po[m][-] peius.] NOt onlie Trogus Pompeius the famous Historio- grapher, and Iustine which tooke the Story of him, but also the Greke writers doe sette forthe, as matter of truthe, the valiaunte enterprises of Zopyrus: so that the straunge and mightie facte of him can not seme vncredible, [Sidenote: Zopyrus.] hauyng testimonie of it in all ages. Zopyrus hauing not re- spect to his owne life, to his owne priuate wealthe or glorie, did thereby put of the daunger that insued to the Persiane kyngdome: It maie seme a greate matter, to a mynde not well affected towarde his countrie, to destroie or deforme his [Sidenote: The saiyng of Tullie.] owne bodie, for the sauegarde of countrie or common welth. But if we waie the State of oure bearth, oure countrie cha- lengeth more at oure handes then frindes or parentes, so [Sidenote: Plato. Aristotel.] muche price Plato the Philosopher, and Aristotle doe attri- bute vnto our countrie, the volumes of all lawes and bokes [Fol. xxx.v] doe prefare oure naturall countrie before the priuate state of [Sidenote: The state of a publike wealthe, is to bee preferred before a pri- uate wealth. Pericles.] owne manne, wealthe, glorie, honor, dignitie, and riches of one or fewe, the Statutes of all Princes, sekyng the glorie of their countrie, doe prefare a vniuersal welthe, before a pri- uate and particulare commoditie. Pericles the noble Athe- nian in his oration made to the Athenians, sheweth that the glorie and welthe of one man or manie, cannot plante suche glorie, and renowne to their countrie, as that in all partes thereby to be beautified and decorated, but whe[n] glorie a hap- pie and florishyng state redoundeth to the kyngdome, the subiectes, the nobelles and hye peres, the gouuernour stan- deth happie and fortunate. Who so hopeth in sparing costes and charges, monie or ornaments, to the behouf and imploi- ment of his countrie and not by all meanes to his power and strength aydeth and defendeth his naturall countrie, from [Sidenote: A good sub- iecte is redie to liue and die for his countrie.] the daunger and inuasion of his enemie, what state inioyeth he, or what wealth remaineth priuatlie, when the trone and scepter of his kyng faileth, the enemie wasteth, spoileth and destroieth all partes of his state, with the reste his life pe- risheth, so that no daunger, coste, is to bee refused, to serue the kingdom and prince, by whose scepter, iustice, lawes, and equitie we are gouuerned, there is no subiect well affected, but that he onlie liueth to proffite his countrie, to liue & dye therein.

Probabell.

IF only Zopyrus had enterprised this valiaunt act, and that no memorie were remainyng in anie age of the noble acts of other men, it may seme not true- lie chronacled, but from time to time, in all ages & co[m]mon wealthes, famous men for their acts & nobilitie haue ben, whiche with like courrage and magnanimitie haue sa- [Sidenote: Horacius Co[-] cles.] ued their countrie, by the losse of their owne liues. Horatius Cocles is bothe a witnesse and a light to the same, by whose aduenture the mightie and stronge Citie Rome was saued: For at what time as the Hetruscians entred on the citie, and [Fol. xxxj.r] were on the bridge, Horatius cocles defendid the ende of the same, baryng of the brunte, and stroke of the enemie, vntill the Romans, for the sauegarde of the cytie, had broken doun the bridge, as sone as Horatius Cocles sawe the Cytie thus deliuered, and the repulse of the enemie, he lepte with his ar- mours into the flud Tibar, it semed he had not regard to his life, that beyng burdened with the waighte and grauitie of his armour, durst venter his life to so main and depe a water. [Sidenote: Marcus Attilius.] Marcus Attilius in the defence of his Prince, his right hand being cut of, the which he laide on the ship of the Massilians, forthwith he apprehended with the lefte hand, and ceased not [Sidenote: Cynegerus.] vntill he hadde soouncke thesame ship. Cynegerus the Athe- nian lineth by fame and like nobilitie of actes, ve[n]teryng his life for his countrie. The mightie cytie of Athenes, brought [Sidenote: Hismenias. Thrasibulus[.]] vnder the dominions of the Lacedemonians. Thrasibulus, Hismenias and Lisias bi their aduenture, and noble atchiue reduced Athenes to his felicitie so moche loue, soo faithefull hartes they hadde towardes theire countreie. Leonides the King of the Lacedemonians, defendyng the narow straights of the cytie Thermopolie with fower thousand men against the mightie and huge armie of Xerxes, for Xerxes contemned [Sidenote: Leonides kyng of the Lacedemo- nians.] theire smalle number and armie: Leonides the kyng hearde that the place and hill of the battell was preue[n]tid of .xx. thou- sande enemies, he exorted his souldiours parte of them to de- parte vntill a better time might be locked for, and onlie with the Lacedemonians he proued the conflicte and the combate, although the campe of Xerxes was mightier & more in num- ber: yet Leonides the kyng thought it good for the sauegarde of his contrie, for saieth he, I must rather saue it, then to haue respecte to my life, although the oracle of Delphos had fore- shewed, that euen Leonides muste die in the fielde or battell of the enemie, and therefore Leonides entred battail, & com- fortid his men for their countrie sake, as to die therein, there- fore he preuented the narrowe straightes of the countrie, and the dangerous places, where the force of the enemie mought [Fol. xxxj.v] bruste in, he lingered not, leste the enemie mighte compasse him in, but in the quiet season of the nighte, he set vppon his enemie vnloked for, and they beynge but sixe hundred men [Sidenote: Leonides.] with the kyng Leonides, brust into the ca[m]pe of their enemies beyng sixe hundred thousand menne, their valiauntnes was suche, and the ouerthowe of their enemies so great, and Xer- xes the kyng hauyng two woundes, retired with shame and [Sidenote: Agesilaus. Conon.] loste the honor. Agesilaus and Conon valiaunte in actes, and excellynge in all nobilitie, what great and mightie dan- gers haue thei atchiued and venterid for their countrie sake, howe moche haue thei neglectid their owne wealth, riches, life and glorie, for the aduauncement and honor of their cou[n]- [Sidenote: Lisander.] trie. Lisander also the Lacedemonian, was indued with like nobilitie with faithfull and syncer harte towarde his coun- [Sidenote: Archidamus[.] Codrus.] try. Archidamus also lieth not in obliuio[n], whose fame death buried not the famous aduenture of Codrus kyng of the A- thenians is maruelous and almoste incredible, but that the Histores, truelie set forth, and declare a manifest truthe ther- [Sidenote: Epamniun- das.] of, who is more famous then Epaminundas, bothe for vir- tue, nobilitie and marciall feates among the Thebans, the [Sidenote: Grecians.] mightie armie of the Grecians, at the longe sege of Troie, what valiaunte Capitains hadde thei, whiche in the defence [Sidenote: Troians.] of their countrie hasarde their life: the Troians also wanted not for proues valiauntnes and al nobilitie, their peres and [Sidenote: Romans.] nobles: amonge the Romans, what a greate number was of noble peres, whose studie alwaies was to liue and dye in the glorie, aide and defence of their countrie, for he liueth not by whose cowardlines fainted harte and courage, the contrie [Sidenote: Who liueth in shame.] or kyngdome standeth in perrill, he liueth in shame, that re- fuseth daunger, coste or charge, in the defence or procuryng, better state to his countrie. The worthie saiyng of Epami- nundas declareth, who liueth to his countrie, who diyng va- liauntlie in the felde, beyng thrust thorow with the speare of his enemie, asked those questions of these that stoede by him at the poincte of deathe, is my speare manfullie broken, and [Fol. xxxij.r] my enemies chassed awaie, the whiche things his co[m]panions [Sidenote: Epameunn- das a most no[-] ble and vali- aunt pere.] in warre affirmed, then saide he: nowe your Capitaine Epa- minundas beginneth to liue in that he dieth valiauntlie for his countrie, and in the proffite & aduauncement of the same, a worthie man, noble and valiaunte, his sentence also was worthie to be knowen, and followed of all suche as bee well affected and Godlie mynded to their countrie. Marcus Mar- cellus of like sorte, and Titus Manlius Torquatus, & Sci- pio Aemilianus, Marcus Attilius shewed in what hye price our naturall countre ought to bee had, by their valiaunt at- chifes, and enterprises: I might passe by in sile[n]ce Scipio Ca- to, and Publius Scipio Nasica, but that thei by like fame, honour and glorie liue immortall to their countrie, the same also of Uibeus, Ualerius Flaccus, and Pedanius Centurio giueth ampell and large matter to all menne, endued with nobilitie and valiaunt proues, for the defence of their coun- trie with Quintus Coccius, Marcus Sceua and Sceuola.

Possibilitie.

THere nedeth no doute to rise of possibilitie, seinge that examples doe remain of famous men, of god- lie and well affected persones, whiche haue with like magnanimitie putte in daunger their life, to [Sidenote: The order of Athenes.] saue their Prince, kyngdome, and countrie. Greate honour was giuen of the Athenians, to soche noble and valiaunte men, whiche ventered their liues for their common wealthe, to maintaine the florishyng state thereof. The eloquente and [Sidenote: Thusidides.] copious oracion of Thusidides, the true, faithfull, and elo- quente Historiographer doeth shewe: what honour and im- mortall fame was attributed, to all soche as did venter their liues, in the florishyng state of their countrie, in supportyng, mainteinyng, and defendyng thesame. Who, although thei loste their liues, whiche by death should bee dissolued, their fame neuer buried, liueth with the soule to immortalitie, the losse of their Priuate wealthe, glorie, riches, substaunce, or dignitie, hath purchased and obtained fame, that withereth [Fol. xxxij.v] not, and glorie that faileth not.

Agreyng and comelie.

BOthe the true Histories, doe leaue in commenda- cion, the facte of Zopyrus, and the noble and wor- thie enterprises of other: whiche haue giuen the like assaie, and their fame is celebrated and titeled with immortall commendacion and glorie, to the posteritie [Sidenote: The duetie of all good subiectes.] of all ages followyng. What harte can bee so stonie, or bru- tishly affected, that wil not venter his life, goodes, landes, or possessions: if with the daunger of one, that is of hymself, the whole bodie and state of his countrie, is thereby supported, and saued. What securitie and quietnesse remained, what wealth, honour, or fame to Zopyrus: if not onely Zopyrus had perished, but the kyng & people vniuersally had been de- stroied. Therevpon Zopyrus weighing and co[n]sideryng, the [Sidenote: The cause of our birthe.] state of his birthe, that his countrie chalenged his life, rather then the dissolucion of the whole kyngdome, the decaie of the Prince, the takyng awaie of the scepter, the slaughter of in- finite people to ensue. He was borne to be a profitable mem- ber to his countrie, a glorie and staie to thesame: and not spa- ryng his life, or shunnyng the greate deformitie of his bo- die, to bee a ruine of thesame. Was it not better that one pe- rished, then by the securitie of one, a whole lande ouer run- ned, as partes thereby spoiled: it was the duetie of Zopirus, to take vpon hym that greate and famous enterprise. It was also comelie, the kyngdome standyng in perill, a sage and descrite persone to preuente and putte of, soche a daunger at [Sidenote: The facte of Zopyrus.] hande: The faicte altogether sheweth all vertue and greate singularitie, and a rare moderacion of minde, to cast of all re- spectes and excuses, forsakyng presentlie honour, quietnesse and obiecting himself to perill, he sawe if he onelie died, or by ieopardie saued his countrie, many thereby liued, the kyng- dome & people florished, where otherwise, he with his Prince and kyngdome might haue perished.

Proffitable.

[Fol. xxxiij.r]

[Sidenote: The fact of Zopyrus.] AL the power of the Babilonians, was by his pol- icie throwen doune, the Citee taken, the enemie brought to confusion: on the other side, the Persi- ans rose mightie, soche a mightie enemie put vn- derfoote. The fame of Zopyrus and glorie of the facte, will neuer be obliterated, or put out of memorie, if this were not profitable to the kyngdome of Persia: if this were not a re- noume to the prince and people, and immortall glory to Zo- [Sidenote: Zopyrus de- formed, a beautie of his countree.] pryus iudge ye. Zopyrus therfore, beautified his countre, by the deformitie of his bodie. Better it wer to haue many soche deformed bodies, then the whole state of the realme destroied or brought to naught: if we weigh the magnanimitie of that man, and his enterprise, there is so moche honour in the fact, that his fame shall neuer cease.

A common place.

[Sidenote: Why it is cal- led a common place.] A Common place is a Oracion, dilatyng and ampli- fiyng good or euill, whiche is incidente or lodged in any man. This Oracion is called a common place, because the matter conteined in it, doeth agree vniuersally to all menne, whiche are partakers of it, and giltie of thesame[.]

A Oracion framed againste a certaine Thefe, Extorcio- ner, Murderer, or Traitor, is for the matter conteined in it, metelie and aptlie compiled, against all soche as are giltie of theft, murder, treason, or spotted with any other wickednes.

This oracion of a common place, is like to the laste argu- ment or Epilogus of any oracion, whiche the Grekes doe call Deuterologian, whiche is as moche to saie, as a rehearsall of that whiche is spoken of before.

Wherefore, a common place hath no exhordium, or be- ginnyng, yet neuerthelesse, for the profite and exercise of the learner, you maie place soche a proemium, or beginnyng of the oracion, as maie be easie to induce the learner.

This parte of Rhetorike is large to intreate vpon, for the aboundaunce of matter.

This part of Rhetorike is large to intreate vpon, for the [Fol. xxxiij.v] aboundaunce of matter.

The common place, whiche Aphthonius intreateth of, is to be aplied against any man, for the declaimor to inuade, ei- ther against vices, or to extoll and amplifie his vertues.

This oracion of a common place, serueth bothe for the ac- cuser and the defender.

For the accuser, to exasperate and moue the Iudges or hearers, against the offender, or accused.

For the defendour to replie, and with all force & strength of matter, to mollifie and appease the perturbacions of the Iudges and hearers, to pulle doune and deface the contrarie alledged.

There is greate force in this oracion, on bothe the sides.

Properlie this kinde of Rhetorike, is called a common place, though it semeth to be made againste this man, or that man: because the matter of thesame shall properly pertain to all, giltie of thesame matter.

[Sidenote: Pristianus.] Pristianus sheweth, that this parte of Rhetorike, is as it were a certaine exaggeracion of reason, to induce a manifest probacion of any thyng committed.

As for example, a Theife taken in a robberie, in whom neither shamefastnesse, nor sparcle of grace appereth against soche a one: this oracion maie be made, to exasperate the Iud- ges from all fauour or affeccion of pitie, to be shewed.

The order of the Oracion followeth with these notes to be made by.

The firste Proheme.

DEmosthenes the famous Orator of Athenes in his oracio[n] made against Aristogito[n] doeth saie, [Sidenote: What are Lawes.] that Lawes wherewith a common wealthe, ci- tie or Region is gouerned, are the gifte of God, a profitable Discipline among men, a restraint to with holde and kepe backe, the wilfull, rashe, and beastilie [Sidenote: Aristotle. Plato.] life of man, and therupo[n] Aristotle and Plato doe shewe, that through the wicked behauour of men, good lawes were first [Fol. xxxiiij.r] ordained, for, of ill maners, saie thei, rose good lawes, where [Sidenote: Order.] lawes doe cease, and good order faileth, there the life of man will growe, rude, wild and beestlie: Man beyng a chiefe crea- [Sidenote: Man borne by nature to societee.] ture or God, indued with manie singuler vertues, is framed of nature to a mutuall and Godlie societie of life, without the whiche moste horrible wolde the life bee, for not onlie by concorde and agremente, the life of man dothe consiste but al things on the earth haue therin their being: the heauens and lightes conteined in the same, haue a perpetuall harmonie & concente in finishyng their appointed race. The elementes [Sidenote: All thinges beyng on the yearth, dooe consiste by a harmonie or concorde.] of the worlde, where with the nature and substaunce of all thinges, doe consiste onlie by a harmonie and temperature of eche parte, haue their abidyng increase & prosperous beyng, otherwise their substaunce, perisheth and nature in all partes decaieth: Kyngdomes and common wealthes doe consiste in a harmonie, so long as vertue and all singularitie tempereth their state and gouernemente, and eche member thereof obe- ieth his function, office and callynge, and as partes of the- same bodie, euerie one as nature hath ordained theim occu- piyng, their roume and place, the vse of euerie parte, all to the vse and preseruacion of the hole bodie, and as in the bodie so in the common wealthe, the like concorde of life oughte to be in euery part, the moste principall parte accordyng to his di- gnitie of office, as moste principall to gouerne thother inferi- or partes: and it thei as partes moste principal of thesame bo- die with all moderacion and equabilitie te[m]peryng their state, [Sidenote: Order con- serueth com- mon wealth.] office and calling. The meanest parte accordyng to his lowe state, appliyng hym selfe to obeie and serue the moste prin- cipall: wherein the perfecte and absolute, frame of common wealthe or kyngdome is erected. And seyng that as the Phi- losophers doe saie, of ill maners came good lawes, that is to saie, the wicked and beastlie life of man, their iniurius beha- uiour, sekyng to frame themselues from men to beastes mo- [Sidenote: Euil maners was the occa- sion of good Lawes.] ued the wise and Godlie, elders to ordaine certaine meanes, to rote discipline, whereby the wickedlie disposed personne [Fol. xxxiiij.v] should bee compelled to liue in order, to obeie Godlie lawes, to the vpholdyng of societie. Therefore, all suche as dissolue lawes, caste doune good order, and state of common wealth, out as putride and vnprofitable weedes, to be extirpated and plucked vp from Citie and Common wealthe, from societie, who by mischeuous attemptes seke, to extinguishe societie, amitie, and concord in life. Princes & gouernors with al other magistrates ought in their gouernment to imitate the prac- tise of the Phisician, the nature of man, wekedned and made feble with to moche abundaunce of yll humors, or ouermoch with ill bloode replenished, to purge and euacuate that, and all to the preseruacion and healthe of the whole bodie: for so was the meanyng of the Philosopher, intreatyng of the po- litike, gouernment of kingdome and commonwealth, when [Sidenote: Theiues not mete to be in any societie.] thei compared a kingdome to the bodie of man: the thefe and robber as a euill and vnprofitable member, and all other as without all right, order, lawe, equitie and iustice, doe breake societie of life, bothe against lawe and nature: possessing the goodes of a other man, are to bee cutte of, as no partes, mete to remaine in any societie.

The seconde Proheme.

[Sidenote: Why theiues and wicked men, are cut of by lawe.] THe chifest cause that moued gouernours and ma- gistrates, to cutte of the race of theues, and viole[n]te robbers, and of all other mischeuous persons, was that by them a confusion would ensue in al states. What Citee could stande in prosperous state, yea, or what house priuatlie inhabited, where lawes and aucthoritee were exiled: where violence, will, luste, and appetite of pestiferous men, might without terrour bee practised. If the labour and industrie of the godlie, should be alwaie a praie to y^e wicked, and eche mannes violence and iniurious dealyng, his owne lawe, the beaste in his state, would bee lesse brutishe and in- iurious. Who so seketh to caste doune this societe, he is not mete to be of any societe, whiche he dissolueth. Who so rob- beth or stealeth, to liue by the gooddes of an other manne, as [Fol. xxxv.r] his possession, is by violence and againste Nature: so by vio- [Sidenote: A due rewar[-] des for thie- ues and mur- therers.] lence and against nature, their pestiferous doinges do frame their confusion: their execrable & destetable purpose, do make theim a outcaste from all good people, and as no members thereof, cut of from all societe, their euill life rooteth perpetu- al ignomie and shame. And thus is the tragicall ende of their enterprise.

The contrarie.

[Sidenote: Democratia.] HErein the lose and dissolute state of gouernmente called of the Grekes Democratia, haue conten- ted the wilfull heddes of pestiferous men: where- in euery man must bee a ruler. Their owne will is their Lawe: there luste setteth order, no Magistrate, but euery one to hymself a Magistrate. All thynges in common, as long as that state doeth remain emong the wicked, a most happie state coumpted, a wished state to idell persones, but it [Sidenote: The thiefe. The mur- therer.] continueth not. Herein the murtherer, the thiefe were meete to be placed. The greater thiefe, the better manne: the moste execrable murtherer, a moste mete persone, for soche state of gouernemente. There is no nacion vnder the Sunne, but that one tyme or other, this troublous state hath molested theim: and many haue sought to sette vp soche a monsterous state of regiment, a plagued common wealthe, and to be de- tested. Soche was the order of men, when thei liued without lawes. When the whole multitude were scattered, no citee, Toune, or house builded or inhabited, but through beastlie maners, beastlie dispersed, liued wilde and beastlie. But the wise, sage, and politike heddes reduced by wisedome, into [Sidenote: Houses. Families. Tounes. Citees.] a societie of life, nature leadyng thereto: Houses and habita- cions, were then for necessitie made, families multiplied, vil- lages and Tounes populouslie increased, and Citees raised emong so infinite people. Nature by God inuented and sta- blished Lawe, and the sage and wise persones, pronounced and gaue sentence vpon Lawes. Whereupon, by the obedi- ence of lawes, and preeminente aucthoritie of Magistrates: [Fol. xxxv.v] The state of mightie Kyngdomes and Common wealthes, haue growen to soche a roialnesse and loftie state, many fa- mous kingdomes haue been on the face of the yearth: many noble Princes from tyme to tyme succedyng, whiche with- [Sidenote: Obedience of Lawes did stablishe the mightie mo- narchies.] out a order of godlie lawes, could not haue continued. What was the cause that the mightie Monarchies, continued many hundred yeres: did the losse of dissolute life of subiectes and Princes, cause thesame but good lawes, and obedience to or- ders. Therefore, where Magistrates, bothe in life and office, [Sidenote: The life of the Magi- strate, a lawe[.]] liue in the obedience of Lawes: the multitude inferiour, by example of the Magistrates singularitie, incensed dooe place before them, their example of life, as a strong lawe.

[Sidenote: The Epistle of Theodosi- uus Empe- ror of Rome[.]] Theodosius Emperor of Rome, writyng to Uolusianus his chief Pretor, as concernyng his office, in these woordes, saieth: Digna vox est maiestate regnantis legibus alligatum se principem profiteri. Adeo de autoritate Iuris nostra pendet autoritas et reuera maius imperio est submittere legibus prin[-] cipatum & oraculo presentis edicti quod nobis licere non pa- timur alijs indicamus. It is a worthie saiyng, and meete for the Maiestie of a Prince, to acknowledge hymself vnder his lawe. For, our aucthoritie, power, and sworde, doeth depende vpon the force, might, and aucthoritie of Lawes, and it pas- seth all power and aucthoritie, his gouernemente and kyng- dome to be tempered by lawe, as a moste inuiolable Oracle and decre, so to doe as we prouulgate to other. Whereupon it is manifeste, what force godlie lawes gaue to the Prince, what aucthoritie. Take lawes awaie, all order of states fai- [Sidenote: Princes Lawe.] leth, the Prince by Lawe, is a terrour to the malefactour: his Maiestie is with all humblenesse serued, feared, and obeied. By lawes, his state maketh hym as a God, emong menne, at whose handes the preseruacion of eche one, of house, citee and countrie is sought. Seing bothe lawes and the Prince, hane that honour and strength, that without them, a Chaos a con- fusion would followe, in the bodie of all common wealthes and kyngdomes. Let them by aucthoritie and lawe bee con- [Fol. xxxvj.r] founded, that practise to subuerte aucthoritie, to neclecte the Prince, and his godlie lawes.

The exposicion.

[Sidenote: Theiues and all iniurious persones.] THe theife, or any other iniurious persone, doeth seke to be aboue all lawes, exempted from all order, vn- der no obedience, their pestiferous dealyng, dooe vt- [Sidenote: Demosthe- nes in Ari- stogiton.] ter thesame: For, as Demosthenes the famous Orator of A- thenes doeth saie. If that wicked men cease not their viole[n]ce if that good men in all quietnes and securitie, can not enioye their owne goddes, while lawe and aucthoritie of the magi- strate, seuerelie and sharply vseth his aucthoritie and sword. If dailie the heddes of wicked men, cease not to subuerte la- wes, orders, and decrees godlie appoincted. Whiles that in all Citees and common wealthes, the Princes and gouer- [Sidenote: The force of lawes.] nours, are by lawes a terror to them. Lawes then ceasyng, the dreadfull sente[n]ce of the Iudge and Magistrate wanting. The sworde vndrawen, all order confounded, what a con- fusion would followe: yea, what an open passage would bee lefte open to all wickednesse. The terrour of Lawes, the sworde and aucthoritie of the Magestrate, depresseth and put[-] teth doune, the bloodie cogitacions of the wicked, and so hin- dereth and cutteth of, many horrible and bloodie enterprises. Els there would bee neither Prince, Lawe, nor subiecte, no hedde or Magistrate: but euery manne his owne hedde, his owne lawe and Magistrate, oppression and violence should bee lawe, and reason, and wilfull luste would bee in place of reason, might, force, and power, should ende the case. Where- fore, soche as no lawe, no order, nor reason, will driue lo liue as members in a common wealthe, to serue in their functio[n]. [Sidenote: Wicked men burdeins of the yearth.] Thei are as Homere calleth the:m, burdeins to the yearth, for thei are of no societie linked with Nature, who through wickednesse are disseuered, abhorryng concorde of life, socie- tie and felowship. Whom sinister and bitter stormes of for- tune, doe daiely vexe and moleste, who in the defence of their [Fol. xxxvj.v] [Sidenote: Maimed sol- diours muste be prouided for.] countrie are maimed, and thereby their arte and science, for, imbecilitie not practised, all art otherwise wantyng, extreme pouertee fallyng on them, reason muste moue, and induce all hartes, to pite chieflie their state: who in defence and main- teinaunce of our Countrie, Prince, and to the vpholdyng of our priuate wealthe at home, are become debilitated, defor- med and maimed, els their miseries will driue them to soche hedlesse aduentures, that it maie bee saied, as it was saied to [Sidenote: The saiyng of a souldiour to Alexander the greate.] Alexander the Greate. Thy warres, O Prince, maketh ma- ny theues, and peace will one daie hang them vp. Wherein the Grecians, as Thusidides noteth, had a carefull proui- dence, for all soche as in the defence of their Countrie were maimed, yea, euen for their wiues, and children of all soche, as died in warre, to be mainteined of the commo[n] charge and threasure of Grece. Reade his Oracion in the seconde booke, made vpon the funerall of the dedde soldiours.

A comparison of vices.

[Sidenote: The dru[n]kard[.] The proude persone. The prodigal[.] The couei- teous. The robber.] THe dronkarde in his state is beastlie, the proude and arrogante persone odious, the riotous and prodigall persone to be contempned, the couei- tous and nigardlie manne to bee reiected. But who so by violence, taketh awaie the goodes of an other man, or by any subtill meanes, iniustlie possesseth thesame, is detestable, with all seuerite to be punished. The [Sidenote: The adul- terer. The harlot.] adulterer and the harlotte, who by brutishe behauiour, leude affection, not godlines leadyng thereto: who by their vnchast behauior, and wanton life doe pollute, and co[n]taminate their bodie, in whom a pure minde ought to be reposed. Who tho- rowe beastly affeccion, are by euill maners transformed to beastes: and as moche as in theim lieth, multipliyng a bru- [Sidenote: The homi- cide.] tishe societie. The homicide in his state more horrible, accor- dyng to his outragious and bloodie life, is to bee tormented, in like sort all other vices, accordyng to their mischiues, rea- son, Lawe and Iustice, must temper and aggrauate due re- [Fol. xxxvij.r] ward, and sentence to them.

The sentence.

[Sidenote: Thefte horri[-] ble amo[n]g the Scitheans.] NO vice was more greuous, and horrible emong the Scithians then thefte, for this was their sai- yng: Quid saluum esse poterit si licet furari, what can be safe, if thefte bee lefull or tolerated. Herein [Sidenote: A sentence a- genst thefte.] the vniuersalle societe of life is caste doune, hereby a confu- sion groweth, and a subuersion in all states immediatlie fol- loweth, equitee, iustice, and all sincere dealyng is abaundo- ned, violence extirpateth vertue, and aucthoritie is cutte of.

The digression.

THE facte in other maie be with more facilite to- lerated, in that to theim selues, the facte and con- uersacion of life is moste pernicious, and hurtfull, but by soche kinde of menne, whole kyngdomes and common wealthes would bee ouerthrowen. And for a prosperous state and common wealthe, a common woe and [Sidenote: Horrible vi- ces.] calamite would fall on them, tumultes and vprores main- tained, right and lawe exiled: neither in field quietnes, welth or riches, houses spoiled, families extinguished, in all places sedicion, warre for peace, violence for right, will and lust for [Sidenote: Userers.] lawe, a hedlesse order in all states. And as concernyng Usu- rers, though their gaines be neuer so ample, and plentifull, to enriche them, whereby thei growe to be lordes, ouer many thousandes of poundes: yet the wealthe gotten by it, is so in- iurious, that thei are a greate plague, to all partes of the co[m]- mon wealthe: so many daungers and mischiues, riseth of the[m][.] Cato the noble and wise Senator of Rome, being demaun- ded diuers questions, what was firste to bee sought, in a fa- milie or housholde, the aunsweres not likyng the demaun- [Sidenote: The sentence of Cato a- gainst vsu- rers. Usure is mur[-] ther.] der: this question was asked, O Cato, what sente[n]ce giue you of Usurie, that is a goodlie matter to bee enriched by. Then Cato aunswered in fewe woordes. Quid hominem occidere. What saie you to be a murderer? Soche a thyng saieth he, is [Fol. xxxvij.v] Usurie. A brief sentence againste Usurers, but wittely pro- nounced from the mouth of a godlie, sage, noble, and descrite persone, whiche sentence let the Usurer, ioigne to his Usury retourned, and repeate at the retourne thereof, this sentence [Sidenote: The sentence of Cato a dis- comfort to v- surers.] of Cato, I haue murthered. This one sentence will discou- rage any Usurer, knowyng hymself a murtherer. Though moche more maie be spoken against it, this shalbe sufficient. The Hebrues calleth Usurie, by the name of Shecke, that is a bityng gaine, of the whiche many haue been so bitten, that whole families haue been deuoured, & beggerie haue been their gaine. And as Palingenius noteth.

Debitor aufugiens portat cum fnore sortem.

The debtour often tymes saieth he, runneth awaie, and carieth with hym, the debte and gaines of the Usurie. The Grekes calleth Usurie Tokos, that is properlie the trauaile of women of their childe: soche is their Usurie, a daungerous gettyng. Demosthenes likeneth their state as thus, as if ter- restriall thynges should be aboue the starres: and the heaue[n]s [Sidenote: Usure a dan- gerous gaue.] and celestialle bodies, gouerned by the base and lowe terre- striall matters, whiche by no meanes, can conserue the ex- cellencie of them, for, of them onely, is their matter, substau[n]ce and nature conserued.

Exclusion of mercie.

WHerefore, to whom regimente and gouerne- mente is committed, on whose administracion, the frame of the co[m]mon wealth doe staie it self: thei ought with al wisedome and moderacion, to procede in soche causes, whose office in wor- [Sidenote: Princes and magistrates be as Gods on the earth.] thinesse of state, and dignite, maketh the[m] as Goddes on the yearth, at whose mouthes for wisedome, counsaill, and for- tunate state, infinite people doe depende. It is no smal thing in that their sword & aucthorite, doeth sette or determine all thinges, that tendereth a prosperous state, whereupon with all integrite and equite, thei ought to temper the affeccions of their mynde: and accordyng to the horrible facte, and mis- [Fol. xxxviij.r] chiues of the wicked, to exasperate & agrauate their terrible iudgemente, and to extirpate from the yearth, soche as be of [Sidenote: The homicide. The Theue. The Adulte- rer.] no societie in life. The bloodie homicide, the thief, the adul- terer, for by these all vertue is rooted out, all godlie societie extinguished, citees, realmes, and countres, prostrate & pla- gued for the toleracion of their factes, against soch frendship in iudgemente muste cease, and accordyng to the state of the cause, equitee to retaine frendship, money muste not blinde, nor rewardes to force and temper Iudgementes: but accor- dyng to the veritee of the cause, to adde a conclusion. Wor- [Sidenote: Whey the pi- ctures of ma- gistrates bee picturid with- oute handes.] thelie the pictures of Princes, Gouernours and Magistrates in auncient tymes doe shewe this, where the antiquite ma- keth theim without handes, therein it sheweth their office, and iudgemente to proceade with equite, rewardes not to blind, or suppresse the sincerite of the cause. Magistrates not to bee bounde to giftes, nor rewardes to rule their sentence. Alciatus in his boke called Emblemata, in senatu[m] sancti prin- cipis.

[Sidenote: Princes and magistrates graue & con- stante.]

Effigies manibus trunc[ae] ante altaria diuum Hic resident, quarum lumine capta prior Signa potestatis summ[ae], sanctiq[ue] senatus, Thebanis fuerant ista reperta viris. Cur resident? Quia mente graues decet esse quieta Iuridicos, animo nec variare leui. Cur sine sunt manibus? Capiant ne xenia, nec se Pollicitis flecti muneribus ve sinant. Cecus est princeps quod solis auribus, absq[ue] Affectu constans iussa senatus agit.

Where vertue and integrite sheweth it self, in the persone and cause, to vpholde and maintein thesame. Roote out hor- rible vices from common wealthe, that the more surer and stronge foundacion of vertue maie be laied: for, that onelie cause, the scepter of kinges, the office of magistrates was left to the posterite of all ages.

Lawfull and iuste.

[Fol. xxxviij.v]

Lawfull and iust.

[Sidenote: Lawes giue equitie to all states.] SEyng that lawes bee godlie, and vniuersally thei temper equite to all states, and giue according to iustice, euery man his owne: he violateth vertue, that dispossesseth an other manne of his own, and [Sidenote: What driueth y^e magistrate to horrible sentence a- gainst wicked persons.] wholie extinguisheth Iustice. And thereupon his beastly life by merite forceth and driueth, lawe and Magistrate, to terri- ble iudgement. For, who so against right, without order, or lawe, violateth an other man, soche a one, lawes of iustice, muste punishe violentlie, and extirpate from societe, beyng a dissoluer of societee.

Profitable.

IF soche wicked persones be restrained, and seuerelie punished, horrible vices will be rooted out: all artes[,] sciences, and godlie occupacions mainteined, vphol- ded and kept. Then there must be a securite in all states, to [Sidenote: Magistrate. Subiect.] practise godlines, a mutuall concorde. The Magistrate with equite, the subiecte with faithful and humble obedience, ac- complishyng his state, office, and callyng. Whereupon by good Magistrates, and good subiectes, the common wealthe and kyngdom is in happie state stablished. For, in these twoo [Sidenote: Plato.] poinctes, as Plato doeth saie, there is vertuous rule, and like obedience.

Easie and possible.

[Sidenote: The begyn- nyng of vice is to be cut af.] AL this maie easely be doen, when wickednes is cutte of, in his firste groweth, when the magistrate driueth continually, by sworde and aucthorite, all menne to obedience, bothe of lawes and gouernuurs. Then in al good common wealthes, vices are neuer tolerated to take roote: be- cause the beginnyng and increase of vices, is sone pulled vp, his monsterous kyngdome thereby ouerthrowen.

The conclusion.

SO doyng, happie shall the kyng be, happie kyngdome, and moste fortunate people.

[Fol. xxxix.r]

The parte of Rhetorike, called praise.

His Oracion, which is titeled praise, is a declamacio[n] of the vertuous or good qualites, propertees belon- gyng to any thyng, whiche doeth procede by certaine notes of arte.

All thynges that maie be seen, with the iye of man, tou- ched, or with any other sence apprehended: that maie be prai- sed, or dispraised.

{ Manne. Citees. } { Fisshe. Floodes. } { Foule. Castles. } { Beaste. Toures. } As { Orchardes. Gardeins. } { Stones. Stones. } { Trees. Artes. } { Plantes. Sciences. } { Mettals. }

Any vertue maie be praised, as wisedome, rightuousnes[,] fortitude, magnanimite, temperaunce, liberalite, with all other.

These are to be celebrated with praise.

The persone, as Iulius Cesar, Octauius Augustus, Hieremie, Tullie, Cato, Demosthenes.

Thynges, as rightuousnes, temperaunce.

Tymes, as the Spryng tyme of the yere, Sommer, Har- uest, Winter.

Places, as Hauens, Orchardes, Gardeins, Toures, Castles, Temples, Islandes.

Beastes wantyng reason, as Horse, Shepe, Oxen[,] Pla[n]- ntes, as Uines, Oliues.

In the praise of vertue, this maie be saied.

THe excellencies of it, the antiquitee and originalle be- ginnyng thereof, the profite that riseth to any region by it, as no kyngdome can consiste without vertue, [Fol. xxxix.v] and to extoll the same, in makyng a comparison, with other giftes of nature, or with other giftes of fortune, more infe- riour or base.

[Sidenote: Wherein the praise of a ci- tie consisteth[.]] Upon a cite, praise maie be recited, consideryng the good- lie situacion of it, as of Paris, Uenice, London, Yorke: con- sideryng the fertilitie of the lande, the wealthe and aboun- daunce, the noble and famous goueruours, whiche haue go- uerned thesame. The first aucthors and builders of thesame, the politike lawes, and godlie statutes therein mainteined: The felicite of the people, their maners, their valeaunt pro- wes and hardines. The buildyng and ornatures of thesame, with Castles, Toures, Hauens, Floodes, Temples: as if a manne would celebrate with praise. The olde, famous, and [Sidenote: The praise of London. Brutus buil[-] ded Londo[n] in the .x. yeare of his raine.] aunciente Cite of London, shewyng the auncient buildyng of thesame: the commyng of Brutus, who was the firste au- cthor and erector of thesame. As Romulus was of the migh- tie Cite Rome, what kyngs haue fro[m] tyme to tyme, lineal- ly descended, and succeded, bearing croune and scepter there- in: the valiauntnes of the people, what terror thei haue been to all forraine nacions. What victories thei haue in battaile obteined, how diuers nacions haue sought their amite and [Sidenote: Fraunce and Scotlande vpholded by y^e gouernors of this lande.] league. The false Scottes, and Frenche menne truce brea- kers: many and sonderie tymes, losyng their honour in the field, and yet thei, through the puissaunt harte of the kynges of this lande, vpholdyd and saued, from the mighte and force [Sidenote: Cambridge. Oxforde.] of other enemies inuadyng theim. The twoo famous Uni- uersites of this lande, from the whiche, no small nomber of greate learned men and famous, haue in the co[m]mon wealthe sprong, with all other thynges to it.

The praise of a Kyng, Prince, Duke, Erle, Lorde, Ba- ron, Squire, or of any other man be maie declaimed of obser[-] uing the order of this parte of Rhetorike.

This parte of Rhetorike called praise, is either a particu- ler praise of one, as of kyng Henry the fifte, Plato, Tullie, Demosthenes, Cyrus, Darius, Alexander the greate.

[Fol. xl.r]

Or a generalle and vniuersalle praise, as the praise of all the Britaines: or of all the citezeins of London.

The order to make this Oracion, is thus declared.

Firste, for the enteryng of the matter, you shall place a exordium, or beginnyng.

The seconde place, you shall bryng to his praise, Genus eius, that is to saie: Of what kinde he came of, whiche dooeth consiste in fower poinctes.

{ Of what nacion. } { Of what countre. } { Of what auncetours. } { Of what parentes. }

After that you shall declare, his educacion: the educacion is conteined in thre poinctes.

{ Institucion. } In { Arte. } { Lawes. }

Then put there to that, whiche is the chief grounde of al praise: his actes doen, whiche doe procede out of the giftes, and excellencies of the minde, as the fortitude of the mynde, wisedome, and magnanimite.

Of the bodie, as a beautifull face, amiable countenaunce[,] swiftnesse, the might and strength of thesame.

The excellencies of fortune, as his dignite, power, au- cthoritee, riches, substaunce, frendes.

In the fifte place vse a comparison, wherein that whiche you praise, maie be aduaunced to the vttermoste.

Laste of all, vse the Epilogus, or conclusion.

The example of the Oracion.

The praise of Epaminundas.

IN whom nature hath powred singuler giftes, in whom vertue, & singularite, in famous en- terprises aboundeth: whose glorie & renoume, rooteth to the posterite, immortall commen- dacion. In the graue, their vertues and godlie [Fol. xl.v] [Sidenote: Obliuion.] life, tasteth not of Obliuion, whiche at the length ouerthro- weth all creatures, Cites, and regions. Thei liue onelie in all ages, whose vertues spreadeth fame and noble enterpri- [Sidenote: Who liue in all ages.] ses, by vertue rooteth immortalite. Who so liueth, as that his good fame after death ceaseth not, nor death with the bo- die cutteth of their memorie of life: Soche not onely in life, but also in death are moste fortunate. In death all honor, di- [Sidenote: Good fame chieflie rou- teth after death.] gnite, glorie, wealthe, riches, are taken from vs: The fame and glorie of singulare life is then, chieflie takyng his holde and roote, wise men and godlie, in life, knowen famous, af- ter death, remain moste worthie & glorious. Who knoweth [Sidenote: Tullie. Demosthe- nes. Iulius Ce- sar. Octauius Augustus. Uespasianus[.] Theodosius. Traianns. Adrianus.] not of Tullie, the famous Oratour of Rome. Doeth De- mosthenes lieth hidden, that noble Oratour of Athenes. Is not y^e fame of Iulius Cesar, Octauius Augustus remainyng of Uespasianus: of Theodosius, of Traianus, of Adrianus, who by praise minded, be left to the ende of al ages. Soche a one was this Epaminundas, the famous Duke of Thebe, whose vertues gaue hym honour in life, and famous enter- prises, immortalite of fame after death. What can bee saied more, in the praise and commendacion, of any peere of estate, then was saied in the praise of Epaminundas, for his ver- tues were so singulare, that it was doubted, he beyng so good a manne, and so good a Magistrate, whether he were better manne, or better Magistrate: whose vertues were so vnited, that vertue alwaies tempered his enterprises, his loftie state as fortune oftentymes blindeth, did not make hym vnmind- full of his state. No doubt, but that in all common wealthes, famous gouernours haue been, but in all those, the moste parte haue not been soche, that all so good men, and so good magistrates: that it is doubted, whether thei were better me[n], [Sidenote: Good man, good magi- strate, boothe a good man and a good magistrate.] or better magistrates. It is a rare thyng to be a good manne, but a more difficult matter, to bee a good Magistrate: and moste of all, to be bothe a good man, and a good Magistrate. Honour and preeminent state, doeth sometyme induce obli- uion, whereupon thei ought the more vigilantlie to wade: [Fol. xlj.r] in all causes, and with all moderacion, to temper their pree- [Sidenote: The saiynge of the Philo- sophers.] minent state. The Philosophers ponderyng the brickle and slippere state of fortune, did pronounce this sentence: Diffici- lius est res aduersas pati, quam fortunam eflantem ferre, it is more easie to beare sharpe and extreme pouertie, then to rule and moderate fortune, because that the wisest menne of all [Sidenote: Obliuion.] haue as Chronicles doe shewe, felte this obliuion, that their maners haue been so chaunged, as that natures molde in the[m] had ben altered or nuelie framed, in the life of Epaminu[n]das moderacion and vertue, so gouerned his state, that he was a honor and renowne to his state, nothing can be more ample in his praise, then that which is lefte Chronicled of him.

[] Of his countrie.

EPaminundas was borne in Thebe a famous citie in [Sidenote: Cadmus. Amphion. Hercules.] Beotia, the which Cadmus the sone of Agenor buil- ded, whiche Amphion did close & enuiron with wal- les, in the whiche the mightie and valiaunt Hercules was borne, & manie noble Princes helde therin scepter, the which Citie is tituled famous to the posterity by the noble gouern- ment of Epaminundas.

Of his auncetours.

EPaminundas came not of anie highe nobilitie or blood, but his parentes were honeste and verteous who as it semed were verie well affected to vertue, instructyng their soonne in all singulare and good qualities, for by good and vertuous life and famous enter- prises from a meane state, manie haue bene extolled to beare scepter, or to attaine greate honour, for as there is a begyn- [Sidenote: Nobility rose by vertue.] nyng of nobilitie, so there is an ende, by vertue and famous actes towarde the common wealthe, nobilite first rose. The [Sidenote: Cesar. Scipio.] stock of Cesar and Cesars was exalted from a meaner state, by vertue onelie to nobilitie. Scipios stocke was not alwais noble, but his vertues graffed nobilitie to the posteritie of his line and ofspryng followynge. And euen so as their fa- [Fol. xlj.v] mous enterprices excelled, nobilite in theim also increased. [Sidenote: Catilina.] Catilina wicked, was of a noble house, but he degenerated from the nobilitie of his auncestours, the vertues that graf- fed nobilitie in his auncestors, were first extinguished in Ca- [Sidenote: Marcus Antonius.] iline. Marcus Antonius was a noble Emperour, a Prince indued with all wisedome and Godlie gouernme[n]t, who was of a noble pare[n]tage, it what a wicked sonne succeded him, the [Sidenote: Commodus.] father was not so godlie, wise, and vertuous, as Commo- dus was wickedlie disposed and pestiferous. There was no vertue or excellence, mete for suche a personage, but that Marcus attained to. Who for wisedome was called Marcus Philosophus, in his sonne what vice was the[m] that he practi- sed not, belie chier, druncknes and harlottes, was his delite, his crueltie and bluddie life was suche that he murthered all the godlie and wise Senatours, had in price with Marcus [Sidenote: Seuerus.] his father. Seuerus in like maner, was a noble and famous Emperor, in the Senate moste graue, politike, and in his [Sidenote: Marcus Antonius Caracalla.] warres moste fortunate, but in his sonne Marcus Antoni- nus Caracalla, what wickednes wanted, whose beastlie life is rather to be put in silence, then spoken of. In the assemble of the Grecians, gathered to consulte vpon the contencion of [Sidenote: Aiax. Ulisses.] Achilles armour, Aiax gloriouslie aduaunceth hymself of his auncestrie, from many kinges descended, whom Ulisses his aduersarie aunswered: makyng a long and eloquente Ora- cion, before the noble peres of Grece, concernyng Aiax his auncetours. These are his woordes.

Nam genus et proauos et que non fecimus ipsi, Vix ea nostra voco, sed enim quia retulit Aiax, esse Iouis pronepos.

As for our parentage, and line of auncetours, long before vs, and noble actes of theirs: as we our selues haue not doen the like, how can we call, and title their actes to be ours. Let them therefore, whiche haue descended from noble blood, and famous auncetours: bee like affected to all nobilite of their auncetours, what can thei glory in the nobilite of their aun- [Fol. xlij.r] cetours. Well, their auncetours haue laied the foundacion, [Sidenote: Nobilitee.] and renoume of nobilitee to their ofspryng. What nobilitee is founde in them, when thei builde nothyng, to their aunce- tours woorke of nobilite. Euen as their auncetours, noblie endeuoured them selues, to purchase and obtain, by famous actes their nobilite) for, nobilite and vertue, descendeth al- waies to the like) so thei contrary retire and giue backe, fro[m] all the nobilie of their auncestours, where as thei ought, [Sidenote: A beginnyng of nobilitee.] with like nobilite to imitate them. Many haue been, whiche through their wisedome, and famous enterprises, in the af- faires of their Prince, worthelie to honour haue been extol- led and aduaunced: who also were the firste aucthours and founders of nobilie, to their name and ofspring. Whose of- spring indued with like nobilite of vertues, and noble actes haue increased their auncestors glorie: the childre[n] or ofspring lineally descendyng, hauyng no part of the auncestours glo- rie, how can thei vaunte them selues of nobilie, whiche thei lacke, and dooe nothyng possesse thereof, Euen from lowe [Sidenote: Galerius a Shepherds sonne Empe- ror of Rome. Probus a Gardeiners sonne, Em- perour.] birthe and degre. Galerius Armentarius was aduaunced, euen from a Shepherdes sonne, to sit in the Imperiall seat of Roome. Galerius Maximinus whom all the Easte obaied, his vertues and noble acts huffed hym to beare scepter in the Empire of Roome. Probus a Gardiners soonne, to the like throne and glorie asce[n]ded, so God disposeth the state of euery man, placyng and bestowing dignite, where it pleaseth him as he setteth vp, so he pulleth doune, his prouidence & might is bounde to no state, stocke, or kindred.

Of his educacion.

EPaminu[n]das beyng borne of soche parentes, was brought vp in all excellente learnyng, for, vnder hym Philippe the kyng of the Macedonians, the soonne of Amintas, was brought vp. This Epa- minundas, the Histories note hym to be a chief Philosopher, and a capitaine moste valiaunte. In Musike, in plaiyng, and [Fol. xlij.v] singyng finelie to his Instrumente, notable and famous, no kinde of learnyng, arte, or science, wanted in his breaste: So greate and aboundante were his vertues, that aboue all go- uernours, whiche haue been in Thebe, his name and fame is chieflie aduaunced.

The praise of his actes.

[Sidenote: The dutie of good gouer- nors.] EPaminundas beyng moste valiaunte and no- ble, leauing all priuate commodite, glory, and riches a side: sought the renoume of his coun- tree, as all rulers and gouernours ought to do. [Sidenote: Howe a king[-] dome riseth to all felicitie.] For, a kyngdome or common wealth, can not rise to any high nobilite or Roialnesse, where gouernours, rulers, and magistrates, neclecting the vniuersall, and whole body of the common wealthe, doe cogitate and vigilantly en- deuour them selues, to stablish to them and theirs, a priuate, peculiar, and domesticall profite, glorie, or renoume. Couei- teousnes, whiche is in all ambicious Magistrates the poison, plague, destruccion, and ruine of the beste and florishing co[m]- mon wealthes, of al wickednes and mischief the roote: a vice, [Sidenote: Couetousnes a great euill.] whereupon all vice is grounded, from whom all mischiefe floweth, all execrable purposes issueth. That wanted in Epaminundas, for in the ende of his life, his coffers were so thin and poore, that euen to his Funerall, money wanted to solempnise thesame. Priuate glorie nor excesse, was hunted after of hym, yet his vertues were of soche excellencie, that honour, dignite, and preeminent state, was offered and gi- uen to hym vnwillinglie. This Epaminundas was in go- uernement so famous, and so vertuouslie and politikelie ru- led thesame, that he was a glorie, renoume, honour, and fe- licite to his kingdome, by his state. Before the time of Epa- [Sidenote: Beotia. Thebes.] minundas, the countree of Beotia was nothyng so famous in their enterprises: neither the citee of Thebe so roiall, puis- saunt or noble, the antiquitee of that tyme sheweth, that E- paminundas wantyng the power of Thebes, their glorie, strength, and felicitee fell and decaied. The learning of Epa- [Fol. xliij.r] minundas and knowlege, was so aboundant and profounde bothe in Philosophie, and in all other artes and sciences, that it was wounderfull. In chiualrie and in feates of warre, no pere was more couragious and bolde, or hardie, neither in that, whiche he enterprised, any could be of greater counsaile in hedde more pollitike, of minde more sage and wittie: his gouernement so good, that beyng so good a Magistrate, it is doubted, whether he be better man, or better Magistrate, E- paminundas died in the defence of his countre. The Athe- nians were enemies to the Thebanes, and many greate bat- tailes were assaied of theim and foughten: and often tymes the Athenians felt many bitter stormes, and fortune loured of them, he beyng so valiaunt a capitain. Epaminundas be- yng dedde, the Athenians ceased to practise, any one parte of chiualrie, their prowesse and dexterite decaied: thei hauyng no aliaunte, and forraine enemie to moleste theim, or whom [Sidenote: A valiant ca- pitain, to his countrie a pil[-] lar[,] to his ene[-] mie, a occasio[n] to dexteritie.] thei feared. So that a famous, wise, pollitike, and valiaunte capitaine, is not onely a staie, a pillar and strong bulwarke to his countre. But also forraine nacions, hauyng one, who[m] for his valiauntnes thei dreade, doe practise and inure them selues, to all dexteritee, counsaile, wisedome, and pollicie: soche a one was Epaminundas, to his enemies and cou[n]tre.

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