On July 11, eight brethren were engaged in cutting grain in a field twelve miles from Nauvoo. A mob surrounded them, and then taking them one by one, whipped them severely. Two of these mobbers were afterwards arrested, and to get even for this, the mob carried away five other brethren who were abused by the mobbers for twelve days before they were released.
The next move of the mob was to get writs of arrest for many persons in Nauvoo. A John Carlin was unlawfully appointed a constable to serve these writs, that is, make the arrests, and he raised a large body of men to help him; but behind all this, the real object was to drive the remaining "Mormons" from the city.
Governor Ford was now notified of the actions of these mobbers, and he sent Major Parker to Nauvoo, who was to raise volunteers and defend the city. Four companies of troops were organized by the governor's order; but instead of treating the invaders as they truly were, a mob, Major Parker made a treaty with their leader in which it was agreed that the "Mormons" would leave the state within sixty days. The mob leader thought this fair enough, but the mobbers did not. At this, their leader resigned and a man by the name of Brockman took command of the crowd. He gave the order to march towards Nauvoo, which they gladly did.
On the morning of September 10th, 1846, the watchman in the tower of the temple gave notice that the enemy were coming 1,000 or 1,500 strong. They had cannon, plenty of ammunition, and came like an army ready for battle. Many of the new citizens fled, and the little band of defenders numbered only one hundred and twenty-three men.
Meanwhile, a committee had come from Quincy to try to settle the troubles without bloodshed. Although with them were Major Flood, sent by the governor, and Mr. Wood, mayor of Quincy, the mob paid no attention to them, and so they could do nothing.
There seemed no prospect but that the citizens would have to defend themselves as best they could. Benjamin Clifford took command of the volunteers, and Captain William Anderson organized a small body of sharpshooters called the Spartan Band. As cannon were badly needed, the brethren got two hollow steamboat shafts, cut them in two, plugged up one end, and thus made some cannon. They had no cannon balls, but they used scraps of iron and lead tied up into bags.
On Friday, the 11th, the mob drew up to the city and began firing. They were met by the "Mormon" troops with their home-made cannon, which surprised the mobbers very much, and they were compelled to stop their advance.
On Saturday, the 12th, a flag of truce was brought into the city, and with it a note to the commander at Nauvoo, stating that if they did not surrender they would have to take the consequences. Major Clifford replied that he had been sent by the governor to uphold the laws and that he was going to do it, advising Brockman to disband his men.
The Nauvoo citizens had held their position during the night and had thrown up some breastworks. The next day the battle waged fiercer than ever, but the Nauvoo boys held their ground and the mob could not get in. Twelve mobbers were wounded. The first one killed among the defenders was Augustus Anderson, a "Mormon" boy fourteen years old. He left his mother that morning saying he would fight for her, and went along with his father, Captain William Anderson. Augustus was struck by a cannon ball, and died in a few minutes. Shortly after Captain Anderson was also hit.
"I am wounded," he cried. "Take my gun and shoot on."
David Norris was also killed, and a number of other brethren wounded.
For six days that little band of brave defenders kept the mob at bay; and even when it was seen to be useless to keep the fight up longer, many were in favor of doing so.
On the 16th a treaty was made. The city was to surrender. The citizens were not to be molested, and the sick and helpless were to be protected. The "Mormons" were to leave as soon as possible.
The mob forces entered the city on the 17th; but it was the same old story. They thought no more of promises or of the treaty. Bands of men went through the city, stealing, insulting, and in every way abusing the people. A gang went through the temple and up to the tower where they rang the bell, yelled and shouted. A preacher who was in the mob went up to the top of the tower and cried in a loud voice:
"Peace! peace! peace! to the inhabitants of the earth, now the 'Mormons' are driven!"
The poor Saints had to get away as fast as they could. Some went north, some south, but most of them crossed the river and camped on the low bottoms of the Mississippi in Iowa. I shall not attempt to tell you of the sufferings of these poor people; weak, sick hungry, cold, and wet. It would make your heart ache to see the picture, one of the saddest in all our history.
At this time, when it seemed as though these people would starve to death, a strange thing happened. Great flocks of quail came flying into camp. They flew against the wagons with such force that they were killed or stunned, so that they could be picked up. They also alighted all over the camp and were so tame that they could be taken by the hand. Thus the Lord sent food to his hungry children.
If you wish to read a very interesting account of this removal from Nauvoo, read Colonel Kane's lecture, found in many of our larger histories.
Topics.—1. Nauvoo after the main body of Saints had left. 2. The Battle of Nauvoo. 3. The remnant driven out.
Questions and Review.—1. About how many Saints were left in Nauvoo? 2. Who were the "Jack Mormons?" 3. Tell of the mob's doings. 4. Who was John Carlin? 5. What did he do? 6. Who was Major Parker? 7. What did he have orders to do? 8. Describe the mobbing party. 9. Tell about the Nauvoo volunteers. 10. Who were William and Augustus Anderson? 11. How long did the defenders hold out? 12. What was agreed upon in the treaty of peace? 13. Describe the actions of the mob in Nauvoo. 14. To where were the Saints driven? 15. What was their condition? 16. How were they fed? 17. Who wrote an interesting account of this exodus?
The moving of a nation! What a task it must have been!
Most of you have had some experience in moving, it may be only a family moving from one house to another, and you know what a lot of worry and work there are in such a small affair; but here was a nation moving!
This great exodus was very much like the time when the children of Israel went from under the oppression of Egypt out into the wilderness to journey to the promised land. When at Nauvoo, Brigham Young said to the Saints: "To your tents, O Israel," they knew they had another Moses to lead them from their persecutors.
The camp at Sugar creek grew larger every day through the arrival of exiles from Nauvoo. Many did not bring provisions enough with them, so that they were forced to go to the neighboring farms and settlements and work for corn.
The first move the camp made was on March 1, 1846, when four hundred wagons started forward. Five miles only was traveled that day, and when they camped, the snow had to be shovelled away where they pitched their tents.
From that time the Saints moved slowly westward across the territory of Iowa. As they advanced, the spring rains came and often drenched the travelers through. The ground now became very muddy, and it was so hard for the poor teams that some days only a few miles were traveled. Sometimes their camping places were so wet that they who slept on the ground would have to lay on branches of trees so that they would not sink into the mud.
At first there was very little feed for their animals, and they had to live on the bark and twigs of trees, with what, corn could be spared for them. Many horses were traded for oxen, as they could stand such hardship better. Trips were made to the nearest settlements to buy food. Those who had no money traded what they could spare, such as dishes and feather beds for corn.
For the first few weeks there was not much order in their way of traveling; but on March 27th the Saints were more perfectly organized. Brigham Young was sustained as president of the whole camp. Then captains were appointed over hundreds, over fifties, and over tens. Clerks were chosen to keep the records, etc., and men were called to see to the buying and distributing of the food. Thus every one had something to do and everything was done in order.
Often in the evening when supper had been eaten, the logs were piled on the bonfire, a space was cleared, the musicians brought out their instruments, and the sorrows and hardships of the day were forgotten in the innocent dance.
The camp always rested on Sundays, and if the weather would permit, meetings were held.
On April 24th a point on Grand river was reached, one hundred and forty-five miles north-west from Nauvoo. Here it was decided to form a settlement—to build houses and plant crops, that those who came after would have food and a stopping place. The settlement was called Garden Grove. Soon it was as lively as a hive of bees. Hundreds of men were busy making fence rails and fences, building houses, digging wells, clearing land, and plowing. Meetings were held often and the people were instructed and encouraged. Parley P. Pratt and a small company were sent ahead to find another location for a settlement. They found a beautiful place about thirty miles from Garden Grove, which they called Mount Pisgah. Here houses were also built, and farms and gardens planted. As many of the Saints were poor and sick they rested at these two settlements while the main body went on.
From Mount Pisgah the country was wild Indian lands, there being no white settlements or roads. The spring rains had now moderated so that the roads were better. On June 14th President Young and the leading companies arrived at the Missouri river, where a stop was made. Most of the companies came up in July. A camp was made on the east side of the river on some high land called Council Bluffs.
This was on Indian land, but the travelers were received kindly and given permission to stop.
President Young intended to send a body of picked men into the Rocky Mountains as soon as possible to locate a gathering place. They were to push on ahead that summer and put in crops. Arrangements were being made to this end, when something happened that put a stop to the plan. This was the call for the Mormon Battalion, about which I will tell you in the next chapter.
After five hundred of their best men had marched away to fight the battles of their country, it was impossible for the Saints to get to the mountains that year. So it was decided to make a third stopping place and remain there during the winter.
There being a good location for a town on the west bank of the Missouri river, that place was selected and named Winter Quarters. The town was laid out regularly into streets, and log houses were built. Some made dugouts in the sides of the hill, which were quite comfortable during the cold winter. As the Indians were troublesome on that side of the river a stockade was built around the town. By December, 1846, five hundred and thirty-eight log houses and eighty-three sod houses were built, inhabited by three thousand four hundred and eighty-three people. The town was divided into twenty-two wards, each presided over by a bishop. A large log house was built in which meetings and parties were held.
The food of the people that winter consisted largely of corn-bread and pork. President Young had a grist mill built, but before that time many ate boiled wheat, and ground their corn in coffee mills.
Because of hardships and poor food there was much sickness at all the settlements. Graves marked the prairie for hundreds of miles. At Winter Quarters alone over six hundred were buried.
The poor Saints who were left at Nauvoo were not forgotten. After they had been driven from Nauvoo, they were met by teams from Winter Quarters, and all who wished to go were taken to the camps of the Saints.
Perhaps you may get an idea of this great move when you are told that during that summer there were about two thousand wagons and ten thousand Saints on the way between Nauvoo and Council Bluffs.
Topics.—1. From Nauvoo to Garden Grove. 2. Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah. 3. Winter Quarters.
Questions and Review.—1. What might this last move of the Saints be likened to? 2. After leaving Nauvoo where was the first stopping place? 3. When did the camp start west? 4. What hindered the traveling? 5. How was the camp organized? 6. What did the Saints do for amusement? 7. Where were Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah? 8. What was the object in making these settlements? 9. What prevented a band of pioneers from going to the mountains that summer? 10. Where was Winter Quarters? 11. Describe the place. 12. About how many people were traveling across Iowa that summer?
THE MORMON BATTALION.
During the summer of 1846 the United States was at war with the republic of Mexico. A number of battles had been fought in Texas. What is now California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona belonged to Mexico, and as President Polk desired to get this large district of country for the United States, he sent soldiers westward to the Pacific ocean.
The "Mormon" people traveling from Nauvoo had asked President Polk for assistance in their journey to the west. They said they wanted to remain under the protection of the government, and were willing to aid in holding the western country for the United States.
In the month of June, 1846, Captain James Allen, an officer of the United States army arrived at Mount Pisgah, Iowa. What he wanted was five hundred men with which to form a battalion and march across the continent to California, and take part in the war with Mexico.
This was startling news indeed. The Saints had not expected this kind of "help" in their journeying through the wilderness. Many of the Saints looked upon the call as a plan to destroy them. You can hardly blame them for that, can you, knowing some of their past history?
But President Young and the leading brethren told the officer he should have his men. They thought it was a test to see if they were true to their country. Though it was a pretty hard test, thus to take their best and strongest men away from such a camp as theirs, yet the "Mormon" people would show to the government and to the whole world that they were loyal to their country, even though that country had failed to protect them in their rights to live in peace and worship God.
At a meeting held at Council Bluffs it was decided to raise the men asked for. Brigham Young and the Twelve took an active part in getting volunteers. Word was sent to the different settlements of the Saints. The stars and stripes were hoisted to a tree top, and the work of enrollment began. Within three days the little army was organized and ready for the march. Then they had a grand farewell party, held, not in some beautifully lighted ball room, but in a bowery, where the ground had been packed hard by the tread of many feet. There fathers and mothers and brothers and sisters and sweethearts said their goodbyes to each other.
And then the long, dreary march began. The story of that march would fill a book, so of course very little of it can be told here. If you would like to read more about it, you will find it in Brother Tyler's "History of the Mormon Battalion."
There were five hundred and forty-nine souls in the Battalion. Captain James Allen was the commander. They started on their march July 20, 1846, to Fort Leavenworth, where they received their guns and other things necessary for an army. At this point Captain Allen died, which made the men feel bad, as he was a good, kind officer.
The Battalion began to move from Fort Leavenworth on the 12th of August. You may see their line of march by looking at the map on page 128. After suffering much hardship, they reached Santa Fe, October 9th. Here Colonel Cooke took the command. As many of the soldiers as were too sick to go on were sent to Pueblo, where they remained all winter, and traveled to Salt Lake valley the next summer. The main body of the Battalion left Santa Fe, October 19th, for California. At Tucson they expected to have a battle with some Mexican soldiers, and prepared for it, but they marched through the city without being disturbed. From Tucson they continued over the deserts, and arrived at San Diego, January 29, 1847, where they saw the broad, blue, ocean, many of them for the first time.
The Battalion remained in and around San Diego for about two weeks. As there was no fighting to be done, the men built houses, dug wells, made brick, and helped build up the town. On March 19th most of them marched to Los Angeles, and on the 16th of July they were mustered out, having served their full time—one year.
Of this great march Colonel Cooke their commander wrote:
"History may be searched in vain for an equal march of infantry; nine-tenths of it through a wilderness, where nothing but savages and wild beasts are found, or deserts, where for want of water, there is no living creature. There, with almost hopeless labor we have dug deep wells. Without a guide we have crossed the wilderness, we have ventured into trackless prairies, where water was not found for several marches. With crowbar and pickax in hand we have worked our way over mountains, which seemed to defy aught but the wild goat, and hewed a passage through a chasm of rock, more narrow than our wagons."
After their release, most of the men took up their march for home. Perhaps it would be more correct to say to find their families and friends, as they did not have any home yet. They journeyed northward in California and then crossed the mountains to Salt Lake valley where most of them arrived in October, 1847. From there many went right on to Winter Quarters to their families.
A number of the Battalion men remained in California to earn a little money. Some got work with a Captain Sutter who had a large ranch on the American fork of the Sacramento river. The "Mormons" with some others were set to work building a mill, and it was here while digging in the mill race that gold was discovered in California. Some of the brethren carried away a few hundred dollars' worth when they went to Salt Lake Valley the next summer.
Topics.—1. The call for the Mormon Battalion. 2. Its march. 3. Discovery of Gold.
Questions and Review.—1. Who was Captain James Allen? 2. What did he want of the "Mormons?" 3. What was the Battalion wanted for? 4. What did President Young say? 5. What did many of the Saints think of the call? 6. Why was it a hardship on the Saints at that time to furnish five hundred soldiers? 7. Describe the line of march of the Battalion. 8. How long did it take them? 9. How far was it? 10. What kind of journey was it? 11. What did Colonel Cooke say about it? 12. What did the Battalion men do in California? 13. What happened at Nauvoo in the summer of 1846, when the Battalion was on the march?
While the Saints were in Winter Quarters during the winter of 1846-7 they were busily preparing for the march to the mountains next spring. Men for the advance company were selected, and on April 7, 1847, they began to move out of Winter Quarters to a place westward, where they were to gather. Ten days later the first or pioneer camp, was ready for marching. The idea was to have twelve times twelve men, but one became sick and had to return, so that left one hundred and forty-three. There were besides the men three women and two children. They had seventy-two wagons, ninety-three horses, fifty-two mules, sixty-six oxen, nineteen cows, seventeen dogs, and some chickens.
For three months and seventeen days this company traveled westward over plains and mountains. During the first part of their journey they sometimes followed a wagon road to Oregon, and sometimes they made new roads. The shallow rivers they forded, the deep ones they built bridges over, and the large ones they crossed in ferry boats which they built. After these ferries had been built the pioneers sometimes took over companies on their way to Oregon and received provisions for their pay.
The map will show you the route they took better than can be told here.
The pioneers did not know exactly where they were to locate. It was to be in some valley of the Rocky mountains where they could live in peace, free from mobs. When President Young was asked as to their destination, all he could say was that he would know the place when he should see it, and that they should continue to travel the way the Spirit of the Lord directed them.
On their journey they often met scouts and trappers. One of the best known of these was Col. James Bridger. He had been all through the valley of the Great Salt Lake, he said, and he told the pioneers that they could not live there, as nothing would grow. So sure was he of this that he offered to give a thousand dollars for the first bushel of corn they could raise in that valley. President Young simply said, "Wait a little and we will show you."
When they left the plains and got up in the mountains some of them became sick with the mountain fever. Among those ailing was President Young. He became so bad that he could not travel, so when they were in Echo canyon he instructed Orson Pratt to take the main company on and he with a few men would remain for a few days.
The main company, therefore, went on down Echo canyon, up Weber valley, and across the mountains, coming down into Salt Lake valley through Emigration canyon. President Young had told them that when they got to the open country on crossing the mountain they were to go to the north and stop at the first convenient place for putting in their seeds. This the company did, and on the 23rd of July they camped on the ground where now stands the beautiful city and county building in Salt Lake City. After offering up their thanks to God for his preserving care, they at once got out their tools and began to work. The season was so far advanced that if they were to raise anything they must hurry. When they tried to plow the land, they found it so dry and hard that some of the plows were broken. What could they do? Then the thought came to turn the water in the creek over the land and soak it up. This was done, and then there was no trouble to plow and plant. This was the beginning of irrigation in this western part of the United States.
President Young and his party followed the next day. President Wilford Woodruff was with him and we will let him tell of it:
"On the 24th I drove my carriage, with President Young lying on a bed in it, into the open valley. When we came out of the canyon into full view of the valley, I turned the side of my carriage around, open to the west, and President Young arose from his bed and took a look at the country. While gazing on the scene before us, he was enwrapped in vision for several minutes. He had seen the valley before in vision, and now he saw the future glory of Zion and of Israel as they would be, planted in the valleys of these mountains. When the vision had passed, he said:
"'It is enough. This is the right place. Drive on.'"
On August 26th, President Young and a company of one hundred and seven persons, started on the return trip to Winter Quarters. On the Sweetwater river they met two large companies of Saints on the way to the valley, following the trail of the pioneers. There was great rejoicing, as the Saints now for the first time knew where they were to locate. These companies arrived safely in Salt Lake valley in September and October.
President Young and company arrived at Winter Quarters October 31. All was well with the Saints, and they were prospering.
And now a very important event took place. From the death of Joseph the Prophet up to this time the Church had been led by the Twelve. Now it was decided to reorganize the First Presidency, and at a meeting held in Winter Quarters, December 5, 1847, the Twelve chose Brigham Young as President of the Church. He chose Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards as his counselors, and these now became the First Presidency. This action of the Twelve was sustained at a conference of the Church on the 27th.
Thus the work prospered. Many meetings were held, and the Church was set in order. Missionaries were sent to the world, and the Saints, now that they had another gathering place, began to flock towards the new Zion in the mountains. Winter Quarters was deserted and a new settlement founded across the river. It was called Kanesville (now Council Bluffs) in honor of Thomas L. Kane who did many kind acts for the Saints.
In the spring of 1848 the Saints on the Missouri river were busy getting ready for the move to the mountains. They started about the beginning of June, organized into three large companies, all led by President Young. Altogether there were 2,417 people, 793 wagons, herds of horses and cattle, a great many sheep, pigs, chickens, etc. Here was surely, if not a nation, a whole city moving. They followed in the trail of the first companies and arrived in Great Salt Lake valley in September and October.
Topics.—1. The march of the pioneers. 2. Arrival in Salt Lake valley. 3. The reorganization of the First Presidency. 4. The main companies.
Questions and Review.—1. How many persons were in the first or pioneer company? 2. What was the object of the company? 3. How long were they on the journey? 4. Describe their route. (See map). 5. What did trappers and hunters say of Salt Lake valley? 6. When did the main body reach Salt Lake valley? 7. When did President Young arrive? 8. What did he say about the place? 9. Why did the pioneers know very little about irrigation? 10. Who returned to Winter Quarters? 11. Whom did they meet? 12. What took place December 5, 1847? 13. Where was Kanesville? 14. What took place during the summer of 1848?
GREAT SALT LAKE CITY.
The 25th of July, 1847, came on a Sunday, therefore the pioneers rested and held meetings.
Monday morning work began in earnest. Plowing and planting had to be hurried. Exploring parties were also sent out in different directions to become acquainted with the country.
On the evening of July 28th President Young, accompanied by the Apostles, went some distance from the camp to select a spot from which to begin building the city. Arriving at a good location, President Young stopped, and, striking his cane in the earth, he said: "Here will be the temple of our God"—and on that spot the temple stands today. It was then decided to lay out the city north, east, south, and west from the temple site, in ten acre blocks, the streets to be eight rods wide and the sidewalks twenty feet. Some time after this it was named Great Salt Lake City.
You will call to mind that some of the Mormon Battalion, owing to sickness, did not march through to California. This company, together with some Saints from the state of Mississippi, arrived at the pioneer camp on July 29th, thus making quite an addition to the company. The first building of any kind erected in the valley by the Saints was a bowery built on the temple block by the Battalion men. This was used for some time in which to hold meetings.
It was decided not to settle on the city lots at first, but build a fort with houses in as a protection from the Indians. The houses were built of logs, and stood in a row, close together, which formed one side of the fort. The other three sides were built of adobe walls. The roofs of the houses were made of soil. The windows and doors faced the inside. Though better than living all the winter in tents and wagons, you may imagine these houses were not very comfortable, especially when the rain came through the roofs onto beds, tables, stoves, etc.
A conference was held in the bowery on Sunday, August 22nd, where considerable business was attended to. The Salt Lake Stake of Zion was organized, with John Smith as president. It was shortly after this that President Young and his company went back to Winter Quarters.
The next addition to the settlement was the Mormon Battalion from California.
At the coming of winter all moved into the fort. That season the winter was mild, so quite an amount of work was done outside.
The spring of 1848 opened with fine prospects ahead. Five thousand acres of land were planted, and the grain was growing rapidly; but another trial was at hand. In May and June great swarms of crickets came from the mountains and began to devour every growing thing. The settlers fought them as best they were able, but what could be done with such countless millions of insects! It seemed hopeless. Their crops were fast disappearing, and with them their means of living through the next year. Remember, they were a thousand miles from any other people, with mountains and deserts between them. They could not get food from other places. They would have to raise it or to starve.
When they had about given up hope, there came great flocks of white birds from the lake. They settled on the fields and began eating the crickets. They would eat all they were able, then vomit, and eat again. This they did day after day until the crickets were destroyed and part of the crop was saved.
That fall President Young with the main body of Saints arrived from the East. There were now about five thousand people in the valley, and prospects were not very encouraging, owing to the small crop raised. Food was scarce, as also was clothing. Many people lived for weeks on "greens" and the roots of the sego and thistle. A kind of soup was made by cooking raw-hides. Yet in the midst of these times Heber C. Kimball declared in a public meeting that it would not be three years before "states goods" would be sold in Salt Lake cheaper than in St. Louis. No one at that time could see how it could be possible, but the prophecy was fulfilled within a year, and it was in this way: That winter gold was discovered in California, and early the next summer great companies of men came flocking from the east on their way to the gold mines. Salt Lake City was a sort of half way house. These gold seekers were heavily laden with all manner of goods, but being anxious to get to California as soon as possible they traded to the people in Salt Lake City their goods for lighter wagons, fresh horses, etc. Thus a great deal of merchandise was brought to the valley, and Brother Kimball's prophecy was fulfilled.
The city had now been laid out into blocks, and lots were given to the settlers. Some built houses and moved in that fall, but most of the people remained in the fort until the spring of 1849.
The city now began to grow rapidly, as companies of Saints were continually coming from the east. In February, 1849, the city was divided into nineteen wards and a bishop appointed over each. On the 12th of the same month the four vacancies in the quorum of the Twelve Apostles were filled by the calling of Charles C. Rich, Lorenzo Snow, Erastus Snow, and Franklin D. Richards to the apostleship.
Thus the Church was firmly established again, this time in the peaceful valleys of the mountains, away from the persecution of its enemies and the anger of mobs.
Topics.—1. Locating the temple and city. 2. The fort. 3. The crickets and gulls. 4. Hard times. 5. Heber C. Kimball's prophecy.
Questions and Review.—1. How did President Young locate the temple spot? 2. How was the city laid out? 3. What was the first building in the valley? 4. Describe a bowery. 5. What was the fort? 6. Describe it. 7. Who was the first stake president in Utah? 8. What happened in the spring of 1848? 9. How were the crops saved? 10. Why was food so scarce in 1848? 11. What kinds of food were eaten? 12. What was Heber C. Kimball's prophecy? 13. How was it fulfilled? 14. How was the city built up? 15. What apostles were chosen February 12, 1849?
GROWTH OF UTAH AND THE CHURCH.
As you were told in the last chapter, among the first things done by the pioneers was to send exploring parties out to find other locations for settlement. They knew that thousands of Saints would follow them to their new home, and room must be had for them.
In the first company that followed the pioneers was Peregrine Sessions. He, with some others, moved north from the pioneer camp and settled in what is now Davis county. Further north, at the junction of the Weber and Ogden rivers, there lived, before the pioneers came, a trapper and trader by the name of Goodyear. He claimed a large area of land, nearly all of what is now Weber county, saying that the Mexican government had granted it to him. This claim he sold in 1847 to Captain James Brown of the Mormon Battalion for the sum of $3,000. In the spring of 1848, Captain Brown with his sons moved to the new location and began putting in crops. They were told that frost would kill the corn before it could ripen, but they worked on, and in the fall reaped a large harvest. Soon other families moved in, to whom Captain Brown gave land. Thus Ogden city and Weber county had their beginning.
Early in the spring of 1849, the first settlers moved south from Salt Lake City. They consisted of thirty families led by John S. Higbee, one of the pioneers. They settled on Provo river, built a fort for protection, and then began plowing and planting. There were quite a number of Indians in that part. Their head chief was Sowiette, and under him was Chief Walker. The first was a kind Indian who wished to live in peace with the whites; but not so with Walker who delighted in stealing and fighting.
For some months everything went well with the Provo settlers, but in the fall the Indians began stealing, and once in awhile an arrow came uncomfortably near some settler when away from the fort. At length a party of men who were out searching for stolen cattle, had a fight with a band of Indians in which five of the savages were killed.
The settlers in the fort were now continually annoyed, until in February, 1850, a company of militia was sent from Salt Lake City to their aid. A fierce battle ensued, in which a number were killed on both sides, and the Indians were scattered to the mountains.
It was President Young's policy not to harm the Indians if possible, saying that it was cheaper to feed them than to fight them. But even this kind policy did not altogether prevent trouble with these wild people. In 1853, the Indians, led by Chief Walker, made war on the southern settlements, with the result that about twenty whites and a great many Indians were killed.
At the close of the war with Mexico all this western country became a part of the United States. At a convention held in Salt Lake City, March 4, 1849, the people asked Congress for a territorial organization. Later, a petition was sent asking to be admitted into the Union under the name of "The State of Deseret." Until Congress could act, a temporary government was formed which existed for nearly two years. President Young was elected governor, and there were the other officers usually found in a state. September 9, 1850, Congress passed an act organizing Utah Territory. President Millard Fillmore appointed Brigham Young as governor. Out of the six other officers, three were "Mormons," and three non-"Mormons" from the East.
At a conference held in Salt Lake City, October 6, 1849, a number of elders were called to new mission fields. John Taylor, Curtis E. Bolton, and John Pack were sent to France; Erastus Snow and Peter O. Hansen to Denmark; John Forsgren to Sweden; Lorenzo Snow and Joseph Toronto to Italy; Addison Pratt, James S. Brown, and Hiram H. Blackwell, to the Society Islands. Brother Pratt had but recently returned from a five years mission to these islands, where twelve hundred souls had been baptized into the Church.
At the April conference, 1851, Edward Hunter was chosen to succeed Newel K. Whitney as bishop of the Church. There were at that time about thirty thousand people in Utah.
President Young and the Apostles traveled much throughout the Territory, locating settlements, organizing wards and putting the Church in order. At the October conference, 1853, some of the leading brethren were called to locate in different parts of the Territory. Among them were Elders George A. Smith and Erastus Snow with fifty families who were called to strengthen Iron county, and Elder Lorenzo Snow with fifty families to go to Box Elder.
In the summer of 1854 the grasshoppers did much damage to the crops, and again in 1855 in many parts these insects took every green thing. This brought on another scarcity. There was much suffering and again the people were compelled to live on roots. A number of the brethren had stored up some grain which they now shared with those who had none. In this way all fared very much alike and the hardships were shared by all.
In the winter of 1856 a very sad thing happened. That year some emigrants came to Utah in handcart companies. Small, two wheeled carts were made at the place of starting in Iowa. On these carts were loaded baggage and provisions, and the men and boys pulled them across the plains. Sometimes the women and girls helped. A few ox teams usually hauled the heaviest loads in wagons, and in this way the Saints walked and pulled their carts over the thirteen hundred miles of their journey. This plan succeeded very well for those who started early and reached the valley in good time, but a number of companies started too late and were caught in fierce snow storms in the mountains. Many of these poor travelers died from hunger and cold, and if it had not been for some of the brethren who came out from Salt Lake to their help, no doubt most of them would have perished.
Topics.—1. Making settlements. 2. Trouble with the Indians. 3. Organizing Utah Territory. 4. Famine of 1855-6. 5. The handcart companies.
Questions and Review.—1. Where was the second settlement in Utah made? 2. When and by whom was Ogden settled? 3. Tell about the settlement of Provo. 4. What trouble did the Provo settlers have? 5. What was President Young's Indian policy? 6. Who was Chief Walker? 7. What was done March 4, 1849? 8. What did the people wish to name the state? 9. When was Utah Territory organized? 10. Who was the first governor? 11. Name the first missionaries to France; to Denmark; to Sweden; to Italy; to the Society Islands. 12. Tell something about these missions. 13. Tell about the work of the Church leaders in making settlements, etc. 14. What was the cause of the famine in 1855-6? 15. What were the handcart companies?
THE "UTAH WAR."
The president of the United States appoints the leading officers of a territory. Many of the officers sent to Utah by the president were good men and did justice to "Mormon" and Gentile alike; but some were men who could see no good in the Saints, and were therefore always trying to oppress them. Such men were Judges Stiles and Drummond, and Secretary Ferris, who were in Utah in 1856. At last they left the territory and sent in a report to the president. In it Judge Drummond said that the "Mormons" were traitors to the United States, and would not obey its laws; that they had a secret organization whose duty it was to murder all who opposed them; that the court records had been burned; that the government officials were in danger of their lives, etc. Like reports were made by other persons, and the result was that a strong feeling was created in the East against the people of Utah.
On the 24th of July, 1857, the people of Salt Lake City were having a grand celebration in Big Cottonwood canyon. They were having a happy time. The band played, the choirs sang, the cannon roared, while the Stars and Stripes waved from trees and mountain peaks. Suddenly four dusty travelers rode into the camp. They brought news from the East, and startling news it was: the president of the United States had sent an army to Utah to establish law and order among the "Mormons!"
In the evening the Saints were called together, and the news was told them. President Young spoke with power. "We have transgressed no law, neither do we intend to," said he; "but as for any nation coming to destroy this people, God Almighty being my helper, it shall not be."
Two thousand five hundred soldiers were on the march to Utah. General Harney was appointed commander, but he was succeeded by Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston. With the army came the new set of officers which the president had appointed for the territory.
In the commander's orders it was stated that the people of Utah were in rebellion against the United States, and that it was the duty of the army to restore the authority of the government and aid and protect the new officers in the discharge of their duties. On the 8th of September Captain Van Vliet arrived in Salt Lake City from the army. He told President Young that their intentions were not to harm the people in any way. President Young replied that he had had experience with military bodies in Missouri and Illinois, and he knew what the "Mormons" could expect. The captain tried to show President Young how useless it would be for a few "Mormons" to resist a nation like the United States. Even if they prevented the army from entering the valley that year, more soldiers would be sent in the spring.
"We are aware that such will be the case," replied the president; "but when those troops arrive they will find Utah a desert; every house will be burned to the ground, every tree cut down, and every field laid waste."
The captain was deeply impressed, but such were really the intentions of the Saints. They could not trust the troops, and they did not intend to submit tamely to such scenes as they had passed through in Far West and Nauvoo. They were not in rebellion, and if the president had simply sent some one to investigate, he would have found out that truth; but he had acted on the spur of the moment, and the troops were already far on the way. If they could be checked for a time until the truth could be learned, the danger of a conflict might be averted; but if not, then, said President Young, and the people were with him, their homes, fields, and gardens would be destroyed by fire and the Saints would flee to the mountains.
The army continued its march towards Utah. Col. R.T. Burton was now ordered by Gen. Daniel H. Wells, commander of the Utah militia, to take a small body of men and guard the emigrant trains that were coming in. The militia to the number of 2,500 men was called into service, and in September, 1857, Gen. Wells and staff went to Echo canyon and there made their headquarters. Active preparations were now made to stop the enemy. Echo canyon, through which the troops would have to pass, was fortified by trenches and the loosening of rocks on the hill sides.
By this time the army was in what is now Wyoming, and was making for Echo canyon. Small companies of Utah men were sent out to meet them. They were instructed to annoy the invaders as much as possible, to burn the grass, drive off their cattle, etc., but they were to shed no blood if it were possible to prevent it. These orders were followed, and many exciting encounters and narrow escapes took place. Major Lot Smith, with a small company of men, at one time rode up to a large wagon train carrying supplies for the army. After capturing the drivers, they set fire to and destroy the whole train. Herds of cattle were driven off to Salt Lake valley, where they were kept during the winter and taken back to the soldiers in the spring.
Winter came early that year, and in the mountains where the armies were, the weather became very cold, with snow and sleet. The government troops made but little progress. They tried hard to reach the valley; but at last they were compelled to stop for the winter in the mountains of western Wyoming.
This was all the Utah leaders wanted. Now there would be time for finding out the truth. Most of the militia returned home, leaving fifty men as a guard in Echo canyon.
When the government at Washington heard the news from the seat of the "war" there was considerable excitement, and Congress voted to send another army to aid the first one. Meanwhile the people of Utah were anxiously waiting for spring and preparing for the conflict which they thought must then come.
Topics.—1. Character of some territorial officials. 2. The army for Utah. 3. What the "Mormons" thought of the army. 4. How the army was stopped.
Questions and Review.—1. Who was Judge Drummond? 2. What report did he make to the government about Utah affairs? 3. What led President Buchanan to send an army to Utah? 4. What was the object of sending this army? 5. When did the Saints first hear of it? 6. What did the "Mormons" resolve to do? 7. Why could they not trust the army? 8. What did the Utah militia do? 9. What was the object in annoying the troops? 10. What hindered the troops from entering Salt Lake valley that year?
THE "UTAH WAR," (CONCLUDED.)
When that friend of the Latter-day Saints, Colonel, afterwards General Thomas L. Kane, heard of the troubles in Utah, he left his home in Philadelphia and went to Washington to see the president. Though feeble in health, he offered to go to Utah and try to settle the difficulties in a peaceable manner. The offer was accepted. Colonel Kane arrived in Salt Lake City in February, 1858, where he was gladly received. In the cold and snow of that winter he went to the camp of the army and had a talk with the new governor whom the president had appointed to take Brigham Young's place. Colonel Kane told the officers with the army that they would be welcomed in the valley and kindly treated, but the troops must not locate in or near any settlement of the territory. The Colonel also convinced Governor Cumming that he had no need of an army to help him take charge of his office, and even prevailed on him to go back to Salt Lake City with him.
To this, General Johnston of the army was very much opposed. The president had sent him with an army to put the governor into his office, aided by sword and cannon; but now, if the governor could enter peaceably upon his duties there would be no need of him or his soldiers. The general didn't like it a bit; but nevertheless, Governor Cumming went with Colonel Kane to Salt Lake City in charge of some of the Utah militia.
Governor Cumming was received with the respect due such an officer, and duly installed into his position. He found the records and books of the courts safe, and learned that the reports which had led the president to send the army were not true.
The new governor was a good man. He said the troops would have to come into the valley in the spring, but the people's rights would be respected, and no harm should be done to any of them. The Saints, however, could not trust the army. They remembered the scenes of the past, and resolved that they should not be enacted over again in the valleys of Utah. So, early in the spring, the order came for all the Saints to pack up their goods, get together their stock, and move southward, leaving their deserted homes in the care of a few guards who were to set fire to everything should the army attempt to locate in the settlements.
On seeing the Saints thus leaving their hard-earned homes, the kind-hearted old governor entreated them not to do so, promising them full protection. When his wife arrived from the camp of the army and saw the towns lonely and deserted, she burst into tears and pleaded with her husband to bring the people back. The governor, however, could do nothing. The 30,000 people in Salt Lake City and northward took all their goods and moved south, most of them into Utah Valley.
President Buchanan, now having learned the true condition of affairs, sent two gentlemen to arrange for peace. They arrived in Salt Lake in June and had a number of meetings with the leading brethren who came from the south for that purpose. A letter was read from President Buchanan which, after telling of the many crimes committed by the "Mormons" against the government, offered to pardon all who would submit to the laws. In reply President Young said that he and his brethren had simply stood up for their rights, and they had done nothing to be pardoned for, except, perhaps the burning of some government trains, and for that act they accepted the President's pardon. President Young then said they were willing the troops should come into the country. They might march through the city but they were not to make a camp less than forty miles away. "No mobs shall live in the homes we have built in these mountains," said the president. "That's the program, gentlemen, whether you like it or not. If you want war, you can have it; but, if you want peace, peace it is; and we shall be glad of it." After the meetings the brethren went back to the Saints in the south.
June 26, 1858, "Johnston's Army," marched through Salt Lake City. All day long the troops and trains passed through the city. The only sounds heard was the noise made by the horses' hoofs and the roll of the wagons. The city seemed as if dead. Hardly a person was seen on the streets. Quietly and orderly the soldiers marched on. Colonel Cooke, once the commander of the Mormon Battalion, bared his head as he rode through the streets in honor of the brave "Mormon" boys who had marched under his command.
The army camped that night across the Jordan, and then continued its march to Cedar Valley, thirty-six miles south of the city. About two years later, the soldiers went back to the east where they took part in the great Civil War. The commander, Albert Sidney Johnston, fought on the side of the south, and fell in the great battle of Shiloh.
The Saints returned to their homes in July, 1858. Thus again, the Lord preserved his people, and protected them from their enemies.
Topics.—1. The mission of Colonel Kane. 2. Governor Cumming installed. 3. Meeting with peace commissioners. 4. The move south. 5. The entrance of the army.
Questions and Review.—1. What did Colonel Kane do at Washington? 2. What was his mission to Utah? 3. Where was the army camped? 4. Who was Governor Cumming? 5. What did Colonel Kane get the governor to do? 6. What did the governor find in Salt Lake City? 7. Why did the Saints move south? 8. What did they propose doing if the army came to harm them? 9. What were Governor Cumming's feelings? 10. Tell about the meeting with the peace commissioners. 11. Describe the march of the army through Salt Lake City. 12. Where did the soldiers camp? 13. When did they leave Utah, and where did they go?
The action of the "Mormons" in again leaving the homes they had newly made in the wilderness of the West, called the whole world's attention to them. Many honest people began to see what a mistake it had been to send armed soldiers against an innocent people.
When the army was withdrawn, peace once more prevailed, and the Church was again busy preaching the Gospel to the world and gathering the honest from the nations. Many missionaries were sent out and new fields were opened.
From Europe the Saints came by the thousands. Sometimes a whole ship would be engaged to take a company of Saints across the ocean, in charge of one of the Apostles or some leading elder. From the sea, they would travel in train loads to the end of the railroad, where companies of teams and wagons would take them the remainder of the journey to Utah.
Now came the telegraph line westward. October 17, 1861, it was completed to Salt Lake City, and the next day President Young sent the first message east. At this time the war between the north and the south was beginning, and in this first telegram President Young said that Utah had not seceded, but was firm for the Union.
Following the telegraph came the railroads. The Union Pacific was being built from the east, while the Central Pacific came from the west. May 10, 1869, the two roads met in Northern Utah near the Promontory, and the last spike was driven with much ceremony. Thus was completed the first iron road across the continent.
But true to the past history of the Latter-day Saints, peace was not a blessing they were permitted to enjoy for many years at a time.
In the year 1869 a number of prominent elders in the Church opposed President Young and the authorities, and were cut off from the Church. One of these elders was Wm. S. Godbe, therefore those who followed him were sometimes called "Godbeites." These men joined with the anti-"Mormons" and formed what was called the Liberal Party. It was the object of this organization to oppose the "Mormons," and they were aided in this by the officers sent to Utah by the government. It had been the policy of Presidents Lincoln and Johnson to let the "Mormons" alone, but when General Grant became president he changed the program and at once sent officers to Utah to "straighten out" the "Mormons." President Grant, no doubt obtained much of his information about the "Mormons" from his friend, the Rev. J.P. Newman. This minister had held a three days' discussion in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City with Apostle Orson Pratt on the subject of polygamy. Elder Pratt seems to have got the better of the argument, and it can well be imagined what kind of information this preacher gave to the president.
The Saints never had more bitter enemies than some of these territorial officers, especially Governor Shaffer and Chief Judge McKean. For years these officials, aided by the Liberal Party, tried to run affairs their own way; and you can easily understand that they could do a great many hateful things against the "Mormons," having the officers of the law, if not the law itself, on their side. Especially was their hate directed towards President Young and the leading brethren who were accused of all manner of crimes. They were arrested, tried, and placed in prison in many unlawful ways.
Notwithstanding all these annoyances, the Church continued to grow in strength and numbers. The Sunday Schools, the first of which was organized in 1849, by Elder Richard Ballantyne, in the Fourteenth Ward of Salt Lake City, had by this time grown to be a strong institution. The Mutual Improvement Associations were organized in 1875, and soon did much good among the young.
President Young and his brethren were busy organizing stakes of Zion, setting the quorums of the priesthood in order, directing the building of temples, laying out towns and cities, and attending to the general duties of the Church. Thus Zion grew and became stronger day by day.
Brigham City is named after President Young. August 19, 1877, the president was at that place and the Box Elder Stake of Zion was organized. Shortly after his return home, he was taken ill and died August 29th, at the age of seventy-six.
Thus passed away the second president of the Church. Joseph had laid the foundation deep and strong. Brigham had built upon it. For thirty years he had stood at the head of the Church and had led the Saints through some of the most trying scenes of their history. Brigham Young was the leading spirit in the removal from Nauvoo, in the march across the wild prairies and mountains, in the building up of a great state in the desert valleys of the Rocky Mountains; and his name will be ever honored as the great pioneer of the west.
Topics.—1. Prosperity of the Saints. 2. The telegraph and railroad. 3. The Liberal Party. 4. Death of President Young.
Questions and Review.—1. How did the Saints come from Europe in early days? 2. Tell about the overland telegraph line in Utah and the first telegram. 3. Tell about the railroads. 4. Who composed the Liberal party? 5. What was its object? 6. How did President Grant treat the "Mormons?" 7. Tell about the Newman-Pratt discussion. 8. Why could the Utah officials greatly annoy the Saints? 9. Who organized the first Sunday School? 10. Where and when was it? 11. Tell of the death of President Young. 12. Tell what you can of his life.
Those who did not understand the true nature of "Mormonism" thought that at the death of Brigham Young, the Church would go to pieces; but they soon found out that the work of God does not depend on any one man. The Twelve again became the leading quorum in the Church, with John Taylor at its head. Three years after the death of President Young, October 10, 1880, the First Presidency was again organized. John Taylor became President, and he chose George Q. Cannon as first and Joseph F. Smith as second counselor.
President Taylor was seventy-two years old at this time. He had been with the Church nearly from the beginning, having been an Apostle for forty-two years. He had filled many missions both in the United States and in Europe, had written much on gospel subjects, and was in reality as some called him, the "Champion of Liberty." You will remember that he was with Joseph and Hyrum at the time of their martyrdom in Carthage jail and was then severely wounded.
The year 1880 was the jubilee year of the Church, being fifty years since it was organized. As was the custom in ancient Israel, it was a time of forgiveness. The Church remitted many debts of the poor, besides giving them many sheep and cattle. "While God is blessing us, let us bless one another," said President Taylor; and thus much good feeling was manifested among the Saints.
But another storm was coming. A trial of another kind was in store for the Church.
In the days of Nauvoo, in 1843, Joseph the Prophet had received a revelation from God, saying that it was right for good men holding the priesthood to have more wives than one. By the time the Church had been in Utah a few years, quite a number of the Saints had obeyed this law and entered plural marriage. The enemies of the Church call this practice a great sin, even though they can read in the Bible that good men of old whom the Lord loved had many wives. In 1862 Congress passed a law against plural marriage or polygamy. As many thought it was an unjust law, it was not enforced for many years. Elder George Reynolds offered to be arrested and tried under the law in order to have it tested. This was done, and Elder Reynolds was convicted and sent to prison. His case was taken to the Supreme Court of the United States where the law was decided to be constitutional.
But this law was not hard enough on the "Mormons" to suit their enemies. Sectarian preachers and politicians who wanted some office began to spread falsehoods all over the country about Utah and its people, all of which had its effect on Congress. Notwithstanding the protest of the "Mormons," another law was passed against them, (March, 1882), called the Edmunds Act. This law provided that no polygamist should vote or hold office; and if found guilty of polygamy a man might be fined five hundred dollars and put in prison for three years. If a man lived with more than one wife, he could be fined three hundred dollars and imprisoned for six months.
Officers were now sent to Utah to enforce this law, and what is called the "Crusade" began in earnest. "Mormons" were not allowed to sit on juries or have anything to do with the courts, so it was an easy matter to convict all "Mormons" who came to trial.
Arrests now followed fast, and it was indeed a sad time for many of the Saints. Officers, called deputy marshals, were sent into all the settlements of the Saints to spy out and arrest those supposed to be guilty. Many of the brethren left the country or went away in hiding to avoid being arrested, leaving the women and children to manage as best they could. In Idaho no "Mormon" was allowed to vote or hold office, no matter whether he had broken the law or not. Three brethren were sent from Arizona to the penitentiary at Detroit, Michigan. Nearly all the leading brethren were in hiding; and, as they could not speak to the people in their meetings, they wrote epistles which were read to the Saints at their conferences.
For a number of years this persecution went on. Seemingly, the strongest anti-"Mormons" should have been satisfied. But no; they asked Congress to make yet stronger laws to put down the "Mormons." Accordingly, in 1887, another law was passed, called the Edmunds-Tucker Bill. This law, among other things, provided that the property of the Church should be confiscated, that is, taken from the Church. United States officers went to work at once and took from the Church nearly $800,000 worth of property. After the officers had gotten some good salaries out of it, the property was at last given back to the Church.
During the time of this crusade thirteen hundred persons suffered from fines or imprisonment.
July 25, 1887, President John Taylor died at Kaysville, Davis County, Utah. He had been in exile for over two years; but the brave spirit was now away from under the power of persecutors, and the Saints could but look on the peaceful form and face of their beloved leader.
Topics.—1. President John Taylor. 2. Plural marriage. 3. The Edmunds Bill. 4. The "Crusade." 5. The Edmunds-Tucker Bill.
Questions and Review.—1. Why was there no danger to the Church at the death of President Young? 2. When was the First Presidency organized again? 3. Who composed it? 4. Tell what you can about John Taylor. 5. Tell about the Jubilee year. 6. When and where was plural marriage revealed to the Church? 7. When was the first law passed against this practice? 8. What is meant by a law being constitutional? 9. What was the Edmunds Bill? 10. How was it enforced? 11. What was the Edmunds-Tucker Law? 12. When and where did President Taylor die?
PRESIDENCY OF WILFORD WOODRUFF.
At the April conference, 1889, the First Presidency was again organized. Wilford Woodruff was chosen president and he called the former counselors to act also with him. President Woodruff was eighty-two years old when this high calling was placed upon him, but he was still quite strong and active. His life had been devoted to God and his cause. He joined the Church in 1833, so you see he had been with it from the beginning. He had been an Apostle for fifty years. It will give you an idea of how busy President Woodruff had been when you are told that from 1834 to 1895 he had traveled through twenty-eight States of the Union, three of the countries of Europe, and six islands of the sea. He had held 7,555 meetings, preached 3,526 discourses, organized fifty-one branches of the Church, besides doing a great deal of other work in the Church.
President George Q. Cannon, first counselor in the presidency, came with his father's family from England to Nauvoo in the year 1842, and from that time had been an active worker in the Church. In 1850 he, in company with other missionaries, went to the Sandwich Islands. Here Elder Cannon translated the Book of Mormon into the native language, and sometime after he had it printed. He labored as an editor and a publisher of Church papers in San Francisco, in Liverpool, and at home with the Deseret News. In 1860 he was ordained an Apostle. In 1866 he began to publish the Juvenile Instructor. He spent many years in Washington as delegate from Utah. President Cannon was the General Superintendent of Sunday Schools to the time of his death.
The second counselor in the presidency, Joseph F. Smith, was born November 13, 1838, in Far West, Missouri, a few days after the time when his father Hyrum Smith was taken by the mob and ordered to be shot. As a nine-year-old boy he drove his mother's yoke of cattle across the plains with an emigrant train. President Smith has filled many missions to Europe, to the Sandwich Islands and to various parts of the United States.
He was ordained as one of the Twelve Apostles July 1, 1866.
During the first few years that Wilford Woodruff was president of the Church, the persecution against those who had more than one family continued to rage; yet the enemies of the Saints were not satisfied. Though many of the people had been deprived of the right to vote and hold office, yet there were enough left to outvote the anti-"Mormons," many of whom were eager to get into some office. These kept urging Congress to pass other laws against the "Mormons," and at last a number of bills were introduced in Congress for the purpose of disfranchising the "Mormons," that is, taking away from them the right to vote and to hold public office.
During all this trouble the authorities of the Church were asking the Lord to show them the right thing to do. In answer to these pleadings, the Lord inspired President Woodruff to issue what is called the manifesto. In this document President Woodruff, among other things, said:
"Inasmuch as laws have been enacted by Congress forbidding plural marriages, which laws have been pronounced constitutional by the court of last resort, I hereby declare my intention to submit to those laws, and to use my influence with the members of the Church over which I preside to have them do likewise.
"... And I now publicly declare that my advice to the Latter-day Saints is to refrain from contracting any marriage forbidden by the law of the land."
At the general conference of the Church held October 6, 1890, President Woodruff's action was sustained by the vote of the conference.
The enemies of the Church now had no excuse for their persecutions, so, after a time, peace came once more. The two political parties, the "Liberal" and "People's" which had been for many years fighting each other at the polls, now disbanded, and "Mormons" and non-"Mormons" joined either the Democratic or the Republican party.
In 1893 the great World's Fair was held in Chicago. In September of that year the Tabernacle choir of Salt Lake City, led by Evan Stephens, went to Chicago, accompanied by the first presidency and others. The choir gave concerts in some of the large cities on the way, and at Chicago carried off the second prize of one thousand dollars for the best singing.
During the World's Fair there was held what was called a Parliament of Religions. Meetings were convened where people of all religions were invited to speak and tell of their beliefs. Men came from every part of the world. There were Catholics and Protestants; there were followers of Brahma and Buddha from India; there were Greeks and Mohammedans; there were Japanese, Chinese, and negroes—but, among them all there was one religion and one church lacking, and that was the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It had not been invited, and when Elder B.H. Roberts was sent to Chicago to get a hearing for the Church of Christ, he was treated in an ungentlemanly manner and was not allowed to properly present the claims and doctrines of the Church. The Savior once said: "Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake." May we not draw a great lesson from all this?
On January 4, 1896, President Grover Cleveland signed the paper which admitted Utah into the Union as a state. Celebrations in honor of the event were held in all the towns and cities of the State.
Fifty years from the time the pioneers entered Salt Lake Valley, July 24th, 1897, a grand celebration was held in Salt Lake City to honor the event.
This celebration began Tuesday, July 20, 1897, and closed on the night of Saturday 24th. On the 20th the Pioneer Monument, which is surmounted by a bronze statue of President Brigham Young, and situated near the Southeast corner of the Temple block, Salt Lake City, was dedicated by President Wilford Woodruff. The same day, at a reception held in the Tabernacle, all surviving pioneers of 1847, were presented with a golden badge. Memorial services in honor of the deceased pioneers were held in the Tabernacle on Sunday 25th.
When the war with Spain broke out the next year, a call was made on Utah for five hundred volunteers. Utah's young men, many of them sons of the pioneers and old settlers, heeded the call, and the men were promptly raised and sent to the seat of war.
President Wilford Woodruff while on a visit to the Pacific coast, took suddenly ill and died in San Francisco, September 2, 1898.
Topics.—1. Wilford Woodruff. 2. George Q. Cannon. 3. Joseph F. Smith. 4. The "Manifesto." 5. The Parliament of Religions. 6. Death of President Woodruff.
Questions and Review.—1. Who constituted the fourth First Presidency of the Church? 2. Tell something of President Woodruff. 3. Name some positions President Cannon has held. 4. Tell about President Smith's boyhood. 5. What further laws did the enemies of the "Mormons" wish passed against them? 6. What is the "manifesto?" 7. How came it to be issued? 8. When was it accepted. 9. Tell about the Tabernacle choir's trip to Chicago. 10. What was the Parliament of Religions? 11. How was the Church treated in that body? 12. Give some reasons for this treatment. 13. When was Utah admitted as a state? 14. Tell about the Utah volunteers. 15. When and where did President Woodruff die?
God's goodness, mercy, and watch-care reach to all his children, whether they be white or black, bond or free; whether they live now or lived thousands of years ago; yes, whether they are alive or dead. Death is but a change from one sphere of action to another, and as God is everywhere, it is not alone in this life that his loving care is manifested. The gospel also is everlasting. It did not begin with this world, neither will it end with this life, but its purifying, uplifting power is felt throughout all time and place.
Salvation is to get from under the powers of sin and death, and live forever in the hereafter, growing in wisdom and in power, and becoming more and more like unto our Great Father, God. This salvation is obtained by obeying the principles of the gospel and performing the ordinances required therein. You all know what the first of these principles and ordinances are. One of the ordinances is that a person must be baptized by water for the remission of sin. "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved," said the Savior. This must of course be performed here on earth, and by a servant of God having authority to do so.
Now, by thinking about it a moment, you will know that there are a great many of the human race who have not been baptized with this kind of baptism. Millions there are and have been who never heard of the gospel or of Jesus Christ. Many others there are and have been who have had a kind of baptism but not performed by one with authority. What will then become of all these people?
Many religions of the day teach that there is no chance for people after they leave this life; if they are not saved when they die, they never can be afterwards. Can you not see what a cruel thought that is? Think of the millions who have not had a chance! Surely God would not punish people for not doing something they had no chance to do.
Now all this was made plain to the Prophet Joseph Smith. The Lord told him that all those who died without repentance and baptism would have a chance in the next world. Christ, while his body lay three days in the tomb, went and preached to the spirits in prison. Likewise, many of the servants of God have, and are now preaching the gospel to the children of God in the spirit world. They can there believe and repent, but can not be baptized. That must be done for them by someone on the earth. This ordinance can be performed in any place that God directs, but he has commanded that holy buildings be erected wherein baptisms for the dead can be performed. This, then, is one use of our temples. Marriages, sealings and other holy ordinances are also performed in these buildings.
The first temple site was dedicated in Jackson county, Missouri, August 3, 1831, but, as you have been told, no work was done to erect a building. The Kirtland temple you also have been told about. After the Saints left Kirtland the building was neglected. Then it came into the possession of the Reorganization or "Reorganites," as they are sometimes called, a religious body founded, and built up for the most part by apostates from the Church. The Kirtland temple is still standing.
Ground was dedicated for a temple at Far West July 3, 1837, but owing to the Saints being driven away, no work other than digging the foundation was done.
The next effort was at Nauvoo. This temple was begun April 6, 1841, and dedicated April 30th and May 1, 1846. You will remember how the Saints toiled to complete this building. It was a large, beautiful structure, one of the finest in the west, and cost about one million dollars. About two years after the Saints had left Nauvoo, the temple was destroyed by fire.
The Salt Lake temple was begun in 1853, but while it was being built three others were completed. The first of these is the St. George temple. It was begun the 9th of November, 1871, and dedicated April 6, 1877. The Logan temple was begun May 18, 1877, and completed May 17, 1884. The corner stones of the temple at Manti were laid April 14, 1879, and the building was dedicated May 21, 1888. All these temples are beautiful buildings, and many are the blessings the Saints have received in them.
Those of you who have not seen the Salt Lake temple may get a good idea of its beauty by the picture. It is built of hewn blocks of gray granite, a hard, beautiful stone. It was forty years in building. The last top stone on the towers, called the capstone, was laid April 6, 1892. There were at least forty thousand people on the temple grounds on this occasion. A platform had been erected on the south side of the temple, whereon the authorities of the Church were seated. There were services of singing, prayer, and speaking, and then President Woodruff touched a button which sent an electric current up a wire to the top of the tower. The electricity set free the capstone which settled into its place. President Lorenzo Snow led the vast audience in giving the grand Hosanna shout.
President Woodruff was anxious to live to see the completion of the temple. It was therefore voted by the large audience present that the inside of the building be finished in one year.
To accomplish this, means were donated liberally by the Saints, and the work went on rapidly. On the 6th of April, 1893, the temple was completed, and on the morning of that day the first meeting was held in the building. President Woodruff offered the dedicatory prayer. In the afternoon another meeting was held, and this continued day after day until thirty-one meetings had been held. Seventy thousand of the Saints witnessed the dedication exercises, besides thirteen thousand Sunday School children, for whom special services were held.
Some of you who read this book may have been in one of our temples. Did you not notice what a calm, sweet feeling came over you while there? Surely, the Spirit of God is in these sacred buildings, and those who labor therein for the living and the dead enjoy its blessed influence. Let every one of you so live that your life may be pure and clean, so that some day you may be worthy of entering the House of God and partaking of the blessings in store for you.
Topics.—1. Salvation for the dead. 2. The temples. 3. Salt Lake temple.
Questions and Review.—1. What is salvation? 2. Is salvation limited to this life? 3. How is salvation obtained? 4. Name some of the first principles of the gospel. 5. Name some of its first ordinances. 6. What have some preachers of religion taught regarding salvation? 7. What did the Lord reveal to Joseph Smith on this subject? 8. Where did Jesus go while his body lay in the sepulchre? (I Peter 3:18, 20.) 9. What are some of the uses of temples? 10. How many temples have been built by the Church? 11. Locate each. 12. Tell something about the Nauvoo temple. 13. Describe the Salt Lake temple. 14. When was it dedicated? 15. What great blessings are to be had in a temple?
PRESIDENCY OF LORENZO SNOW.
September 13, 1898, the quorum of Twelve Apostles met at Salt Lake City and chose Lorenzo Snow President of the Church. President Snow chose George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith as his counselors.
President Snow was born in Ohio, April 3, 1814. While yet a young man, he went to Kirtland, where he became acquainted with the Prophet Joseph. Joining the Church, he was soon in the field as a missionary, traveling through the States preaching the gospel. From Nauvoo, he went on a mission to England, returning in 1843 with a large company of Saints. He was ordained a member of the Twelve Apostles, February 12, 1849, at Salt Lake City. Shortly afterwards he was called on a mission to Italy. His labors, however, were not confined to that country, as he organized many branches of the Church in other European lands.
In 1853, President Snow removed to Brigham City, where for many years he united the people in a system of co-operation, which rapidly built up the country. At the completion of the Salt Lake temple he was called to preside in that sacred building.
Though so far advanced in years when called to stand at the head of the Church, President Snow was quite strong in body and in mind. During the summer of 1899, with a party of Apostles and, other leading men, he visited many of the stakes of Zion in their conference gatherings. President Snow said he had a special message to deliver to the Saints which was that they should in the future more fully observe the law of tithing. This law had been neglected in the past, but now, the Prophet said, the Lord expected the Saints to observe this commandment. It is pleasing to state that most of the Saints heeded the timely instruction and warning, and there was great improvement in keeping this law of the Lord.
When President Snow took charge of the affairs of the Church, it was largely in debt, owing to the troubles incident to the confiscation of its property by the government some time before. Now, because of the improvement in the payment of tithes and offerings, the First Presidency were able to pay some of the debts of the Church, and make arrangements for the payment of others as they became due.
President Snow put new life into many departments of the Church. The School system which the Church had established received much attention. The Latter-day Saints' University at Salt Lake City was established, and one of its buildings was erected. Many other Church buildings were planned and begun.
At an election held in the fall of 1898, Brigham H. Roberts was elected to represent Utah in Congress. At this election the people, as they had done many times before, voted as either Democrats or Republicans, and both "Mormons" and non-"Mormons" were elected to office. Now, however, some anti-"Mormon" newspapers, assisted by many of the Utah sectarian preachers, made a great stir. The enemies of the Saints continued to send a flood of falsehood all over the country. Much excitement was worked up and a determined effort was made to keep Utah's representative out of Congress.
Representative Roberts fought bravely for his own and his people's rights, but once more hatred against "Mormonism" overcame better judgment, and he was refused admission to the seat to which he was fairly elected, on the ground that he had obeyed the law of plural marriage.
August 19, 1899, the Utah volunteers returned from the Philippines where they had proved themselves valiant soldiers in the service of their country. A grand celebration was held in Salt Lake City in their honor.
On April 12, 1901, President George Q. Cannon died at Monterey, California, where he had gone for his health. This great and good man had done much for the Church, and he was greatly beloved by the Saints.
Elder Heber J. Grant, with Horace S. Ensign, Louis A. Kelsch, and Alma O. Taylor, left Salt Lake City July 24, 1901, for a mission to Japan. They landed in that country August 12, and at once set to work learning the language. September 1, of that year, Elder Grant dedicated the land for the preaching of the Gospel. Since that time a good beginning has been made in the distribution of the printed word, and the Book of Mormon has been translated into Japanese and printed.
President Snow died after a brief illness at his home in Salt Lake City, October 10, 1901. He was not president of the Church long, but during the three years of his presidency, the Lord blessed him and gave him power to do much good.
Four days before he died, President Snow addressed the Saints assembled in conference in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. The burden of this, his last message was, "God bless you." He urged the presidents of stakes and the high counselors to take upon themselves more of the responsibility of looking after the affairs of the Church, so that the Twelve could devote their time to their special work of preaching the gospel.
Topics.—1. Lorenzo Snow as President. 2. Election of B.H. Roberts to Congress. 3. The Mission to Japan.
Questions and Review.—1. Who constituted the fifth Presidency of the Church? 2. Tell what you can about Lorenzo Snow. 3. What is the law of tithing? 4. What message did President Snow deliver regarding the law of tithing? 5. Why was the Church in debt? 6. Who opened the Japanese mission?
PRESIDENCY OF JOSEPH F. SMITH.
The First Presidency of the Church was reorganized for the sixth time October 17, 1901. Joseph F. Smith was chosen president, and he selected for his counselors, John R. Winder and Anthon H. Lund. At a special conference held in Salt Lake City November 10, 1901, this presidency was sustained by the vote of the Church.
From his boyhood President Smith has been an active, earnest member of the Church over which he now presides. His father was Hyrum Smith the Patriarch, brother to the Prophet Joseph. You will remember how these two brothers were so closely together in the beginning of the Church, and how they were both killed in Carthage jail.
Joseph was thus left fatherless when he was a boy six years old. As a boy he had not the privilege of going every day to school or of playing peacefully in the door-yard of his home. Mobs drove them out of Missouri, and then out of Nauvoo. They had little peace. Two years after his father had been killed, Joseph's mother, with her family, had to leave her home, along with the Saints, and undertake the long westward journey. Although Joseph was only eight years old at the time, he successfully drove a team of oxen for three hundred miles over the rolling prairies of Iowa. This was not an easy task for the boy, for the road was often steep or muddy, and many older drivers had breakdowns on the way.
In chapter 27 of this history you are told of the Saints stopping for a time at Winter Quarters, getting ready to move westward. Joseph and his mother were with them. Most of his time was spent in herding his mother's cattle. And he was a good herdboy, too. He saw to it that none of them was lost. There were Indians in that country then, and often they would steal cattle and horses. One day Joseph had a narrow escape. It happened this way:
Joseph and another boy had driven their cattle to the herd-grounds, and they were having a good time on their horses which they rode. Suddenly, they heard the whoop of Indians. On looking up, they saw a band of about thirty savages riding toward them. They were naked, their bodies daubed with clay and their hair and faces painted! Joseph's first thought was not about himself, but about his cattle. If the Indians should drive off his cattle, the family would not be able to go to the Valley next spring. So, off he rode to try to save his stock, the Indians coming in the same direction. They whooped and yelled so that the cattle ran off in great fright. Then the Indians singled out Joseph, for they wanted his horse, which was a good one and could run. The chase was now on in earnest. Joseph turned. Some of the Indians followed, while others slacked to head him off. Soon he was between two parties of Indians. After a time they closed in on him. One of the Indians took him by the arm, and another by the leg, and lifted him from his horse, letting him fall to the ground. The horses jumped over him, but did not hurt him. The Indians rode off with the horse, but did not get the cattle.
This is only one of the many thrilling incidents in the life of President Smith as a boy. When his mother was ready to move West, Joseph drove two yoke of oxen hitched to a heavily loaded wagon across the plains, a distance of one thousand miles. He drove into Salt Lake City September 23, 1848.
In those early days, even the boys had to work hard to help make a living in the new country. Joseph again herded cattle, besides doing work on the farm and in the canyon. How, then, did the boy get his education? Crossing the plains, when they were resting in the tent or by the camp fire, Joseph's mother taught him to read the Bible, and from that day to this, he has been reading good books. You see, he started early in the reading of the best books, and that means a lot. Joseph's mother was a very good and wise woman, and he says that much of his success in life is due to her teachings, and the fact that he heeded her counsels.
When Joseph was fourteen years old his mother died. When he was fifteen he went on a mission to the Hawaiian Islands. He worked a number of months in California to earn money to pay his passage to the Islands. He was greatly blessed on this mission.
This small history cannot tell you of the many missions President Smith has filled since that first one. Many times he has been back to the Hawaiian Islands, and many times to the States and to Europe. Every boy and girl ought to read the detailed story of President Smith's life. President Smith is still with us. Most of the Sunday School boys and girls have seen him and heard him speak. He is a great and good man. He is the prophet of the Lord to us. Let us be thankful that we live in a day when we can have such men with us to show us by the example of their lives how to be good boys and girls, good men and women.