We now went to work to supply all our defects. For this purpose, by permission, we erected a tent on shore, to which we sent our casks and sails to be repaired. We also struck the yards and topmasts, in order to overhaul the rigging, which we found in so bad a condition, that almost every thing, except the standing rigging, was obliged to be replaced with new, and that was purchased at a most exorbitant price. In the article of naval stores, the Dutch here, as well as at Batavia, take a shameful advantage of the distress of foreigners.
That our rigging, sails, etc. should be worn out, will not be wondered at, when it is known, that during this circumnavigation of the globe, that is, from our leaving this place to our return to it again, we had sailed no less than twenty thousand leagues; an extent of voyage nearly equal to three times the equatorial circumference of the earth, and which, I apprehend, was never sailed by any ship in the same space of time before. And yet, in all this great run, which had been made in all latitudes between 9 deg. and 71, we sprung neither low-masts, top-mast, lower, nor top-sail yard, nor so much as broke a lower or top-mast shroud; which, with the great care and abilities of my officers, must be owing to the good properties of our ship.
One of the French ships which were at anchor in the bay, was the Ajax Indiaman, bound to Pondicherry, commanded by Captain Crozet. He had been second in command with Captain Marion, who sailed from this place with two ships, in March 1772, as hath been already mentioned. Instead of going from hence to America, as was said, he stood away for New Zealand; where, in the Bay of Isles, he and some of his people were killed by the inhabitants. Captain Crozet, who succeeded to the command, returned by the way of the Phillipine Isles, with the two ships, to the island of Mauritius. He seemed to be a man possessed of the true spirit of discovery, and to have abilities. In a very obliging manner he communicated to me a chart, wherein were delineated not only his own discoveries, but also that of Captain Kerguelen, which I found laid down in the very situation where we searched for it; so that I can by no means conceive how both we and the Adventure missed it.
Besides this land, which Captain Crozet told us was a long but very narrow island, extending east and west, Captain Marion, in about the latitude of 48 deg. south, and from 16 deg. to 30 deg. of longitude east of the Cape of Good Hope, discovered six islands, which were high and barren. These, together with some islands lying between the Line and the southern tropic in the Pacific Ocean, were the principal discoveries made in this voyage, the account of which, we were told, was ready for publication.
By Captain Crozet's chart it appeared, that a voyage had been made by the French across the South Pacific Ocean in 1769, under the command of one Captain Surville; who, on condition of his attempting discoveries, had obtained leave to make a trading voyage to the coast of Peru. He fitted out, and took in a cargo, in some part of the East Indies; proceeded by way of the Phillipine Isles; passed near New Britain; and discovered some land in the latitude of 10 deg. S., longitude 158 deg. east, to which he gave his own name. From hence he steered to the south; passed, but a few degrees, to the west of New Caledonia; fell in with New Zealand at its northern extremity, and put into Doubtful Bay; where, it seems, he was, when I passed it, on my former voyage in the Endeavour. From New Zealand Captain Surville steered to the east, between the latitude of 35 deg. and 41 deg. south, until he arrived on the coast of America; where, in the port of Callao, in attempting to land, he was drowned.
These voyages of the French, though undertaken by private adventurers, have contributed something towards exploring the Southern Ocean. That of Captain Surville clears up a mistake which I was led into, in imagining the shoals off the west end of New Caledonia, to extend to the west as far as New Holland; it proves that there is an open sea in that space, and that we saw the N.W. extremity of that country.
From the same gentleman, we learnt, that the ship which had been at Otaheite before our first arrival there this voyage, was from New Spain; and that, in her return, she had discovered some islands in the latitude of 32 deg. S., and under the meridian of 130 deg. W. Some other islands, said to be discovered by the Spaniards, appeared on this chart; but Captain Crozet seemed to think they were inserted from no good authorities.
We were likewise informed of a later voyage undertaken by the French, under the command of Captain Kerguelen, which had ended much to the disgrace of that commander.
While we lay in Table Bay, several foreign ships put in and out, bound to and from India, viz. English, French, Danes, Swedes, and three Spanish frigates, two of them going to, and one coming from Manilla. It is but very lately that the Spanish ships have touched here; and these were the first that were allowed the same privileges as other European friendly nations.
On examining our rudder, the pintles were found to be loose, and we were obliged to unhang it, and take it on shore to repair. We were also delayed for want of caulkers to caulk the ship, which was absolutely necessary to be done before we put to sea. At length I obtained two workmen from one of the Dutch ships; and the Dutton English East Indiaman coming in from Bengal, Captain Rice obliged me with two more; so that by the 26th of April this work was finished: And having got on board all necessary stores, and a fresh supply of provisions and water, we took leave of the governor and other principal officers, and the next morning repaired on board. Soon after the wind coming fair, we weighed and put to sea; as did also the Spanish frigate Juno, from Manilla, a Danish Indiaman, and the Dutton.
As soon as we were under sail, we saluted the garrison with thirteen guns; which compliment was immediately returned with the same number. The Spanish frigate and Danish Indiaman both saluted us as we passed them, and I returned each salute with an equal number of guns. When we were clear of the bay the Danish ship steered for the East Indies, the Spanish frigate for Europe, and we and the Dutton for St Helena.
Depending on the goodness of Mr Kendall's watch, I resolved to try to make the island by a direct course. For the first six days, that is, till we got into the latitude of 27 deg. S., longitude 11 deg. 1/2 W. of the cape, the winds were southerly and S.E. After this we had variable light airs for two days; they were succeeded by a wind at S.E. which continued to the island, except a part of one day, when it was at N.E. In general the wind blew faint all the passage, which made it longer than common.
At day-break in the morning of the 15th of May, we saw the island of St Helena at the distance of fourteen leagues; and at midnight anchored in the road before the town, on the N.W. side of the island. At sun-rise the next morning, the castle, and also the Dutton, saluted us, each with thirteen guns; on my landing, soon after, I was saluted by the castle with the same number, and each of the salutes was returned by the ship.
Governor Skettowe and the principal gentlemen of the island, received and treated me, during my stay, with the greatest politeness; by shewing me every kind of civility in their power.
Whoever views St Helena in its present state, and can but conceive what it must have been originally, will not hastily charge the inhabitants with want of industry. Though, perhaps, they might apply it to more advantage, were more land appropriated to planting of corn, vegetables, roots, etc. instead of being laid out in pasture, which is the present mode. But this is not likely to happen, so long as the greatest part of it remains in the hands of the company and their servants. Without industrious planters, this island can never flourish, and be in a condition to supply the shipping with the necessary refreshments.
Within these three years a new church has been built; some other new buildings were in hand; a commodious landing-place for boats has been made; and several other improvements, which add both strength and beauty to the place.
During our stay here, we finished some necessary repairs of the ship, which we had not time to do at the Cape. We also filled all our empty water-casks; and the crew were served with fresh beef, purchased at five-pence per pound. Their beef is exceedingly good, and is the only refreshment to be had worth mentioning.
By a series of observations made at the Cape town, and at James Fort in St Helena, at the former by Messrs Mason and Dixon, and at the latter by Mr Maskelyne, the astronomer royal, the difference of longitude between these two places is 24 deg. 12' 15", only two miles more than Mr Kendall's watch made. The lunar observations made by Mr Wales, before we arrived at the island, and after we left it, and reduced to it by the watch, gave 5 deg. 51' for the longitude of James Fort; which is only five miles more west than it is placed by Mr Maskelyne. In like manner the longitude of the Cape Town was found within 5' of the truth. I mention this to shew how near the longitude of places may be found by the lunar method, even at sea, with the assistance of a good watch.
Passage from St Helena to the Western Islands, with a Description of the Island of Ascension and Fernando Noronha.
On the 21st in the evening, I took leave of the governor, and repaired on board. Upon my leaving the shore, I was saluted with thirteen guns; and upon my getting under sail, with the Dutton in company, I was saluted with thirteen more; both of which I returned.
After leaving St Helena, the Dutton was ordered to steer N.W. by W. or N.W. by compass, in order to avoid falling in with Ascension; at which island, it was said, an illicit trade was carried on between the officers of the India Company's ships, and some vessels from North America, who, of late years, had frequented the island on pretence of fishing whales or catching turtle, when their real design was to wait the coming of the India ships. In order to prevent their homeward-bound ships from falling in with these smugglers, and to put a stop to this illicit trade, the Dutton was ordered to steer the course above-mentioned, till to the northward of Ascension. I kept company with this ship till the 24th, when, after putting a packet on board her for the Admiralty, we parted: She continuing her course to the N.W., and I steering for Ascension.
In the morning of the 28th I made the island; and the same evening anchored in Cross Bay on the N.W. side, in ten fathoms water, the bottom a fine sand, and half a mile from the shore. The Cross Hill, so called on account of a cross, or flag-staff erected upon it, bore by compass S. 38 deg. E.; and the two extreme points of the bay extended from N.E. to S.W. We remained here till the evening of the 31st, and notwithstanding we had several parties out every night, we got but twenty-four turtle, it being rather too late in the season; however, as they weighed between four or five hundred pounds each, we thought ourselves not ill off. We might have had a plentiful supply of fish in general, especially of that sort called Old Wives, of which I have no where seen such abundance. There were also cavalies, conger eels, and various other sorts; but the catching of any of these was not attended to, the object being turtle. There are abundance of goats, and aquatic birds, such as men-of-war and tropic birds, boobies, etc.
The island of Ascension is about ten miles in length, in the direction of N.W. and S.E., and about five or six in breadth. It shews a surface composed of barren hills and vallies, on the most of which not a shrub or plant is to be seen for several miles, and where we found nothing but stones and sand, or rather flags and ashes; an indubitable sign that the isle, at some remote time, has been destroyed by a volcano, which has thrown up vast heaps of stones, and even hills. Between these heaps of stones we found a smooth even surface, composed of ashes and sand, and very good travelling upon it; but one may as easily walk over broken glass bottles as over the stones. If the foot deceives you, you are sure to be cut or lamed, which happened to some of our people. A high mountain at the S.E. end of the isle seems to be left in its original state, and to have escaped the general destruction. Its soil is a kind of white marl, which yet retains its vegetative qualities, and produceth a kind of purslain, spurge, and one or two grasses. On these the goats subsist, and it is at this part of the isle where they are to be found, as also land-crabs, which are said to be very good.
I was told, that about this part of the isle is some very good land on which might be raised many necessary articles; and some have been at the trouble of sowing turnips and other useful vegetables. I was also told there is a fine spring in a valley which disjoins two hills on the top of the mountain above-mentioned; besides great quantities of fresh water in holes in the rocks, which the person who gave me this information, believed was collected from rains. But these supplies of water can only be of use to the traveller; or to those who may be so unfortunate as to be shipwrecked on the island; which seems to have been the fate of some not long ago, as appeared by the remains of a wreck we found on the N.E. side. By what we could judge, she seemed to have been a vessel of about one hundred and fifty tons burthen.
While we lay in the road, a sloop of about seventy tons burthen came to an anchor by us. She belonged to New York, which place she left in February, and having been to the coast of Guinea with a cargo of goods, was come here to take in turtle to carry to Barbadoes. This was the story which the master, whose name was Greves, was pleased to tell, and which may, in part, be true. But I believe the chief view of his coming here, was the expectation of meeting with some of the India ships. He had been in the island near a week, and had got on board twenty turtle. A sloop, belonging to Bermuda, had sailed but a few days before with one hundred and five on board, which was as many as she could take in; but having turned several more on the different sandy beaches, they had ripped open their bellies, taken out the eggs, and left their carcasses to putrify; an act as inhuman as injurious to those who came after them. Part of the account I have given of the interior parts of this island I received from Captain Greves, who seemed to be a sensible intelligent man, and had been all over it. He sailed in the morning of the same day we did.
Turtle, I am told, are to be found at this isle from January to June. The method of catching them is to have people upon the several sandy bays, to watch their coming on shore to lay their eggs, which is always in the night, and then to turn them on their backs, till there be an opportunity to take them off the next day. It was recommended to us to send a good many men to each beach, where they were to lie quiet till the turtle were ashore, and then rise and turn them at once. This method may be the best when the turtle are numerous; but when there are but few, three or four men are sufficient for the largest beach; and if they keep patroling it, close to the wash of the surf, during the night, by this method they will see all that come ashore, and cause less noise than if there were more of them. It was by this method we caught the most we got; and this is the method by which the Americans take them. Nothing is more certain, than that all the turtle which are found about this island, come here for the sole purpose of laying their eggs; for we met with none but females; and of all those which we caught, not one had any food worth mentioning in its stomach; a sure sign, in my opinion, that they must have been a long time without any; and this may be the reason why the flesh of them is not so good as some I have eat on the coast of New South Wales, which were caught on the spot where they fed.
The watch made 8 deg. 45' difference of longitude between St Helena and Ascension; which, added to 5 deg. 49' the longitude of James Fort in St Helena, gives 14 deg. 34' for the longitude of the Road of Ascension, or 14 deg. 30' for the middle of the island, the latitude of which is 8 deg. S. The lunar observations made by Mr Wales, and reduced to the same point of the island by the watch, gave 14 deg. 28' 30" west longitude.
On the 31st of May, we left Ascension, and steered to the northward with a fine gale at S.E. by E. I had a great desire to visit the island of St Matthew, to settle its situation; but as I found the wind would not let me fetch it, I steered for the island of Fernando de Noronha on the coast of Brazil, in order to determine its longitude, as I could not find this had yet been done. Perhaps I should have performed a more acceptable service to navigation, if I had gone in search of the island of St Paul, and those shoals which are said to lie near the equator, and about the meridian of 20 deg. W.; as neither their situation nor existence are well known. The truth is, I was unwilling to prolong the passage in searching for what I was not sure to find; nor was I willing to give up every object, which might tend to the improvement of navigation or geography, for the sake of getting home a week or a fortnight sooner. It is but seldom that opportunities of this kind offer; and when they do, they are too often neglected.
In our passage to Fernando de Noronha, we had steady fresh gales between the S.E. and E.S.E., attended with fair and clear weather; and as we had the advantage of the moon, a day or night did not pass without making lunar observations for determining our longitude. In this run, the variation of the compass gradually decreased from 11 deg. W., which it was at Ascension., to 1 deg. W., which we found off Fernando de Noronha. This was the mean result of two compasses, one of which gave 1 deg. 37', and the other 23' W.
On the 9th of June at noon we made the island of Fernando de Noronha, bearing S.W. by W. 1/2 W., distant six or seven leagues, as we afterwards found by the log. It appeared in detached and peaked hills, the largest of which looked like a church tower or steeple. As we drew near the S.E. part of the isle, we perceived several unconnected sunken rocks lying near a league from the shore, on which the sea broke in a great surf. After standing very near these rocks, we hoisted our colours, and then bore up round the north end of the isle, or rather round a group of little islets; for we could see that the land was divided by narrow channels. There is a strong fort on the one next the main island, where there are several others; all of which seemed to have every advantage that nature can give them, and they are so disposed, as wholly to command all the anchoring and landing-places about the island. We continued to steer round the northern point, till the sandy beaches (before which is the road for shipping) began to appear, and the forts and the peaked hills were open to the westward of the said point. At this time, on a gun being fired from one of the forts, the Portuguese colours were displayed, and the example was followed by all the other forts. As the purpose for which I made the island was now answered, I had no intention to anchor; and therefore, after firing a gun to leeward, we made sail and stood away to the northward with a fine fresh gale at E.S.E. The peaked hill or church tower bore S., 27 deg. W., distant about four or five miles; and from this point of view it leans, or overhangs, to the east. This hill is nearly in the middle of the island, which no where exceeds two leagues in extent, and shews a hilly unequal surface, mostly covered with wood and herbage.
Ulloa says, "This island hath two harbours capable of receiving ships of the greatest burden; one is on the north side, and the other is on the N.W. The former is, in every respect, the principal, both for shelter and capacity, and the goodness of its bottom; but both are exposed to the north and west, though these winds, particularly the north, are periodical, and of no long continuance." He further says, that you anchor in the north harbour (which is no more than what I would call a road) to thirteen fathoms water, one-third of a league from shore, bottom of fine sand; the peaked hill above-mentioned bearing S.W. 2 deg. southerly.*
[* See Don Antonio d'Ulloa's Book, vol. ii. chap. 3. page 95 to 102, where there is a very particular account of this island.]
This road seems to be well sheltered from the south and east winds. One of my seamen had been on board a Dutch India ship, who put in at this isle in her way out in 1770. They were very sickly, and in want of refreshments and water. The Portuguese supplied them with some buffaloes and fowls; and they watered behind one of the beaches in a little pool, which was hardly big enough to dip a bucket in. By reducing the observed latitude at noon to the peaked hill, its latitude will be 3 deg. 53' S.; and its longitude, by the watch, carried on from St Helena, is 32 deg. 34' W.; and by observations of the sun and moon, made before and after we made the Isle, and reduced to it by the watch, 32 deg. 44' 30" W. This was the mean result of my observations. The results of those made by Mr Wales, which were more numerous, gave 32 deg. 23'. The mean of the two will be pretty near the watch, and probably nearest the truth. By knowing the longitude of this isle, we are able to determine that of the adjacent east coast of Brazil; which, according to the modern charts, lies about sixty or seventy leagues more to the west. We might very safely have trusted to these charts, especially the variation chart for 1744, and Mr Dalrymple's of the southern Atlantic ocean*.
[* Ulloa says, that the chart places this island sixty leagues from the coast of Brazil; and that the Portuguese pilots, who often make the voyage, judge it to be eighty leagues; but, by taking the mean between the two opinions, the distance may be fixed at seventy leagues.]
On the 11th, at three o'clock in the afternoon, we crossed the equator in the longitude of 32 deg. 14' W. We had fresh gales at E.S.E., blowing in squalls, attended by showers of rain, that continued at certain intervals, till noon the next day, after which we had twenty-four hours fair weather.
At noon on the 13th, being in the latitude of 3 deg. 49' N., longitude 31 deg. 47' W., the wind became variable, between the N.E. and S.; and we had light airs and squalls by turns, attended by hard showers of rain, and for the most part dark gloomy weather, which continued till the evening of the 15th, when, in the latitude of 5 deg. 47' N., longitude 31 deg. W., we had three calm days, in which time we did not advance above ten or twelve leagues to the north. We had fair weather and rain by turns; the sky, for the most part, being obscured, and sometimes by heavy dense clouds which broke in excessive hard showers.
At seven o'clock in the evening on the 18th, the calm was succeeded by a breeze at east, which the next day increasing and veering to and fixing at N.E., we stretched to N.W. with our tacks on board. We made no doubt that we had now got the N.E. trade-wind, as it was attended with fair weather, except now and then some light showers of rain; and as we advanced to the north the wind increased, and blew a fresh top-gallant gale.
On the 21st, I ordered the still to be fitted to the largest copper, which held about sixty-four gallons. The fire was lighted at four o'clock in the morning, and at six the still began to run. It was continued till six o'clock in the evening; in which time we obtained thirty-two gallons of fresh water, at the expence of one bushel and a half of coals; which was about three-fourths of a bushel more than was necessary to have boiled the ship's company's victuals only; but the expence of fuel was no object with me. The victuals were dressed in the small copper, the other being applied wholly to the still; and every method was made use of to obtain from it the greatest quantity of fresh water possible; as this was my sole motive for setting it to work. The mercury in the thermometer at noon was eighty-four and a half, and higher it is seldom found at sea. Had it been lower, more water, under the same circumstances, would undoubtedly have been produced; for the colder the air is, the cooler you can keep the still, which will condense the steam the faster. Upon the whole, this is an useful invention; but I would advise no man to trust wholly to it. For although you may, provided you have plenty of fuel and good coppers, obtain as much water as will support life, you cannot, with all your efforts, obtain sufficient to support health, in hot climates especially, where it is the most wanting: For I am well convinced, that nothing contributes more to the health of seamen, than having plenty of water.
The wind now remained invariably fixed at N.E. and E.N.E., and blew fresh with squalls, attended with showers of rain, and the sky for the most part cloudy. On the 25th, in the latitude of 16 deg. 12' N., longitude 37 deg. 20' W., seeing a ship to windward steering down upon us, we shortened sail in order to speak with her; but finding she was Dutch by her colours, we made sail again and left her to pursue her course, which we supposed was to some of the Dutch settlements in the West Indies. In the latitude of 20 deg. N., longitude 39 deg. 45' W., the wind began to veer to E. by N. and E.; but the weather remained the same; that is, we continued to have it clear and cloudy by turns, with light squalls and showers. Our track was between N.W. by N. and N.N.W., till noon on the 28th, after which our course made good was N. by W., being at this time in the latitude of 21 deg. 21' N., longitude 40 deg. 6' W. Afterwards, the wind began to blow a little more steady, and was attended with fair and clear weather. At two o'clock in the morning of the 30th, being in the latitude of 24 deg. 20' N., longitude 40 deg. 47' W., a ship, steering to the westward, passed us within hail. We judged her to be English, as they answered us in that language; but we could not understand what they said, and they were presently out of sight.
In the latitude of 29 deg. 30', longitude 41 deg. 30', the wind slackened and veered more to the S.E. We now began to see some of that sea-plant, which is commonly called gulph-weed, from a supposition that it comes from the Gulph of Florida. Indeed, for aught I know to the contrary, it may be a fact; but it seems not necessary, as it is certainly a plant which vegetates at sea. We continued to see it, but always in small pieces, till we reached the latitude 36 deg., longitude 39 deg. W., beyond which situation no more appeared.
On the 5th of July, in the latitude of 22 deg. 31' 30" N., longitude 40 deg. 29' W., the wind veered to the east, and blew very faint: The next day it was calm; the two following days we had variable light airs and calms by turns; and, at length, on the 9th, having fixed at S.S.W., it increased to a fresh gale, with which we steered first N.E. and then E.N.E., with a view of making some of the Azores, or Western Isles. On the 11th, in the latitude of 36 deg. 45' N., longitude 36 deg. 45' W., we saw a sail which was steering to the west; and the next day we saw three more.
Arrival of the Ship at the Island of Fayal, a Description of the Place, and the Return of the Resolution to England.
At five o'clock in the evening of the 13th, we made the island of Fayal, one of the Azores, and soon after that of Pico, under which we spent the night in making short boards. At day-break the next morning, we bore away for the bay of Fayal, or De Horta, where at eight o'clock, we anchored in twenty fathoms water, a clear sandy bottom, and something more than half a mile from the shore. Here we moored N.E. and S.W., being directed so to do by the master of the port, who came on board before we dropped anchor. When moored, the S.W. point of the bay bore S. 16 deg. W., and the N.E. point N. 33 deg. E.; the church at the N.E. end of the town N. 38 deg. W., the west point of St George's Island N. 42 deg. E., distant eight leagues; and the isle of Pico, extending from N. 74 deg. E. to S. 46 deg. E., distant four or five miles.
We found in the bay the Pourvoyeur, a large French frigate, an American sloop, and a brig belonging to the place. She had come last from the river Amazon, where she took in a cargo of provision from the Cape Verd Islands; but, not being able to find them, she steered for this place, where she anchored about half an hour before us.
As my sole design in stopping here was to give Mr Wales an opportunity to find the rate of the watch, the better to enable us to fix with some degree of certainty the longitude of these islands, the moment we anchored, I sent an officer to wait on the English consul, and to notify our arrival to the governor, requesting his permission for Mr Wales to make observations on shore, for the purpose above mentioned. Mr Dent, who acted as consul in the absence of Mr Gathorne, not only procured this permission, but accommodated Mr Wales with a convenient place in his garden to set up his instruments; so that he was enabled to observe equal altitudes the same day.
We were not more obliged to Mr Dent for the very friendly readiness he shewed in procuring us this and every other thing we wanted, than for the very liberal and hospitable entertainment we met with at his house, which was open to accommodate us both night and day.
During our stay, the ship's company was served with fresh beef; and we took on board about fifteen tons of water, which we brought off in the country boats, at the rate of about three shillings per ton. Ships are allowed to water with their own boats; but the many inconveniencies attending it, more than overbalance the expence of hiring shore-boats, which is the most general custom.
Fresh provisions for present use may be got, such as beef, vegetables, and fruit; and hogs, sheep, and poultry for sea stock, all at a pretty reasonable price; but I do not know that any sea-provisions are to be had, except wine. The bullocks and hogs are very good, but the sheep are small and wretchedly poor.
The principal produce of Fayal is wheat and Indian corn, with which they supply Pico and some of the other isles. The chief town is called Villa de Horta. It is situated in the bottom of the bay, close to the edge of the sea, and is defended by two castles, one at each end of the town, and a wall of stone-work, extending along the sea-shore from the one to the other. But these works are suffered to go to decay, and serve more for shew than strength. They heighten the prospect of the city, which makes a fine appearance from the road; but, if we except the Jesuits' college, the monasteries and churches, there is not another building that has any thing to recommend it, either outside or in. There is not a glass window in the place, except what are in the churches, and in a country-house which lately belonged to the English consul; all the others being latticed, which, to an Englishman, makes them look like prisons.
This little city, like all others belonging to the Portuguese, is crowded with religious buildings, there being no less than three convents of men and two of women, and eight churches, including those belonging to the convents, and the one in the Jesuits' college. This college is a fine structure, and is situated on an elevation in the pleasantest part of the city. Since the expulsion of that order, it has been suffered to go to decay, and will probably, in a few years, be no better than a heap of ruins.
Fayal, although the most noted for wines, does not raise sufficient for its own consumption. This article is raised on Pico, where there is no road for shipping; but being brought to De Horta, and from thence shipped abroad, chiefly to America, it has acquired the name of Fayal Wine.
The bay, or road of Fayal, is situated at the east end of the isle, before the Villa de Horta, and facing the west end of Pico. It is two miles broad, and three quarters of a mile deep, and hath a semi-circular form. The depth of water is from twenty to ten and even six fathoms, a sandy bottom, except near the shore, and particularly near the S.W. head, off which the bottom is rocky, also without the line which joins the two points of the bay, so that it is not safe to anchor far out. The bearing before mentioned, taken when at anchor, will direct any one to the best ground. It is by no means a bad road, but the winds most to be apprehended, are those which blow from between the S.S.W. and S.E.; the former is not so dangerous as the latter, because, with it, you can always get to sea. Besides this road, there is a small cove round the S.W. point, called Porto Pierre, in which, I am told, a ship or two may lie in tolerable safety, and where they sometimes heave small vessels down.
A Portuguese captain told me, that about half a league from the road in the direction of S.E., in a line between it and the south side of Pico, lies a sunken rock, over which is twenty-two feet water, and on which the sea breaks in hard gales from the south. He also assured me, that of all the shoals that are laid down in our charts and pilot-books about these isles, not one has any existence but the one between the islands of St Michael and St Mary, called Hormingan. This account may be believed, without relying entirely upon it. He further informed me, that it is forty-five leagues from Fayal to the island of Flores; and that there runs a strong tide between Fayal and Pico, the flood setting to the N.E. and the ebb to the S.W., but that, out at sea, the direction is E. and W. Mr Wales having observed the times of high and low water by the shore, concluded that it must be high water at the full and change, about twelve o'clock, and the water riseth about four or five feet.
The distance between Fayal and Flores was confirmed by Mr Rebiers, lieutenant of the French frigate, who told me, that after being by estimation two leagues due south of Flores, they made forty-four leagues on a S.E. by E. course by compass, to St Catherine's Point on Fayal.
I found the latitude of the ship at anchor 38 deg. 31' 55" N. in the bay
By a mean of seventeen sets of lunar 28 24 30 W. observations, and reduced to the bay by the watch, the longitude was made
By a mean of six sets after leaving it, 28 53 22 and reduced back by the watch ————————- Longitude by observation 28 38 56 ————————- Ditto, by the watch 28 55 45
Error of the watch on our arrival at 16 26-1/2 Portsmouth ————————- True longitude by the watch 28 39 18-1/2
I found the variation of the compass, by several azimuths, taken by different compasses on board the ship, to agree very well with the like observations made by Mr Wales on shore; and yet the variation thus found is greater by 5 deg. than we found it to be at sea, for the azimuths taken on board the evening before we came into the bay, gave no more than 16 deg. 18' W. variation, and the evening after we came out 17 deg. 33' W.
I shall now give some account of the variation, as observed in our run from the island of Fernando De Noronha to Fayal. The least variation we found was 37' W. which was the day after we left Fernando De Noronha, and in the latitude of 33' S., longitude 32 deg. 16' W. The next day, being nearly in the same longitude, and in the latitude of 1 deg. 25' N., it was 1 deg. 23' W.; and we did not find it increase till we got into the latitude of 5 deg. N., longitude 31 deg. W. After this our compasses gave different variation, viz. from 3 deg. 57' to 5 deg. 11' W. till we arrived in the latitude of 26 deg. 44' N., longitude 41 deg. W., when we found 6 deg. W. It then increased gradually, so that in the latitude of 35 deg. N., longitude 40 deg. W., it was 10 deg. 24' W.; in the latitude of 38 deg. 12' N., longitude 32 deg. 1/2 W. it was 14 deg. 47'; and in sight of Fayal 16 deg. 18' W., as mentioned above.
Having left the bay, at four in the morning of the 19th, I steered for the west end of St George's Island. As soon as we had passed it, I steered E. 1/2 S. for the Island of Tercera; and after having run thirteen leagues, we were not more than one league from the west end. I now edged away for the north side, with a view of ranging the coast to the eastern point, in order to ascertain the length of the island; but the weather coming on very thick and hazy, and night approaching, I gave up the design, and proceeded with all expedition for England.
On the 29th, we made the land near Plymouth. The next morning we anchored at Spithead; and the same day I landed at Portsmouth, and set out for London, in company with Messrs Wales, Forsters, and Hodges.
Having been absent from England three years and eighteen days, in which time, and under all changes of climate, I lost but four men, and only one of them by sickness, it may not be amiss, at the conclusion of this journal, to enumerate the several causes to which, under the care of Providence, I conceive this uncommon good state of health, experienced by my people, was owing.
In the Introduction, mention has been made of the extraordinary attention paid by the Admiralty in causing such articles to be put on board, as either from experience or suggestion it was judged would tend to preserve the health of the seamen. I shall not trespass upon the reader's time in mentioning them all, but confine myself to such as were found the most useful.
We were furnished with a quantity of malt, of which was made Sweet Wort. To such of the men as shewed the least symptoms of the scurvy, and also to such as were thought to be threatened with that disorder, this was given, from, one to two or three pints a-day each man; or in such proportion as the surgeon found necessary, which sometimes amounted to three quarts. This is, without doubt, one of the best anti-scorbutic sea-medicines yet discovered; and, if used in time, will, with proper attention to other things, I am persuaded, prevent the scurvy from making any great progress for a considerable while. But I am not altogether of opinion that it will cure it at sea.
Sour Krout, of which we had a large quantity, is not only a wholesome vegetable food, but, in my judgment, highly antiscorbutic; and it spoils not by keeping. A pound of this was served to each man, when at sea, twice-a-week, or oftener, as was thought necessary.
Portable Broth was another great article, of which we had a large supply. An ounce of this to each man, or such other proportion as circumstances pointed out, was boiled in their pease, three days in the week; and when we were in places where vegetables were to be got, it was boiled with them, and wheat or oatmeal, every morning for breakfast; and also with pease and vegetables for dinner. It enabled us to make several nourishing and wholesome messes, and was the means of making the people eat a greater quantity of vegetables than they would otherwise have done.
Rob of Lemon and Orange is an antiscorbutic we were not without. The surgeon made use of it in many cases with great success.
Amongst the articles of victualling, we were supplied with Sugar in the room of Oil, and with Wheat for a part of our Oatmeal; and were certainly gainers by the exchange. Sugar, I apprehend, is a very good antiscorbutic; whereas oil (such as the navy is usually supplied with), I am of opinion, has the contrary effect.
But the introduction of the most salutary articles, either as provisions or medicines, will generally prove unsuccessful, unless supported by certain regulations. On this principle, many years experience, together with some hints I had from Sir Hugh Palliser, Captains Campbell, Wallis, and other intelligent officers, enabled me to lay a plan, whereby all was to be governed.
The crew were at three watches, except upon some extraordinary occasions. By this means they were not so much exposed to the weather as if they had been at watch and watch; and had generally dry clothes to shift themselves, when they happened to get wet. Care was also taken to expose them as little to wet weather as possible.
Proper methods were used to keep their persons, hammocks, bedding, cloaths, etc. constantly clean and dry. Equal care was taken to keep the ship clean and dry betwixt decks. Once or twice a week she was aired with fires; and when this could not be done, she was smoked with gun-powder, mixed with vinegar or water. I had also, frequently, a fire made in an iron pot, at the bottom of the well, which was of great use in purifying the air in the lower parts of the ship. To this, and to cleanliness, as well in the ship as amongst the people, too great attention cannot be paid; the least neglect occasions a putrid and disagreeable smell below, which nothing but fires will remove.
Proper attention was paid to the ship's coppers, so that they were kept constantly clean.
The fat which boiled out of the salt beef and pork, I never suffered to be given to the people; being of opinion that it promotes the scurvy.
I was careful to take in water wherever it was to be got, even though we did not want it, because I look upon fresh water from the shore to be more wholesome than that which has been kept some time on board a ship. Of this essential article we were never at an allowance, but had always plenty for every necessary purpose. Navigators in general cannot, indeed, expect, nor would they wish to meet with such advantages in this respect, as fell to my lot. The nature of our voyage carried us into very high latitudes. But the hardships and dangers inseparable from that situation, were in some degree compensated by the singular felicity we enjoyed, of extracting inexhaustible supplies of fresh water from an ocean strewed with ice.
We came to few places, where either the art of man, or the bounty of nature, had not provided some sort of refreshment or other, either in the animal or vegetable way. It was my first care to procure whatever of any kind could be met with, by every means in my power; and to oblige our people to make use thereof, both by my example and authority; but the benefits arising from refreshments of any kind soon became so obvious, that I had little occasion, to recommend the one, or to exert the other.
It doth not become me to say how far the principal objects of our voyage have been obtained. Though it hath not abounded with remarkable events, nor been diversified by sudden transitions of fortune; though my relation of it has been more employed in tracing our course by sea, than in recording our operations on shore; this, perhaps, is a circumstance from which the curious reader may infer, that the purposes for which we were sent into the Southern Hemisphere, were diligently and effectually pursued. Had we found out a continent there, we might have been better enabled to gratify curiosity; but we hope our not having found it, after all our persevering researches, will leave less room for future speculation about unknown worlds remaining to be explored.
But, whatever may be the public judgment about other matters, it is with real satisfaction, and without claiming any merit but that of attention to my duty, that I can conclude this account with an observation, which facts enable me to make; that our having discovered the possibility of preserving health amongst a numerous ship's company, for such a length of time, in such varieties of climate, and amidst such continued hardships and fatigues, will make this voyage remarkable in the opinion of every benevolent person, when the disputes about a Southern Continent shall have ceased to engage the attention, and to divide the judgment of philosophers.
(Tables of the route of the Resolution and the Adventure, the variation of the compass and meteorological observations during the voyage.)
* * * * *
A VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE SOCIETY ISLES.
DIRECTIONS FOR THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE VOCABULARY.
As all nations who are acquainted with the method of communicating their ideas by characters, (which represent the sound that conveys the idea,) have some particular method of managing, or pronouncing, the sounds represented by such characters, this forms a very essential article in the constitution of the language of any particular nation, and must, therefore, be understood before we can make any progress in learning, or be able to converse in it. But as this is very complex and tedious to a beginner, by reason of the great variety of powers the characters, or letters, are endued with under different circumstances, it would seem necessary, at least in languages which have never before appeared in writing, to lessen the number of these varieties, by restraining the different sounds, and always representing the same simple ones by the same character; and this is no less necessary in the English than any other language, as this variety of powers is very frequent, and without being taken notice of in the following Vocabulary, might render it entirely unintelligible. As the vowels are the regulations of all sounds, it is these only that need be noticed, and the powers allotted to each of these in the Vocabulary is subjoined.
A in the English language is used to represent two different simple sounds, as in the word Arabia, where the first and last have a different power from the second. In the Vocabulary this letter must always have the power, or be pronounced like the first and last in Arabia. The other power, or sound, of the second a, is always represented in the Vocabulary by a and i, printed in Italics thus, ai.
E has likewise two powers, or it is used to represent two simple sounds, as in the words Eloquence, Bred, Led, etc. and it may be said to have a third power, as in the words Then, When, etc. In the first case, this letter is only used at the beginning of words, and wherever it is met with in any other place in the words of the Vocabulary, it is used as in the second case: But never as in the third example; for this power, or sound, is every where expressed by the a and i before-mentioned, printed in Italics.
I is used to express different simple sounds, as in the words Indolence, Iron, and Imitation. In the Vocabulary it is never used as in the first case, but in the middle of words; it is never used as in the second example, for that sound is always represented by y, nor is it used as in the last case, that sound being always represented by two e's, printed in Italics in this manner, ee.
O never alters in the pronunciation, i.e. in this Vocabulary, of a simple sound, but is often used in this manner, oo, and sounds as in Good, Stood, etc.
U alters, or is used to express different simple sounds, as in Unity, or Umbrage. Here the letters e and u, printed in Italics eu are used to express its power as in the first example, and it always retains the second power, wherever it is met with.
Y is used to express different sounds, as in My, By, etc. etc. and in Daily, Fairly, etc. Wherever it is met with in the middle, or end, (i.e. anywhere but at the beginning,) of a word, it is to be used as in the first example; but is never to be found as in the second, for that sound, or power, is always represented by the Italic letter e. It has also a third power, as in the words Yes, Yell, etc., which is retained every where in the Vocabulary, at least in the beginning of words, or when it goes before another vowel, unless directed to be sounded separately by a mark over it, as thus, y a.
Unless in a few instances, these powers of the vowels are used throughout the Vocabulary; but, to make the pronunciation still less liable to change, or variation, a few marks are added to the words, as follows:—
This mark " as oea, means that these letters are to be expressed singly.
The letters in Italic, as ee, or oo, make but one simple sound.
When a particular stress is laid on any part of a word in the pronunciation, an accent is placed over that letter where it begins, or rather between that and the preceding one.
It often happens that a word is compounded as it were of two, or in some cases the same word, or syllable, is repeated. In these circumstances, a comma is placed under them at this division, where a rest, or small space, of time is left before you proceed to pronounce the other part, but it must not be imagined that this is a full stop.
Examples in all these Cases.
Roea, Great, long, distant. E'reema, Five. Ry'poeea, Fog, or mist. E'hoora, To invert, or turn upside down. Paroo, roo, A partition, division, or screen.
A VOCABULARY, etc.
A. To abide, or remain Ete'ei. An Abode, or place of residence, Noho'ra. Above, not below, Neea, s. Tie'neea. An Abscess, Fe'fe. Action, opposed to rest, Ta'eree. Adhesive, of an adhesive or sticking quality Oo'peere. Adjoining, or contiguous to, E'peeiho. Admiration, an interjection of, A'wai, s. A'wai to Peereeai. An adulterer, Teeho teeho, s. Teeho or one that vexes a married woman ta-rar To agitate, or shake a thing, as water, etc. Eooa'wai. Aliment, or food of any kind, Maea. Alive, that is not dead, Waura. All, the whole, not a part, A'maoo. Alone, by one's self, Ota'hoi. Anger, or to be angry, Warradee, s. Reedee. To angle, or fish, E'hootee. The Ankle, Momoa. The inner Ankle, A'tooa,ewy. Answer, an answer to a question, Oo'maia. Approbation, or consent, Madooho'why. Punctuated Arches on the hips, E'var're. The Arm, Reema. The Armpit, E'e. An arrow, E'oome. Arrow, the body of an arrow or reed, O'wha. The point of an Arrow, To'ai, s. O'moea. Ashamed, to be ashamed or confused, Ama, s. He'ama. Ashore, or on shore, Te Euta. To ask for a thing, Ho'my, s. Ha'py my. Asperity, roughness, Tarra, tarra. An Assassin,murderer, or rather man-killer, soldier, Taata,Toea. or warrior, An Assembly, or meeting, Eteou'rooa. Atherina, A'naiheu. Avaricious, parsimonious, ungenerous, Pee'peere. Averse, unwillingness to do a thing, Fata, hoito' hoito. Authentic,true, Parou, mou. Awake, not asleep, Arra arra, s. E'ra. Awry,or to one side; as a wry neck, Na'na. An Axe, hatchet, or adze, Toee. Ay, yes; an affirmation, Ai.
A Babe, or child, Mydidde. A Batchelor, or unmarried person, E'evee (taata.) The Back, Tooa. To wipe the Backside, Fy'roo,too'ty. Bad, it is not good, 'Ee'no. A Bag of straw, Ete'oee, s.Eaete. Bait, for fish, Era'eunoo. Baked in the oven, Etoonoo. Bald-headed, Oopo'boota. Bamboo, Eenee'ou. A Bank, or shoal, E'paa. Bare, naked, applied to a person that is undressed, Ta'turra. The Bark of a tree, Ho'hore. Barren land, Fe'nooa Ma'oure. A large round Basket of twig, He'na. A small Basket of cocoa leaves, Vai'hee. A long Basket of cocoa leaves, Apo'aira. A Basket of plantain stock, Papa' Maieea. A fisher's Basket, Er're'vy. A round Basket of cocoa leaves, Mo'ene. A Bastard, Fanna Too'neea. Bastinado, to bastinade or flog a person, Tapra'hai. To bathe, Ob'oo. A Battle, or fight, E'motto. A Battle-axe, O'morre. To bawl, or cry aloud, Teimo'toro. A Bead, Poee. The Beard, Oome oome. To beat upon, or strike a thing, Too'py or Too'baee. To beat a drum, Eroo'koo. To beckon a person with the hand, Ta'rappe. A Bed, or bed-place, E'roee, s. Moei'a. To bedaub, or bespatter, Par'ry. A Bee, E'raeo. A Beetle, Peere'teee. Before, not behind, Te'moea. A Beggar, a person that is troublesome, Tapa'roo. continually asking for some-what, Behind, not before, Te'mooree. To belch, Eroo'y. Below, as below stairs, Tei'dirro, s. Teediraro. Below, underneath, far below, O'raro. To bend any thing, as a stick, etc. Fa'fe'fe. Benevolence, generosity, Ho'roea, e.g. you are a generous man, Taata ho roa oee. Between, in the middle, betwixit two, Fero'poo. To bewail, or lament by crying, E'tatee. Bigness, largeness, great, Ara'hay. A Bird, Manoo. A Bitch, Oore, e'ooha. To bite, as a dog, A ahoo. Black, colour, Ere, ere. Bladder, Toea meeme. A Blasphemer, a person who speaks Toona, (taata.) disrespectfully of their deities, Blind, Matta-po. A Blister, raised by a burn or other means, Mei'ee Blood, Toto, s. Ehooei. To blow the nose, Fatte. The blowing, or breathing of a whale, Ta'hora. Blunt, as a blunt tool of any sort, Ma'neea. The carved Boards of a Maray, E'ra. A little Boat, or canoe, E'vaea. A Boil, Fe'fe. Boldness, Eaewou. A Bone, E'evee. A Bonetto, a fish so called, Peera'ra. To bore a hole, Ehoo'ee, s. Ehoo'o. A Bow, E'fanna. A Bow-string, Aroea'hooa. To bow with the head, Etoo'o. A young Boy, My'didde. Boy, a familiar way of speaking, He'amanee. The Brain of any animal, A booba. A Branch of a tree or plant, E'ama. Bread-fruit, or the fruit of the bread-tree, Ooroo. Bread-fruit, a particular sort of it, E'patea. An insipid paste of Bread-fruit, Eh'oee. The gum of the Bread-tree, Tappo'ooroo. The leaf of the Bread-tree, E'da'ooroo. The pith of the Bread-tree, Po'ooroo. To break a thing, O whatte, s. Owhan ne, s. Fatte. The Breast, O'ma A Breast-plate made of twigs, ornamented with feathers, dog's hair, Taoome. and pearl-shell, To breathe, Watte Weete wee te,'aho. Bring, to ask one to bring a thing, Ho'my. Briskness, being brisk or quick, Tee teere. Broiled, or roasted, as broiled meat, Ooaweera. Broken, or cut, 'Motoo. The Brow, or forehead, E'ry. A brown colour, Auraura. Buds of a tree or plant, Te, arre haoo. A Bunch of any fruit, Eta. To burn a thing, Doeodooe. A Butterfly, Pepe.
To call _a person at a distance_, T_oo_o t_oo_'o_oo_. A Calm, Man_ee_no. A Calm, _or rather to be so placed, that the wind has no access to you_, E_ou_, shea. _Sugar_ Cane, Toe, Etoeo. A Cap, _or covering for the head_ T_au_'matta. To carry _any thing_, E'a'mo. To carry _a person an the back_, Eva'ha. Catch a _thing hastily with the hand_, Po'po_ee_, s. Peero. as a fly, etc. To catch _a ball_, Ama'wh_ee_a. To catch _fish with a line_, E'h_oo_te. A Caterpillar, E't_oo_a. Celerity, _swiftness_, T_ee_'teere, s. E'tirre. The Centre, _or middle of a thing_, Tera'p_oo_. Chalk, Mamma'tea. A Chatterer, _or noisy impertinent Taata E'm_oo_, fellow_, s. E'm_oo_. Chearfulness, Wara. The Cheek, Pappar_ee_a. A Chest, 'P_ee_ha. The Chest, _or body_, O'p_oo_. To chew, _or eat_, E'y. Chequered, _or painted in squares_, P_oo_re, p_oo_re. A Chicken, Moea pee'ri_a_ia. A Chief, _or principal person; one of Eaeree. the first rank among the people_, _An inferior_ Chief, _or one who is only in an independent state, T_oo'ou_ a gentleman_, Child-bearing, Fanou, e'vaho. Children's _language_, Father, O'pucen_oo_, _and_ Papa. Mother, E'wh_ei_arre, and O'pa'tea. Brother, E'tama. Sister, Te't_oo_a. The Chin, _and lower jaw_, E'taa. Choaked, _to be choaked as with Ep_oo_'n_ei_na, victuals_, etc. s. Er_oo_'y. To chuse, _or pick out_, Eh_ee_e,te,me,my ty. Circumcision, _or rather an incision_ E_oo_re,te h_ai_. _of the foreskin_, _A sort of_ Clappers,_used at funerals_, Par'ha_oo_. Clapping _the bend of the arm smartly E'too. with the hand, so as to make a noise, an Indian custom_, The Claw _of a bird,_ A'_ee oo_. Clay, _or clammy earth_, Ewh_ou_,arra. Clean, _not nasty_, _Oo_'ma, s. Eoo'_ee_. Clear, _pure; as clear water_, etc. Tea'te. _White clayey_ Cliffs, E'mammatea. Close, _shut_, Eva'h_ee_. Cloth _of any kind, or rather the covering Ahoo. or raiments made of it_, _A piece of oblong_ Cloth, _slit in the middle, through which the head is Teeboota. put, and it then hangs down behind and before_, _Brown thin_ Cloth, _Oo_'erai. _Dark-brown_ Cloth, Poo'h_ee_re. _Nankeen-coloured_ Cloth, Ah_ee_re, s. _Oo_a. _Gummed_ Cloth, Oo'_ai_r ara. Heappa,heappa, s. _Yellow_ Cloth, A'ade, p_oo ee ei_, s. Oora poo'_ee ei_. Cloth, _a piece of thin white cloth Par_oo_'y, by which name wrapt round the waist, or thrown they also call a white over the shoulders_, shirt. A Cloth-beater, _or an oblong square To'aa. piece of wood grooved, and used in making cloth_, The _Cloth-plant, _a sort of mulberry Ea_ou_te. tree_, A Cloud, E'aeo, s. Ea_oo_. A Cock, Moea, e'toea. Cock, _the cock claps his wings_ Te Moa Pa_ee_, pa_ee_. A Cock-roach, Potte potte. A Cocoa-nut, A'r_ee_. _The fibrous husk of a_ Cocoa-nut, P_oo_r_oo_'waha, s. P_oo_r_oo_. Cocoa-nut _oil_, E'rede,vaee. Cocoa leaves, E,ne'ha_oo_. Coition, E'y. _The sense of_ Cold, Ma'r_ee_de. A Comb, Pa'horo, s. Pa'herre. Company, _acquaintance, gossips_, Tee'ya. Compliance _with a request, consent_, Mad_oo_,ho'why. Computation, _or counting of numbers_, Ta't_ou_. A Concubine, Wa'h_ei_ne Moeebo, s. Etoo'n_ee_a. Confusedness, _without order_, E'vah_ee_a. Consent, _or approbation_, Mad_oo_,ho'why. Contempt, _a name of contempt given Wah_ei_ne,p_oo_'ha. to a maid, or unmarried woman_, Conversation, Para_ou_,maro, s. Para'para_ou_. _A sort of_ Convolvulus, _or bird-weed, common in the islands_, Oh_oo_e. Cook'd, _dress'd; not raw_, Ee'_oo_, s. E_ee_'wera. To Cool _one with a fan_, Taha'r_ee_. Cordage _of any kind_, Taura. The Core _of an apple_, Boee. A Cork, _or stopper of a bottle or gourd shell_, Ora'h_oo_e. A Corner, E'pecho. Covering, _the covering of a fish's gills_, Pe_ee_'eya. Covetousness, _or rather one not inclined to give_, Pee,peere. A Cough, Ma're. To Court, _woo a woman_, Ta'raro. Coyness _in a woman,_ No'noea. A Crab, Pappa. Crab, _a large land-crab that climbs the cocoa-nut trees for fruit_, E'_oo_wa. A Crack, cleft, or fissure, Mot_oo_. Crammed, _lumbered, crowded_, Ooa,p_ee_a'pe,s.Ehotto. The Cramp, Emo't_oo_ t_oo_. A Cray-fish, O'_oo_ra. To Creep _on the hands and feet_, Ene'_ai_. Crimson _colour_, _Oo_ra _oo_ra. Cripple, _lame_, T_ei_'t_ei_. Crooked, _not straight_, O_o_o'p_ee_o. To crow _as a cock_, A'a _oo_a. The Crown _of the head_, T_oo_'p_oo_e. To cry, _or shed tears_, Ta_ee_. _A brown_ Cuckoo, _with black bars and a long tail, frequent in the isles_, Ara'were_wa_. To cuff, _or slap the chops_, E'par_oo_. Curlew, _a small curlew or whimbrel found about the rivulets_, Torea. Cut, _or divided_, Mot_oo_. _To_ cut _the hair with scissars_, O'tee.
A Dance, Heeva. Darkness, Poee'ree, s. Pooo'ree To Darn O'ono A Daughter, Ma'heine. Day, or day-light, Mara'marama, s. A'ou, s. A'aou. Day-break, Oota'taheita. Day, to-day, Aoo'nai. Dead, Matte roea. A natural Death, Matte noea. Deafness, Ta'reea, tooree. Decrepid, Epoo'tooa. Deep water, Mona'. A Denial, or refusal, Ehoo'noea. To desire, or wish for a thing, Eooee. A Devil, or evil spirit, E'tee. Dew, Ahe'aoo. A Diarrhoea, or looseness, Hawa, hawa. To dip meat in salt water instead of Eawee'wo salt, (an Indian custom,) Dirt, or nastiness of any kind, E'repo. Disapprobation, Ehoonoea. A Disease, where the head cannot be E'pee. held up, perhaps the palsy, To disengage, untie or loosen, Eaoo'wai. Dishonesty, Eee'a. Displeased, to be displeased, vexed, or Taee'va. in the dumps, Dissatisfaction, to grumble, or be Faoo'oue. dissatisfied, Distant, far off, Roea. To distort, or writhe the limbs, body, Faee'ta. lips, etc. To distribute, divide or share out, Atoo'ha. A District, Matei na. A Ditch, Eoe'hoo. To dive under water, Eho'poo. A Dog, Oo'ree. A Doll made of cocoa-plants, Adoo'a. A Dolphin, A'ouna. Done, have done; or that is enough, A'teera. or there is no more, A Door, Oo'boota. Double, or when two things are in Tau'rooa. one, as a double canoe, Down, or soft hair, E'waou, To draw a bow, Etea. To draw, or drag a thing by force, Era'ko. Dread, or fear, Mattou. Dress'd, or cooked, not raw, Ee'oo. A head Dress, used at funerals, Pa'raee. To dress, or put on the cloaths, Eu, hau'hooo t'Ahoo. To drink, Aee'noo. Drop, a single drop of any liquid, Oo,ata'hai. To drop, or leak, Eto'tooroo, s. E'tooroo. Drops, as drops of rain, To'potta. Drowned, Parre'mo. A Drum, Pa'hoo. Dry, not wet, Oo'maro. A Duck, Mora. A Dug, teat, or nipple, Eoo. Dumbness, E'faoe.
The Ear, Ta'reea. The inside of the Ear, Ta'tooree. An Ear-ring, Poe note tareea. To eat, or chew, E'y, s. Maea. An Echinus, or sea-egg, Heawy. Echo, Tooo. An Egg of a bird, Ehooero te Manoo. A white Egg-bird, Pee'ry. Eight, A'waroo. The Elbow, Too'ree. Empty, Oooata'aoe, s. Tata'ooa. An Enemy, Taata'e. Entire, whole, not broke, Eta, Eta. Equal, Oohy'tei. Erect, upright, Etoo. A Euphorbium tree, with white flowers, Te'tooee. The Evening, Ooohoi'hoi. Excrement, Too'ty. To expand, or spread out cloth, etc. Ho'hora. The Eye, Matta. The Eye-brow, and eye-lid, Tooa, matta.
The Face, E'mot_ee_a. _To hide or hold the_ Face _away, as_ when ashamed_, Far_ee_'w_ai_. Facetious, _merry_, Faatta atta. Fainting, _to faint_, Moee,mo'my. To fall _down_, Topa. False, _not true_, Ha'warre. A Fan, _or to fan the face or cool it_, Taha'r_ee_. To fart, _or a fart_, Eh_oo_. Fat, _full of flesh, lusty_, P_ee_a. The fat _of meat_, Ma_ee_. A Father Med_oo_a tanne. A _step-_father, Tanne, te hoea. Fatigued, _tired_, E'h_ei'eu_,s.Faea. Fear, Mattou. A Feather, _or quill_, H_oo_roo, _hoo_r_oo_, man_oo_. _Red_ Feathers, Ora, h_oo_r_oo_ te man_oo_. Feebleness, _weakness_, Fara'ra, s. Tooro'r_ee_. _The sense of_ Feeling, Fa'fa. To feel, Tear'ro. _A young clever dexterous_ Fellow, _or boy_, Te'my de pa'ar_ee_. The Female _kind of any animal_, E'_oo_ha. The Fern-tree, Ma'mo_oo_. Fertile _land_, Fen_oo_a,maa. Fetch, _go fetch it_, Atee. Few _in number_, Eote. To fight, E'neotto. A Fillip, _with the fingers_, Epatta. The Fin _of a fish_, Tirra. To finish, _or make an end_, Eiote. A Finger, E'r_ee_ma. Fire, Ea'hai. _A flying_ Fish, Mara'ra. _A green flat_ Fish, E_eu_me. _A yellow flat_ Fish, _Oo_'morehe. _A flat green and red_ P_ai'ou_. _The cuckold_ Fish, Etata. A Fish, Eya. Fishing _wall for hauling the seine at Epa. the first point_, A Fish _pot_, E'wha. _A long_ Fishing _rod of Bamboo, used Ma'k_ee_ra. to catch bonettoes_, etc., A Fissure, _or crack_, Motoo. Fist, _to open the fist_, Ma'hora. Fist, _striking with the fist in dancing_, A'moto. _A fly_ Flapper, _or to flap flies_, Dah_ee_'ere e'r_eu_pa. Flatness, _applied to a nose, or a vessel broad and flat; also a spreading flat topt tree_, Papa. _A red_ Flesh _mark_, E_ee_'da. To float _on the face of the water_, Pa'noo. The Flower _of a plant_, P_oo_a. _Open_ Flowers, T_ee_arre'_oo_ wa. Flowers, _white odoriferous flowers, used as ornaments in the ears_, T_ee_arre tarr_ee_a. Flown, _it is flown or gone away_, Ma'h_ou_ta. A Flute, W_ee_wo. _A black_ Fly-catcher, _a bird so called_, O'mamaeo. A Fly, P_oo_re'h_oo_a. To fly, _as a bird_, E'r_ai_re. Fog, _or mist_, Ry'po_ee_a. To fold _up a thing, as cloth_, etc. He'fet_oo_. A Fool, _scoundrel, or other epithet of contempt_, Ta'_ou_na. The Foot, _or sole of the foot_, Tapooy. The Forehead, E'ry. Forgot, _or lost in memory_, _Oo_'aro. Foul, _dirty, nasty_, Erepo. A Fowl, Moea. Four, E'ha. The Frapping _of a flute_, Ahea. Freckles, Taina. Fresh, _not salt_, Eanna,anna. Friction, _rubbing_, E'_oo ee_. Friend, _a method of addressing a stranger_, Ehoea _A particular_ Friend, _or the salutation E'apatte. to him_, To frisk, _to wanton, to play_, E'hanne. From _there_, No,r_ei_ra, s. No,r_ei_da. From _without_, No,waho'_oo_. From _before_, No,m_oo_a. Fruit, 'Hoo'ero. _Perfume_ Fruit _from Tethuroa_, a _small island_, Hooero te manoo. _A yellow_ Fruit, _like a large plumb with a rough core_, A'v_ee_. Full, _satisfied with eating_, Pya,s._Oo_'pya, s.'Paya. A Furunculus, _or a small hard boil_, Apoo.
A Garland _of flowers_, A'v_ou_t_oo_, s. A'r_ou_too Ef ha, apai. Generosity, _benevolence_, Ho'roea. A Gimblet, Eho'_oo_. A Girdle, Ta't_oo_a. A Girl, _or young woman_, Too'n_ee_a. A Girthing _manufacture_, Tat_oo_'y. To give _a thing_, Hoea't_oo_. _A looking_-Glass, H_ee_o'_ee_ota. A Glutton, _or great eater_, Taata A'_ee_, s. Era'poea n_oo_e. To go, _or move from where you stand_ Harre. _to walk_ To go, _or leave a place_, Era'wa. Go, _begone, make haste and do it_, Haro. Go _and fetch it_, At_ee_. Good, _it is good, it is very well_, My'ty, s. Myty,tye, s. Maytay. Good-_natured_, Mama'h_ou_, s. Ma'r_oo_. A Grandfather, Too'b_oo_na. A Great-grandfather, Tooboona tahe'too. A Great great-grandfather, Ouroo. A Grandson, Mo'b_oo_na. To grasp _with the hand_, Hara'wa_ai_. Grasping _the antagonist's thigh when Tomo. dancing_, Grass, _used on the floors of their Ano'noho. houses, To grate _cocoa-nut kernel_, E'annatehea'r_ee_. Great, _large, big_, Ara'h_ai_. Green _colour_, P_oo_re p_oore_. To groan, Er_oo_,whe. The groin, Ta'pa. To grow _as a plant_, etc. We'r_oo_a. To grunt, _or strain_, Etee,_too_whe. _The blind_ Gut, Ora'b_oo_b_oo_. The Guts _of any animal_, A'a_oo_.
The Hair _of the head_, E'ror_oo_, s. E'roh_oo_r_oo_. _Grey_ Hair, Hinna'heina. _Red_ Hair, _or a red-headed man_, E'h_oo_. _Curled_ Hair, P_ee_p_ee_. _Woolly frizzled_ Hair, Oe'toeeto. _To pull the_ Hair, E'w_ou_a. Hair, _tied on the crown of the head_, E'p_oo_te. Half _of any thing_, Fa'_ee_te. A Hammer, Et_ee_'te. Hammer _it out_, Atoo'bian_oo_. The Hand, E'r_ee_ma. _A deformed_ Hand, P_ee_le'_oi_. _A motion with the_ Hand _in dancing_, O'ne o'ne. A Harangue, _or speech_, Oraro. A Harbour, _or anchoring-place_, T_oo_'t_ou_. Hardness, E'ta,e'ta. A Hatchet, _axe, or adze_, Toee. He, Nana. The Head, _Oo_'po. _A shorn_ Head, E'v_ou_a. The Head-ache, _in consequence of drunkenness_, Eana'n_ee_a. _The sense of_ Hearing, Faro. The Heart _of an animal_, A'h_ou_too. Heat, _warmth_, Mahanna,hanna. Heavy, _not light_, T_ei_ma'ha. _The sea_ Hedge-hog, Totera. _A blue_ Heron, Otoo. _A white_ Heron, Tra'pappa. To hew _with an axe_, Teraee. Hibiscus, _the smallest species of Hibiscus, with rough seed cases, that adhere to the clothes in walking_, P_ee_re,p_ee_re. Hibiscus, _a species of Hibiscus with large yellow flowers_, Po_oo_'r_ou_. The Hiccup, Et_oo_'ee, s. E_oo_'wha. Hide, _to hide a thing_, E'h_oo_na. High, _or steep_, Mato. A Hill, _or mountain_, Ma_oo_, s. Ma_oo_'a, s. M_ou_a. _One-tree_ Hill, _a hill so called in Matavia Bay_, Tal'ha. To hinder, _or prevent_, Tapea. The Hips, E'tohe. Hips, _the black punctuated part of Tamo'r_ou_. the hips_, To hit _a mark_, Ele'ba_ou_, s. Wa'p_oo_ta. Hiss, _to hiss or hold out the finger at T_ee_'he. one_, Hoarseness, E'faeo. A Hog, Boea. To hold _fast_, Mou. Hold _your tongue, be quiet or silent_, Ma'm_oo_, A Hole, _as a gimblet hole in wood_,etc., E'r_oo_a, s. Poota. To hollow, _or cry aloud to one_, T_oo_'o. _To keep at_ Home, Ate'_ei_ te Efarre. Honesty, Eea'_ou_re. _A fish_ Hook, Ma't_au_. _A fish_ Hook _of a particular sort_, W_ee_te,w_ee_te. The Horizon, E'pa_ee_, no t'Era_ee_. Hot, _or sultry air, it is very hot_, Poh_ee_'a. A House, E'farre, s. Ewharre. A House _of office_, Eha'm_oo_te. _A large_ House, Efarre'pota. A House _on props_, A'whatta. _An industrious_ Housewife, Ma'h_ei_ne Am_au_'hattoi How _do you, or how is it with you, Tehanooee. Humorous, _droll, merry_, Fa,atta,'atta. Hunger, Poro'r_ee_, s. Po_ee_'a. A Hut, _or house_, E'farre.
I, myself, first person singular, Wou(1) Mee.(2) The lower Jaw, E'ta. Idle, or lazy, Tee'py. Jealousy in a woman, Ta'boone, s.Fatee no, s. Hoo'hy. Ignorance, stupidity, Weea'ta. Ill-natured, cross, Oore, e'eeore. An Image of a human figure, E'tee. Imps, the young imps, Teo'he. Immature, unripe, as unripe fruit, Poo. Immediately, instantly, To'hyto. Immense, very large, Roea. Incest, or incestuous, Ta'wytte. Indigent, poor, necessitous, Tee,tee. Indolence, laziness, Tee'py. Industry, opposed to idleness, Taee'a. Inhospitable, ungenerous, Pee'peere. To inform, E'whaee. A sort of Ink, used to punctuate, E'rahoo. An inquisitive tattling woman, Maheine Opotaieehu. To interrogate, or ask questions, Faeete. To invert, or turn upside down, E'hoora, tela'why. An Islet, Mo'too. The Itch, an itching of any sort, Myro.
To jump, or leap, Mahouta, s. Araire.
Keep it to yourself, Vaihee'o. The Kernel of a cocoa-nut, Emo'teea. To kick with the foot, Ta'hee. The Kidnies, Fooa'hooa. Killed, dead, Matte. To kindle, or light up, Emaea. A King, Eaeree,da'hai. A King-fisher, the bird to called, E'rooro. To kiss, E'hoee. Kite, a boy's play-kite, O'omo. The Knee, E'tooree. To kneel, Too'tooree. A Knot, Ta'pona. A double Knot, Va'hodoo. The female Knot formed on the upper Teebona. part of the garment, and on one side, To know, or understand, Eete. The Knuckle, or joint of the fingers, Tee,poo.
To labour, _or work_, Ehea. A Ladder, Era'a, s. E'ara. A Lagoon, Ewha'_ou_na, s.Eae'onna. Lame, _cripple_, T_ei_'t_ei_. A Lance, _or spear_, Taeo. Land _in general, a country_, Fe'n_oo_a, s. Whe'n_oo_a. Language, _speech, words_, Pa'ra_ou_. Language, _used when dancing, Timoro'd_ee_, te'Timoro'd_ee_. Largeness, _when applied to a country, Ara'h_ai_. country,_etc. N_oo_e. To laugh, Atta. Laziness, T_ee_'py. Lean, _the lean of meat_, Aeo. Lean,_slender, not fleshy_, T_oo_'h_ai_. To leap, Ma'h_ou_ta, s. A'rere. Leave _it behind, let it remain_, 'V_ai_heo. To leave, E'wh_eeoo_. The Leg, A'wy. Legs, _my legs ache, or are tired_, A'h_oo_a. A Liar, Taata,ha'warre. To lie _down, or along, to rest one's self_, Ete'raha, s. Te'p_oo_. To lift _a thing up_, Era'w_ai_. _Day_ Light, Mara'marama. Light, _or fire of the great people_ T_ou_t_oi_,papa. Light, _or fire of the common people_, N_ee_ao,papa. Light, _to light or kindle the fire_, A't_oo_n_oo_ t'E_ee_'wera. Light, _not heavy_, Ma'ma. Lightning, _Oo_'waira. The Lips, _Oo_t_oo_. Little, _small_, _Ee_te. A Lizard, 'Moeo. Loathsome, _nauseous_, E,a'wawa. _A sort of_ Lobster, _frequent in the isles_, T_ee_on_ai_. To loll _about, or be lazy_, Tee'py. To loll _out the tongue_, Ewha'tor_oo_ t'Arere. To look _for a thing that is lost_, Tap_oo_n_ee_. A Looking-glass, H_ee_o'_ee_'otta. Loose, _not secure_, A_oo_'w_ee_wa. A Looseness, _or purging_, Hawa,'hawa. To love, Ehe'nar_oo_. Lover, _courtier, wooer_, Eh_oo_'noea. A Louse, _Oo_'t_oo_. Low, _not high, as low land_, etc. Hea,hea, s. Papoo. E_ee_'oea. The Lungs, T_ee_too,'arapoa. Lusty, _fat, full of flesh_, Oo'p_ee_a.
Maggots, E'h_oo_h_oo_. A Maid, _or young woman _, T_oo_'n_ee_a. To make _the bed_, Ho'hora, te Moee'ya. The Male _of any animal, male kind_, E'oeta. A Man, Taeata, s. Taane. _An indisposed or insincere_ Man, Taeata,ham'an_ee_no. A Man-of-war _bird_, Otta'ha. Many, _a great number_, Wo'rou,wo'rou, s. man_oo_, man_oo_. _A black_ Mark _on the skin_, E_ee_'r_ee_. Married, _as a married man_, Fan_ou_'nou. A Mat, E'vanne. _A silky kind of_ Mat, Moee'a. _A rough sort of_ Mat, _cut in the P_oo_'rou. middle to admit the head_, A Mast _of a ship or boat_, T_ee_ra. Mature, _ripe; as ripe fruit_, Para, s. Pe. Me, _I_, W_ou_, s. M_ee_. A Measure, E'a. To measure _a thing_, Fa'_ee_te. To meet _one_, Ewharidde. To melt, _or dissolve a thing, T_oo_'t_oo_e. as grease etc._ The middle, _or midst of a thing_, Teropoo. Midnight, O't_oo_ra,h_ei_'po. To mince, _or cut small_, E'p_oo_ta. Mine, _it is mine, or belongs to me_, No'_oo_. To miss, _not to hit a thing_, _Oo_'happa. Mist, _or fog_, Ry'po_ee_a. To mix _things together_, A'p_oo_e,'p_oo_e. To mock _or scoff at one_, Etoo'h_ee_. Modesty, Mamma'ha_oo_. Moist, _wet_, Wara'r_ee_. A Mole _upon the skin_, At_oo_'noea. _A lunar_ Month, Mara'ma. A Monument _to the dead_, Whatta'r_au_. The Moon, Mara'ma. The Morning, Oo'po_ee_'po_ee_. To-morrow, Bo'bo, s. A,Bo'bo. _The day after to_-morrow, A'bo'bo d_oo_ra. _The second day after to_-morrow; Po_ee_,po_ee_,addoo. A Moth, E,pepe. A Mother, Ma'd_oo_a, wa'h_ei_ne. A motherly, _or elderly woman_, Pa'tea. Motion, _opposed to rest_, O_o_a'ta. A Mountain, _or hill, Ma_oo_a, s. Mo_u_a. Mountains _of the highest order_, Mo_u_a tei'tei. Mountains _of the second order_, Mo_u_a 'haha. Mountains _of the third or lowest order_, Pere'ra_ou_. Mourning, '_Ee_va. Mourning _leaves, viz. those of the Ta'pa_oo_. cocoa-tree, used for that purpose_, The Mouth, Eva'ha. _To open the_ Mouth, Ha'mamma. A Multitude, _or vast number_, Wo'r_ou_, wo'r_ou_. Murdered, _killed_, Matte, s. matte roea. A Murderer, Taata toea. A Muscle-shell, No_u,ou_. Music _of any kind_, H_ee_va. A Musket, _pistol, or firearms P_oo_,p_oo_, s. Poo. of any kind_, Mute, _silent_, Fateb_oo_a. To matter, or _stammer_, E'wha_ou_.
The Nail of the fingers, Aee'oo. A Nail of iron, Eure. Naked, i. e. with the clothes off, Ta'lurra. undressed, The Name of a thing, Eee'oo. Narrow, strait, not wide, Peere,peere. Nasty, dirty, not clean, E,repo. A Native, Taata'tooboo. The Neck, A'ee. Needles, Narreeda. A fishing Net, Oo'paia. New, young, sound, Hou. Nigh, Poto, s. Whatta'ta. Night, Po, s. E'aoo. To-Night, or to-day at night, A'oone te' Po. Black Night-shade, Oporo. Nine, A'eeva. The Nipple of the breast, E'oo. A Nit, Eriha.  Ay'ma,  Yaiha, No, a negation, A'oure,  Aee,  Yehaeea. To nod, A'touou. Noisy, chattering, impertinent, Emoo. Noon, Wawa'tea. The Nostrils, Popo'heo. Numeration, or counting of numbers, Ta'tou. A cocoa Nut, Aree. A large compressed Nut,that tastes Eeehee. like chesnuts when roasted,
Obesity, corpulence, Ou'peea. The Ocean, Ty, s. Meede. Odoriferous, sweet-smelled, No'noea. Perfumed Oil they put on the hair, Mo'noee. An Ointment,plaister, or any thing E'ra'paoo. that heals or relates to medicine, Old, Ora'wheva. One, A'tahai. Open, clear, spacious, Ea'tea. Open, not shut, Fe'rei. To open, Te'haddoo. Opposite to, or over against, Wetoo'wheitte. Order, in good order, regular, without Wara'wara. confusion, Ornament, any ornament for the ear, Tooee ta'reea. Burial Ornaments, viz. nine noits Ma'ray Wharre. stuck in the ground, An Orphan, Oo'hoppe, poo'aia. Out, not in, not within, Teiwe'ho. The Outside of a thing, Ooa'pee. An Oven in the ground, Eoo'moo. Over, besides, more than the quantity, Te'harra. To overcome, or conquer, E'ma'ooma. To overturn, or overset, Eha'paoo. An Owner E'whattoo. A large species of Oyster, I'teea. The large rough Oyster, or Spondylus, Paho'oea.
The Paddle of a canoe, or to paddle, E'hoee. To paddle a canoe's head to the right What'tea. To paddle a canoe's head to the left, Wemma. Pain, or soreness,the sense of pain, Ma'my. A Pair, or two of any thing together, Ano'ho. The Palate, E'ta'nea. The Palm of the hand, Apoo'reema. To Pant, or breathe quickly, Oo'pou'pou,tea'ho. Pap, or child's food, Mamma. A Parent, Me'dooa. A small blue Parroquet, E'veenee. A green Parroquet, with a E'a'a. red forehead, The Part below the tongue, Eta'raro. A Partition, division, or screen, Paroo'roo. A Pass, or strait, E,aree'ea. A fermented Paste, of bread, fruit and others, Ma'hee. A Path, or road, Eae'ra. The Pavement before a house or hut, Pye,pye. A Pearl, Poee. The Peduncle, and stalk of a plant, A'maea, s. E'atta. To peel or take the skin off a cocoa-nutetc. A'tee, s. E'atee. Peeled, it is peeled, Me'atee. A Peg to hang a bag on, 'Pe'aoo. A Pepper-plant, from the root of which they prepare an inebriating liquor, Awa. Perhaps, it may be so, E'pa'ha. Persons of distinction, Patoo'nehe. A Petticoat of plantane leaves, AArou'maieea. Petty, small, trifling, opposed to Nooe, Ree. A Physician, or person who attends the sick, Taata no E'rapaoo. Pick, to pick or choose, Ehee te mai my ty. A large wood Pigeon, Eroope. A large green and white Pigeon, Oo'oopa. A small black and white Pigeon, with purple wings, Oooowy'deroo. A Pimple, Hooa'houa. To Pinch with, the fingers, Ooma. A Plain, or flat, E'peeho. Plane, smooth, Pa'eea. A Plant of any kind, O'mo. A small Plant, E'rabo. The fruit of a Plantane-tree Maiee'a, s. Maya. Horse Plantanes, Fai'ee. Pleased, good humoured, not cross or Maroo. surly, Pluck it up, Areete. To pluck hairs from the beard, Hoohootee. To plunge a thing in the water, E,oo'whee. The Point of any thing, Oe,oee, or Oi,oi. Poison, bitter, Awa,awa. A Poll, Oora'hoo. Poor, indigent, not rich, Tee'tee. A bottle-nosed Porpoise, E'oua. Sweet Potatoes, Oo'marra. To pour out any liquid substance, Ma'nee. Pregnant with young, Waha'poo. To press, or squeeze the legs gently with the hand, when tired or pained, Roro'mee. Prick, to prick up the ears, Eoma te ta'ree. A Priest, Ta'houa. Prone, or face downwards, Tee'opa. A sort of Pudding, made of fruits, oil, etc. Po'po'ee. Pumpkins, A'hooa. To puke, or vomit, E'awa, s. e'roo'y. Pure, clear, E'oo'ee. A Purging, or looseness, Hawa,hawa. To pursue, and catch a person who Eroo,Eroo, has done some mischief, s. Eha'roe. To push a thing with the hand, Too'raee. Put it up, or away, Orno.
Quickness, briskness, E'tirre. To walk quickly, Harre'neina. Quietness, silence, a silent or seemingly thoughtful person, Falle'booa. A Quiver for holding arrows, 'Peeha.
A small black Rail, with red eyes, Mai'ho. A small black Rail, spotted and buured with white, Pooa'nee. Rain, E'ooa. A Rainbow, E'nooa. Raft, a raft of bamboo, Maito'e. Rank, strong, urinous, Ewao wao. A Rasp, or file, Ooee. A Rat, 'Yore, s. Eyore. Raw meat, flesh that is not dressed E'otta. cooked, Raw fruit, as plantanes, etc. that are Paroure. not baked To recline, or lean upon a thing, E'py. Red colour, Oora,oora, s. Matde. To reef a sail, Epo'uie te rya. A Refusal, Ehoo'nooa. The Remainder of any thing, T,'Ewahei. To rend, burst, or split, Moo'moomoo. Rent, cracked, or torn, E'wha. To reside, live or dwell, E'noho. Respiration, breathing, Tooe,tooe. A Rib, Awaeo. Rich, not poor, having plenty of Epo'too. goods, etc. A Ring, 'Maino. The Ringworm, a disease so called, E'nooa. Ripe, as ripe fruit, etc. Para, s. Pai, s. Ooo pai. Rise, to rise up, A'too. To rive, or split, Ewhaoo' whaoo. A Road, or path, Eae'ra. Roasted, or broiled, Ooa'waira. A Robber, or thief, Eee'a (taata.) A Rock, Paoo. A reef of Rocks, E'aou. Rolling, the rolling of a ship, Too'roore. A Root, Apoo, s. Ea. A Rope of any kind, Taura. Rotten, as rotten fruit, etc. Roope. Rough, not smooth, Ta'rra, tarra. To row with oars, E'oome, s, E'hoee. To rub a thing, as in washing the hands Ho'roee. and face, The Rudder of a boat, or steering Hoee,fa'herre. paddle of a canoe, Running backwards and forwards, Oo'atapone. endeavouring to escape,
The Sail _of a ship or boat_, E_ee_'_ai_. To sail, _or to be under sail_, E'whano. Salt, _or salt water_, Ty'ty, s. Meede. Sand, _dust_, E'one. Saturn, Whati'hea. Saunders's _island_, Tab_oo_a, Manoo. A Saw, E_ee'oo_. A Scab, E'tona. _A fish's_ Scale _or scales_, Poea. _A pair of_ Scissars, O't_oo_bo, s. O'tob_oo_. A Scoop, _to empty water from a canoe_, E'tata. To scrape _a thing_, _Oo_'a_oo_. To scratch _with the fingers_, Era'ra_oo_. Scratched, _a scratched metal_, etc. Pah_oo_re'h_oo_re. The Sea-cat, _a fish so called_, P_oo_he. The Sea, Ta_ee_, s. M_ee_de. A Sea-egg, He'awy. A Seam _between two planks_, Fatoo'wh_ai_ra. To search _for a thing that is lost_, Ooe,s.Pae'm_ee_. A Seat, Papa. Secret, _a secret whispering, or slandering another_, Ohe'm_oo_. The Seed _of a plant,_ H_oo_a't_oo_t_oo_, s. Ehooero The sense _of seeing_, E'h_ee_'o. To send, Eho'poee. A Sepulchre, _or burying-place_, Ma'ray. A Servant, T_ow_t_ow_. Seven, A'H_ee_t_oo_. To sew, _or string_, E't_oo_e. Seyne, _to haul a seyne_, Etoroo te p_ai_a. Shady, Mar_oo_,maroo. To shake, _or agitate a thing_, E_oo_a'wai. A Shark, Maeo. Sharp, _not blunt_, Ooe'ee. To shave, _or take off the beard_, Eva'r_oo_, s.Whanne, whanne. _A small_ Shell, Ot'eo. _A tyger_ Shell, Pore'h_oo_. Shew _it me_, Enara. A Ship, P_a_hee. Shipwreck, Ara'wha. _A white_ Shirt, Par_oo_'y. To shiver _with cold_, A'tete. _Mud_ Shoes, _or fishing shoes_, Tama. The Shore, Euta. Short, Po'potoo. Shut, _not open_, Opa'n_ee_, s. Poo'peepe. Sickness, Matte my Mamy. _The left_ Side, A'r_oo_de. The Side, E'reea'wo. _The right_ Side, Atou,a'taou. Sighing, Fa'ea. Silence, Fatte'b_oo_a. Similar, _or alike_, _Oo_whyae'da. To sink, A'tomo. A Sister, T_oo_'h_ei_ne. To sit _down_, A'noho. To sit _cross-legged_, T_ee_'py. Six, A'Hon_oo_. A Skate-fish, E'wha_ee_. The Skin, _Ee_'ree. The Sky, E'ra_ee_. To sleep, Moee. _The long_ Sleep, _or death_, Moee roea. To sleep, _when sitting_, T_oo_'roore,moee. A Sling, E'ma. Slow, Marra,marroea,s.Fate. Small, _little_, _Ee_te. _The sense of_ smelling, Fata't_oo_, s._Oo_too,too,too. Smell _it_, H_oi_na. To smell, Ahe'_oi_. Smoke, E'_oo_ra. Smooth, Pa'ya. Smutting _the face with charcoal for funeral ceremonies_, Bap'para. _A sea_ Snake, _that has alternate rings of a white and black colour_, P_oo_h_ee_'ar_oo_. To snatch _a thing hastily_, E'h_ai_r_oo_. Sneezing, Mach_ee_'_ai_. Snipe, _a bird resembling a snipe, of a black and brown colour_, T_ee_'t_ee_. Snot 'H_oo_pe. Soberness, _sobriety, sober, not given_ T_ei_r_ei_da. _to drunkenness_, To soften, Epar_oo_'par_oo_. Softness, _that is, not hard_, Maroo. The Sole _of the foot_, Tap_oo_'y. A Son My'de. A Son-in-law, H_oo_'noea. A Song, Heeva. A Sore, _or ulcer_, O'pai. Soreness, _or pain_, Ma'may. Sound, _any sound that strikes the ear_, Pa'_ee_na. A Span, Ewhaee ono. To speak, Paraou. Speak; _he speaks not from the heart, Neeate _oo_t_oo_ te parou his words are only on his lips_, no nona. A Spear, _or lance_, Taeo. To spill, Emare. To spit, Too't_oo_a. _To_ spread, _or to expand a thing, as_ Ho'hora. _cloth, etc._ To squeeze, _or press hard_, Ne,'ne_ee_. To squeeze, _or press gently with the hand_, Roro'm_ee_. Squint-eyed, Matta'areva. _A fighting_ Stage _in a boat_, E't_oo_t_ee_. To stamp _with the feet, to trample on Tata'hy. a thing_, Stand _up_, Atearenona. A Star, E'f_ai_too, s. Hwettoo. A Star-fish, Eve'r_ee_. To startle, _as when one dreams_ Wa'hee, te'dirre. Stay, _or wait a little_, A'r_ee_a, s. Ar_ee_'ana. To steal, 'Woreedo. Steep, _as steep rocks, or cliffs_, Mato. _A walking_ Stick, 'Tame. Stinking, _ill-smelled, as stinking water,etc._ Na'm_oo_a, s. N_ee_'n_ee_o. Stink, _to stink or smell ill_, F_ou_, f_ou_. To stink, _as excrement_, P_ee_ro,p_ee_ro. The Stomach, 'Para_ee_'a. A Stone, Owhay. _A polished_ Stone, used to beat victuals P_ai_'noo. into a paste_, Stones, _upright stones which stand on the paved area before huts_, T_oo_'t_oo_re. _A small_ Stool, _to lay the head on when asleep_, Papa, s. Papa, r_oo_ae. Stool, _to go to stool_, T_ee_t_ee_'o. To stop, A'too. The Stopper _of a quiver_, Ponau. A Storm _of wind, rain, thunder_, etc. Tarooa. Strait, _narrow, not wide_, P_ee_re,peere. Striking, _hollow striking in dancing_, Ap_ee_. The String _of a quiver_, E'aha. Strong, _as a strong man_, _O'o_mara. Struck, A'b_oo_l_a_. Stupidity, _ignorance_, W_ee_a'l_a_. To suck _as a child_, Ote,ote. Sugar _cane_, E'To, s. Toeo. Suicide, Euha'a_ou_. Sultry, _or hot air_, Poh_ee_a. The Sun, Mahanna, s. Era. _The meridian_ Sun, T_ei_'n_ee_a te Mahanna. Supine, _lying_, Fateeraha. Surf _of the sea_, Horo'w_ai_. _An interjection of_ Surprise, _or admiration_, Allaheuee'_ai_. To surround, A'b_oo_ne. To swallow, Horo'm_ee_. The Sweat _of the body, or to sweat_ E'h_ou_, s. Eh_ou_ h_ou_. A sweet _taste_, Mona. Swell _of the sea_, E'r_oo_.
A Tail, Ero. A Tail of a bird, E'hoppe. To take a friend by the hand, Etoo'yaoo. To take off, or unloose, Eve'vette. To take care of the victuals, Ewhaapoo te maa. To talk, or converse, Paraou. The sense of tasting, Tama'ta. A Tetotum, or whirligig, E'piroea. To tear a thing, Ha'hy, s. Whatte. A Teat, or dug, E'oo. The Teeth, E'neeheeo. Ten A'hooroo. To tend, or feed hogs, Ewhaee te Boea. Tenants, Afeu'hau. A black Tern, with a whitish head, Oee'o. There, Te'raee. They, them, or theirs, To'taooa. Thickness, applied to solid bodies, Meoo'meoo. Thick, as thick cloth, etc. Tooe'too'e. Thick, muddy, Ewore'roo,s.Eworepe. Thine, it is yours, or belongs to you, No oee. Thirst, W'ahee'y. Thoughts, Paraou, no te o'poo. An appearance of thoughtfulness, Fate'booa. Three, Toroo. The Throat, Ara'poa. To throw, or heave a thing, Taora. To throw a thing away, Harre'wai. To throw a ball, Ama'hooa. To throw a lance, Evara'towha. Throw, shall I throw it, Taure'a'a. Throwing in dancing, Hoe'aire. The Thumb, E'reema,erahai. Thunder, Pa'teere. Tickle, to tickle a person, My'neena. A Tide, or current, A'ow. To tie a knot, Ty. Time, a space of time, from 6 to 10 at night, O'tooe, teepo. Time, a little time, a small space, Popo'eunoo. Time, a long time, a great while, Ta'moo. A Title belonging to a woman of rank, E'tapay'roo. A Toe of the foot, Maneeo. A Tomb, Too,pap'pou. The Tongue, E'rero. A Tortoise, E'honoo. Touching, Fa'fa. Tough, as tough meat, etc. Ahoo'oue. A Town, E'farre pooto pootoo. To trample with the foot, Tata'he, s. Ta'ta'hy. A Tree, E'raeo. A Tree, from which they make clubs, Toea (Eraeo.) spears, etc. To tremble, or shudder with cold, Ooa'titte, s. Eta. Trembling, shaking, Aou'dou. To trip one up in wrestling, Me'haee. A Tropic-bird, Manoo'roa. Truth, Evaee'roea,s.Paraou,mou. To tumble, Pouta'heite. A Turban, E'taee. To turn, or turned, Oo'ahoee. To turn, as in walking backwards and forwards, Hoodeepeepe. Twins, twin children, Ma'hea. To twist a rope, Tawee'ree. Two, E'Rooae.
An Ulcer, or sore, O'pai. Under, below, low down, Oraro. Under sail, Pou'pouee. To understand, Ee'te. To undress, or take off the clothes, Ta'turra. An unmarried person, Aree'oi. Unripe, as unripe fruit,etc. Poo.
Luminous Vapour, Epao. Vassal, or subject, Manna'houna. Vast, Ara,hai,s.Mai,ara'hai. The Veins that run under the skin, E'woua. Venus, Tou'rooa. Vessel, any hollow vessel, as cups of nuts,etc. Ai'boo. Vessel, a hollow vessel in which they prepare an inebriating liquor, Oo'mutte. To vomit, Eroo'y.
Wad, tow, fibres like hemp, Ta'mou. Wait, stay a little, Areeana. Wake, awake, Arra arra, s. Era. To walk out, Avou'oia. To walk backwards and forwards, Hooa peepe. A Warrior, soldier, or rather a man-killer, Taatatoea. Warmth, heat, Mahanna,hanna. A Wart, Toria. To wash, as to wash cloth in water, Mare. To watch, Eteaee. Water, A'vy. Water-cresses, Pa'toea. We, both of us, Taooa, s. Aroo'rooa. A wedge, Era'hei. To weep, or cry, Hanoe a,a,taee. Well recovered, or well escaped, Woura, s. woo,ara. Well, it is well, charming, fine, Pooro'too. What, whats that, E'hara, E'ha'rya,s. Ye'haeea, expressed inquisitively. What do you call that, what is the name of it, Owy te aee'oa. When, at what time, W'heea. Where is it, Te'hea. Whet, to whet or sharp a thing, Evoee. To whistle, Ma'poo. Whistling, a method of whistling to call the people to meals, Epou,maa. To whisper secretly, as in backbiting, etc. Ohe'moo. Who is that, what is he called, Owy,tanna, s. Owy,nana. Whole, the whole not a part of a thing, E'ta,e'tea, s. A'maoo. Wide, not strait or narrow, Whatta,whatta. A Widow, Wa'tooneea. Wife, my wife, Ma'heine. The Wind, Mattay. The south-east Wind, Mattaee. A Window, Ma'laee ou'panee. The Wing of a bird, Ere'ou. To wink, E'amou,amoo. To wipe a thing clean, Ho'roee. Wish, a wish to one who sneezes, Eva'roua t Eaetooa. Within side, Tee'ro to. A Woman, Wa'heine. A married Woman, Wa'heine mou. Woman, she is a married woman, she has got another husband, Terra,tanne. Won't I won't do it, 'Aeeoo, expressed angrily. Wood of any kind, E'raoe. A Wound, Oo'tee. A Wrestler, Mouna. Wrinkled in the face, Meeo, meeo. The Wrist, Mo'moea. A Wry-neck, Na'na.
To yawn, Ha'mamma. Yellow colour, He'appa. Yes, Ay, s. ai. Yesterday, Ninna'hay. Yesternight, Ere'po. York island, Ei'meo. Yon Oe. young,as a young animal of any kind, Pee'naia.
A TABLE EXHIBITING AT ONE VIEW, SPECIMENS OF DIFFERENT LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN THE SOUTH-SEA, FROM EASTER ISLAND, WESTWARD TO NEW CALEDONIA, AS OBSERVED IN THE VOYAGE.
English. Otaheite. Easter Island. The Marquesas Isles. The Island of Amsterdam. New Zealand. Malicolo. Tanna. New Caledonia
A Bird, 'Manoo, 'Manoo, 'Manuoo, Manoo, Manee, s. Maneek.
A Bow E'fanna, 'Fanna, Nabrroos, Na'fanga.
Bread-fruit Ooroo, Maiee, Ba'rabe, Tag'ooroo.
A canoe E'vaea 'Wagga, Ev'aea, Ta'wagga, Wang.
Cloth Ahoo, 'Ahoo, 'Ahoo, s. A'hooeea, Babba'langa,Kak'ahoo, Ta'naree, Hamban.
A Cocoa-nut 'Aree, 'Eeoo, Naroo, Naboo'y, 'Neeoo.
To drink Ayn_oo_' A_ee_n_oo_, 'A_ee_n_oo_, No'a_ee_, N_ooee_, 'Oo_d_oo_, s. _Oo_nd_oo_.
The Eye Matta, Matta, 'Matta, s. Mattaeea, 'Matta, 'Matta, Maitang, Nanee'maiuk, Tee'vein.
The Ear Ta'reea, Ta'reean, Boo'eena, Ta'reeka, Talingan, Feenee'enguk, Gain'eeng.
Fish 'Eya, Eeka, 'Eeka, 'Eeka, 'Namoo.
A Fowl, Moea, Moea, Moea, Moe'roo.
The Hand, E'reema, 'Reema, Eoo'my, E'reema, 'Reenga, Badon'heen.
The Head, _Oo_'po, Aoe'po, Tak'_oo_po, Ba's_ai_ne, N_oo_gwa'n_aium, Gar'moing.
A Hog, 'Boea, 'Booa, Boo'acka, 'Brrooas, 'Booga, s. 'Boogas.
I,myself, Wou, s. ou, 'Wou, Ou.
To laugh, 'Atta, Katta, 'Haearish, Ap, s.Gye'ap.
A Man, 'Taeata, Papa? Teeto, Ba'rang, Naroo'maean.
The Navel, 'Peeto, Peeto, s. Peeto'ai, Peeto, Nomprtong, Napee rainguk, Whanboo een.
No, (1)'Ayma,(2)Yaiha,(3)A'oure,'Eisa, 'Eesha, Ka'oure, Ta'ep, E'sa, 'Eeva, Eeba.
Plantains, 'Maiya, (1)Maya, (2)Footse, Maieea, 'Foodje, Nabrruts.
Puncturation, Ta'tou, E'patoo, Ta'tou, Moko, 'Gan, s. Gan,galang.
Rain, E'ooa, 'Ooa,
Sugar cane, E'To, To,
The Teeth, E'neeheeo, 'Neeho, E'neeho, 'Neefo, Neeho, Ree'bohn, 'Warrewuk, s. 'Raibuk, Penna'wein.
Water, A'vay, E'vy,
To Whistle, 'Mapoo, Feeo,feeo, Papang, Awe'bern, 'Wyoo.
A Woman, Wa'heine, Ve'heene, Ra'bin, Nai'braean, Tama.
Yams, E'oohe, Oohe, Oofe, Nan-'ram, Oofe, Oobe.
Yes, Ai, 'Eeo, Ai, 'Eeo, 'Elo, s. Eeo, s. oee.
You, Oe, Oe.
One, A'Tahay, Katta'haee, Atta'haee, Ta'haee,
Tsee'kaee, Reedee, Wagee'aing.
Two, E'Rooa, 'Rooa, A'ooa, E'ooa, E'ry, 'Karoo, 'Waroo.
Three, 'Teroo, 'Toroo, A'toroo, 'Toroo, E'rei, 'Kahar, Watee en.
Four, A'Haa, 'Haea, s. Faea, A'faa, A'faea, E'bats, 'Kaiphar, Wam'baeek.
Five, E'Reema, 'Reema, A'eema, 'Neema, E'reem, 'Kreerum, Wannim.
Six, A'ono, 'Honoo, A'ono, Tsoo'kaee, Ma'reedee, Wannim-geeek.
Seven, A'Heitoo, 'Heedoo, A'wheetoo, Gooy, Ma'karoo, Wannim'noo.
Eight, A'waroo, 'Varoo, A'waoo, Hoorey, Ma'kahar, Wannim'gain.
Nine, A'eeva, Heeva, A'eeva, Goodbats, Ma'kaiphar, Wannim'baeek.
Ten, A'hooroo, Atta'hooroo, s. Anna'hooroo, Wannahoo, s. Wanna'hooe, Senearr, Ma'kreerum, Wannoo'naiuk.
(Footnote re similarity of the languages)—omiited by ebook producer.
LETTER FROM JOHN IBBETSON, ESQ. Secretary to the Commissioners of Longitude, T0 Sir JOHN PRINGLE, Baronet, P.R.S.
The Earl of Sandwich, and the other Commissioners for the Discovery of Longitude at Sea, etc. who were present at a late meeting at this place, having expressed to you a desire that the very learned and ingenious Discourse upon some late Improvements of the Means for preserving the Health of Mariners, which was delivered by you at the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal Society, on the 30th of November last might, with Captain Cook's Paper therein referred to, be printed, and annexed to the Account of the Astronomical and Philosophical Observations made in the course of the said Captain Cook's late voyages which account is preparing for the press, under their direction; and it having been since thought more proper that the said Discourse and Paper should be annexed to the Second Volume of the Account of that Voyage, which is shortly to be published, by order of the Board of Admiralty, I have, therefore, the direction of the Earl of Sandwich, First Commissioner of that Board, as well as of the Board of Longitude, to acquaint you therewith, and to desire you will please to permit your said Discourse, with the Paper therein referred to, to be printed, and annexed to the Second Volume of the Account of the said Voyage accordingly.
I am, with great Regard and Esteem,
Your most obedient humble Servant,
ADMIRALTY, March 15, 1777. JOHN IBBETSON.
A DISCOURSE UPON SOME LATE IMPROVEMENTS OF THE MEANS FOR PRESERVING THE HEALTH OF MARINERS.
DELIVERED AT THE Anniversary Meeting of the ROYAL SOCIETY, November 30, 1776. By Sir JOHN PRINGLE, Baronet, PRESIDENT,
CORRECTED BY THE AUTHOR.
Before we proceed further in the business of this day, permit me to acquaint you with the judgment of your Council, in the disposal of Sir Godfrey Copley's medal; an office I have undertaken at their request, and with the greater satisfaction, as I am confident you will be no less unanimous in giving your approbation, than they have been in addressing you for it upon this occasion. For though they were not insensible of the just title that several of the Papers, composing the present volume of your Transactions, had to your particular notice, yet they did not hesitate in preferring that which I presented to you from Captain Cook, giving An account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of his Majesty's ship the Resolution during her late voyage round the world*. Indeed I imagine that the name alone of so worthy a member of this society would have inclined you to depart from the strictness of your rules, by conferring upon him that honour, though you had received no direct communication from him; considering how meritorious in your eyes that person must appear, who hath not only made the most extensive, but the most instructive voyages; who hath not only discovered, but surveyed, vast tracts of new coasts; who hath dispelled the illusion of a terra australis incognita, and fixed the bounds of the habitable earth, as well as those of the navigable ocean, in the southern hemisphere.
[* The paper itself, read at the Society in March last, with an extract of a letter from Captain Cook to the President, dated Plymouth, the 7th of July following, are both subjoined to this discourse.]
I shall not, however, expatiate on that ample field of praise, but confine my discourse to what was the intention of this honorary premium, namely, to crown that Paper of the year which should contain the most useful and most successful experimental inquiry. Now what inquiry can be so useful as that which hath for its object the saving the lives of men? And when shall we find one more successful than that before us? Here are no vain boastings of the empiric, nor ingenious and delusive theories of the dogmatist; but a concise, an artless, and an incontested relation of the means, by which, under the Divine favour, Captain Cook, with a company of an hundred and eighteen men*, performed a voyage of three years and eighteen days, throughout all the climates, from fifty-two degrees north, to seventy-one degrees south, with the loss of only one man by a distemper**. What must enhance to us the value of these salutary observations, is to see the practice hath been no less simple than efficacious.
[* There were on board, in all, one hundred and eighteen men, including M. Sparrman, whom they took in at the Cape of Good Hope.]
[** This was a phthisis pulmonalis terminating in a dropsy. Mr. Patten, surgeon to the Resolution, who mentioned to me this case, observed that this man began so early to complain of a cough and other consumptive symptoms, which had never left him, that his lungs must have been affected before he came on board.]
I would now inquire of the most conversant in the study of bills of mortality, whether in the most healthful climate, and in the best condition of life, they have ever found so small a number of deaths in such a number of men, within that space of time? How great and agreeable then must our surprise be, after perusing the histories of long navigations in former days, when so many perished by marine diseases, to find the air of the sea acquitted of all malignity, and in fine that a voyage round the world may be undertaken with less danger to health than a common tour in Europe!
But the better to see the contrast between the old and the present times, allow me to recal to your memory what you have read of the first voyage for the establishment of the East-India, Company*. The equipment consisting of four ships, with four hundred and eighty men, three of those vessels were so weakened by the scurvy, by the time they had got only three degrees beyond the Line, that the merchants, who had embarked on this adventure, were obliged to do duty as common sailors; and there died in all, at sea, and on shore at Soldania (a place of refreshment on this side the Cape of Good Hope) one hundred and five men, which was near a fourth part of their complement. And hath not Sir Richard Hawkins, an intelligent as well as brave officer, who lived in that age, recorded, that in twenty years, during which be had used the sea, be could give an account of ten thousand mariners who bad been consumed by the scurvy alone**? Yet so far was this author from mistaking the disease, that I have perused few who have so well described it. If then in those early times, the infancy I may call them of the commerce and naval power of England, so many were carried off by that bane of sea-faring people, what must have been the destruction afterwards, upon the great augmentation of the fleet and the opening of so many new ports to the trade of Great Britain, whilst so little advancement was made in the nautical part of medicine!