A Vindication of the Seventh-Day Sabbath
by Joseph Bates
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Now let Zachariah, the prophet, finish this subject. In his peculiar view of the wonderful things to take place in the last days from the tenth to the fourteenth chapter inclusive, he says, "And it shall come to pass that in all the land, saith the Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off and die, but the third shall be left therein, and I will bring the third part through the fire and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried; they shall call on my name and I will hear them, I WILL SAY IT IS MY PEOPLE; and THEY shall say THE LORD IS MY GOD."—xiii: 8, 9. Here then, is clearly pointed out the believers in the coming of Christ; a cry at mid-night shows first, but two parts; but before Christ comes Zachariah shows three parts. Now for the development of the history. The first is already described, by prolonging the days and denying the past. The three papers Advent Herald, Advent Harbinger and Bible Advocate, are still advocating their views, and as I have shown, cut themselves off. Second, class or part, are the spiritualizers; a large majority of which have joined the Shakers, whose faith is, that Christ came the second time in Ann Lee, more than seventy years ago, thus forever cutting themselves off from even looking for his personal appearing; John calls them anti-christ—thus, "Little children it is the last time, and as ye have heard that anti-christ shall come, even now are there many anti-christs (i. e. don't believe in any Christ—he is God, and God is love, &c.) whereby we know it is the last time: They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us; but they went out that they be made manifest that they were not all of us. Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is anti-christ that denieth the Father and Son."—1st John ii: 18-22 verses. John classes all such with liars, and they are barred from the kingdom of heaven. In the 19th verse he says, "they were not ALL of us." This I think shows that some would see their error and repent. John here embraces all such believers from his day to the last. Here, then it is clearly manifest that this second part have cut themselves off! The third part are now in the fire (or fiery trial.); they are to be refined as silver, and tried as gold; they shall call on God, and they will be his people. They have nothing to boast of, they have got to overcome "by their perseverance."—[Camp. trans. of Luke xxi: 19.] Jesus also distinguishes them from the other parts: "They have a little strength (nothing to boast of,) and hast kept my word and hast not denied my name." Which one? New name—King of Kings and Lord of Lords.—Rev. iii: 8, 12. The first and second classes have denied his name. The first say he is the Mediator, and therefore cannot have received his kingdom; the second class have dissolved his name into vapor. Ninth verse shows they have got to bow to his third part, because they have kept the word of his patience: Where is it shown that they do this? Answer—in Rev. xiv: 12th verse, "Here is the patience of the Saints; here are they that keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus." Yes! here are they who are denounced as "door shutters" and "great sticklers for the seventh day Sabbath, in and out of almost every door but the right one, following any thing but the word of God and sound reason!" triumphed at last. How amazing these things appear; not more so perhaps than to the prophets when looking down into our history and beholding this first class composed of the leading messengers and about all of the shepherds, after leading the whole flock out into the most dangerous part of their journey, desert, denounce, and betray them; and then go and form themselves into a confederacy and positively disregard the message which God pressed upon them, viz. "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God," &c. I rejoice in my soul and praise the living God, who is seated upon this Great White Throne in the height of his Sanctuary in the heaven of heavens, that I am still numbered in this third part. Call me what you please, my feet are planted on the Rock. I had rather suffer affliction with the Outcasts, than enjoy the pleasures of sin with all other people. Praise the Lord! if faithful, we shall soon enter the everlasting kingdom. Amen.


According to the Scriptures, God will deliver his people out of the time of trouble that is now flying from the coasts of the earth, and to all appearances forming a junction in this retributive land of blood and slavery; by his VOICE from heaven, when he has sealed them, and Christ has made the atonement and fitted the mansions in the New Jerusalem, then they will be his chosen ones to execute the "judgment written." After this, in the order of events, the Lord Jesus "will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God," &c. When God speaks from Jerusalem, then, I believe the "wise will understand" how long it will be before Jesus comes. "The times and seasons are with the Father." I believe that the Scriptures most clearly teach Christ's second coming at the feast of Tabernacles, and no where else; and that our history, in the fulfillment of prophecy, has been imperceptibly tending us there. Here is the chain in the types: "THREE times a year shall ALL thy males appear before the Lord thy God." These three feasts are typical of three of the most important events since the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, and every advent believer should have a clear understanding of them. 1st, The feast of the Passover; 2d, Feast of Weeks; 3d, Feast of Tabernacles.

First feast was the crucifixion of our Lord at the Passover, on the 14th day of the first month, at 3 o'clock P. M.; the very day and hour the lamb was offered in the type for sixteen hundred and seventy years.

Second feast—the day of Pentecost, 1670 years from the time that the commandments were uttered by the voice of God, in the morning.—Exo. xix: 16; see Acts ii: 15, undoubtedly at the same hour. Now as these two feasts are perfectly fulfilled, we have nothing further to do with them here; only to say, that God never taught any other way to find the fulfillment of these two most important events, than by their typical observance.

Third feast—on the 15th of the seventh month; the feast of the Tabernacles. This undoubtedly represents the gathering of all Israel at the coming of Christ; the ingathering of the harvest; the end of the 6000 years: the end of the world. I see no other point of time for Christ to come than at the feast; see Deut. xvi: 1-16: Lev. xxiii; Num. xxviii, and xxix. It cannot be possible that God has been so exact in the fulfillment of the first two, to the very hour of the day, and then left the other without order or time! No, no! Here is the gathering of all Israel; see Lev. xxiii: 39-44. Now, this being true, all of the other events which precede this in this chapter, must, to harmonize with the types, be fulfilled first. Now there are three types in this feast; their harmony and order are as follows: First,—24th verse is the memorial of trumpets. This is the type of the sounding of the seventh trumpet; there is nothing else for an anti-type—try and see. Than it is fulfilled, by Rev. x: 7—"In the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound, the Mystery of God should be finished." &c. This then, we have shown, sounded on the first day of the seventh month, 1844. Here the virgins were divided, and the wise ones got ready for the coming of the Bridegroom to the marriage. See Way Marks, 35 to 37th pages.

Second type—27th verse—"Also on the 10th day of the seventh month, there shall be a day of atonement,—ye shall afflict your souls, for whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people." This, of course, was artificial; but it was a type to represent the tried state which the virgins in the parable entered into on the tenth day of this seventh month, 1844, when they see their Lord did not come. Here is where the atonement commenced with the affliction, and as they ended together in the type, so we believe they will in the anti-type, when God speaks from Zion.—Joel iii: 16, 17; see Way Marks, pp. 58, 59. Now it is certainly evident that God's people are in this very state. This, then, according to the type, proves the Bridegroom as High Priest, officiating in the Sanctuary, making the atonement for this same people.

The third type in order, and the last in this feast, is the feast of Tabernacles, 34-39-44th verses. This is yet to come—the true point of our deliverance. What a harmonious perfect chain is here. Just see first day of seventh month, 1844; the seventh trumpet sounds, and the Mystery of God is finished; third wo come; virgins divide; on the tenth day of the same month, Bridegroom comes to the wedding; marriage takes place; door shut; Jubilee trumpet sounds to prepare for the Jubilee and Supper in the kingdom of heaven; cleansing of the Sanctuary commenced; the virgins on their trial; the appointed time, the 2300 days ended, and a cry at midnight, with all its messages. If the seventh trumpet has began to sound, then the rest have followed. If the saints are now in their trial, then, the seventh trumpet must have sounded first, or confusion would follow in the types. Destroy one link, and the chain is broke. Take it in all its parts, it is perfect, harmonious, and complete. Here, too, I understand, ends all the days of Daniel. The chart is perfect, and has answered its end. The world here also received their last warning. The Gospel age ends; the message is, "comfort ye, comfort ye my people." If this was not all done before Christ should come, the scriptures would be broken. It is perfect nonsense to talk of having these things done at his coming, or after he comes. Tell me, if you can, how Christ can atone for his people in the Holiest of Holies, at his coming? And then tell me where the saints are to be on their trial, if they wait his coming first? Tell me, if you can, where you will place the third wo, which brings in the time of trouble, of which the saints are to be delivered? Tell me, if you can, how, and for what purpose the seventh messenger will begin to sound his trumpet, while Jesus is sounding the trump of God, and shouting for his saints to leave the earth in a moment? And as the seventh messenger is some of the living saints, tell me, if you can, how they will have time even to turn and say the Mystery of God is finished? Tell me, if you can, why God is going to have every thing in confusion at that day, when he has always had perfect order in heaven and earth, ever since the creation? Two things to be kept in remembrance:

FIRST—The 11th chapter of Revelations does not teach the coming of Christ in the spring, nor at any other point.

SECOND—The ingathering of all Israel after the Voice of God is most clearly taught to be at the feast of Tabernacles, the last type in the feast, yet unfulfilled. All the others that have been, and are now fulfilling in these feasts of the Lord, have been tested to the day, and even to the hour of the day.


I perceive that I have made a mis-statement, on page 56, 13th line; also page 59, sixth line from the top, in calling the 15th day of the first month, a holy convocation day, instead of the 14th, which always commenced at the beginning of the 14th day and ended where the 21st began.—Exo. xii: 18. The wafe sheaf also, was to be waved on Sunday morning, the morrow after the Lord's Sabbath—Lev. xxiii: 3, 11—all which makes the resurrection on the third day as clear as light—two nights and three days.


A further History of the Second Advent Doctrine, from its commencement to the treading of the Wine Press, &c.

With The One Hundred And Forty-Four Thousand Living Saints, Which Are To Be Gathered At The Second Coming Of Jesus, From Every Nation, Kindred, Tongue, And People; Especially Those That Are Now Occupying The Position Referred To In The Twelfth And Thirteenth Verses Of The Fourteenth Chapter.

Second Advent History.

In the fourteenth chapter of Revelations, John gives a most graphic delineation of the Second Advent movement, from its rise in about 1840, to a glorious state of immortality. He begins to describe from this never-to-be-over-looked, wonderful picture of the last days, forming, and changing in quick succession, under the deep impressions made on the heart, by the heavenly flying messengers, saying with loud voices—the hour of his judgment is come; and reminds one in some of its features, in the changing of positions, of that last dreadful conflict of nations, on the plains of Waterloo, which decided the fate of Europe. So here, in this last great conflict of contending armies, John, in his vision, hears a glorious voice, [see i: 15 and xix: 6.] and harpers harping with their harps. His eye is turned to the point from whence came the heavenly music, and he beholds a glorified company, with their INVINCIBLE Commander, standing away up on the Mount Zion, that had followed him through his fiery trying conflict, and he had brought them off victorious, and clothed them with immortality and everlasting life; and the Father had stamped "his name in their foreheads," and they numbered 144,000, redeemed from the earth; all the living saints that are saved out of the mighty host of nations. Now read the first five verses of this chapter and methinks you will agree with me, that John is here describing the character of the 144,000 as he had seen them sealed, as stated in the seventh chapter; where he closes their history with the 8th verse, to describe the dead saints, and seven angels with their trumpets, and the effect produced by them, from the 7th chapter, 9th verse to the 12th chapter. Then in the 12th and 13th chapters, the dragon, the beast and his image, &c., &c. And then he takes up the history of this same 144,000, from where he had seen them sealed in the 7th chapter, 4-8 verses; and begins by describing them sealed and redeemed from the earth, in company with the Lamb—the Lord Jesus. From the 6th to the 14th verse, he gives the outline of what they had been passing through, and the mighty host with whom they had been engaged. It will here be remembered that this message, or proclamation of "the hour of his judgment," has gone to every nation and tongue, and people; therefore as Jesus has stated that his elect are to be gathered from the four winds, or from one end of heaven to the other, then his 144,000 will be composed of all nations, particularly the poor ignorant, but honest hearted Slaves of this doomed country. But more especially those described in the 12th verse, walking out in their faith of all the living present truth.

An objection may arise with some; still, supposing that the 144,000, because they are named after the tribes of Jacob in the 7th chapter, they cannot mean the Israel of these last days. Micah, speaking of Jesus, says, "He is to be the ruler in Israel."—v: 1-2. Gabriel said he would "reign over the house of Jacob forever."—Luke i: 33. Paul says "they are not all Israel that are of Israel;" "If ye be Christ's then are ye Abraham's seed and heirs according to the promise." When John was afterwards giving a description of the holy city, he even saw the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel inscribed on the twelve gates. This agrees with the description in the 7th chapter, and makes a perfect harmony when we understand that this vision was sixty years after the introduction of the gospel, when the church was the whole Israel of God. The other view would give the literal seed of Jacob full possession of the city; the gates being theirs by the titles on them. This would make a division wall there, and God would be a respecter of persons. The gentiles could have no claim there; thus their joint heirship with Christ would fail and so would this Revelation; for John was directed to "show (us) things which would shortly come to pass."—i: 1; and to "write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter" in the churches, in the future.—xxii: 16. So we see this vision was all of the present and future; besides the tribes of literal Israel had before this been rejected and were to "be trodden down until the times of the gentiles were fulfilled."

To make the 14th chapter more plain, in respect to the 144,000, we will try to give an exposition of the 7th. "And after these things, I saw four Angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree. And I saw another angel ascending from the east having the seal of the living God; and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to hurt the earth, and the sea; saying hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads."—1-3. I believe the general view of these four angels being the four leading governments [see 9th chapter 14, 15 verses,] is correct with the exceptions of Prussia or Rome, because neither of those nations have any maritime force on the sea. Great Britain, France, Russia, and the United States of North America, possess this power over all seas, and the most part of Christendom. Our not being a party in the great christian alliance at the downfall of Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1815, neither in 1840, at the fall of the Ottoman Empire, will not, I think, effect this point; but being one of these four messengers, will make it clear, at least so far as relates to the flying messengers and their work, and our power on the sea. Who does this sealing angel ascending from the east represent? Answer—I think some of the very same flying messengers brought to view in xiv: 6, 7, and x and xviii chapters. If messengers in the form, and fashion of men, symbolically represented as flying through the midst of heaven, preaching the gospel to men, and "being clothed with clouds," rainbows and pillars of fire, lighting up the earth with their glory; standing upon the sea, and land, crying as when a lion roareth, that time should be no longer; are called angels, I see not, nor know of any other exposition of this second verse. If it is contended that an invisible angel is here described, then, according to the 9th chapter, 4th verse, it was done in like manner to individuals in the thirteenth century.

ASCENDING from the east, or sun's rising. I think this does not mean rise up out of, &c., as in chapter 13th, or ascending in a similar manner, as in chapter xvii: 8, but rather the following, for instance: these northern and middle States, and the Canadas, are now and have been the location of almost all the flying messengers, and the burden of their messages, as represented in the 14th chapter. William Miller began to proclaim the message from the west, (Low Hampton.) And now to reverse it, the sealing messenger is seen ascending from the eastern, the Atlantic States, bounded by the broad ocean, of nearly three thousand miles, which, when looking to the east, as John did at sun rising, would give the appearance of the sun's rising out of the water but a few miles off. Owing to the round surface of our globe, every 15 deg., or nine hundred miles that we sail from hence to the east, the sun appears ascending from his ocean bed one hour earlier in the morning. This is familiar to the mariner; as also when they discover another ship, they cry, "sail ho!" Why? Because the top of her sails are only seen, but as they approach each other, ascending up, as it were, out of the ocean bed, the lower sails, and then the hull, and soon after the men are distinctly seen upon her decks. If we look farther east for this sealing angel or messenger, even to Great Britain, or still onward to the northern coast of China, we shall find none that have been so much engaged in the work of God as those above described. But if it is still insisted upon, that this sealing angel is invisible, then we shall fail to know when we are sealed. But I think that it is a work to be done here, and the saints will understand when they are sealed or marked as readily as they did when they were rejoicing because they had got the victory over the beast and his image, on the sea of glass (or more sure word of prophecy.) Rev. xv: 2. This was their sectarian profession that bound them in Babylon; and now their second advent profession, as in Rev. xiv: 12, if adhered to, will bind them to Jesus and seal, or mark, them for the city; see xxii: 14. Ezekiel had a prefiguration of this, in his vision of the man clothed in linen with a writer's inkhorn by his side, passing through the city, marking God groaning, sorrowing children, (ix: 2, 4, 11,) preparatory to the awful slaughter that was immediately to follow; with the strict charge not to touch them that had the mark (or seal) in their foreheads;—just as it will be in the last days, when the 144,000, all of the living children, are sealed with the seal of the living God in their foreheads, having been marked or sealed in a similar manner, and by the remnant of the messengers that four years ago were writing, lecturing and exhorting the people of God to get clear of the mark of the beast by coming out of Babylon, because she had fallen; developing their true profession, or christian character, even then, by the help of the marking iron, (the steel pen and stamping type,) with the ink from the writer's ink horn; with this difference, that this simultaneous sealing of the 144,000 will show such a clear development of christian character in their lives and shining foreheads (or faces,) that it will be clearly understood that Jesus has redeemed them from all iniquity, by purifying "unto himself a peculiar people, ZEALOUS OF GOOD WORKS." [These good works, methinks, will be something more than simply saying we believe the Lord is coming.] Yes, says Malachi, when by his prophetic spirit, he saw Jesus "making up his jewels," at this point of time, "then shall ye return and discern between the righteous and the wicked, between him that serveth God and him that serveth him not." "In the latter (or last) days ye shall consider it perfectly."—Jer. Then "he that is unjust, let him be so, and he that is righteous, let him be so still, and behold I come quickly, &c."—Rev. xxii: 11, 12.

This sealing process, then, I understand to be going on with the little flock, progressing in accordance with the last eight years' peculiar labor in their experience, and will be completed and approbated by God in the agonizing time of Daniel's and Jacob's trouble, and proclaimed to the world by God's roaring out of Zion, and uttering his voice from Jerusalem; then he will be the hope of his people; (see Joel iii.) then their atonement will be finished, the Sanctuary cleansed,—16th and 17th verses; "Zion's captivity turned;" "their mouths filled with laughter;" "the jewels made up," and the wise will understand the time of their coming deliverer.(3)

The four Angels.—How does the sealing angel, or messenger, ascending from the east, cry with a loud voice to these four angels or governments of messengers, to "hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees," &c. In the first place, I understand that symbolic prophecies have literal statements interspersed, which serve as a key for the rest: i. e. they have a mixed character; for instance, earth and sea here, literal; trees, symbolical; meaning those that are marked, or sealed; the professed people of God—followers of Jesus. See the clear proof under the sounding of the fifth trumpet by the Turks, in ch. ix: 4th verse: "they were not to hurt any tree, but only those MEN which have not the seal of God in their foreheads." This proves the trees to symbolize the followers of God; see also Hosea xiv: 8. Again, it is said that these four messengers were to "hold the wind from blowing on the earth, sea, or any tree." By the wind, I understand as Paul teaches the Eph. iv: 14, "every wind of doctrine and cunning craftiness, and slight of men to deceive, and lead nations into carnage, war and bloodshed;" see also ii: 2, "being led by the Prince of the power of the air, working in men disobedience, according to the course of this world." After the last great battle of nations at Waterloo, in 1815, then these blood-thirsty, conquering crowned heads, formed themselves into what they called a christian alliance, showing that there was now peace with all the world; since which time they and our own government have been petitioned or prayed to by those who professed to be the followers of the Prince of Peace, to abolish the wicked practice with themselves, and thereby restrain all other nations. Now let us learn the difference between the trees, (professors or followers of the Prince of Peace,) and servants of God which are now to be sealed, viz. the 144,000. Thousands on thousands of these professors or trees since this work began, have died, and probably one hundred times that number have turned traitors, by deserting their leader and commander, while the great mass of advent believers, which stamped this truth upon them, (the nominal church) in Oct. 1844, have since that time, also turned into the enemy's ranks, leaving the remnant to finish up the work. The great majority of these professors were once under the right banner, but the winnowing fan of their great leader has left them with the chaff, so that the voice of the remaining messengers, some of whom were sending these petitions to the four governments, and their prayers to God to restrain these wicked practices, have become so feeble and disregarded by their former associates, that the Devil, seeing his time is short, is now hard at work marshalling his united forces throughout the world, for a mighty victory; and these four messengers are his principle dependence to "gather the whole world to the battle of that great day of God Almighty," but it will not become general until the 144,000 saints are sealed.

Here, then, I understand, that the professed followers of the Prince of Peace, (symbolized as trees,) have been crying with a loud voice by their petitions, which is the symbol for prayer, see xiv: 15, 18, and Matt. xxvii: 46, praying these four messengers that have power on all lands, and all seas, not to make any more war, either on the land or on the sea, nor with the professed people of the Prince of Peace, by disregarding their petitions. I know not in what other way these four nations could be prayed to as represented in the second verse. Now the 144,000 are sealed. Then John brings us to the resurrection. The 9th verse says, after this, (mark this point,) I beheld, and lo, a great multitude which no man could number of all nations and kindreds, and people and tongues stood before the throne, clothed in white, with palms in their hands, &c. These I understand are all the sleeping saints from Abel down to the very last one that falls asleep here. Their having palms in their hands, and robed in white, looks to me like the perfect uniformity there will be with them, and the 144,000 that have never died, that I believe will be redeemed right from, or at, the time for the feast of Tabernacles, and form a perfect phalanx, rending the air with their shouts while they are mounting up with wings as eagles to meet their glorified king and Lord; see xix: 14; Lev. xxiii: 39-44. Here, they will serve God day and night in his temple.—15th verse. Therefore all the work that is pointed out here in Revelations for the messengers, (called angels,) to perform, will all be accomplished here before Christ comes. Now we will turn again to the


"And I looked, and lo, a lamb stood on the Mount Zion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand; having his Father's name written in their foreheads.—And I heard a voice from heaven as the voice of many waters." Please turn back now to the beginning of the subject 19th page, you will see it is the Father's name written in their foreheads—i. e., they are now sealed—got through with their patient waiting time, and are marked with the name of God; see iii: 10-12. In the 2d verse is the voice; this I understand is God speaking after the saints are sealed, or Christ and the saints; see i: 15, and xix: 6, as presented on the 96th page.

"And they sung as it were a new song before the throne—no man could sing that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth." [Margin says, bought.] Now mark! these were bought from the earth, and they sung a song that no man could learn. This must have been one which they had learned in their united experience, something like the song of Moses on the banks of deliverance from the Egyptians. No other people could have sung the song because it was the song of their deliverance, for as I have stated these first five verses show this 144,000 in their immortal state, "redeemed from the earth," (not out of it.) "These are they which were not defiled with women." "The woman which thou sawest is the great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth."—xvii: 18, called Babylon, (the nominal churches). These, then, were the same ones that had come out of the churches; see 8-11 verses, and xv: 2 verse. If the other view is insisted upon, then all of this 144,000 must be men and the women would have no part in that number—no matter where they are said to come from—"for they are virgins." Being clear of the harlot mother and her children; and of those in the parable of the ten virgins that went into the marriage of the Bridegroom makes them emphatically so. "These are they which follow the lamb whithersoever he goeth." The above shows that they did follow him, and John shows that they do now in their glorified state; see xix chapter, 14th verse. "These WERE redeemed from among men being the first fruits unto God and to the lamb."—4th verse. Redeemed or bought from among men (not from among the dead) nor from out of the earth, but from "among men and from the earth." The first fruits cannot be until the harvest, and that cannot be until Jesus comes to reap it with his sharp sickle, see 14th and 15th verses; remember too, that the description John is here giving, is the 144,000 with Jesus, after he has reaped the harvest of the earth.

See how perfectly it harmonizes with the type of Jesus being the first fruits, to God, or handful of the first harvest of barley to represent his resurrection; since which time he has been laboring with his Father for this very harvest. To have the figure harmonize the fruit must come at the harvest time, not the seed time. This is the first fruits unto God and to the Lamb conjointly. The dead saints are no where that I know of represented as fruits, before the resurrection. This then is the harmonious view; but we will look at the view which the Bible Advocate and others, have shown, that the 144,000 shown here, were the saints that came out of their graves after the resurrection. Matt. xxvii: 52, 53; and we are told that "Eph. iv: 8, is to the point." "When he ascended upon high he led captivity captive" [Margin says, a multitude of captives,] but this marginal reading so much relied on for their proof by the mark thus ( ,) shows it to be the view of the bible translators. Now to get the clear view, turn to the 68th Ps. 18th verse, from where Paul quoted. Here the marginal reading marked thus [Heb.] shows it to be the original, the inspired word. Now let us read "Thou hast led captivity captive thou hast received gifts in the man, (in Jesus) yea, for the rebellious also." This changes the meaning, and would make this multitude of captives rebellious saints. Surely Jesus took no such present as this to his Father; therefore there will be no more necessity for straining the plain text in Cor. xv: 20, 23. This text is clear, emphatic, and repeated; which distinctly teaches Christ the first fruits of them that slept; afterwards they that are Christ's at his coming, when both the dead and living will be the first fruits to God and the lamb conjointly. To harmonize the type, the saints at Christ's second coming are the next or second fruits to God at the second or last harvest in the 7th month, the revolution, or ingathering of the year, the feast of Tabernacles. Another writer J. Porter, states, that Jesus took these saints that arose at Jerusalem right up to his Father, and then received his power, and returned the same day; and he might also have added, travelled with the two to Emmaus, seven and a half miles; and as others will have it, was back time enough to keep the whole day with his disciples, for the first Sabbath after his resurrection. If we really want the truth, God will give it to us, but not by rejecting other truths.

Now let us see whether the description of character given in these five verses of the 144,000, will apply to the saints that arose in Jerusalem at the resurrection. In the first place, these were never numbered. Second—The record is entirely silent about their being united in their trials and experience, to sing a peculiar song of their own. Third—These were not redeemed from among men, on the earth, but out from among the dead. Fourth,—They could not be the first fruit before the harvest, for Paul says, "Christ the first fruits, afterwards they that are Christ's at his coming," (second coming,) not them that were his at his going away at his first advent,—first harvest. That would be a clear perversion of the text; we must wait for the second harvest for the next fruit, 7th month. Fifth—To say that they were virgins, and not defiled with women, is only admitting what we know nothing about. Sixth—John saw the messenger that sealed, and says the number was 144,000; all this, was sixty years after what transpired at Jerusalem. This is out of the limits of his vision; and what will, and does forever, destroy this erroneous view, is, that the four winds are to be holden by the four Angel nations, until the whole number were sealed, and they have not let go yet; unless it can be proved that it was done 1800 years ago. That old Jerusalem was called a holy place; see Exo ix: 8; Acts vi: 13; also the testimony of Jesus, Matt. xxiv: 15. Lastly—If it is objected that these are the living saints to be redeemed at the second advent, then we fail to find them described in this vision, which would destroy the chain of wonders which he saw respecting the living and the dead, with the varied and changing scenes through which they were continually passing. Now, how simple, plain, and harmonious these verses appear when we apply them down at the end of all things, where they were seen in this vision, and where they most certainly belong. The 5th verse shows them without fault before the throne, clearly in their redeemed and immortal state. Here then is the true description of their characters. In the next seven verses from 6 to 13, John describes


"And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach, unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with a loud voice, fear God and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgment is come."

This is so plain that all who have been engaged and laboring in the Second Advent Doctrine must admit it to represent William Miller, and those of his faith, as the flying messengers preaching the advent of Jesus to their fellow men, since 1840. Invisible angels never yet preached the gospel to men; but as it has been here—man preaching to man,—then these angels represent our own neighbors, preaching, lecturing, and exhorting us with loud voices to listen to their message, for the judgment was at hand.

He says he "saw another angel." Where did he see the first one, then? Answer—In his description of the trumpets, viii: 13, thus he carries our minds back to the simple narration of the first description of these messengers and receivers out of which were sealed 144,000, in 7th chapter. This message has gone to every nation, kindred, tongue and people.

"And there followed another angel saying Babylon is fallen, is fallen," &c., 8th verse. This fallen city, we say, was the nominal churches, embracing all of the professed followers of the prince of peace; and they have fallen, because they rejected this first message at the hour of God's judgment, and shut it out of their worshipping assemblies, and out of their hearts—"they made light of it."

And the third angel followed, saying with a loud voice, "If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead or in his hand, the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture," &c.—9th and 10th verses.

These two last described angels, which follow the first, are only a part of the flying messengers described in the 6th and 7th verses—for many of the first class opposed the second and third messengers, and some absolutely denounced them for saying Babylon, or the nominal churches had fallen, and for calling God's people to come out of them and leave them forever. In chapter xviii, 4th verse, John heard the same voice from the same people, called the third angel, telling them to come out from Babylon. In the xiv. chapter, he more particularly describes the condition of all those who retain or receive again the mark of the beast, or in any way connect themselves with these churches,—Jer. iii: 3; the plain English of which is, get clear of this mark, or profession, and keep clear; come out and stay out of this "habitation of Devils." For a further explanation of these texts, and definition of the locations of the heavens, &c., see Way Marks.

Any advent believer who undertakes to dispute this, and the two preceding angels' messages, with their clear fulfillment in advent history from 1840 to the fall of 1844, is, in my opinion, but a few steps removed from the gross darkness that surrounds the habitations of Babylon. I will venture again to reiterate the assertion, that since the days of the Apostles, God's people have never witnessed such a simultaneous and righteous movement, as they did during these three messages. I feel perfectly safe in saying that I fear no contradiction here, nor condemnation hereafter, for moving in perfect harmony, as we have done, during these three messages. Many are writing and preaching that these are, and will continue to be given, while the world stands. This mistake is as fatal as the rejection of the first, because in so doing they will not see any work which God has marked out for them, in this last work for man to fulfill and finish the history of this prophecy. We say, then, that these messages closed with the world, when they were condemned by them, at the end of a cry at midnight, in Oct. 1844. God then had other and more important work for his church to perform among themselves than they ever had before, and it is clearly marked out in the verses which follow these messages, and whoever fails here, fails to follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. Be assured, John has not broken the thread of this most interesting narrative here and left us in confusion, to call the testimony of Jesus his commandments; and our resting from this most laborious work in these messages, the resurrection. If our experience, for more than three years past, has not taught us that God is fulfilling his word, by having every thing in its place; one thing following another, then we have failed to profit by it. Let me entreat you, my brethren, to critically examine the next three verses: viz. "Here is the patience of the saints, here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus."—12th verse. What is the faith of Jesus? Answer,—Chapter 12th, 17th verse says it is his "testimony;" chapter 19th, 10th verse, says his "testimony is the spirit of prophecy." "Teach all nations to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you."—Matt. xxviii: 20. Now observe, the faith, or testimony of Jesus, embraces all his teachings. Now mark, this is what our opponents call the New Testament commandments, or grace, which they say embraces all the commandments that we are bound to believe or keep!

The text says that these people that are in their patience, their trying time, keep the commandments of God, besides the testimony of Jesus. Here then, we are absolutely directed, not only to the old testament but to the decalogue—Exo. xx: 1-17, and even before there was any decalogue in the form of a precept; see Exo. xvi: 27-30. This one text, in itself, positively overthrows all of their unscriptural teaching about their New Testament commandments, and clearly demonstrates the perpetuity of God's holy Sabbath, because the commandments of God are one thing, and the testimony of Jesus is another. These are the people, then, and the only ones too, who abide by the whole word of God, in the Old and New New Testament teaching, and they that deny the teachings of this text, deny the word of God, and trample down His Holy Sabbath.

In the three preceding verses, God's people are called away, and required, under penalty of their salvation, to continue disconnected from Babylon, the churches to which the great mass before this belonged. Now the very next thing after these messages, John declares that they are keeping the commandments of God; that is, they are keeping the seventh-day Sabbath. Where is the proof? says the objector. Here it is—when this same people were making their sacrifice, in 1843 and '44, expecting the Lord to come, they were walking out in all the commandments of God, as far as they were taught or knew them at that time; and we all fully believed then, and do now, that all the honest ones were in a saved state; and if called away then, as was brother Fitch and others, the same hope would follow them; but we know that they could not be honest, nor be saved, if they were knowingly living in violation of any of God's commandments; and yet we all positively know now, that with a very few exceptions, we were all living in open violation of the 4th commandment, which we were taught to do, (though not always designedly,) in the churches to which they belonged, and where they are still continued to be taught; and our staying with them, we now see, would not have altered, for they fell for rejecting the message that came before this, and therefore the subject of this 12th verse was not presented to them. Our keeping the first day of the week for the fourth commandment, never was, nor ever will be, fulfilling it, any more than keeping Friday for the Sabbath. John, who kept the right Sabbath, and was now describing our real labors and characters, could not have said that we kept the commandments, unless we were keeping the seventh-day Sabbath, according to God's direction and his practice. This, then, being the only commandment that ever had been objected to, from the days of the Apostles, by those who pretended to keep them, makes it clear that John could not have had any reference to either of the others, but the Sabbath only. Here then, for the first time, they were right in the keeping of God's commandments; and the history of God's confiding children since the messages of 1844, are fully demonstrating this point, which clearly proves this exposition to be unobjectionable and perfect. Another point is, that they could not keep the seventh-day Sabbath, until they were separated and undefiled by the woman, (see 4th verse,) hence the declaration that they were doing so after the message of the third angel had separated them from Babylon. John saw the dragon making war with this remnant, (xii: 17,) and the unclean spirits coming out of the mouth of the dragon (or devil,) have been, and are now, doing this work. The very object in sending forth this work, has been to expose these deceivers, who for the last five months more especially, have been bearing down upon this remnant in a paper war, with all the power they could wield. We do not, by any means, expect this is all of it, because we know that the devil will never yield, nor discharge the volunteer company which he is so judiciously marshalling out of the second advent ranks, until every device to destroy the remnant is resorted to, and they are seen emerging from the smoke and carnage of this unholy warfare, ascending to the gates of the holy city, under the waving banner of the commandments of God.—Rev. xx: 11-14.

The judgment hour cry, in 6th and 7th verses, was the only one that was designed to go to all the nations of the earth; and that of itself was sufficient to condemn a world of sinners and false professors that rejected it. Other tests were required, especially in this land, more than England and other lands, because the light of the church was, and still is, in these middle and northern states. Here also, is where this doctrine emanated from; hence the other messages to test and bring out the true. Then those who reject the messages are the false ones; but the unlettered slave and those who have been, as it were, enshrouded in moral darkness, and have been honestly following the Lamb whithersoever he goeth, as far as they knew, have not rejected this light as have the advent believers in this land; therefore they are not under the same condemnation.

"And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, write: Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth; yea, saith the spirit, that they may rest from their labors and their works do follow them," 15th verse.

I understand this verse as still referring to the same messengers and their adherents, who had been laboring almost incessantly to convince their friends of the reality of the messages, in an especial manner, during a cry at midnight, where they closed with the world. If it was not true of them then as a body, then there is no history since John had this vision, to show any thing like it; and it looks like making scripture, to attempt its application in the future, disconnected with the labor in the preceding verses. The inference is natural, and it is just like God's order every where, that these his honest believers, should rest from their labors with the world, to get their own minds cloudy and calmly fixed on the great event before them. Isaiah saw it; see xxvi: 20, 21, and xxv: 19. How can God's children be shut away in their chambers from the world, and then say at his coming we have waited for him, if they were not resting from their labors with the world, doing what he says, in his 40th chapter 1st verse. It is also in perfect harmony with the type.

Do stop here a little while, and turn to Lev. xxii: 27-32, and show, if you can, where the harmony, anti-type, or clear fulfillment of these verses are, if they are not found in Revelations xiv: 12th and 13th verses.

First—then, the type in Leviticus: Here the primitive established church annually, on the tenth day of the seventh month, had a twenty-four hour day of atonement, to cleanse them from their sins. During these twenty-four hours they were positively required by the statute or law to enter into a Sabbath of rest and day of affliction, or trial, and rest from all their labor, "from even to even," under penalty of being forever cut off from his people.—29th and 30th verses. There is one more peculiar trait in this type which demands our particular attention; that is, in every other Sabbath or holy convocation they were positively required to abstain from all servile work—but in the tenth day it is not specified; see also Num. xxix: 7. This shows the perfect order of God that when the church in the last days should enter upon the anti-type, as in Rev. xiv: 12, 13, that they would not be required to cease from servile work, (if necessary), because the atonement for them would require more than twenty-four hours, seeing that them were 144,000 from every nation, kindred, tongue, and people; whereas those represented by the type could all be assembled in a few hours. This is also in harmony with the fourth commandment for laboring the other six days for food and raiment, as long as we keep the Sabbath even to the gates of the city.—22: 14.

Second—the anti-type—Rev. xiv: 12, 13. After passing through the messages above described they are now out of the Sardis, (or nominal,) into the Philadelphia state of the church, and commenced their day of atonement since Oct. 1844, they also enter into the same kind of rest by keeping for the first time the right Sabbath of the Lord our God in their patient waiting, or trying time; resting from their labors, in these messages, from the world: having now done with them; waiting for their great high priest to finish the cleansing of the sanctuary, which blots out their sins, and purifies them to enter into the holy city. The reason of the anti-type in the atonement, being longer than the type (twenty-four hours) is obvious, because God will give his people sufficient time to accept or refuse the light presented to them after their labors with the world, to perfectly fulfill the type, by voluntarily entering into this Sabbath and resting from their labors.

Will this be objected to because it reads "Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord from henceforth;" and must mean such as die a natural death. Well, Paul says "prove all things," &c. Suppose then we say this verse was to have its fulfillment from A.D. 96, when John wrote it, henceforth from that time. Then the strong and clear inference would be, that Stephen and James, and all the rest of the disciples who had died before, would not be blessed—because the blessing here given, is from the time when given, henceforward. If we move the beginning of this time to Luther's day, as some will have it, then we cut off John and all the saints up to that time; and if we move it to Oct. 1844, then we cut off every saint that has died in the Lord before.

But to get clear of all this, we are told that this 13th verse evidently represents the saints at the resurrection. (See Bible Advocate, Sept. 23, 1847.) He refers, (as I have,) to the advent message in 6th and 7th verses, but avoids the second and third angels' messages, (8-11 verses) or leaves them and the 12th verse also, to be fulfilled in connection with the 13th verse, at the resurrection. Then to make his view clear to our understanding, we must read it something like this: Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord, from the time the advent message began, (say 1840,) until Babylon falls, and the statement is being made about what is recorded in the 12th verse "where is the patience of the saints," &c. Well, say then, that one hundred saints, or more, have actually departed this life, since that time commenced, and they will be blessed at the resurrection. The question then arises—If this must actually be fulfilled for these few, where is the blessing for John, who had this vision, and all the saints who have actually died since 1840? Is God partial? Shall we find this distinction in the 7th chapter, 9, 10, 15 and 17th verses, where the great multitude of all the departed saints are represented before the throne of God with white robes, and palms in their hands? No. Shall we find it in the 20th chapter? where he says, "Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection;" where not only the departed saints, but the 144,000 living ones, are brought to view? No—nothing of the kind. This Revelation was concerning "things present, (A.D. 96,) and things to come." We see, then, if this 13th verse, as we are told, does represent the departed saints any where, or time, since A.D. 96, and will be fulfilled at the resurrection, it is yet incomprehensible. Is it not clear that it only has reference to all the righteous saints in these messages from Oct. 1844? How can it mean the literal dead? Is it not clear that the dead know not any thing; therefore the blessing would not effect them as this text teaches any more than to bless any other inanimate substance. The Blessing belongs always to the living. Just look at Jesus' sermon on the mount.—Matt. v: 3-11—"Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake" &c. &c. This is now being fulfilled to the letter; see also Rev. i: 3; xvi: 15; xix: 9; xxii: 7; v: 12, 13; Luke xxiv: 50, 51, "Blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep it."—Jesus. "Blessed are they that do his commandments," they shall be saved,—xxii: 14. Also, Isaiah lvi: 2, that keep the Sabbath; these two last are to the point, just what they are doing in our text, 12th and 13th verses of Rev. xiv. John is here certainly speaking of a class, or company, of living believers, and not the literal dead. Rest is opposite to labor. He shows that the seraphim and cherubim, (invisible angels,) rest not day, nor night, but are continually "saying Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty."—also v: 11, 12. The sleeping saints at the resurrection have no rest, they serve God day and night in his temple—vii: 15. Then the rest spoken of here in the 13th verse is of the living; resting from their labors with the world. Once more, "Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord." Paul said the commandment so affected him that he died—Rom. vii: 9. He means that he died to sin. Again, he says, "I die daily,"—1st Cor. xv: 31; "In deaths oft"—2d Cor. xi: 23; "If ye be dead with Christ," &c.—"For ye are dead and your life is hid with Christ in God" &c.—Col. ii: 20; iii: 3, 4; also, see Rom. vi: 8, 11, "Dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord." In all these, and much more, he uses these terms for himself and others that were actually alive in the church. But the general term used for such as were literally dead, by Jesus and the apostles, are asleep; they sleep; "Our friend Lazarus sleepeth." He spake of his death; the people did not understand; he explained by saying "plainly he is dead."—John xi: 11-14. Paul says, "they also which are fallen asleep in Christ"—1st Cor. xv: 18; "Some are fallen asleep."—6th verse: "We shall not all sleep, but we shall be changed."—51st verse: see also 1st Thes. iv: 15, "Them also which sleep in Jesus" &c.; "Since the Fathers fell asleep"—2d Pet. iii: 4.

History.—We prove these, then, to be a part of the same class of the messengers and their adherents that came out of the churches. Thousands of living testimonies could be adduced to prove the multitudes who died in the camp meetings and conferences, about the time that the messengers were closing up their messages. Why, many were burdened with the cry, die to sin, and the world; and live unto God. And thousands passed through this death struggle. Yes, they were blessed by dying in the Lord. Those who deny and make light of this part of our experience, were but little acquainted with the work of God in the fall of 1844, and need to be instructed again. But those that died to sin, and the world then; cannot be in a saved state now, if returned to the world. To be safe, follow Paul's example, "die daily."

Then, without destroying one single link of this harmonious chain of events, these saints will be in the right place to fulfill the next message in the 15th verse, "crying with a loud voice," (different from the preceding ones,) this I understand will be a combination of labor among the resting ones, to be united in the incessant prayer, or crying to God day and night in the time of Jacob and Daniel's trouble (Jer. xxx: 7; Dan. xii: 1,) for deliverance, and for Christ to come on the white cloud, as represented in 14th verse, with his sharp sickle and reap the harvest for all things will appear to be ripe on the earth; see Sam. vii: 8; Jer. xxii: 4, 5; Mark xv: 34, 37; Luke xviii: 1, 7. Here, I believe, is where the 144,000 living saints of all nations, are sealed; especially will it be manifest among the tried ones then, that have passed through these messages. Then the four angel governments will cease to restrain war and bloodshed; God will speak as in Joel iii: 16, 17: the Sanctuary will be cleansed; the sins of God's people blotted out—in other words, the atonement finished and their trials ended; their captivity turned. Two such ones will then put ten thousand to flight. Jesus comes out of the most holy place, changes his garments, puts on his kingly robes and stands up to reign over the nations, as in Dan. xii: 1; mounts his cloudy chariot with his sharp sickle to reap the harvest of the earth. Here the 144,000 are in a state of deliverance, ready for the next and last message in the 17th and 18th verses. This message looks like one united and incessant prevailing prayer, (differing from all the others, because of the everlasting union that these messages have at length accomplished with these sealed saints,) ascending to God, while these messengers who have now, as it seems, become reapers similar to those in xix: 14, 15, "and are to gather the vine of the earth and cast it into the great wine press of the wrath of God," (19. v.) "to execute upon them (the wicked) the judgment written; this honor have all the saints. Praise ye the Lord." Now return to the 7th chapter, 9-15 verses—"After this," (when? after the saints were numbered and sealed,) "I beheld, and lo, a great multitude which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands. And they cried saying amen, blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honor, and power, and might be unto our God forever and ever, Amen." The 144,000 will then stand on the Mount Zion.


"Fear not little flock, it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom."


Christ is no where represented as an angel, in Rev. unless it can be proved that he is so, in the 8th ch. 3-5 vs. He tells us that the 7 stars in his right hand are the angels, or messengers; see i: 20. He is called "one like unto the son of man." Read his description i: 13-18; xiv: 14; the same in Dan. vii: 13; x: 5, 6; xii: 6, 7. He is also called the Lamb 26 times; see v: 6, 8, 12, 13 vs.; vi: 1, 16; vii: 9, 10, 14, 17; xii: 11; xiii: 8, 11; xiv: 1-4; xv: 3; xvii: 14; xix: 7, 9; xxi: 9, 14, 22, 23, 27; xxii: 1, 3. This Lamb is the Lord of Lords, and king of kings; and they that are with him are called and chosen, and faithful; see xvii: 14; xix: 16. He is called the word of God, and "the armies" the "chosen and faithful" ones follow him; see xix: 13, 14. He is called the first and the last i: 8, 17; ii: 8; xxii: 13. And the one which was, and is, and is to come, i: 4, 8; iv: 8; xi: 17. He is the true and faithful witness i: 5; iii: 14. Also the root of David, the morning star, xxii: 16; ii: 28; also Mich. xii: 7. And faithful witness i: 5; iii: 14; xix: 11. Please examine this subject:

TYPE. Now turn to Lev. xxiii: 10, 11; when you reap the harvest (in the spring,) then ye shall bring a sheaf of the first fruits, and the Priest shall wave it before the Lord—on the morrow after the Sabbath, (as in 3d v.). And ye shall count from the day after the Sabbath, (the some 7th day Sabbath in 3d v.) the day after ye offer the wave sheaf, 7 Sabbaths shall be complete; that is, counting the next day after the 7 Sabbaths, which will make 50 days, 16, 17 vs.; then with the sacrifices they are to offer two wave leaves, the bread made from the harvested grain; see 17-20. Now turn to Exo. xxxiv: 21, 22: here we see God required the people to keep the 7th day Sabbath, i. e. to rest in caring time, and harvest, but they were to observe the first fruits in their place, Deut. xvi: 9, shows where; begin to count the 50 days from the time thou beginnest to put the sickle to the corn. Now send the reapers forth the next morning after the Sabbath, what day is that? why, it is Sunday in the morning; so we see in the anti-type the morning of the resurrection instead of being a holy day (and as the world will have it the Sabbath) it was the day for the laborers to go out into the fields to reap the spring harvest. How could that be a holy day.



Lo, an Angel loud proclaiming, With the gospel of good news; To every kindred, tongue and people; Fear the Lord, give glory due; Proclamation, Of the hour of judgment near.

Lo, another Angel follows, With another solemn cry! Babylon the great is fallen, Peals like thunder through the sky: Let "Thy People," Now forsake her POIS'NOUS CREEDS.

Yet, a third and solemn message, Now proclaims a final doom; All who "worship Beast or Image;" Soon shall drink the wrath of God: Without mixture, Mercy, now no longer pleads.

Here are they, who now are waiting, And have patience to endure; While the DRAGON'S hosts are raging, Those confide in God secure: Faith of Jesus; And COMMANDMENTS, keep them pure.

Hear a voice from heav'n proclaiming, "Write" the message, "firm decree": Bless'd are they, who die in Jesus, "From henceforth" forever be: The Spirit sanctions, And the Saints ADORE HIS LAW.


1 Campbell translates this in three, and Matt. xxviii: 63, within three days.

2 Small sea birds.

3 Allow me, once more, to recommend to your careful, candid and prayerful attention, the simple, unadorned, scriptural, published visions of ELLEN G. HARMON, now WHITE. If you do not see the simple outlines of our history past and at that time in the future, marking our pathway, then I fear you will not comprehend what I have written. Reject it not because of her childhood and diseased bodily infirmities, and lack of worldly knowledge. God's manner has ever been to use the weak things of this world to confound the learned and mighty. I often feel to praise my God for this simple means to strengthen and encourage the little flock, just at the time that their teachers and shepherds were deserting them. It looks like God's work.


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