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A Treatise on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene (Revised Edition)
by Calvin Cutter
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ANATOMY OF THE MUSCLES.

150. The MUSCLES, by their size and number, constitute the great bulk of the body, upon which they bestow form and symmetry. In the limbs, they are situated around the bones, which they invest and defend, while they form, to some of the joints, their principal protection. In the trunk, they are spread out to enclose cavities, and constitute a defensive wall, capable of yielding to internal pressure, and reassuming its original state.

151. In structure, a muscle is composed of fas-cic'u-li (bundles of fibres) of variable size. These are enclosed in a cellular membranous investment, or sheath. Every bundle composed of a number of small fibres, and each fibre consists of a number of filaments, each of which is enclosed in a delicate sheath. Toward the extremity of the organ the muscular fibre ceases, and the cellular structure becomes aggregated, and so modified as to constitute ten'dons, (cords,) by which the muscle is tied to the surface of the bone. The union is so firm, that, under extreme violence, the bone will sooner break than permit the tendon to separate from its attachment. In some situations, there is an expansion of the tendon, in the manner of a membrane, called Ap-o-neu-ro'sis, or Fas'ci-a.

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149. How are all the motions of the body produced? What are these motor organs called? 150-160. Give the anatomy of the muscles. 150. What is said of the muscles? 151. Give their structure.

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Observation. The pupil can examine a piece of boiled beef, or the leg of a fowl, and see the structure of the fibres and tendons of a muscle.



152. Muscles present various modifications in the arrangement of their fibres, as relates to their tendinous structure. Sometimes they are completely longitudinal, and terminate, at each extremity, in a tendon, the entire muscle being spindle-shaped. In other situations, they are disposed like the rays of a fan, converging to a tendinous point, and constituting a ra'di-ate muscle. Again they are pen'ni-form, converging, like the plumes of a pen, to one side of a tendon, which runs the whole length of the muscle; or they are bi-pen'ni-form, converging to both sides of the tendon.

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How are tendons or cords formed? What is the expansion of a tendon called? How can the structure of muscles and their fibres be shown? What does fig. 36 represent? 152. Give the different arrangements of muscular fibres.

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153. In the description of a muscle, its attachments are expressed by the terms "origin" and "insertion." The term origin is generally applied to the more fixed or central attachment, or to the point toward which motion is directed; while insertion is assigned to the more movable point, or to that most distant from the centre. The middle, fleshy portion is called the "belly," or "swell." The color of a muscle is red in warm-blooded fish and animals; and each fibre is supplied with arteries, veins, lymphatics, and both sensitive and motor nervous filaments.

154. The FASCIA is of various extent and thickness, distributed through the different regions of the body, for the purpose of investing and protecting the softer and more delicate organs. An instance is seen in the membrane which envelopes a leg of beef, and which is observed on the edges of the slices when it is cut for broiling. When freshly exposed, it is brilliant in appearance, tough, and inelastic. In the limbs it forms distinct sheaths to all the muscles.

155. This tendinous membrane assists the muscles in their action, by keeping up a tonic pressure on their surface. It aids materially in the circulation of the fluids, in opposition to the laws of gravity. In the palm of the hand and sole of the foot, it is a powerful protection to the structures that enter into the formation of these parts. In all parts of the system, the separate muscles are not only invested by fascia, but they are arranged in layers, one over another. The sheath of each muscle is loosely connected with another, by the cellular membrane.

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153. What is meant by the origin of a muscle? The insertion? The swell? What is the color of muscles? With what is each muscular fibre supplied? 154. What is said of fascia? What is its appearance when freshly exposed? 155. What effect has it on the muscles? Give other uses of the fascia.

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156. The interstices between the different muscles are filled with adipose matter, or fat. This is sometimes called the packing of the system. To the presence of this tissue, youth are indebted for the roundness and beauty of their limbs.



157. The muscles may be arranged, in conformity with the general division of the body, into four parts: 1st. Those of the Head and Neck. 2d. Those of the Trunk. 3d. Those of the Upper Extremities. 4th. Those of the Lower Extremities.

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156. Give a reason why the limbs of youth are rounder than those of the aged. Describe fig. 37.

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Practical Explanation. The muscle 1, 1, elevates the eyebrows. The muscle 2 closes the eye. The muscle 6 elevates the upper lip. The muscles 7, 8, 9, elevate the angle of the mouth. The muscle 10 brings the teeth together when eating. The muscle 11 depresses the upper lip. The muscle 13 closes the mouth. The muscle 15 depresses the angle of the mouth. The muscle 16 draws down the lower lip. The muscles 18, 19, 20, 23, depress the lower jaw and larynx and elevate the sternum. The muscle 21, when both sides contract, draws the head forward, or elevates the sternum; when only one contracts, the face is turned one side toward the opposite shoulder. The muscles 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, aid in respiration.]

[5] In the plates illustrating the muscular system, the names of such muscles are given as are referred to in the paragraph "Practical Explanation." These names need not be committed to memory. If a pupil wishes to acquire a knowledge of the general attachment of the muscles represented in the plates, he can do so by comparing the muscular plate with that of the skeleton, (fig. 28.)

Observation. When we are sick, and cannot take food, the body is sustained by absorption of the fat. The removal of it into the blood causes the sunken cheek, hollow eye, and prominent appearance of the bones after a severe illness.

158. The number of muscles in the human body is more than five hundred; in general, they form about the skeleton two layers, and are distinguished into superficial and deep-seated muscles. Some of the muscles are voluntary in their motions, or act under the government of the will, as those which move the fingers, limbs, and trunk; while others are involuntary, or act under the impression of their proper stimulants, without the control of the individual, as the heart.

Observations. 1st. The abdominal muscles are expiratory, and the chief agents for expelling the residuum from the rectum, the bile from the gall bladder, the contents of the stomach and bowels when vomiting, and the mucus and irritating substances from the bronchial tubes, trachea, and nasal passages by coughing and sneezing. To produce these effects they all act together. Their violent and continued action sometimes produces hernia, and, when spasmodic, may occasion ruptures of the different organs.

2d. The contraction and relaxation of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm stimulate the stomach, liver, and intestines to a healthy action, and are subservient to the digestive powers. If the contractility of their muscular fibres is destroyed or impaired, the tone of the digestive apparatus will be diminished, as in indigestion and costiveness. This is frequently attended by a displacement of those organs, as they generally gravitate towards the lower portion of the abdominal cavity, when the sustaining muscles lose their tone and become relaxed.

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What causes the hollow eye and sunken cheek after a severe sickness? 158. How many muscles in the human system? Into how many layers are they arranged? What is a voluntary muscle? Give examples. What is an involuntary muscle? Mention examples. Give observation 1st, respecting the use of the abdominal muscles? Observation 2d.

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[Illustration: Fig. 39. A front view of the muscles of the trunk. On the left side the superficial layer is seen; on the right, the deep layer. 1, The pectoralis major muscle. 2, The deltoid muscle. 6, The pectoralis minor muscle. 9, The coracoid process of the scapula. 11, The external intercostal muscle. 12, The external oblique muscle 13, Its aponeurosis. 16, The rectus muscle of the right side. 18, The internal oblique muscle.

Practical Explanation. The muscle 1 draws the arm by the side, and across the chest, and likewise draws the scapula forward. The muscle 2 elevates the arm. The muscle 6 elevates the ribs when the scapula is fixed, or draws the scapula forward and downward when the ribs are fixed. The muscles 12, 16, 18, bend the body forward or elevate the hips when the muscles of both sides act. They likewise depress the rib in expiration. When the muscles on only one side act, the body is twisted to the same side.]

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Explain fig. 39. Give the function of some of the most prominent muscles, from this figure.

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[Illustration: Fig. 40. A lateral view of the muscles of the trunk. 3, The upper part of the external oblique muscle. 4, Two of the external intercostal muscles. 5, Two of the internal intercostals. 6, The transversalis muscle. 7, Its posterior aponeurosis. 8, Its anterior aponeurosis. 11, The right rectus muscle. 13, The crest of the ilium, or haunch-bone.

Practical Explanation. The rectus muscle, 11, bends the thorax upon the abdomen when the lower extremity of the muscle is the fixed point; but when the upper extremity is the fixed point, the effect is to bring forward and raise the pelvis and lower extremities. They likewise depress the ribs in respiration. The transverse muscle, 6, 7, 8, lessens the cavity of the abdomen, and presses the intestines; stomach, and liver upward, against the diaphragm, in expiration.]

3d. The region of the back, in consequence of its extent, is common to the neck, the upper extremities, and the abdomen. The muscles of which it is composed are numerous, and are arranged in six layers.

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What is represented by fig. 40? Give the function of some of the muscles represented by this figure.

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[Illustration: Fig. 41 The first, second, and part of the third layer of muscles of the back. The first layer is shown on the right, and the second on the left side. 1, The trapezius muscle. 2, The spinous processes of the vertebrae. 3, The acromion process and spine of the scapula. 4, The latissimus dorsi muscle. 5, The deltoid muscle. 7, The external oblique muscle. 8, The gluteus medius muscle. 9, The gluteus maximus muscle, 11, 12, The rhomboideus major and minor muscles. 15, The vertebral aponeurosis. 16, The serratus posticus inferior muscle. 22, The serratus magnus muscle. 23, The internal oblique muscle.

Practical Explanation. The muscles 1, 11, 12, draw the scapula back toward the spine. The muscles 11, 12, draw the scapula upward toward the head, and slightly backward. The muscle 4 draws the arm by the side, and backward, The muscle 5 elevates the arm. The muscles 8, 9, extend the thigh on the body. The muscle 1 draws the head back and elevates the chin. The muscle 16 depresses the ribs in expiration. The muscle 22 elevates the ribs in inspiration.]

159. The diaphragm, or midriff, is the muscular division between the thorax and the abdomen. It is penetrated by the oesophagus on its way to the stomach, by the aorta conveying blood toward the lower extremity, and by the ascending vena cava, or vein, on its way to the heart.



Observation. The diaphragm may be compared to an inverted basin, its bottom being turned upward into the thorax, while its edge corresponds with the outline of the edges of the lower ribs and sternum. Its concavity is directed toward the abdomen, and thus, this cavity is very much enlarged at the expense of that of the chest, which is diminished to an equal extent.

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159. Describe the diaphragm. What vessels penetrate this muscular septum?

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160. "The motions of the fingers do not merely result from the action of the large muscles which lie on the fore-arm, these being concerned more especially in the stronger actions of the hands. The finer and more delicate movements of the fingers are performed by small muscles situated in the palm and between the bones of the hand, and by which the fingers are expanded and moved in all directions with wonderful rapidity."

[Illustration: Fig. 43. A front view of the superficial layer of muscles of the fore-arm. 5, The flexor carpi radialis muscle. 6, The palmaris longus muscle. 7, One of the fasciculi of the flexor sublimis digitorum muscle, (the rest of the muscle is seen beneath the tendons of the pintails longus.) 8, The flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. 9, The palmar fascia. 11, The abductor pollicis muscle. 12, One portion of the flexor orevis pollicis muscle. 13, The supinator longus muscle. 14, The extensor ossis metacarpi, and extensor primi internodii pollicis muscles, curving around the lower border of the fore-arm. 15, The anterior portion of the annular ligament, which binds the tendons in their places.

Practical Explanation. The muscles 5, 6, 8, bend the wrist on the bones of the fore-arm. The muscle 7 bends the second range of finger-bones on the first. The muscle 11 draws the thumb from the fingers. The muscle 12 flexes the thumb. The muscle 13 turns the palm of the hand upward. The muscles 8, 13, 14, move the hand laterally.]

[Illustration: Fig. 44. A back view of the superficial layer of muscles of the fore-arm. 5, The extensor carpi radialis longior muscle. 6, The extensor carpi radialis brevior muscle. 7, The tendons of insertion of these two muscles. 8, The extensor communis digitorum muscle. 9, The extensor minimi dlgiti muscle. 10, The extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. 13, The extensor ossis metacarpi and extensor primi internodii muscles, lying together. 14, The extensor secundi internodii muscle; its tendon is seen crossing the two tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longior and brevior muscles. 15, The posterior annular ligament. The tendons of the common extensor muscle of the fingers are seen on the back of the hand, and their mode of distribution on the back of the fingers.

Practical Explanation. The muscles 5, 6, 10, extend the wrist on the fore-arm. The muscle 8 extends the fingers. The muscle 9 extends the little finger. The muscles 13 extend the metacarpal bone of the thumb, and its first phalanx. The muscle 14 extends the last bone of the thumb. The muscles 10, 13, 14, move the hand laterally.]

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160. Where are the muscles situated that effect the larger movements of the hand? That perform the delicate movements of the fingers? Give the use of some of the muscles represented by fig. 43. Those represented by fig. 44.

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CHAPTER IX.

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MUSCLES.

161. The muscles exercise great influence upon the system. It is by their contraction that we are enabled to pursue different employments. By their action the farmer cultivates his fields, the mechanic wields his tools, the sportsman pursues his game, the orator gives utterance to his thoughts, the lady sweeps the keys of the piano, and the young are whirled in the mazy dance. As the muscles bear so intimate a relation to the pleasures and employments of man, a knowledge of the laws by which their action is governed, and the conditions upon which their health depends, should be possessed by all.

162. The peculiar characteristic of muscular fibres is contractility, or the power of shortening their substance on the application of stimuli, and again relaxing when the stimulus is withdrawn. This is illustrated in the most common movements of life. Call into action the muscles that elevate the arm, by the influence of the will, or mind, (the common stimulus of the muscles,) and the hand and arm are raised; withdraw this influence by a simple effort of the will, and the muscles, before rigid and tense, become relaxed and yielding.

163. The contractile effect of the muscles, in producing the varied movements of the system, may be seen in the bending of the elbow. The tendon of one extremity of the muscle is attached to the shoulder-bone, which acts as a fixed point; the tendon of the other extremity is attached to one of the bones of the fore-arm. When the swell of the muscle contracts, or shortens, its two extremities approach nearer each other, and by the approximation of the terminal extremities of the muscle, the joint at the elbow bends. On this principle, all the joints of the system are moved. This is illustrated by fig. 45.

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161-172. Give the physiology of the muscles. 161. What are some of the influences exerted by the muscles on the system? 162. What is peculiar to muscular fibres? How is this illustrated? 163. Explain how the movements of the system are effected by the contraction of the muscles.

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[Illustration: Fig. 45. A representation of the manner in which all of the joints of the body are moved. 1, The bone of the arm above the elbow. 2, One of the bones below the elbow. 3, The muscle that bends the elbow. This muscle is united, by a tendon, to the bone below the elbow, (4,) at the other extremity, to the bone above the elbow, (5,) 6, The muscle that extends the elbow. 7, Its attachment to the point of the elbow. 8, A weight in the hand to be raised. The central part of the muscle 3 contracts, and its two ends are brought nearer together. The bones below the elbow are brought to the lines shown by 9, 10, 11. The weight is raised in the direction of the curved line. When the muscle 6 contracts, the muscle 3 relaxes and the fore-arm is extended.]

Experiments. 1st. Clasp the arm midway between the shoulder and elbow, with the thumb and fingers of the opposite hand. When the arm is bent, the inside muscle will become hard and prominent, and its tendon at the elbow rigid, while the muscle on the opposite side will become flaccid. Extend the arm at the elbow, and the outside muscle will swell and become firm, while the inside muscle and its tendon at the elbow will be relaxed.

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Explain fig. 45. Give experiment 1st.

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2d. Clasp the fore-arm about three inches below the elbow, then open and shut the fingers rapidly, and the swelling and relaxation of the muscles on the opposite sides of the arms, alternating with each other, will be felt, corresponding with the movement of the fingers. While the fingers are bending, the inside muscles swell, and the outside ones become flaccid; and, while the fingers are extending, the inside muscles relax, and the outside ones swell. The alternate swelling and relaxation of antagonist muscles may be felt in the different movements of the limbs.

164. Each fibre of the several muscles receives from the brain, through the nervous filament appropriated to it, a certain influence, called nervous fluid, or stimulus. It is this that induces contraction, while the suspension of this stimulus causes relaxation of the fibres. By this arrangement, the action of the muscular system, both as regards duration and power, is, to a limited extent, under the control of the mind. The more perfect the control, the better the education of the muscular system; as is seen in the graceful, effective, and well-educated movements of musicians, dancers, skaters, &c.

165. The length of time which a muscle may remain contracted, varies. The duration of the contraction of the voluntary muscles, in some measure, is in an inverse ratio to its force. If a muscle has contracted with violence, as when great effort is made to raise a heavy weight, relaxation will follow sooner than when the contraction has been less powerful, as in raising light bodies.

166. The velocity of the muscular contraction depends on the will. Many of the voluntary muscles in man contract with great rapidity, so that he is enabled to utter distinctly fifteen hundred letters in a minute; the pronunciation of each letter requiring both relaxation and contraction of the same muscle, thus making three thousand actions in one minute. But the contraction of the muscles of some of the inferior animals surpasses in rapidity those of man. The race-horse, it is said, has run a mile in a minute; and many birds of prey will probably pass not less than a thousand miles daily.

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Give experiment 2d. 164. With what is each muscular fibre supplied? What effect has this stimulus on the muscles? 165. how long does a voluntary muscle remain contracted? 166. On what is the velocity of muscular contraction dependent? How many letters may be pronounced in a minute?

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167. The functions of the involuntary muscles are necessary the digestion of food, the absorption and circulation of the nutritive fluids. They could not be trusted with safety to the control of the will, lest the passions or the indiscretions of the person should continually avert those operations so necessary to health, and even to life. The Divine Builder of this complicated machine has wisely ordered that the muscles upon which these motions depend, shall act under the impression of their proper stimulants, without the control of the individual.

168. Again, there are certain operations which could not be safely intrusted to the absolute government of the voluntary muscles, or entirely removed from their control. Thus life can be supported only a few minutes without breathing; but it would be impossible to perform the daily vocations of life if we were compelled to breathe at all times, or at perfectly regular intervals.

169. It has been observed that, among men of the same size, a wide difference exists in their strength and activity—qualities which depend upon the size and number of the nerves, the size and activity of the brain, and the education, or training of the muscles. Men having large nerves leading to the muscles, with the brain active, and muscles well trained will perform feats of strength and agility, that other men, of the same size, cannot effect. Rope-dancers, harlequins, and other performers of feats, are persons thus constituted.

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How many contractions and relaxations of the same muscle? What is said of the rapidity of muscular contractions in other animals? 167. When are the involuntary muscles called into action? Why would it not have been safe to trust these important operations to the exclusive control of the will? 168. Give an instance where some of the muscles act under the government of the will, conjoined with those that are involuntary. 169. On what does the difference in muscular activity and strength depend?

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170. Persons with small muscles, and largely developed nervous systems, will sometimes exhibit very great muscular power for a time; but it will not be of long continuance, unless the brain is functionally diseased, as in hysteria, delirium of fever, insanity, &c. Men of large muscles and small nerves can never perform feats of great strength; but they have the power of endurance, and are better capacitated for continued labor. Thus we cannot judge of the ability of persons to make exertions and continue them, by their stature alone. Strength, and the power of endurance, are the result of a combination of well-developed muscles, large nerves, and a full-sized, healthy, and active brain.

Observation. The muscles of fishes are large, and the nerves distributed to them, comparatively small. The muscles of birds are small, but their fibres are very compact. The nerves appropriated to the muscles that are called into action in flying, are large as well as numerous.

171. The contractile portion of a muscle is, in general, at a distance from the part to be moved. Thus the principal muscles that move the fingers are situated upon the forearm; and when the limb is nearly or quite extended, the angle formed by the part to be moved and the contractile muscles is small. Again, the attachment of the muscles to the part to be moved is near the joint that forms the fulcrum, (fig. 45.) By these arrangements there is a loss of power; but we are compensated for this disadvantage by increased celerity of movement, beauty of form, and adaptation of the limbs to the varied pursuits of man.

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170. What is said of those persons who have small muscles and largely developed nervous systems? Of those who have large muscles and small nerves? Upon what do strength and the power of endurance depend? 171. Why is there a loss of power in the action of the muscles?

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Illustration. The muscle that bends the elbow acts at disadvantage, and this is greatest when the arm is nearly or quite extended, as the angle of action is then least. This disadvantage is further increased by the attachment of the motive muscles near the joint.

172. The number of muscles which are called into action in the movements of the different joints, varies. The hinge-joints, as the elbow, have two sets of muscles—one to bend the joint, the other to extend it. The ball and socket joints, as the shoulder, are not limited to mere flexion and extension. No joint in the system has the range of movement that is possessed by that of the shoulder. By the action of the muscles attached to the arm, it is not only carried upward and forward, but forward and backward. Hence the arm may be moved at any angle, by a combined action of its muscles.

Observation. "Could we behold properly the muscular fibres in operation, nothing, as a mere mechanical exhibition, can be conceived more superb than the intricate and combined actions that must take place during our most common movements. Look at a person running or leaping, or watch the motions of the eye. How rapid, how delicate, how complicated, and yet how accurate, are the motions required! Think of the endurance of such a muscle as the heart, that can contract, with a force equal to sixty pounds, seventy-five times every minute, for eighty years together, without being weary."

Note. It would be a profitable exercise for pupils to press their fingers upon prominent muscles, and, at the same time, vigorously contract them, not only to learn their situations, but their use; as the one that bends the arm, 14, fig. 46.

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How is this illustrated? 172. Do all joints require the same number of muscles, when called into action? How many are called into action in the movement of the elbow? What is their office? What is said of the movement of the ball and socket joint?

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[Illustration: Fig. 46. An anterior view of the muscles of the body. 1. The frontal swell of the occipito-frontalis. 2, The orbicularis palpebrarum. 3, The levator labli superioris. 4, The zygomaticus major. 5, The zygomaticus minor. 6, The masseter. 7, The orbicularis oris. 8, The depressor labli inferioris. 9. The platysma myodes. 10, The deltoid. 11, The pectoralis major. 12, The latissimus dorsi. 14, The biceps flexor cubiti. 15, The triceps extensor cubiti. 16, The supinator radii longus. 18, The flexor carpi radialis longior. 19, The flexor communis digitorum. 20, The annular ligament. 21, The palmar fascia. 22, The obliquus externus abdominis. 26, The psoas magnus. 27, The adductor longus. 28, The sartorius. 29, The rectus femoris. 30, The vastus externus. 31, The vastus internus. 32, The tendon patellae. 33, The gastrocnemius. 34, The tibialis anticus. 36, The tendons of the extensor digitorum communis.]

[Illustration: Fig. 47. A posterior view of the muscles of the body. 3, The complexus. 4, The splenius. 5, The masseter. 6, The sterno-cleido mastoideus. 7, The trapezius. 8, The deltoid. 10, The triceps extensor. 13, The tendinous portion of the triceps. 14, The anterior edge of the triceps. 15, The supinator radii longus. 17, The extensor communis digitorum. 18, The extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 19, The tendons of the extensor communis digitorum. 20, The olecranon process of the ulna and insertion of the triceps. 21, The extensor carpi ulnaris. 22, The extensor communis digitorum. 24, The latissimus dorsi. 25, Its tendinous origin. 26, The obliquus externus. 27, The gluteus medius. 28, The gluteus magnus. 29, The biceps flexor cruris. 30, The semi-tendinosus. 31, 32, The gastrocnemius. 33, The tendo Achillis.

Practical Explanation. The muscle 1, fig. 46, by its contraction, raises the eyebrows. The muscle 2, fig. 46, closes the eyelids. The muscle 3, fig. 46, elevates the upper lip. The muscles 4, 5, fig. 46, elevate the angles of the mouth. The muscles 6, fig. 46, and 5, fig. 47, bring the teeth together. The muscle 7, fig. 46, closes the mouth. The muscle 8, fig. 46, depresses the lower lip. The muscles 9, fig. 46, and 6, fig. 47, bend the neck forward. The muscles 3, 4, fig. 47, elevate the head and chin. The muscle 22, fig. 46, bends the body forward, and draws the ribs downward. The muscle 11, fig. 46, brings the shoulder forward. The muscle 7, fig. 47, draws the shoulder back. The muscles 10, fig. 46, and 8, fig. 47, elevate the arm. The muscles 11, fig. 46, and 24, fig. 47, bring the arm to the side. The muscle 14, fig. 46, bends the arm at the elbow. The muscle 10, fig. 47, extends the arm at the elbow. The muscles 16, 18, fig. 46, bend the wrist and fingers. The muscle 19 bends the fingers. The muscles 18, 21, 23, fig. 47, extend the wrist. The muscle 23, fig. 47, extends the fingers. The muscles 26, 27, 28, fig. 46, bend the lower limbs on the body, at the hip. The muscle 28, fig. 46, draws one leg over the other, (the position of a tailor when sewing.) The muscles 27, 28, fig. 47, extend the lower limbs on the body, at the hip. The muscles 29, 30, 31, fig. 46, extend the leg at the knee. The muscles 29, 30, fig. 47, bend the leg at the knee. The muscles 34, 36, fig. 46, bend the foot at the ankle, and extend the toes. The muscles 31, 32, 33, fig. 47, extend the foot at the ankle.]

Note. Let the anatomy and physiology of the muscular system be reviewed, in form of topics, from figs 46, 47, or from the anatomical outline plates No. 3 and 4.



CHAPTER X.

HYGIENE OF THE MUSCLES

173. The muscles should be used, in order that the size and strength of these organs may be adequate to the demand made upon them. It is a law of the system that the action and power of an organ are commensurate, to a certain extent, with the demand made upon it; and it is a law of the muscular system that, whenever a muscle is called into frequent use, its fibres increase in thickness within certain limits, and become capable of acting with greater force; while, on the contrary, the muscle that is little used decreases in size and power.

Illustrations. 1st. The blacksmith uses and rests the muscles of his arm when striking upon the anvil. They not only increase in size, but become very firm and hard.

2d. The student uses the muscles of the arm but little, in holding his books and pen; they not only become small, but soft.

3d. Let the student leave his books, and wield an iron sledge, and the muscles of his arm will increase in size and firmness. On the other hand, let the blacksmith assume the student's vocation, and the muscles of his arm will become soft and less firm.

174. When the muscles are called into action, the flow of blood in the arteries and veins is increased. The increased flow of blood in the arteries and veins, causes a more rapid deposition of the particles of matter of which the muscles are composed. If the exercise is adequate to the power of the system, the deposit of new material will exceed in quantity the particles of matter removed, and both the size and energy of the muscles are increased. But there is a limit to the muscles becoming strong by labor. Sooner or later, man will attain his growth or power; yet by judicious exercise, care, and discreet management, the greatest power of the muscles may be preserved until advanced age.

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173-211. Give the hygiene of the muscles. 173. What is necessary that muscles may attain size and strength? Give a law of the muscular system. Show this by practical illustrations. 174. Why do muscles increase in size when exercised?

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175. The muscles are lessened in size and diminished in power when the exercise is continued so as to produce a feeling of exhaustion. The loss of material, in this instance, will exceed the deposition of the atoms of matter. This is seen in the attenuated frames of over-tasked domestic animals, as the horse. The same truth is illustrated by the laborious agriculturist, who, in consequence of too severe toil while gathering the products of the field, frequently diminishes his weight several pounds in a few weeks. Exercise, either for pleasure or profit, may fatigue, yet it should never be protracted to languor or exhaustion, if the individual desires "a green old age."

176. The same amount of exercise will not conduce to the health of all individuals. If riding or walking one mile causes slight fatigue, this may be beneficial; while, by travelling two miles, the exhaustion may be highly injurious. Exercise and labor should be adapted to the strength of particular individuals. How little soever the strength, that must be the measure of exertion. Any other rule would be fatal to the hopes of invigorating the system, either by exercise or labor.

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Is there a limit to the muscles becoming powerful by action? How may the strength of muscles be kept until advanced age? 175. What is the effect when exercise is continued until there is a feeling of exhaustion? Give a practical illustration. What rule is mentioned in regard to exercise? 176. Can all persons take the same amount of exercise? What rule is given as to the amount of exercise?

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177. Relaxation must follow contraction, or, in other words, rest must follow exercise. The necessity of relaxation, when a muscle has been called into action, is seen in the example of a boy extending his arm with a book in his hand, as a penalty. The boy can keep the arm extended but a short time, make what effort he may. It is also seen in the restlessness and feverish excitement that are evinced by persons gazing on troops during days of review. The same is noted in shopping. Such employments call into action the muscles that support the spinal column in an erect position, and the languor or uneasiness is muscular pain. The long-continued tension of a muscle enfeebles its action, and eventually destroys its contractility.

178. In school, the small children, after sitting a short time, become restless. If their position be changed, their imperfectly developed muscles will acquire tone, and will again support the spinal column erect without pain. The necessity for frequent recesses in school, is founded on the organic law of muscular action alternating with rest. The younger and feebler pupils are, the greater the necessity for frequent recesses. We would not have the teacher think that one half of the time should be spent in recesses; or the mother, that her daughter is going to school to play. But we do maintain that recesses should be given, and that they should be short and frequent, especially for small and feeble scholars.

179. Exhaustion is the inevitable result of continued muscular contraction. For example, let a lady ply the needle quickly for some hours, and the muscles of the back and right arm will become exhausted, which will be indicated by a sense of weariness in these parts. A change of employment and position calls into action a different set of muscles, and the exhausted organs are relieved.

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177. What is said of the contraction and relaxation of the muscles? Give examples of the necessity of relaxing the muscles. 178. Why should not small children be confined in one position for a long time? What evils result from this practice? What class of pupils should have recesses most frequently? 179. What effect has continued muscular contraction?

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180. Much more labor will be accomplished by taking time to relax the exhausted muscles, or by so changing the employment as to bring into action a new set of muscles; the woodman thus relieves himself, by sawing and splitting alternately. This principle applies to the labor of the horse and ox; and it is also applicable to all kinds of employment. With the invalid convalescing from fever, relapses result from inattention to these laws. When a patient is recovering from sickness, his physician should take care that his exercise be proper, neither too much, too little, nor too long continued.

181. The muscles of growing youths will not endure so much exercise or labor as those of mature men. In youth a portion of the vital, or nervous energy of the system, is expended upon the growth of the organs of the body, while in the individual who has attained his growth, this expenditure is not demanded; consequently severe labor or exercise should not be imposed on growing children.

Observation. In the campaigns of Napoleon Bonaparte, his army was frequently recruited by mere boys. He complained to the French government, because he was not supplied with men of mature years, as the youths could not endure the exertion of his forced marches.

182. The muscles should be gradually called into action. These organs in action require more blood and nervous fluid than when at rest. As the circulation of these fluids can only be increased in a gradual manner, it follows, that, when the muscular system has been in a state of rest, it should not suddenly be called into vigorous action. On arising from a bed, lounge, or chair, the first movements of the limbs should be slow, and then gradually increased.

Observation. if a man has a certain amount of work to perform in nine hours, and his muscles have been in a state of rest, he will do it with less fatigue by performing half the amount of the labor in five hours, and the remainder in four hours. The same principle should be regarded in driving horses and other beasts of burden.

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180. How can the greatest amount of labor be secured with the least exhaustion to the muscles? 181. Why should not severe labor be imposed on growing children? 182. How should the muscles be called into action?

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183. The muscles should be rested gradually, when they have been vigorously used. If a person has been making great muscular exertion in cutting wood, or any other employment, instead of sitting down to rest, he should continue muscular action, for a short time, by some moderate labor or amusement.

184. If the system has been heated by muscular action, and the skin is covered with perspiration, avoid sitting down "to cool" in a current of air; rather, put on more clothing, and continue to exercise moderately. In instances when severe action of the muscles has been endured, bathing and rubbing the skin of the limbs and joints that have been used, are of much importance. The laboring agriculturist and industrious mechanic, by reducing to practice this suggestion, would thus prevent soreness of the muscles, and stiffness of the joints.

185. The muscles should be abundantly supplied with pure blood. This state of the circulating fluid requires a healthy condition of the digestive apparatus, and that the skin should be kept warm by proper clothing, clean by bathing, and be acted upon by pure air and good light; the movements of the ribs and diaphragm should be unrestricted, and the lungs should have ample volume and be supplied with pure air. In all instances, muscular power is greatest when the preceding conditions exist, as the muscles are then stimulated by pure blood; consequently, it is of practical importance to the mechanic, the farmer, the man of leisure, and not less so to the ladies, to observe these conditions, whatever vocation of life they pursue.

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183. How should the muscles be rested when they have been vigorously used? 184. What precaution is given when the skin is covered with perspiration? How may soreness of the muscles, consequent upon severe action, be prevented? 185. Should the muscles be supplied with pure blood? When is muscular power the greatest?

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186. The muscles should be used in pure air. The purer the air we breathe, the more stimulating the blood supplied to the muscles, and the longer they can be used in labor, walking, or sitting, without fatigue and injury; hence the benefit derived in thoroughly ventilating all inhabited rooms. For the same reason, if the air of the sick-room is pure, the patient will sit up longer than when the air is impure.

Observation. It is a common remark that sick persons will sit up longer when riding in a carriage, than in an easy chair in the room where they have lain sick. In the one instance, they breathe pure air; in the other, usually, a confined, impure air.

187. The muscles should be exercised in the light. Light, particularly that of the sun, exercises more or less influence on man and the inferior animals as well as on plants. Both require the stimulus of this agent. Shops occupied by mechanics, kitchens, and sitting-rooms, should be well lighted, and situated on the sunny side of the house. Cellar kitchens and underground shops should be avoided. For similar reasons, students should take their exercise during the day, rather than in the evening, and, as much as possible, laborers should avoid night toil.

Illustrations. Plants that grow in the shade, as under trees, or in a dark cellar, are of lighter color and feebler than those that are exposed to the light of the sun. Persons that dwell in dark rooms are paler and less vigorous than those who inhabit apartments well lighted, and exposed to the rays of the sun.

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186. Why should the muscles be used in pure air? Give a common observation. 187. What effect has light on the muscular system? What should the laborer avoid? Why should not students take their daily exercise in the evening? How is the influence of solar light illustrated?

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188. Exercise should be regular and frequent. The system needs this means of invigoration as regularly as it does new supplies of food. It is no more correct that we devote several days to a proper action of the muscles, and then spend one day inactively, than it is to take a proper amount of food for several days, and then withdraw this supply for a day. The industrious mechanic and the studious minister suffer as surely from undue confinement as the improvident and indolent. The evil consequences of neglect of exercise are gradual, and steal slowly upon an individual. But sooner or later they are manifested in muscular weakness, dyspepsia, and nervous irritability.

Observation. The custom among farmers of enduring severe and undue toil for several successive days, and then spending one or two days in idleness to rest, is injudicious. It would be far better to do less in a day, and continue the labor through the period devoted to idleness, and then no rest will be demanded.

189. Every part of the muscular system should have its appropriate share of exercise. Some employments call into exercise the muscles of the upper limbs, as shoe-making; others, the muscles of the lower limbs; while some, the muscles of both upper and lower limbs, with those of the trunk, as farming. In some kinds of exercise, the lower limbs are mainly used, as in walking; in others, the upper limbs; and again, the muscles of the trunk, together with those of the upper and lower limbs, as in archery, quoits, playing ball. Those trades and kinds of exercise are most salutary, in which all the muscles have their due proportion of action, as this tends to develop and strengthen them equally. Thus labor upon the farm and domestic employment are superior as vocations, and archery, quoits, and dancing, if the air is pure, among the pastimes. For sedentary persons, that kind of exercise is best which calls into action the greatest number of muscles.

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188. How should exercise be taken? What is said respecting irregular exercise? Are the consequences of neglected exercise immediately apparent? What practical observation is given? 189. Should every muscle have its due amount of exercise? Mention some employments that only call into action the muscles of the upper limbs. Those of the lower limbs, those of the trunk and limbs. Mention, in the different pastimes, what muscles are called into action.

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190. The proper time for labor or exercise should be observed. This is modified by many circumstances. As a general rule, the morning, when the air is pure and the ground dry, is better than the evening; for then, the powers of the body are greatest. Severe exercise and labor should be avoided immediately before or after eating a full meal, for the energies of the system are then required to perform the digestive function. For similar reasons, it is not an appropriate time for energetic muscular action immediately before or after severe mental toil, as the powers of the system are then concentrated upon the brain.[6]

[6] It appears to be a fact, that no two important organs can be called into intense action at the same time, without injury to both, as well as to the general system. This arises from the circumstance that an organ, when in functional action, attracts fluids (sanguineous and nervous) from other organs of the system. Except in a few instances of high health in youth, the power of the system is not adequate to supply more than one organ in action with the appropriate fluids at the same time.

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What kinds of exercise are best? 190. What rule is given respecting the time for exercise? 191. Why do the muscles require sleep? What is the effect of an inversion of the law of rest?

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191. The muscles require sleep to restore their expended energies. Among the arrangements of creative wisdom, no one harmonizes with the wants of the system more than the alternation of day and night. The natural inclination of man to sleep, is in the stilly hour of night, when all nature reposes, and to be in action during the light of day. An inversion of this law of rest causes greater exhaustion of the system than the same amount of exertion during daylight. This is illustrated by the wearied and exhausted condition of watchers, night-police, and other individuals who spend a part of the night in some active business of life.

192. The muscles should not be compressed. Compression prevents the blood from passing to the muscles with freedom; consequently, they are not supplied with material to renovate and promote their growth. Again, pressure stimulates the lymphatics to action; and by the increased activity of these vessels the muscles are attenuated. In the case of a man with a fractured limb, the muscles are not only enfeebled by inaction, but diminished in size by compression from the dressing. Limbs enfeebled in this way will not recover their size, tone, and strength, until the bandages are removed, and a proper amount of exercise taken.

193. The pressure of tight dresses, under the name of a "snug fit," enfeebles the muscles of the back, and is a common cause of projecting shoulders and curvature of the spinal column. Thus every appendage to the dress of ladies which prevents free motion of the muscles of the chest and spinal column, weakens the muscles thus restrained, and not only prevents the proper expansion of the lungs, but, by weakening the muscles which sustain the spine, induces curvature and disease. Whalebone, wood, steel, and every other unyielding substance, should be banished from the toilet, as enemies of the human race.

194. The mind exerts a great influence upon the tone and contractile energy of the muscular system. A person acting under a healthy mental stimulus will make exertion with less fatigue than he would without this incentive. For this reason, a sportsman will pursue his game miles without fatigue, while his attendant, not having any mental stimulus, will become weary. Again, if the sportsman spends some hours in pursuit of his favorite game without success, a feeling of languor creeps over him; but while he is thus fatigued and dispirited, let him catch a glimpse of the game,—his wearied feelings are immediately dissipated, and he presses on with renewed energy and recruited strength.

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192. Why should not the muscles be compressed? 193. What is the effect of tight clothing upon the muscles? 194. What is said of the influence of the mind upon muscular activity? Give an illustration of mental stimulus cooperating with muscular activity in the case of a sportsman.

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195. This principle was well illustrated in the retreat from Russia of the defeated and dispirited French army. When no enemy was near, they had hardly strength sufficient to carry their arms; but no sooner did they hear the report of the Russian guns, than new life seemed to pervade them, and they wielded their weapons powerfully until the foe was repulsed, then there was a relapse to weakness, and prostration followed. It is thus with the invalid when riding for his health;—relate an anecdote, or excite this mental stimulus by agreeable conversation, and much benefit will accrue from the ride to the debilitated person. So it is in the daily vocations of life; if the mind have some incentive, the tiresomeness of labor will be greatly diminished. Let an air of cheerfulness ever pervade our every employment, and, like music, "it sweetens toil."

196. Facts illustrative of the inutility of calling the muscles into action, without the cooperation of the mind, are seen in the spiritless aspect of many of our boarding school processions, when a walk is taken merely for exercise, without having in view any attainable object. But present to the mind a botanical or geological excursion, and the saunter will be exchanged for the elastic step, the inanimate appearance for the bright eye and glowing cheek. The difference is, simply, that, in the former case, the muscles are obliged to work without that full nervous impulse so essential to their energetic action; and that, in the latter, the nervous influence is in full and harmonious operation.

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195. Give an illustration of mental stimulus cooperating with muscular activity in the case of the dispirited French army in their retreat from Russia. How can a union of mental impulse and muscular action be beneficial to an invalid? Does this same principle apply to those who labor? 196. Give an instance of the different effects produced by the absence and presence of the mental stimulus.

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197. It must not, however, be supposed that a walk simply for the sake of exercise can never be beneficial. Every one, unless prevented by disease, should consider it a duty to take exercise every day in the open air; if possible, let it be had in combination with harmonious mental exhilaration; if not, let a walk, in an erect position, be made so brisk as to produce rapid respiration and circulation of the blood, and in a dress that shall not interfere with free motions of the arms and free expansion of the chest.

Observation. The advantages of combining harmonious mental excitement, with muscular activity, is thus given by Dr. Armstrong:—

"In whate'er you sweat, Indulge your taste. Some love the manly toils The tennis some, and some the graceful dance; Others, more hardy, range the purple heath Or naked stubble, where, from field to field, The sounding covies urge their lab'ring flight, Eager amid the rising cloud to pour The gun's unerring thunder; and there are Whom still the mead of the green archer charm. He chooses best whose labor entertains His vacant fancy most; the toil you hate Fatigues you soon, and scarce improves your limbs."

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197. May not a walk, simply as an exercise, be beneficial? What is preferred?

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CHAPTER XI.

HYGIENE OF THE MUSCLES, CONTINUED.

198. The erect attitude lessens the exhaustion of the muscles. A person whose position is erect will stand longer, walk further, and perform more labor, than an individual whose position is stooping, but equal in all other respects. The manly port in an erect attitude, depends chiefly upon the action of the muscles of the back; and it follows that the fewer the muscles in a state of tension, the less the draught upon the nervous system, and the less its exhaustion. Another advantage which attends the erect position is, the trunk and head are balanced upon the bones and cartilages of the spinal column. If the body slightly incline forward, the muscles attached to the posterior side of the spine, by a gentle contraction, will bring it to the perpendicular, and even incline it backward. This is immediately removed by a slight contraction of the muscles upon the anterior side of the spinal column.

199. In the erect position, there is a constant slight oscillation of the body backward and forward, like the movement of a pendulum; while, in the stooping posture, the muscles on the posterior side of the spinal column are kept in a state of continued tension and contraction, to prevent the body from falling forward. This enfeebles the muscles of the back, and exhausts the nervous energy, while the erect position favors their development and power, because there is an alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscles. Again, in the stooping position, the lower limbs are curved at the knee. In this attitude, there is a constant tension of the muscles of the lower extremities, which produces muscular exhaustion.

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198. Why will a person who stands erect walk further, and perform more labor, than if he assumed the stooping posture? 199. Why are the muscles of the back so soon exhausted in the stooping position?

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What is represented by figs. 48 and 49?

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200. When it is necessary to call into action a part of the muscles of the system in the performance of any duty, as those of the lower limbs in walking, if the muscles of other parts are in a state of inaction, the influence of the nervous system can be determined in an undivided manner upon those parts of the lower limbs in action; hence they will not so soon become wearied or exhausted, as when this influence is divided between a greater number of muscles. In performing any labor, as in speaking, reading, singing, mowing, sewing, &c., there will be less exhaustion, and the effort can be longer maintained in the erect position of the body and head, than in a stooping attitude.

Experiment. Hold in each hand a pail of water or equal weights, in a stooping posture, as long as it can be done without much suffering and injury. Again, when the muscular pain has ceased, hold the same pails of water, for the same length of time, in an erect posture, and note the difference in the fatigue of the muscles.

201. If the stooping posture is acquired in youth, we are quite certain of seeing the deformed shoulders in old age. Hence the importance of duly exercising the muscles of the back, for when they are properly developed, the child can and will stand erect. In this attitude, the shoulders will be thrown back, and the chest will become broad and full.

202. Pupils, while standing during recitations, often inadvertently assume the attitude represented by fig. 49, and it is the duty of teachers to correct this position when assumed. When a child or adult has contracted a habit of stooping, and has become round-shouldered, it can be measurably, and generally, wholly, remedied by moderate and repeated efforts to bring the shoulders back, and the spinal column in an erect position. This deformity can and should be remedied in our schools. It may take months to accomplish the desired end, yet it can be done as well under the direction of the kind instructor, as under the stern, military drill sergeant, who never fails to correct this deformity among his raw recruits.

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200. What suggestion when it is necessary to call into action a part of the muscular system? Give the experiment that illustrates this principle. 201. Why should a child he taught to stand erect? 202. How can round shoulders acquired by habit be remedied?

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203. The child should be taught to sit erect when employed in study or work. This attitude favors a healthy action of the various organs of the system, and conduces to beauty and symmetry of form. Scholars are more or less inclined to lean forward and place the elbow on the table or desk, for support and this is often done when their seats are provided with backs. Where there is a predisposition to curvature of the spine, no position is more unfavorable or more productive of deformities than this; for it is usually continued in one direction, and the apparent deformity it induces is a projection of the shoulders. If the girl is so feeble that she cannot sit erect, as represented by fig. 50, let her stand or recline on a couch; either is preferable to the position represented by fig. 51. In furnishing school-rooms, care should be taken that the desks are not so low as to compel the pupils to lean forward in examining their books.

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203. Why should the erect attitude be assumed in sitting?

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204. The muscles, when exhausted, cannot endure continued effort. When the energies of the muscular system have been expended by severe and long-continued exercise, or the brain and nervous system prostrated by protracted mental effort, the muscles are unfitted to maintain the body erect in standing or sitting for a long time, as the nervous system, in its exhausted state, cannot supply a sufficient amount of its peculiar influence to maintain the supporting muscles of the body and head in a state of contraction. Hence, a child or adult, when much fatigued, should not be compelled to stand or sit erect in one posture, but should be permitted to vary the position frequently, as this rests and recruits both the muscular and the nervous system.

205. A slight relaxation of the muscles tends to prevent their exhaustion. In walking, dancing, and most of the mechanical employments, there will be less fatigue, and the movements will be more graceful, when the muscles are slightly relaxed. When riding in cars or coaches, the system does not suffer so severely from the jar if there is a slight relaxation of the muscles, as when they are in a state of rigid contraction.

Experiments. Attempt to bow with the muscles of the limbs and trunk rigid, and there will be a stiff bending of the body only at the hip-joint. On the other hand, attempt to bow with the muscles moderately relaxed; the ankle, the knee, and the hip-joint will slightly bend, accompanied with an easy and graceful curve of the body.

206. The muscles when relaxed, together with the yielding character of the cartilage, and the porous structure of the ends of the bones that form a joint, diffuse or deaden the force of jars, or shocks, in stepping suddenly down stairs, or in falling from moderate heights. Hence, in jumping or falling from a carriage, or any height, the shock to the organs of the system may be obviated in the three following ways: 1st. Let the muscles be relaxed, not rigid. 2d. Let the limbs be bent at the ankle, knee, and hips; the head should be thrown slightly forward, with the trunk a little stooping. 3d. Fall upon the toes, not the heel.

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204. When are the muscles unfitted to maintain the system erect either in standing or sitting? What is necessary when this condition of the system exists? 205. Why should the muscular system be slightly relaxed in walking, &c.? Give illustrative experiments. 206. What is the reason that we do not feel the jar in falling from a moderate height?

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Experiments. Stand with the trunk and lower limbs firm, and the muscles rigid; then jump a few inches perpendicularly to the floor, and fall upon the heels. Again, slightly bend the limbs, jump a few inches, and fall upon the toes, and the difference in the force of the shock, to the brain and other organs, will be readily noticed.

207. The muscles require to be educated, or trained. The power of giving different intonations in reading, speaking, singing, the varied and rapid executions in penmanship, and all mechanical or agricultural employments, depend, in a measure, upon the education of the muscles. In the first effort of muscular education, the contractions of the muscular fibres are irregular and feeble, as may be seen when the child begins to walk, or in the first efforts of penmanship.

208. Repetition of muscular action is necessary. To render the action of the muscles complete and effective, they must be called into action repeatedly and at proper intervals. This education must be continued until not only each muscle, but every fibre of the muscle, is fully under the control of the will. In this way persons become skilful in every employment. In training the muscles for effective action, it is very important that correct movements be adopted at the commencement. If this is neglected, the motions will be constrained and improper, while power and skill will be lost.

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How is this shown by experiment? 207. Upon what do the different intonations of sound or mechanical employments depend? Why are the first efforts in educating the muscles indifferent or irregular? 208. Why is repetition of muscular action necessary? Why is it important that correct movements be adopted in the first efforts of muscular education?

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Illustration. If a boy, while learning to mow, is allowed to swing his scythe in a stooping position, twisting his body at every sweep of the scythe, he will never become an easy, efficient mower. Proper instruction is as necessary in many of the agricultural branches as in the varied mechanical employments.



209. Good penmanship requires properly trained muscles. To a deficient analysis of the movements of the arm, hand, and fingers, on the part of teachers and pupils in penmanship, together with an improper position in sitting, is to be ascribed the great want of success in acquiring this art. The pen should be held loosely, and when the proper position is attained, the scholar should make an effort to imitate some definite copy as nearly as possible. The movements of the fingers, hand, and arm, necessary to accomplish this, should be made with ease and rapidity, striving, at each effort, to imitate the copy more nearly.

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How is this illustrated? 209. Why have so many pupils failed in acquiring good penmanship?

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210. When the arm, hand, and fingers are rigid, the large muscles, that bend and extend these parts, are called into too intense action. This requires of the small muscles, that produce the lateral movements, which are essential to rapidity in writing, an effort which they cannot make, or can with difficulty accomplish.

Experiment. Vigorously extend the fingers by a violent and rigid contraction of the muscles upon the lower part of the arm, and the lateral movement which is seen in their separation cannot be made. But gently extend the fingers, and their oblique movements are made with freedom.

211. An individual who is acquainted with the laws of health, whose muscles are well trained, will perform a certain amount of labor with less fatigue and waste to the system, than one who is ignorant of the principles of hygiene, and whose muscles are imperfectly trained. Hence the laboring poor have a deep interest in acquiring a knowledge of practical physiology, as well as skill in their trade or vocation. It is emphatically true to those who earn their bread by the "sweat of their brow," that "knowledge is power."

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210. What is said of the lateral and oblique movements of the arm, hand, and fingers in writing? How is this shown by experiment? 211. Why is the study of physiology and hygiene of utility to the laborer?

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CHAPTER XII.

THE TEETH.

212. The teeth, in composition, nutrition, and growth, are different from other bones of the body. They vary in number at different periods of life, and, unlike other bones, they are exposed to the immediate action of atmospheric air and foreign substances. The bones of the system, generally, when fractured, unite; but there is never a permanent union of a tooth when broken.

ANATOMY OF THE TEETH.

213. The TEETH are attached to the upper and lower jaw-bone, by means of bony sockets, called al've-o-lar processes. These give great solidity to the attachment of the teeth, and frequently render their extraction difficult. The gums, by their fibrous, fleshy structure, serve to fix the teeth more firmly in the jaw.

Observation. When a permanent tooth is extracted, these bony processes are gradually absorbed, so that in advanced age there remains only the jaw-bone covered by the lining membrane of the gum. This accounts for the narrow jaw and falling in of the lips in old age. Frequently, a piece of the alveolar process comes out with the tooth when extracted, and the dentist has then the credit of "breaking the jaw." No great injury results from the removal of the process in this manner.

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212. What is said of the teeth? In what respect do they differ from other bones of the body? 213-218. Give the anatomy of the teeth. 213. What confines the teeth in the jaw-bone? What becomes of the socket when a tooth is removed? What effect has this absorption upon the jaw and lips?

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214. The teeth are formed in the interior of the jaws, and within dent'al cap'sules, (membranous pouches,) which are enclosed within the substance of the bone, and present in their interior a fleshy bud, or granule, from the surface of which exudes the ivory, or the bony part of the tooth. In proportion as the tooth is formed, it rises in the socket, which is developed simultaneously with the tooth, and passes through the gum, and shows itself without.



215. The first set, which appears in infancy, is called tem'po-ra-ry, or milk teeth. They are twenty in number; ten in each jaw. Between six and fourteen years of age, the temporary teeth are removed, and the second set appears, called per'ma-nent teeth. They number thirty-two, sixteen in each jaw.

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214. Where and how are the teeth formed? Explain fig. 54. 215. What are the first set called? How many in each jaw? The second set? How many in number?

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216. The four front teeth in each jaw are called in-ci'sors, (cutting teeth;) the next tooth in each side, the cus'pid, (eye tooth;) the next two, bi-cus'pids, (small grinders;) the next two, mo'lars, (grinders.) The last one on each side of the jaw is called a wisdom tooth, because it does not appear until a person is about twenty years old. The incisors, cuspids, and bicuspids, have each but one root. The molars of the upper jaw have three roots, while those of the lower jaw have but two.



Observation. The shape of the teeth in different species of animals is adapted to the kind of food on which they subsist. Those animals that feed exclusively on flesh, as the lion, have the cuspids, or canine teeth, largely developed, and the molars have sharp cutting points. Those animals that feed on grass and grain, as the horse and the sheep, have their molar teeth more rounded and flat on the crown. The human teeth are adapted to feed on fruits, grain, or flesh, as they are less pointed than those of the cat, and more pointed than those of the sheep.

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216. Give the names of the permanent teeth. What teeth have but one root, or "fang"? How many roots have the molars of the upper jaw? Of the lower jaw? What is said of the shape of the teeth in different species of animals?

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217. The teeth are composed principally of two substances—the i'vo-ry and the en-am'el. The internal part of the tooth or the ivory, is harder and more enduring than bone, and forms the body of the tooth. The enamel is remarkable for its hardness, and varies somewhat in color with the age, temperament, habits, and manner of living of different individuals. When any part of the enamel is destroyed, it is never regenerated.



218. Each tooth is divided into two parts, namely, crown and root. The crown is that part which protrudes from the jaw-bone and gum, and is covered by the highly polished enamel. The root, or "fang," is placed in the sockets of the jaw, and consists of bony matter. Through this bony substance several small vessels pass, to aid in the growth and also in the removal of the tooth. There are, beside these vessels, small white cords passing to each tooth, called nerves. (See fig. 57.) When these nerves are diseased, we have the toothache.

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217. Give the structure of the teeth. What is said of the enamel? 218. Into how many parts are the teeth divided? Describe the crown. The root. What vessels pass through the bony matter? What is their use?

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PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TEETH.

219. The use of the teeth is twofold. 1st. By the action of the incisors the food is divided, while the molars grind or break down the more solid portions of it. By these processes, the food is prepared to pass more easily and rapidly into the stomach.

220. In the mastication of food there are two movements of the lower jaw—the action by which the teeth are brought together, and the lateral motion. In the former, the food is cut or divided, the jaws acting like shears. This movement is produced by the action of two large muscles situated on each side of the head and face.

Observation. The muscles attached to the lower jaw are of great strength; by their action alone, some persons are enabled to bite the hardest substances. By putting the fingers upon the side of the head above and in front of the ears, and upon the face above the angle of the jaw, while masticating food, the alternate swelling and relaxation of these muscles will be clearly felt.

221. The lateral, or grinding movement of the teeth, is produced by the action of a strong muscle that is attached to the lower jaw on the inside.

Observation. Those animals that live solely on flesh, have only the cutting, or shear-like movement of the jaws. Those that use vegetables for food, have the grinding motion; while man has both the cutting and grinding movement.

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219-222. Give the physiology of the teeth. 219. Give one of the functions of the teeth. 220. How many movements of the lower jaw in masticating food? What effect has the first movement upon the food? How produced? What is the character of the masticating muscles? 221. How is the grinding motion of the teeth produced? What is said of the movements of the teeth in different animals?

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222. 2d. The teeth aid us in articulating with distinctness certain letters and words. An individual who has lost his front teeth cannot enunciate distinctly certain letters called dental. Again, as the alveolar processes are removed by absorption soon after the removal of the teeth, the lips and cheeks do not retain their former full position, thus marring, in no slight degree, the symmetry of the lower part of the face. Consequently, those simple observances that tend to the preservation of the teeth are of great practical interest to all persons.

HYGIENE OF THE TEETH.

223. To preserve the teeth, they must be kept clean. After eating food, they should be cleansed with a brush and water, or rubbed with a piece of soft flannel, to prevent the tartar collecting, and to remove the pieces of food that may have lodged between them. Toothpicks may be useful in removing any particles inaccessible to the brush. They may be made of bone, ivory, or the common goose-quill. Metallic toothpicks should not be used, as they injure the enamel.

224. The mouth should be cleansed with pure tepid water at night, as well as in the morning; after which the teeth should be brushed upward and downward, both on the posterior and anterior surfaces. It may be beneficial to use refined soap, once or twice every week, to remove any corroding substance that may exist around the teeth; care being taken to thoroughly rinse the mouth after its use.

225. Food or drink should not be taken into the mouth when very hot or very cold. Sudden changes of temperature will crack the enamel, and finally produce decayed teeth.

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222. What is another use of the teeth? 223-232. Give the hygiene of the teeth. 223. How can the teeth be preserved? By what means? 224. How often should they be cleansed? 225. What is said of very hot or cold drinks?

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Observation. On this account, smoking is pernicious, because the teeth are subjected to an alternate inhalation of both cold and warm air.

226. The temporary teeth should be removed as soon as they become loose. If a permanent tooth makes it appearance before the first is removed, or has become loose, the milk tooth, although not loose, should be removed without delay. This is necessary that the second set of teeth may present a regular and beautiful appearance.

227. In general, when the permanent teeth are irregular, one or more should be removed. If the teeth are crowded and irregular, in consequence of the jaw being narrow and short, or when they press so hard upon each other as to injure the enamel, remove one or more to prevent their looking unsightly, and in a few months the remaining teeth, with a little care, will fill the spaces.

Observation. When it is necessary to remove a tooth, apply to some skilful operator. It requires as much skill and knowledge to extract teeth well, as it does to amputate a limb; yet some persons, who possess strong arms, will obtain a pair of forceps, or a tooth-key, and hang out the sign of "surgeon-dentist," although ignorant of the principles that should guide them.

228. It is not always necessary to have teeth extracted when they ache. The nerve, or the investing membrane of the root, may be diseased, and the tooth still be sound. In such instances, the tooth should not be extracted, but the diseased condition may be remedied by proper medication. There are many sound teeth, that become painful, as already mentioned, which are unnecessarily removed.

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Why is smoking injurious to the teeth? 226. What remark respecting the temporary teeth? 227. What remarks respecting the permanent teeth? Do those persons that extract teeth require skill as well as knowledge? 228. Why should not teeth be extracted at all times when they are painful?

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Illustration. Dr. H. M., of Belfast, Me., related to me that an individual in that vicinity had his teeth, (all of them sound,) on one side of the lower jaw, extracted by an ignoramus of a "tooth-puller," and this without any relief from pain. The disease was tic douloureux, which was relieved by Dr. M.

229. The preservation of the teeth requires that they be frequently examined. When a part of the enamel is removed, and a small portion of the body of the tooth has become carious, in many instances such teeth may be preserved from further decay by having them filled or "plugged" with gold foil. All amalgams, pastes, and cheap patent articles for filling, should be avoided, if you would preserve both the teeth and the general health.

230. The practice of cracking nuts with the teeth, or of lifting heavy bodies, and the constant habit of biting thread, should be avoided, as they finally destroy the enamel.

231. All acidulated drinks and mineral waters, that "set the teeth on edge," are injurious. All tooth-powders and washes that contain any article that is acid, corrosive, or grinding, should be banished from the toilet. Tobacco is not a preservative of the teeth. It contains "grit," which wears away the enamel; beside, when chewed, it debilitates the vessels of the gums, turns the teeth yellow, and renders the breath and the appearance of the mouth disagreeable.

232. Healthy persons have generally sound teeth, while feeble persons have decayed teeth. For this reason, we should try to learn and practise the few simple rules that promote health.

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Give an illustration of the removal of sound teeth. 229. How may decaying teeth be preserved? What should be avoided in the filling of teeth? 230. What practices should also be avoided? 231. What is said of acidulated drinks? What effect has the chewing of tobacco upon the teeth? 232. What is one reason for preserving health?

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CHAPTER XIII.

THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS.

233. From the earliest existence of the human system to the last ray of life, change is impressed upon it by the Giver of this curious fabric. New atoms of matter are deposited, while the old and now useless particles are constantly removed. The material necessary to sustain the growth of the body in early life, and also to repair the waste that is unceasing to animal existence, is the food we eat.

234. Food, animal or vegetable, contains most of the elements of the different tissues of the system, yet it must undergo certain essential alterations before it can become a part of the body. The first change is effected by the action of the Digestive Organs.

ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS

235. The DIGESTIVE ORGANS are the Mouth, Teeth,[7] Sal'i-va-ry Glands, Phar'ynx, OE-soph'a-gus, (gullet,) Stom'ach, In-tes'tines, (bowels,) Lac'te-als, (milk, or chyle vessels,) Tho-rac'ic Duct, Liv'er, and the Pan'cre-as, (sweetbread.)

[7] See Chapter XII.

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233. What is impressed upon the human system from its earliest existence? What maintains this change? 234. Has animal or vegetable food any resemblance to the different tissues of which it finally forms a part? By what organs is the first change in the food effected? 235-258. Give the anatomy of the digestive organs. 235. Name them. 236. Describe the mouth.

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MOUTH is an irregular cavity, which contains the instruments of mastication and the organs of taste. It is bounded in front by the lips; on each side by the internal surface of the cheeks; above, by the hard palate (roof of the mouth) and teeth of the upper jaw; below, by the tongue and teeth of the lower jaw; behind, it is continuous with the pharynx, but is separated from it by a kind of movable curtain, called the soft palate. This may be elevated or depressed, so as to close the passage or leave it free.

237. The SALIVARY GLANDS are six in number; three on each side of the jaw. They are called the pa-rot'id, the sub-max'il-la-ry and the sub-lin'gual.



238. The PAROTID GLAND, the largest, is situated in front of the external ear, and behind the angle of the jaw. A duct (Steno's) from this gland opens into the mouth, opposite the second molar tooth of the upper jaw.

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237. How many glands about the mouth? Give their names. What does fig. 58 represent? 238. Describe the parotid gland.

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239. The SUBMAXILLARY GLAND is situated within the lower jaw, anterior to its angle. Its excretory duct (Wharton's) opens into the mouth by the side of the frae'num lin'guae, (bridle of the tongue.)

240. The SUBLINGUAL GLAND is elongated and flattened, and situated beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth, on each side of the fraenum linguae. It has seven or eight small ducts, which open into the mouth by the side of the bridle of the tongue.

Observation. In the "mumps," the parotid gland is diseased. The swelling under the tongue called the "frog" is a disease of the sublingual gland.



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239. The submaxillary. 240. The sublingual. What observation respecting these glands? What does fig. 59 represent?

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241. The PHARYNX is a membranous sac, situated upon the upper portion of the spinal column. It extends from the base of the skull to the top of the tra'che-a, (windpipe,) and is continuous with the oesophagus. From the pharynx are four passages; one opens upward and forward to the nose, the second leads forward to the mouth, the third downward to the trachea and lungs, the fourth downward and backward to the stomach.

242. The OESOPHAGUS is a large membranous tube that extends behind the trachea, the heart, and lungs, pierces the diaphragm, and terminates in the stomach. It is composed of two membranes—an internal, or mucous, and a muscular coat. The latter is composed of two sets of fibres; one extends lengthwise, the other is arranged in circular bands.

243. The STOMACH is situated in the left side of the abdomen, immediately below and in contact with the diaphragm. It has two openings; one connected with the oesophagus, called the car'di-ac orifice; the other connected with the upper portion of the small intestine, called the py-lor'ic orifice. It is composed of three coats, or membranes. The exterior or serous coat is very tough and strong, and invests every part of this important organ. The middle, or muscular coat is composed of two layers of muscular fibres, one set of which is arranged longitudinally, the other circularly. The interior coat is called the mucous, and is arranged in ru'gae, (folds.) The stomach is provided with a multitude of small glands, in which is secreted the gastric fluid.

Illustration. The three coats of the stomach anatomically resemble tripe, which is a preparation of the largest stomach of the cow or ox. The outer coat is smooth and highly polished. The middle coat is composed of minute threads, which are arranged in two layers. The fibres of these layers cross each other. The inner coat is soft, and presents many folds, usually named "the honey-comb."

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241. Describe the pharynx and the passages leading from it. 242. Give the structure of the oesophagus. 243. Where is the stomach situated? How many coats has it? Describe them. What article prepared for food does the stomach resemble?

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244. The INTESTINES, or alimentary canal, are divided into two parts—the small and large. The small intestine is about twenty-five feet in length, and is divided into three portions, namely, the Du-o-de'num, the Je-ju'num, and the Il'e-um. The large intestine is about five feet in length, and is divided into three parts, namely, the Cae'cum, the Co'lon, and the Rec'tum. (Appendix D.)

245. The DUODENUM is somewhat larger than the rest of the small intestine, and has received its name from being in length about the breadth of twelve fingers. It commences at the pylorus, and ascends obliquely backward to the under surface of the liver. It then descends perpendicularly in front of the right kidney, and passes transversely across the lower portion of the spinal column, behind the colon, and terminates in the jejunum. The ducts from the liver and pancreas open into the perpendicular portion, about six inches from the stomach.

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