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A Study of Fairy Tales
by Laura F. Kready
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One must not forget Peter Rabbit—that captivating, realistic fairy tale by Beatrix Potter—and his companions, Benjamin Bunny, Pigling Bland, Tom Kitten, and the rest, of which children never tire. Peter Rabbit undoubtedly holds a place as a kindergarten classic. In somewhat the same class of merry animal tales is Tommy and the Wishing Stone, a series of tales by Thornton Burgess, in St. Nicholas, 1915. Here the child enjoys the novel transformation of becoming a Musk-rat, a Ruffed Grouse, a Toad, Honker the Goose, and other interesting personages. A modern fairy tale which is received gladly by children is Ludwig and Marleen, by Jane Hoxie. Here we have the friendly Fox who grants to Ludwig the wishes he asks for Marleen. The theme parallels for the little people the charm of The Fisherman and His Wife, a Grimm tale suited to the second grade. Among modern animal tales The Elephant's Child[12], one of the Just-So Stories by Rudyard Kipling, ranks high as a fairy tale produced for little children by one of the great literary masters of the short-story.

A modern tale that is a bit of pure imagination and seems an attempt to follow Grimm and Andersen, is A Quick-Running Squash, in Aspinwall's Short Stories for Short People. It uses the little boy's interest in a garden—his garden.—Interest centers about the fairy, the magic seed, the wonderful ride, and the happy ending. It uses the simple, everyday life and puts into it the unusual and the wonderful where nothing is impossible. It blends the realistic and the romantic in a way that is most pleasing. The Rich Goose, by Leora Robinson, in the Outlook, is an accumulative tale with an interesting ending and surprise. Why the Morning Glory Climbs, by Elizabeth McCracken, in Miss Bryant's How to Tell Stories, is a simple fanciful tale. The Discontented Pendulum, by Jane Taylor, in Poulssen's In the Child's World, is a good illustration of the modern purely fanciful tale. What Bunch and Joker saw in the Moon, in Wide-Awake Chatterbox, about 1887, is a most delightful modern fanciful tale, although it is best suited to the child of nine or ten. Greencap, by Ruth Hays, in St. Nicholas, June, 1915, appeals to the child through the experience of Sarah Jane, whose Mother and Father traveled to India. Sarah went to live with Aunt Jane and there met Greencap who granted the proverbial "three wishes." Alice in Wonderland ranks in a class by itself among modern fanciful tales but it is better suited to the child of the third and fourth grades.

A modern fairy tale which is suited to the child's simplicity and which will stimulate his own desire to make a tale, is The Doll Who Was Sister to a Princess, one of the Toy Stories by Carolyn Bailey which have been published by the Kindergarten Review during 1914-15. Among modern tales selected from Fairy Stories Re-told from St. Nicholas, appear some interesting ones which might be read to the little child, or told in the primary grades. Among these might be mentioned:—

The Ballad of the Blacksmith's Sons, a modern tale in verse by Mary E. Wilkins.

Casperl, by H.C. Bunner, a modern Sleeping Beauty tale. This tale has the virtue of not being complex and elaborate. It has the underlying idea that "People who are helping others have a strength beyond their own."

Ten Little Dwarfs, by Sophie Dorsey, from the French of Emile Souvestre. It tells of the ten little Dwarfs who lived in the Good-wife's fingers.

Wondering Tom, by Mary Mapes Dodge. This is a bright story of a boy who Hamlet-like, hesitated to act. Tom was always wondering. The story contains a fairy, Kumtoo-thepoynt, who sat on a toadstool and looked profound. It is realistic and romantic and has fine touches of humor. It tells how Wondering Tom became transformed into a Royal Ship-Builder.

How An Elf Set Up Housekeeping, by Anne Cleve. This is a good tale of fancy. An Elf set up housekeeping in a lily and obtained a curtain from a spider, down from a thistle, a stool from a toad who lived in a green house in the wood, etc.

The Wish-Ring, translated from the German by Anne Eichberg. This is a tale with the implied message that "The best way to secure one's best wish is to work for it."

The Hop-About Man, by Agnes Herbertson, in Little Folks Magazine, is a very pleasing modern romantic fairy tale for little children. Wee Wun was a gnome who lived in the Bye-Bye meadow in a fine new house which he loved. As he flew across the Meadow he had his pockets full of blue blow-away seeds. In the Meadow he found a pair of shoes, of blue and silver, and of course he took them home to his new house. But first he scattered the blue blow-away seeds over the garden wall in the Stir-About-Wife's garden where golden dandelions grew. And the seeds grew and crowded out the dandelions. Next day Wee Wun found a large blue seed which he planted outside his house; and on the following morning a great blue blow-away which had grown in a night, made his house dark. So he went to the Green Ogre to get him to take it away. When he came home he found, sitting in his chair, the Hop-About-Man, who had come to live with him. He had been forewarned of this coming by the little blue shoes when they hopped round the room singing:—

Ring-a-ding-dill, ring-a-ding-dill, The Hop-About-Man comes over the hill. Why is he coming, and what will he see? Rickety, rackety,—one, two, three.

The story then describes Wee Wun's troubles with the Hop-About-Man, who remained an unwelcome inhabitant of the house where Wee Wun liked to sit all alone. The Hop-About-Man made everything keep hopping about until Wee Wun would put all careless things straight, and until he would give back to him his blue-and-silver shoes. One day, Wee Wun became a careful housekeeper and weeded out of the dandelion garden all the blue blow-away plants that grew from the seeds he had scattered there in the Stir-About-Wife's garden, and when he came home his troubles were over, and the Hop-About-Man was gone.

Perhaps one reason for the frequent failure of the modern fairy tale is that it fails to keep in harmony with the times. Just as the modern novel has progressed from the romanticism of Hawthorne, the realism of Thackeray, through the psychology of George Eliot, and the philosophy of George Meredith, so the little child's story—which like the adult story is an expression of the spirit of the times—must recognize these modern tendencies. It must learn, from Alice in Wonderland and from A Child's Garden of Verses, that the modern fairy tale is not a Cinderella or Sleeping Beauty, but the modern fairy tale is the child's mind. The real fairy world is the strangeness and beauty of the child mind's point of view. It is the duty and privilege of the modern fairy tale to interpret the child's psychology and to present the child's philosophy of life.



REFERENCES

Century Co.: St. Nicholas Magazine, 1915; St. Nicholas Fairy Stories Re-told.

Gates, Josephine: "And Piped Those Children Back Again," (Pied Piper) St. Nicholas, Nov., 1914.

Hays, Ruth: "Greencap," St. Nicholas, June, 1915.

Hazlitt, William; Essays. ("Wit and Humor.") Camelot Series. Scott.

Hooker, B.: "Narrative and the Fairy Tale," Bookman, 33: June and July, 1911, pp. 389-93, pp. 501-05.

Ibid: "Types of Fairy Tales," Forum, 40: Oct., 1908, pp. 375-84.

Martin, John: John Martin's Book (Magazine), 1915

Meredith, George: The Comic Spirit. Scribners.

Moulton, Alice O'Grady, and Literature Committee: "Humorous Tales" Kindergarten Review, Dec, 1914.

Perry, Bliss: A Study of Prose Fiction. ("The Romantic" and "The Realistic") Houghton.



CHAPTER VI

SOURCES OF MATERIAL FOR FAIRY TALES: A LIST OF FAIRY TALES, PICTURES, PICTURE-BOOKS, POEMS, AND BOOKS

Shall we permit our children, without scruple, to hear any fables composed by any authors indifferently, and so to receive into their minds opinions generally the reverse of those which, when they are grown to manhood, we shall think they ought to entertain?—PLATO, in The Republic.

Any list of fairy tales for little children must be selected from those books which, as we have noted, contain the best collections of folk-lore, and from books which contain tales that rank as classics. An examination of the tales of Perrault, of Grimm, of Dasent, of Andersen, of Jacobs, of Harris, and of miscellaneous tales, to see what are suited to the little child, would result in the following lists of tales. Those most worthy of study for the kindergarten are marked with an asterisk and those suited to the first grade are marked "1." No attempt has been made to mention all the varied sources of a tale or its best version. The Boston Public Library issues a Finding List of Fairy Tales and Folk Stories, which may be procured easily, and the Carnegie Library at Pittsburg issues in its monthly bulletin for December, 1913, vol. 18, no. 10, a List of Folk-Tales, and other stories which may be dramatized. The Baker, Taylor Company, in 1914, issued a Graded Guide to Supplementary Reading, which contains a list of many of the best editions of folk and fairy tales suited to primary grades. A list of school editions is included in this book. But one cannot fail to be impressed with the general low literary standard of many school editions of fairy tales when judged by the standards here applied to the tales themselves.—

I. A List of Fairy Tales and Folk Tales

Tales of Perrault:

* CINDERELLA. 1 LITTLE THUMB. 1 PUSS-IN BOOTS. * RED RIDING HOOD. 1 SLEEPING BEAUTY. 1 THE THREE WISHES.

Tales of the Grimms:

1 BIRDIE AND LENA. 1 BRIAR ROSE. * THE CAT AND THE MOUSE IN PARTNERSHIP. 1 CHANTICLEER AND PARTLET. 1. HOW THEY WENT TO THE HILLS TO EAT NUTS. 2. THE VISIT TO M KORBES. 3. THE DEATH OF PARTLETT. * CINDERELLA. * THE ELVES AND THE SHOEMAKER. THE FOX AND THE GEESE. 1 THE HARE AND THE HEDGEHOG. 1 THE HOUSE IN THE WOOD. * THE KING OF THE BIRDS. 1 LITTLE BROTHER AND SISTER 1 THE LITTLE LAMB AND THE LITTLE FISH. * LITTLE RED-CAP. 1 LITTLE SNOW WHITE. 1 LITTLE TWO-EYES. MOTHER HOLLE. 1 THE NOSE. 1 SNOW WHITE AND ROSE RED. * THE SPARROW AND HIS FOUR CHILDREN. STAR DOLLARS. * THE SPIDER AND THE FLEA. * THE STRAW, THE COAL, AND THE BEAN. * THE TOWN MUSICIANS OF BREMEN. THE WILLOW WREN AND THE BEAR. * THE WOLF AND THE SEVEN KIDS. * THE WONDERFUL PORRIDGE POT.

Norse Tales:

COCK AND HEN. THE COCK AND HEN A-NUTTING. THE COCK AND HEN THAT WENT TO THE DOVREFELL. COCK, CUCKOO, AND BLACK COCK. * DOLL I' THE GRASS. 1 GERTRUDE'S BIRD. 1 KATIE WOODENCLOAK (read). 1 THE LAD WHO WENT TO THE NORTH WIND. 1 LORD PETER (read). ONE'S OWN CHILDREN ABE ALWAYS PRETTIEST. * THREE BILLY GOATS. 1 THUMBIKIN (read). * WHY THE BEAR IS STUMPY-TAILED (pourquois).

English Tales, by Jacobs:

* THE CAT AND THE MOUSE. * HENNY PENNY. 1 THE HISTORY OF TOM THUMB. * HOW JACK WENT TO SEEK HIS FORTUNE. 1 JACK AND THE BEAN-STALK. * JOHNNY CAKE. * LAZY JACK. * THE MAGPIE'S NEST. 1 MASTER OF ALL MASTERS. * M MIACCA. 1 M VINEGAR. * THE OLD WOMAN AND HER PIG. * PUDDOCK, MOUSIE, AND RATTON. 1 SCRAPEFOOT. * THE STORY OF THREE BEARS. * THE STORY OF THREE LITTLE PIGS. * TEENY TINY. * TITTY MOUSE AND TATTY MOUSE.

Modern Fairy Tales, by Andersen:

* THE FIR TREE. * FIVE PEAS IN A POD. 1 THE HAPPY FAMILY (retold in Tales of Laughter). LITTLE IDA'S FLOWERS (read). * OLE-LUK-OLE (read to end of Thursday). THURSDAY, WEDDING OF A MOUSE. * THE PRINCESS AND THE PEA. * THE SNOW MAN. 1 THE STEADFAST TIN SOLDIER. THE TOP AND THE BALL. * THUMBELINA. WHAT THE MOON SAW: * LITTLE GIRL AND CHICKENS. * THE NEW FROCK (realistic). * LITTLE CHIMNEY SWEEP. * BEAR WHO PLAYED "SOLDIERS." * BREAD AND BUTTER.

Uncle Remus Tales, by Harris, in Nights with Uncle Remus:

* BRER RABBIT AND THE LITTLE TAR BABY. * BROTHER RABBIT AND THE LITTLE GIRL. * BROTHER RABBIT TAKES A WALK. * BROTHER RABBIT TAKES SOME EXERCISE. * CUTTA CORD-LA (similar to Wolf and Seven Kids). * How BROTHER RABBIT BROKE UP A PARTY. * How BROTHER RABBIT FRIGHTENS HIS NEIGHBORS. * How M ROOSTER LOST HIS DINNER (read). * IN SOME LADY'S GARDEN. * M BENJAMIN RAM (Brother Rabbit's Riddle). * THE MOON IN THE MILL-POND (pourquois). * WHY BROTHER BEAK HAS NO TAIL (pourquois). * WHY M DOG RUNS AFTER BROTHER RABBIT. * WHY GUINEA FOWLS ARE SPECKLED (pourquois).

Uncle Remus Tales, by Harris, in Uncle Remus and the Little Boy:

* BROTHER BILLY GOAT'S DINNER. BROTHER FOX SMELLS SMOKE. * BROTHER RABBIT AND BROTHER TIGER. * BROTHER RABBIT AND BROTHER LION (similar to The Dog and His Shadow). * BROTHER MUD-TURTLE'S TRICKERY. * BROTHER RABBIT'S MONEY MINT. 1 BROTHER WOLF SAYS GRACE. 1 THE FIRE TEST (Use with Three Pigs). FUN AT THE FERRY. * HEYO, HOUSE. THE LITTLE RABBITS. MRS. PARTRIDGE HAS A FIT. WHY BROTHER FOX'S LEGS ARE BLACK. * WHY THE HAWK CATCHES CHICKENS.

Tale, by Harris, in Little Mr. Thimblefinger:

* WHY BILLY-GOAT'S TAIL IS SHORT.

Miscellaneous Tales:

* THE ADVENTURES OF LITTLE FIELD MOUSE, Stories to Tell, Bryant. * BETA AND THE LAME GIANT, Miss Harrison, In Storyland. * BILLY BOBTAIL, Jane Hoxie, Kindergarten Stories; Child-Lore Dramatic Reader, Scribners. * BLUNDER AND THE WISHING GATE, Louise Chollet, in Child Life in Prose, Whittier. * THE BOY AND THE GOAT, OR THE GOAT IN THE TURNIP FIELD (Norwegian), Primer, Free and Treadwell; Child-Lore Dramatic Reader, Scribners. * THE CAP THAT MOTHER MADE OR ANDER'S NEW CAP (Swedish), Swedish Fairy Tales, McClurg; For the Story-Teller, Bailey. 1 THE CAT AND THE PARROT OR THE GREEDY CAT, HOW to Tell Stories, Bryant; Tales of Laughter, Wiggin and Smith. 1 THE CAT THAT WAITED, Classics in Dramatic Form, vol. I, Stevenson. * THE CAT, THE COCK, AND THE FOX, Tales of Laughter, Wiggin and Smith. 1 CLYTIE, Nature Myths, Flora Cooke. 1 THE COCK, THE MOUSE, AND THE LITTLE RED HEN, Felicite Lefevre, Jacobs. * THE COUNTRY MOUSE AND THE CITY MOUSE, AEsop's Fables, Joseph Jacobs. * DAME WIGGINS AND HER CATS, Mrs. Sharp, in Six Nursery Classics, Heath. * THE DISCONTENTED PENDULUM, Jane Taylor, in In the Child's World, Poulsson. * THE DOLL WHO WAS SISTER TO A PRINCESS, THE TOY STORIES, Carolyn Bailey, Kindergarten Review, Dec., 1914. * DRAKESBILL, The Story-Teller's Book, O'Grady and Throop; The Fairy Ring, Wiggin and Smith; Firelight Stories, Bailey. * THE ELEPHANT'S CHILD, Just-So Stories, Kipling. 1 THE FIRST CHRISTMAS TREE, A Little Book of Profitable Tales, Eugene Field. 1 THE FIVE LITTLE PIGS, Katherine Pyle, in Wide Awake Second Reader, Little. * THE FOOLISH TIMID RABBIT, Jataka Tales Retold, Babbit. THE GOLDEN COCK, That's Why Stories, Bryce. 1 GOLDEN ROD AND ASTER, Nature Myths, Cooke. THE GRAIN OF CORN (Old Woman and Her Pig), Tales of the Punjab, Steel. 1 GREENCAP, Ruth Hays, in St. Nicholas, June, 1915. 1 HANS AND THE FOUR BIG GIANTS, Miss Harrison, In Storyland. 1 THE HEN THAT HATCHED DUCKS, Harriet Beecher Stowe, in Child Life in Prose, Whittier. * THE HOP-ABOUT-MAN, Agnes Herbertson, in The Story-Teller's Book, O'Grady and Throop; in Little Folks' Magazine. * THE HOUSE THAT JACK BUILT, Six Nursery Classics, D.C. Heath. 1 HOW BROTHER RABBIT FOOLED THE WHALE, Stories to Tell, Bryant. * HOW THE CAMEL GOT HIS HUMP, Just-So Stories, Kipling. 1 HOW THE CHIPMUNK GOT THE STRIPES ON ITS BACK, Nature Myths, Cooke. * HOW DOUBLE DARLING'S OLD SHOES BECAME LADY SLIPPERS, Candace Wheeler, in St. Nicholas, March, 1887; vol. 14, pp. 342-47. * HOW FIRE WAS BROUGHT TO THE INDIANS, The Book of Nature Myths, Holbrook. * HOW SUN, MOON, AND WEST WIND WENT OUT TO DINNER, Old Deccan Days, Frere. 1 THE JACKAL AND THE ALLIGATOR, Stories to Tell, Bryant. 1 THE JACKALS AND THE LION, Stories to Tell, Bryant. 1 KING SOLOMON AND THE ANTS, Nature Myths, Cooke. * THE LAMBIKIN, Tales of the Punjab, Steel; Indian Tales, Jacobs. * LITTLE JACK ROLLAROUND, Stories to Tell, Bryant. * THE LITTLE RABBIT WHO WANTED RED WINGS, For the Story-Teller, Bailey. * THE LITTLE RED HEN, Stories to Tell, Bryant. * THE LITTLE RED HIN (Irish dialect verse), Stories to Tell, Bryant. * THE LITTLE ROOSTER, Robert Southey, in Boston Collection of Kindergarten Stories, Hammett & Co. * LITTLE SPIDER'S FIRST WEB, Primer, Free and Treadwell. * LITTLE TOP-KNOT (Swedish), First Reader, Free and Treadwell. * LITTLE TUPPEN, Fairy Stories and Fables, Baldwin; Primer, Free and Treadwell. * LUDWIG AND MARLEEN, Jane Hoxie, in Kindergarten Review, vol. xi, no. 5. * MEDIO POLLITO, THE LITTLE HALF-CHICK (Spanish), The Green Fairy Book, Lang. * MEZUMI, THE BEAUTIFUL, OR THE RAT PRINCESS (Japanese), Birch-Tree Fairy Book, Johnson; Tales of Laughter, Wiggin and Smith. 1 M ELEPHANT AND M FROG, Firelight Stories, Bailey. 1 THE MOON'S SILVER CLOAK, Classics in Dramatic Form, Stevenson, vol. i. 1 THE MOUSE AND THE SAUSAGE, Stories and Story-Telling, Angela Keyes. * OEYVIND AND MARIT, from The Happy Boy, Bjoernstjerne Bjoernson, in The Story-Teller's Book, O'Grady and Throop; in Child-Life in Prose, Whittier. * PETER RABBIT, Peter Rabbit, Beatrix Potter. 1 THE PIGS AND THE GIANT, Pyle, in Child-Lore Dramatic Reader, Scribners. * THE QUICK-RUNNING SQUASH, Short Stories for Short People, Aspinwall. 1 THE RED-HEADED WOODPECKER, Nature Myths, Cooke. * THE RICH GOOSE, Leora Robinson, in The Outlook. * THE ROBIN'S CHRISTMAS SONG, Birch-Tree Fairy Book, Johnson. * (WEE) ROBIN'S YULE SONG. Tales of Laughter, Wiggin and Smith. * THE SHEEP AND THE PIG (Scandinavian), For the Children's Hour, Bailey. * THE SPARROW AND THE CROW, Tales of the Punjab, Steel; Birch-Tree Fairy Book, Johnson. * THE STRAW OX, Cossack Fairy Tales, Bain. * STORY OF THE MORNING-GLORY SEED, M. Eytinge, Boston Kindergarten Stories. 1 THE TALE OF A BLACK CAT, Oak-Tree Fairy Book, Johnson. 1 TOMMY AND THE WISHING-STONE, a series, by T. Burgess, in St. Nicholas, 1915. 1 TRAVELS OF A FOX, Oak-Tree Fairy Book, Johnson. 1 THE TURTLE WHO COULDN'T STOP TALKING, Jataka Tales Retold, Babbit. * THE UNHAPPY PINE TREE, Classic Stories, McMurry. 1 What Bunch And Joker Saw In The Moon, Wide Awake Chatterbox, about 1887. 1 The White Cat, Fairy Tales, D'Aulnoy; Fairy Tales, Vol. II, Lansing. * Why The Evergreen Trees Never Lose Their Leaves, The Book Of Nature Myths, Holbrook. * Why The Juniper Has Berries, The Book Of Nature Myths, Holbrook.

* Why The Morning Glory Climbs, How to Tell Stories, Bryant.

1 The Wish Bird, Classics In Dramatic Form, Vol. II, Stevenson.

II. Bibliography Of Fairy Tales

Baker, Franklin T.: Bibliography Of Children's Reading. Introduction and lists. Teachers College, Columbia University.

Baker Taylor Company, The: Graded Guide to Supplementary Reading. 1914.

Boston Public Library: Finding List of Fairy Tales.

Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh. List of Folk Tales. Bulletin, Dec, 1913, Vol. 18, No. 10.

Ibid.: Illustrated Editions of Children's Books. 1915.

Harron, Julia; Bacon, Corinne; and Dana, John: American Library Economy. Newark Free Library, Newark, New Jersey.

Haight, Rachel Webb: "Fairy Tales." Bulletin of Bibliography, 1912. Boston Book Co.

Hewins, Caroline: A.L.A. List. Books for Boys and Girls. Third Edition, 1913. A.L.A. Pub. Board, Chicago.

Kready, Laura F.: "Picture-Books For Little Children." Kindergarten Review, Sept., 1914.

Moulton, Alice O'Grady, and Literature Com. of I.K.U.: "Humorous Stories for Children." Kindergarten Review, Dec, 1914.

Salisbury, G.E., and Beckwith, M.E.: Index to Short Stories. St. Louis Public Library. Lists of Stories and Programs for Story Hours. Give best versions.

Widdemer, Margaret: "A Bibliography of Books and Articles Relating to Children's Reading. Part I, Children's Reading in general. Part II, History of Children's Literature, etc. Part III, Guidance of Children's Reading." Bulletin of Bibliography, July, 1911, Oct., 1911, and Jan., 1912. Boston Book Co.

III. A List of Picture-Books[13]

Beskow, Elsa: Hanschen im Blaubeerenwald. Stuttgart.

Brooke, Leslie: The Golden Goose Book. F. Warne.

Ibid.: The House in the Wood. F. Warne.

Ibid.: The Truth About Old King Cole. F. Warne.

Browning, Robert: The Pied Piper, Kate Greenaway, F. Warne; Hope Dunlap, Rand; T. Butler Stoney, Dutton.

Caldecott, Randolph: Picture-Books: 2. The House that Jack Built. F. Warne. 3. Hey Diddle Diddle Book. F. Warne.

Coussens, P.W.: A Child's Book of Stories. Jessie W. Smith. Duffield.

Crane, Walter: Picture-Books: Cinderella. John Lane. Mother Hubbard. John Lane. Red Riding Hood. John Lane. This Little Pig. John Lane.

Grimm, Jacob and William: Cruikshank Fairy Book. Cruikshank, Putnam.

Ibid.: Das Deutsche Bilderbuch. Jos. Scholz. 1. Doernroschen. 2. Aschenputtel. 7. Frau Holle. 10. Der Wolf und Sieben Geislein.

Ibid.: Liebe Maerchen. 10, 11, 12. Jos. Scholz.

Ibid.: Cherry Blossom. Helen Stratton. Blackie and Sons.

Jerrold, Walter: The Big Book of Fairy Tales. Robinson. Blackie.

Olfers, Sibylle: Windschen. J.F. Schreiber.

Ibid.: Wurzelkindern. J.F. Schreiber.

Sharp, Mrs.: Dame Wiggins of Lee. Introduction by Ruskin. Kate Greenaway. George Allen.



IV. A LIST OF PICTURES

Cinderella. 227, Meinhold. Dresden. 724, Meinhold. Dresden. 366, Teubner. Leipzig.

Canadian Magazine, Dec., 1911, by Val Prinsep, A. Elves. Arthur Rackham. St. Nicholas, Nov., 1914.

Ibid.: Book of Pictures. Century.

Hop-o'-my-Thumb. A Child's Own Book of Fairy Tales. Dore. H. Pisan, engraver. Elizabeth S. Forbes. Canadian Magazine, Dec., 1911.

Little Brother and Sister. Tempera Painting, Marianna Stokes. Illustrated London News, Dec., 1907.

Perrault's Tales. Kay Nielsen. Illustrated London News, Dec., 1913.

Red Riding Hood. Poster, Mary Stokes. Ladies' Home Journal. 230, Meinhold. Dresden. 77, Teubner. Leipzig and Berlin. G. Ferrier. Engraved for St. Nicholas, Braun, Clement, & Co. Supplement to American Primary Teacher, May, 1908. Picture, 2 ft. by 1 ft., New Specialty Shop, Phila., Pa.

Sleeping Beauty. Mouat, London. Canadian Magazine, Dec., 1911. Illustrated London News, Dec., 1907.

Snow White. A series. Maxfield Parrish. Picture by Elizabeth Shippen Green.

Two Series. Five pictures in each. Jessie Willcox Smith. P.F. Collier & Sons.

V. A LIST OF FAIRY POEMS

Allingham, William: The Fairy Folk. The Posy Ring. Bangs, John Kendrick: The Little Elf. The Posy Ring.

Bird, Robert: The Fairy Folk. A Child's Book of Old Verses.

Dodsley, R.: Red Caps of Fairies. Fuimus Troes, Old Plays.

Drayton, Michael: Nymphal III, Poets' Elysium.

Herford, Oliver: The Elf and the Dormouse. The Posy Ring.

Hood, Thomas: A Plain Direction. Heart of Oak Books, III.

Ibid.: Queen Mab. A Child's Book of Old Verses.

Howitt, Mary: The Fairies of the Caldon-Low. The Posy Ring.

Ibid.: Mabel on Midsummer Day. The Story-Teller's Book, O'Grady and Throop.

Lyly, John: The Urchin's Dance and Song. Song of the First Fairy. Song of the Second Fairy. Maydes Metamorphosis.

McDermot, Jessie: A Fairy Tale. Fairy Tales. Rolfe. Amer. Book Co.

Noyes, Alfred: The Magic Casement. An anthology of fairy poetry, with an introduction. Dutton.

Percy, Bishop: The Fairy Queen. Reliques of Ancient Poetry; from The Mysteries of Love and Eloquence, London, 1658.

Shakespeare, William: Ariel's Song; A Fairy Song; "I know a bank"; The Song of the Fairies. Shakespeare's Dramas.

Stevenson, Robert L. Fairy Bread; The Little Land. A Child's Garden of Verses.

Unknown Author: The Fairy. "Oh, who is so merry." A Child's Book of Old Verses. Duffield.

Wilkins, Mary E.: The Ballad of the Blacksmith's Sons. Fairy Stories Retold from St. Nicholas. Century.



VI. MAIN STANDARD FAIRY TALE BOOKS

Andersen, Hans Christian: Fairy Tales. 2 vols. Pedersen & Stone. Houghton.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Edited by W.A. and J.K. Craigie. Oxford University Press.

Ibid.: Fairy Stories for Youngest Children. Lucas. Stratton. Blackie. (English edition.)

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Mrs. Lucas. T.C. and W. Robinson. Dutton.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Mrs. Lucas. Helen Stratton. Dodge.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Maria L. Kirk. Lippincott.

Andersen, Hans Christian: Fairy Tales. Edmund Dulac. Hodder & Stoughton.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. W.H. Robinson. Holt.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Braekstad. Tegner. Introd. by Gosse. Century.

Asbjoernsen, P.C.: Fairy Tales from the Far North. Burt.

Ibid.: Round the Yule Log. Introd. by Gosse. Braekstad. Lippincott.

Dasent, Sir George W.: Popular Tales from the North. Routledge. Dutton.

Ibid.: Popular Tales from the North. Putnam.

Ibid.: Tales from the Field. Putnam.

Grimm, Jacob and William: Household Tales. Margaret Hunt. Bonn's Libraries, Bell & Co.

Ibid.: Household Tales. Lucy Crane. Walter Crane. Macmillan.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Helen Stratton. Dodge.

Ibid.: German Popular Stories. Tr. Edgar Taylor. Introd. by Ruskin. 22 illustrations by Cruikshank. Chatto & Windus.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Johann & Leinweber. McLoughlin.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Arthur Rackham. Doubleday.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Hope Dunlap. Rand.

Harris, Joel Chandler: Uncle Remus, His Songs and Sayings. Appleton.

Ibid.: Nights With Uncle Remus. Church. Houghton.

Ibid.: Uncle Remus and His Friends. Frost. Houghton.

Ibid.: Uncle Remus and the Little Boy. J.M. Comte. Small.

Jacobs, Joseph: English Fairy Tales. 2 vols. Batten. Putnam.

Ibid.: Celtic Fairy Tales. 2 vols. Batten. Putnam.

Ibid.: Indian Fairy Tales. Batten. Putnam.

Ibid.: The Most Delectable History of Reynard the Fox.

Frank Calderon. Macmillan.

Ibid.: Europa's Fairy Tales. Batten. Putnam.

O'Shea, M.V.: Old World Wonder Stories. Heath.

Perrault, Charles: Tales of Mother Goose. Welsh. Heath.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Appleton. Estes.

Perrault, Charles: Tales of Passed Times. Temple Classics. C. Robinson. Dutton.

Ibid.: Popular Tales. Edited by Andrew Lang. French; and English translation of original edition. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

VII. FAIRY TALES OF ALL NATIONS

Celtic. Jacobs. 1911. Putnam.

Chinese. Pitnam. 1910. Crowell.

Cossack. Bain. 1899. Burt.

Danish. Bay. 1899. Harper.

Donegal. McManus. 1900. Doubleday.

English. Jacobs. 1904. Putnam.

Ibid.: Folk and Fairy Stories. Hartland, born 1848. Camelot series.

French. DeSegur. 1799-1874. Winston.

German. Grimm. 1812, 1822. Bonn's Libraries.

Hungarian. Pogany. 1914. Stokes.

Indian. Old Deccan Days. Frere. 1868. McDonough.

Ibid.: Tales of the Sun. Mrs. Kingscote. 1890. W.H. Allen.

Ibid.: Buddhist Birth Stories. Rhys Davids. 1880. Trubner.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Stokes. 1880. Ellis & White.

Ibid.: Folk Tales of Bengal. Day. 1883. Macmillan.

Ibid.: Wide Awake Stories. Steel and Temple. 1884. Trubner.

Ibid.: Folk-Tales of Kashmir. Knowles. 1887. Trubner.

Ibid.: Tales of the Punjab. Steel. 1894. Macmillan.

Irish. Yeats. 1902. Burt.

Italian. Macdonell. 1911. Stokes.

Ibid.: Crane. 1885. Macmillan.

Japanese. Ozaki. 1909. Dutton.

Manx. Morrison. 1899. Nutt.

New World. Kennedy. 1904. Dutton.

Norse. Dasent. 1820-1896. Lippincott.

Ibid.: Mabie. 1846-. Dodd.

Papuan. Kerr. 1910. Macmillan.

Persian. Stephen. 1892. Dutton.

Ibid.: Clouston. 1907. Stokes.

Russian. Dole. 1907. Crowell.

Ibid.: Bain. Bilibin. 1914. Century.

Scottish. Grierson. 1910. Stokes.

South African. Honey. 1910. Baker & Taylor.

Welsh. Thomas. 1908. Stokes.

VIII. MISCELLANEOUS EDITIONS OF FAIRY TALES

D'Aulnoy, Madame: Fairy Tales. Trans, by Planche. Gordon Browne. McKay.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. Introd. by Anne T. Ritchie. Scribners.

Austin, M.H.: Basket Woman. Houghton.

Babbit, Ellen: Jataka Tales Retold. Century.

Bailey, Carolyn: Firelight Stories. Bradley.

Bailey and Lewis: For the Children's Hour. Bradley.

Baldwin, James: Fairy Stories and Fables. Amer. Book Co.

Barrie, J.M.: Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens. Rackham. Scribners.

Baumbach, Rudolf: Tales from Wonderland. Simmons.

Bertelli, Luigi: The Prince and His Ants. Holt.

Bryant, Sara C.: Best Stories to Tell to Children. Houghton.

Burgess, Thornton: Old Mother West Wind. Little.

Ibid.: The Adventures of Reddy Fox. Little.

Ibid.: The Adventures of Johnny Chuck. Little.

Ibid.: Tommy and the Wishing-stone. Animal Tales. St. Nicholas, 1915.

Chapin, Anna: The Now-a-Days Fairy Book. Jessie W. Smith. Dodd.

Chisholm, Louey: In Fairyland. Katherine Cameron. Putnam.

Ibid.: Little Red Riding Hood; Cinderella; (I Read Them Myself series). Dodge.

Collection: Half a Hundred Stories for Little People. Bradley.

Cooke, Flora J.: Nature Myths and Stories. Flanagan.

Cowell, E.B.: The Jatakas or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births. Tr. from the Pali. 6 vols. Cambridge University Press. Putnam. 1895-1907.

Crothers, Samuel McChord: Miss Muffet's Christmas Party. Houghton.

Emerson, Ellen: Indian Myths. Houghton.

Everyman Series: 157; 365; and 541. Dutton.

France, Anatole: The Honey Bee. John Lane.

Grover, Eulalie O., editor: Mother Goose. F. Richardson. Volland.

Harris, Joel C.: Little Mr. Thimblefinger. Houghton.

Harrison, Miss: In Storyland. Central Pub. Co., Chicago. Holbrook, Florence: The Book of Nature Myths. Houghton.

James, Grace: The Green Willow: Japanese. Goble. Macmillan.

Jerrold, Walter: The Reign of King Oberon. Robinson. Dent. Little.

Johnson, Clifton: Fairy Books: Oak-Tree; Birch-Tree; and Elm-Tree. Little.

Ibid.: Book of Fairy Tale Bears. Houghton.

Ibid.: Book of Fairy Tale Foxes. Houghton.

Kingsley, Charles: Water-Babies. Warwick Goble. Macmillan.

Ibid.: Water-Babies. Introd, by Rose Kingsley. Margaret Tarrant. Dutton.

Kipling, Rudyard: Jungle Books. 2 vols. Original edition. Century.

Ibid.: Jungle Books. M. and E. Detmold. Century.

Ibid.: Jungle Books. A. Rackham. Doubleday.

Ibid.: Just-So Stories. Doubleday.

Ibid.: Puck of Pook's Hill. Doubleday.

Ibid.: Rewards and Fairies. Doubleday.

Laboulaye, Edouard: Fairy Book. Harper.

Ibid.: Last Fairy Tales. Harper.

Lang, Andrew: Fairy Books: Red; Orange; Yellow; Green; Blue; Violet; Gray; Crimson; Brown; Pink. Longmans.

Lansing, Marion: Rhymes and Stories. Ginn.

Ibid.: Fairy Tales. 2 vols. Ginn.

Leamy, Edward: Golden Spears. FitzGerald.

Lefevre, Felicite: The Cock, the Mouse, and the Little Red Hen. Tony Sarg. Jacobs, Phila.

Lindsay, Maud: Mother Stories; More Mother Stories. Bradley.

Maeterlinck, Madam: The Children's Bluebird. Dodd.

Molesworth, Mary Louise: The Cuckoo Clock. Maria Kirk. Lippincott.

Mulock, Miss: The Fairy Book. Boyd Smith. Crowell.

Ibid.: Fairy Book. 32 illus. by W. Goble. Macmillan.

Ibid.: Little Lame Prince. Hope Dunlap. Rand.

Musset, Paul de: Mr. Wind and Madam Rain. Bennett. Putnam.

Nyblom, Helena: Jolly Cable and other Swedish Fairy Tales. Folknin. Dutton.

Olcott, Frances J.: Arabian Nights. Tr. by Lane. Cairo text. Selections. Holt.

Perrault, Charles: The Story of Bluebeard. Stone & Kimball, Chicago.

Poulsson, E.: In the Child's World. Bradley.

Pyle, Howard: The Garden Behind the Moon. Scribners.

Ibid.: Wonder-Clock. Harper.

Pyle, Katherine: Fairy Tales from Many Lands. Dutton.

Rackham, Arthur: Mother Goose. Century.

Rame, Louise de la (Ouida): Nuernberg Stove: Bimbi Stories for Children. Page.

Rhys, Ernest: Fairy Gold. Herbert Cole. Dutton.

Rolfe, William: Fairy Tales in Prose and Verse. Amer. Book Co.

Shakespeare, William: Midsummer Night's Dream. With forty illustrations in color by Arthur Rackham. Doubleday.

Shedlock, Marie: A Collection of Eastern Stories and Legends. Foreword by T. Rhys Davids. Dutton.

Smith, Jessie Willcox: Mother Goose. Dodd.

Stephen, A.: Fairy Tales of a Parrot. Ellis. Nister. Dutton.

Stockton, F.: The Queen's Museum. F. Richardson. Scribners.

Tappan, Eva March: The Children's Hour: Folk Stories and Fables. Houghton.

Thorne-Thomson: East o' the Sun and West o' the Moon. Row.

Underhill, Zoe D.: The Dwarf's Tailor. Harper.

Valentine, Mrs. Laura: Old, Old Fairy Tales. F. Warne.

Welsh, Charles: Fairy Tales Children Love. Dodge.

Wheeler, W.A.: Mother Goose Melodies. Houghton.

Wiggin, Kate; and Smith, Nora: The Fairy Ring: Tales of Laughter: Magic Casements: and Tales of Wonder. Doubleday.



IX. SCHOOL EDITIONS OF FAIRY TALES

Alderman, E.A.: Classics Old and New. Amer. Book Co.

Alexander, G.: Child Classics. Bobbs.

Baker, F.T., and Carpenter, G.: Language Readers. Macmillan.

Baldwin, James: The Fairy Reader, I and II. Amer. Book Co.

Blaisdell, Etta (MacDonald): Child Life in Tale and Fable. Macmillan.

Blumenthal, Verra: Fairy Tales from the Russian. Rand.

Brooks, Dorothy: Stories of Red Children. Educational.

Bryce, Catherine: Child-Lore Dramatic Reader. Scribners.

Burchill, Ettinger: Progressive Road to Reading, Readers. Silver.

Chadwick, Mara P.: Three Bears Story Primer. Educational.

Chadwick, M.P. and Freeman, E.G.: Chain Stories and Playlets: The Cat That Was Lonesome: The Mouse That Lost Her Tail; and The Woman and Her Pig. World Book Co.

Coe and Christie: Story Hour Readers. Amer. Book Co.

Craik, Georgiana: So Fat and Mew Mew. Heath.

Davis, M.H. and Leung, Chow: Chinese Fables and Folk Stories. Amer. Book. Co.

Dole, C.F.: Crib and Fly. Heath.

Free and Treadwell: Reading Literature Series. Row, Peterson.

Grover, Eulalie O.: Folk Lore Primer. Atkinson.

Hale, E.E.: Arabian Nights. Selections. Ginn.

Heath, D.C.: Dramatic Reader. Heath.

Henderson, Alice: Andersen's Best Fairy Tales. Rand.

Hix, Melvin: Once Upon a Time Stories. Longmans.

Holbrook, Florence: Dramatic Reader for the Lower Grades. Amer. Book Co.

Howard, F.W.: The Banbury Cross Stories: The Fairy Gift and Tom Hickathrift. Merrill.

Johnston, E.; and Barnum, M.: Book of Plays for Little Actors. Amer. Book. Co.

Kennerley: The Kipling Reader. 2 vols. Appleton.

Ketchum and Rice: Our First Story Reader. Scribners.

Lang, Andrew: Fairy Readers. Longmans.

Lansing, M.: Tales of Old England. Ginn.

Mabie, H.: Fairy Tales Every Child Should Know. Doubleday.

McMahon, H., M., and A.: Rhyme and Story Primer. Heath.

McMurry, Mrs. Lida B.: Classic Stories. Public School Pub. Co.

Norton, Charles E.: Heart of Oak Books. Heath.

Norvell, F.T., and Haliburton, M.W.: Graded Classics. Johnson.

Perkins, F.O.: The Bluebird Arranged for Schools. Silver.

Pratt, Mara L.: Legends of Red Children. Amer. Book Co.

Roulet, Mary Nixon: Japanese Folk-Stories and Fairy Tales. Amer. Book Co.

Scudder, H.: Andersen's Fairy Tales: Grimm's Fairy Tales; Fables and Folk Stories; The Children's Book. Houghton.

Smythe, Louise: Reynard the Fox. Amer. Book Co.

Spaulding and Bryce: Aldine Readers. Newson.

Stevenson, Augusta: Children's Classics in Dramatic Form. 5 vols. Houghton.

Stickney, J.H.: Andersen's Fairy Tales. 2 series. Ginn.

Summers, Maud: The Summers Readers. Beattys.

Turpin, E.H.: Andersen's Fairy Tales. Merrill.

Underwood, Kate: Fairy Tale Plays (For Infants and Juniors). Macmillan.

University Pub. Co.: Fairy Tales. Standard Literature Series; Hans Andersen's Best Stories; Grimm's Best Stories. Newson and Co.

Van Sickle, J.H., etc.: The Riverside Readers. Houghton.

Varney, Alice: Story Plays Old and New. Amer. Book Co.

Villee: Little Folk Dialog Reader. Sower.

Wade, Mary H.: Indian Fairy Tales. Wilde.

Washburne, Mrs. M.: Old-Fashioned Fairy Tales (Retold from poetic versions of Thomas Hood). Rand.

White, Emma G.: Pantomime Primer. Amer. Book Co.

Williston, P.: Japanese Fairy Tales. 2 series. Rand.

Wiltse, Sara E.: Folk Lore Stories and Proverbs. Ginn.

Wohlfarth, J., and McMurry, Frank: Little Folk-Tales. 2 vols.

Zitkala-sa: Old Indian Legends. Ginn.



APPENDIX

ILLUSTRATIONS OF CREATIVE RETURN[14]

Tales suited for dramatization

Little Two-Eyes

Little Two-Eyes, which is suited to the first-grade child, is one of the most attractive of folk-tales and contains blended within itself the varied beauties of the tales. It is in cante-fable form, which gives it the poetic touch so appealing to children. It contains the magic rhymes,—

Little kid, bleat, I wish to eat!

Little kid, bleat, Clear it off, neat!

the fairy wise woman, and the friendly goat. It contains the fairy housekeeping in the forest which combines tea-party, picnic, and magic food—all of which could not fail to delight children. The lullaby to put Two-Eyes to sleep suits little children who know all there is to know about "going to sleep." The magic tree, the silver leaves, the golden fruit, the knight and his fine steed, and the climax of the tale when the golden apple rolls from under the cask—all possess unusual interest. There is exceptional beauty in the setting of this tale; and its message of the worth of goodness places it in line with Cinderella. It should be dramatized as two complete episodes, each of three acts:—

The Goat Episode

Place The home and the forest.

Time Summer.

Act I, Scene i. A home scene showing how the Mother and Sisters despised Two-Eyes.

Scene ii. Two-Eyes and the Fairy.

Scene iii. Two-Eyes and the Goat. Evening of the first day.

Act II, Scene i. One-Eye went with Two-Eyes. Third morning. Song ... Feast ... Return home.

Act III, Scene i. Three-Eyes went with Two-Eyes. Fourth morning. Song ... Feast ... Return home.

The Story of Two-Eyes

Place The forest; and the magic tree before the house.

Time Summer.

Act I, Scene i. Two-Eyes and the Fairy.

Act II, Scene i. The magic tree. Mother and Sisters attempt to pluck the fruit.

Act III, Scene i. The Knight. Second attempt to pluck fruit. Conclusion. The happy marriage.

Snow White

The Story of Snow White is one of the romantic fairy tales which has been re-written and staged as a play for children, and now may be procured in book form. It was produced by Winthrop Ames at the Little Theatre in New York City. The dramatization by Jessie Braham White followed closely the original tale. The entire music was composed by Edmond Rickett, who wrote melodies for a number of London Christmas pantomimes. The scenery, by Maxfield Parrish, was composed of six stage pictures, simple, harmonious, and beautiful, with tense blue skies, a dim suggestion of the forest, and the quaint architecture of the House of the Seven Dwarfs. Pictures in old nursery books were the models for the scenes. Because of the simplicity of the plot and the few characters, Snow White could be played very simply in four scenes, by the children of the second and third grades for the kindergarten and first grade.

Snow White

Scene i. A Festival on the occasion of Snow White's sixteenth birthday.

Scene ii. In the Forest.

Scene iii. A Room in the House of the Seven Dwarfs.

Scene iv. The Reception to Snow White as Queen, on the grounds near the young King's Palace.

The beautiful character of Snow White; the glimpse of Dwarf life—the kindly little men with their unique tasks and their novel way of living; the beauty and cheer of Snow White which her housekeeping brought into their home; their devotion to her; the adventure in the wood; the faithful Huntsman; the magic mirror; the wicked Queen; and the Prince seeking the Princess—all contribute to the charm of the tale. The songs written for the play may be learned by the children, who will love to work them into their simple play: Snow White, as fair as a lily, as sweet as a rose; the song of the forest fairies, Welcome, Snow White; and their second song which they sing as they troop about Snow White lying asleep on the Dwarf's bed, Here you'll find a happy home, softly sleep! or the song of Snow White to the Dwarfs, I can brew, I can bake.

The Little Lamb and the Little Fish

Once upon a time there lived a sister and a brother who loved each other very much. They were named Gretchen and Peterkin. One day their father who was King of the country, left them and brought home with him a new Queen who was not kind to the children. She banished them from the castle and told the King bad tales about them. So they made friends with the Cook and ate in the kitchen. Peterkin would bring water and Gretchen could carry plates and cups and saucers.

One beautiful spring day when all the children were out-of-doors playing games, Gretchen and Peterkin went to play with them, by the pond, on the meadow, beyond the castle wall. Around this pond the children would run, joining hands and singing:—

"Eneke, Beneke, let me live, And I to you my bird will give; The bird shall fetch of straw a bunch, And that the cow shall have to munch; The cow shall give me milk so sweet, And that I'll to the baker take, Who with it shall a small cake bake; The cake the cat shall have to eat, And for it catch a mouse for me, * * * * * "And this is the end of the tale."

Round and round the pond the children ran singing; and as the word "tale" fell on Peterkin he had to run away over the meadow and all the rest ran after to catch him.

But just then the wicked Queen from her window in the castle spied the happy children. She did not look pleased and she muttered words which you may be sure were not very pleasant words.

The children had been racing across the meadow after Peterkin. Now one called, "Where is Peterkin? I saw him near that tree, but now I cannot see him. Gretchen, can you see Peterkin?—Why, where's Gretchen?"

Peterkin and Gretchen were nowhere to be seen. Suddenly a little boy said, "Where did that lamb come from over there? It must have been behind the linden tree!"

The children drew near the lamb, when what was their surprise to hear it call out to them, "Run children, run quick or the Queen will harm you! I am Gretchen! Run, and never come near the pond again!" And at the little Lamb's words the children fled.

But the little Lamb ran all about the meadow, calling, "Peterkin, Peterkin!" and would not touch a blade of grass. Sadly she walked to the edge of the pond and slowly walked round and round it calling, "Peterkin, where are you?"

Suddenly the water bubbled and a weak voice cried, "Here, Gretchen, in the pond,—

"Here Gretchen, here swim I in the pond, Nor may I ever come near castle ground."

And the Lamb replied:—

"Ah, my brother! In the wood, A lamb, now I must search for food."

Then Peterkin comforted Gretchen and promised early every morning to come up to the water to talk with her; and Gretchen promised to come early from the wood, before the sun was up, to be with Peterkin. And Peterkin said, "I will never forsake you, Gretchen, if you will never forsake me!" And Gretchen said, "I will never forsake you, Peterkin, if you will never forsake me!"

Then the little Lamb fled sadly to the wood to look for food and the little Fish swam round the pond. But the children did not forget their playmates. Every day they saved their goodies and secretly laid them at the edge of the wood where the Lamb could get them. And the Lamb always saved some to throw the crumbs to the little Fish in the morning.

Many days passed by. One day visitors were coming to the castle. "Now is my chance," thought the wicked Queen. So she said to the Cook, "Go, fetch me the lamb out of the meadow, for there is nothing else for the strangers!"

Now the Lamb had lingered by the pond longer than usual that morning so that the Cook easily caught her; and taking her with him tied her to the tree just outside the kitchen. But when the Cook was gone to the kitchen, the little Fish swam up from the pond into the little brook that ran by the tree and said—

"Ah, my sister, sad am I, That so great harm to you is nigh! And far from you I love must be, A-swimming in the deep, deep sea!"

And the Lamb replied:—

"Ah, my brother in the pond, Sad must I leave you, though I'm fond; The cook has come to take my life, Swim off to sea,—Beware!"

Just then the Cook came back and hearing the Lamb speak became frightened. Thinking it could not be a real lamb, he said, "Be still, I will not harm you. Run, hide in the wood, and when it is evening, come to the edge of the wood and I will help you!"

Then the Cook caught another lamb and dressed it for the guests. And before evening he went to a wise woman who happened to be the old Nurse who had taken care of Peterkin and Gretchen. She loved the children and she soon saw what the wicked Queen had done. She told the Cook what the Lamb and Fish must do to regain their natural forms.

As soon as it was dark the little Lamb came to the edge of the wood and the Cook said, "Little Lamb, I will tell you what you must do to be a maid again!" So the Cook whispered what the wise Woman had said. The little Lamb thanked the Cook and promised to do as he said.

Next morning very early before the break of day, the little Lamb hurried from the wood across the meadow. Not taking time to go near the pond she hastily pushed against the castle gate which the kind Cook had left unfastened for her. She ran up the path, and there under the Queen's window stood the beautiful rose-tree with only two red roses on it—just as the Cook had said. Not even glancing at the Queen's window, the little Lamb began nibbling the lowest one. And behold, there in the path stood Gretchen again! Then hastening to seize the other rose before the sun's first ray might touch it, she ran lightly down the path, away from castle ground, across the meadow to the pond. Calling little Fish to the water's edge—for he had lingered in the pond—she sprinkled over him the drops of dew in the heart of the rose. And there stood little Peterkin beside Gretchen!

Then hand in hand, Gretchen and Peterkin hurried from the pond and fled into the wood just as the sun began to show beyond the trees. There they built themselves a cottage and lived in it happily ever afterwards. The kind Cook and the wise Nurse found them and visited them. But Gretchen and Peterkin never went near castle ground until the Cook told them the Queen was no more.—Laura F. Kready.

How the Birds came to Have Different Nests Time....

Once upon a time when pigs spoke rhyme, And monkeys chewed tobacco. And hens took snuff to make them tough, And ducks went quack, quack, quack, O!

Place. ... Madge Magpie's Nest up in a Tree-top.

Characters: Madge Magpie, the Teacher; Thrush, Blackbird, Owl, Sparrow, Starling, and Turtle-Dove.

All the Birds. "We have come to you, Madge Magpie, to ask you to teach us how to build nests. All the Birds tell how clever you are at building nests."

Magpie. "Make a circle round about the foot of this old pear-tree. I will sit upon this limb near my nest and show you how to do it. First I take some mud and make a fine round cake with it."

Thrush. "Oh, that's how it's done, is it? I'll hurry home! Goodbye, Birds, I can't stay another minute!

"Mud in a cake, mud in a cake, To-whit, to-whee, a nest I'll make!"

Magpie. "Next I take some twigs and arrange them about the mud."

Blackbird. "Now I know all about it. Here I go, I'm off to make my nest in the cherry-tree in Mr. Smith's cornfield!

"Sticks upon mud, mud upon sticks, Caw, caw! I'll make a nest for six!"

Magpie. "See, here I put another layer of mud over the twigs."

Wise Owl. "Oh! That's quite obvious. Strange I never thought of that before. Farewell, come to see me at the old elm-tree beside the gray church!

"Mud over twigs! To-whit, to-whoo! No better nest than that ever grew!"

Magpie. "See these long twigs. I just twine them round the outside."

Sparrow. "The very thing. I'll do it this very day. I can pick some up on my way home. I'll choose the spout that looks down over the school-yard; then I can see the children at play. They must like me for they never chase me away or hit me.

"A nest with twigs twined round and round, Chip, chip! No fear that would fall to the ground!"

Magpie. "And see these little feathers and soft stuff. What a comfortable, cosy lining for the nest they make!"

Starling. "That suits me! Off I go, I like a cosy warm nest. It shall be in that old plum-tree in the orchard, on the side of the hill.

"Feathers and down to make cosy and warm, That's the nest to keep us from harm!"

Magpie. "Well, Birds, have you seen how I made my nest? Do you think you know how?—Why, where are all the Birds? They couldn't wait until I'd finished. Only you, Turtle-Dove, left!"

Turtle-Dove. "Take two, Taffy, take two—o—o—o!"

Magpie. "Here I put a twig across. But not two—one's enough!"

Turtle-Dove. "Take two, Taffy, take two—o—o—o!"

Magpie. "One's enough I tell you, do you not see how I lay it across?"

Turtle-Dove. "Take two, Taffy, take two—o—o—o!"

Magpie. "Here I fly away from my nest for awhile! I will teach no more Birds to build nests. I cannot teach a silly Turtle-Dove who will not learn. I heard him sing just now as I turned around,"

Turtle-Dove. "Take two, Taffy, take two—o—o—o, Take two, Taffy, take two—o—o—o!"

Laura F. Kready.



TYPES OF TALES

An Animal Tale[15]

The Good-Natured Bear

"I shall never forget the patience, the gentleness, the skill, and the firmness with which she first taught me to walk alone. I mean to walk on all fours, of course; the upright manner of my present walking was only learned afterwards. As this infant effort, however, is one of my earliest recollections, I have mentioned it before all the rest, and if you please, I will give you a little account of it."

"Oh! do, Mr. Bear," cried Gretchen; and no sooner had she uttered the words than all the children cried out at the same time, "Oh, please do, sir!"

The Bear took several long whiffs at his pipe, and thus continued,—

"My Mother took me to a retired part of the forest (of Towskipowski, Poland) where few animals ever came; and telling me that I must now stand alone, extended both paws, and slowly lowered me towards the earth. The height as I looked down, seemed terrible, and I felt my legs kick in the air, with fear of I did not know what, till suddenly I felt four hard things and no motion. It was the fixed earth beneath my four infant legs. 'Now,' said my Mother, 'you are what is called standing alone!' But what she said I heard as in a dream. With my back in the air as though it rested on a wooden trussel, with my nose poking out straight snuffing the fresh breeze and the many secrets of the woods, my ears pricking and shooting with all sorts of new sounds to wonder at, to want to have, to love, or to tumble down at,—and my eyes staring before me full of light and confused gold and dancing things, I seemed to be in a condition over which I had no power to effect the least change, and in which I must remain fixed till some wonderful thing happened. But the firm voice of my Mother came to my assistance and I heard her tell me to look upon the earth beneath me and see where I was. First I looked up among the boughs, then side-ways at my shoulder, then I squinted at the tip of my nose—all by mistake and innocence—at last I bent my nose in despair and saw my forepaws standing, and this of course was right. The first thing that caught my attention, being the first thing I saw distinctly, was a little blue flower with a bright jewel in the middle, which I afterwards found was a drop of dew. Sometimes I thought this little blue darling was so close that it almost touched my eyes and certainly the color of it was up in my head; sometimes I thought it was deep down, a long way off. When I bent my face towards it to give it a kiss it seemed just where it was though I had not done what I had thought to do.

"The next thing I saw upon the ground was a soft-looking little creature that crawled along with a round ball upon the middle of its back, of a beautiful white color, with brown and red curling stripes. The creature moved very, very slowly, and appeared always to follow the opinion and advice of two long horns on its head, that went feeling about on all sides. Presently it slowly approached my right forepaw and I wondered how I should feel or smell or hear it as it went over my toes; but the instant one of the horns touched the hair of my paw, both horns shrunk into nothing and presently came out again, and the creature slowly moved away in another direction. While I was wondering at this strange proceeding—for I never thought of hurting the creature, not knowing how to hurt anything, and what should have made the horns think otherwise?—while then I was wondering at this, my attention was suddenly drawn to a tuft of moss on my right near a hollow tree trunk. Out of this green tuft looked a pair of very bright round small eyes, which were staring up at me.

"If I had known how to walk I should have stepped back a few steps when I saw those bright little eyes, but I never ventured to lift a paw from the earth since my Mother had first set me down, nor did I know how to do so, or what were the proper thoughts or motions to begin with. So I stood looking at the eyes and presently I saw that the head was yellow and that it had a large mouth. 'What you have just seen,' said my Mother, 'we call a snail; and what you now see is a frog.' The names however did not help me at all to understand. Why the first should have turned from my paw so suddenly and why this creature should continue to stare up at me in such a manner I could not conceive. I expected however that it would soon come slowly crawling forth and then I should see whether it would also avoid me in the same manner. I now observed that its body and breast were double some-how, and that its paws were very large for its size, but had no hair upon them, which I thought was probably occasioned by its slow crawling having rubbed it all off. I had scarcely made these observations and reflections, when a beam of bright light breaking through the trees, the creature suddenly gave a great hop right up under my nose; and I, thinking the world was at an end, instantly fell flat down on one side and lay there waiting!"—

With this glimpse of an old-time modern animal tale we shall have to say with "Mr. Titmarsh," "Those who wish to know more about him must buy the book for themselves,"—and add: Or they must get some enterprising publisher to reprint it.

A Few Romantic Tales[16]

Puss-in-Boots and Lord Peter

Puss-in-Boots, a romantic tale suited to the first grade, delights with its strong sense of adventure and of the heroic. Puss is a Master-Cat, a hero clever and quick, and with fine imagination to see what would happen and prepare for it. He is successful, combining initiative and motivation delightfully. His devotion to his master seems like disinterested loyalty, love, and sacrifice. While it is true the plot is based on a lie, the moral effect is not bad because we recognize Puss as a match-making character similar to the matchmaking Jackal of India; and in love "all is fair." Moreover Puss-in-Boots was only true to his cat-nature in playing a trick, and we admire the cleverness of his trick in behalf of a master really deserving. The underlying philosophy of the tale, "That there is a power in making the best with what you possess," appeals to all, and has the ability to lend dignity and force to the light intrigue of the tale.

The setting in Puss-in-Boots gives a touch of nature beauty. First we have the Miller's poor home, and from there we are led in succession to the brambles through which Puss scampered; the rabbits' warren where he lay in waiting to bag the heedless rabbits; the palace to which he took the rabbits caught by the Marquis of Carabas; the cornfield where he bagged the partridges; the river-side where the Marquis bathed; the meadow where the countrymen were mowing; the cornfields where the good people were reaping; until at last we are escorted to the stately castle where the Ogre dwelt.

The plot of the tale is very pleasing as it easily arranges itself into a simple drama of three acts:—

Act I, Scene i. Revery of the Master. The Cat's promise to help. Scene ii. Puss in the rabbits' warren with his bag. Scene iii. Puss takes the rabbits to the King in his palace.

Act II, Scene i. Puss with his bag in the cornfield. Scene ii. Puss takes partridges to the King. Scene iii. Puss and his Master. Puss gives advice.

Act III, Scene i. The Marquis bathing and Puss by the river-side. Scene ii. The Drive. Puss runs before and meets the mowers. Scene iii. The Ogre's Castle. Puss's reception of the coach. Marriage of the Marquis of Carabas. Puss becomes a Lord.

The tale possesses an appeal to the emotions, we want Puss-in-Boots to accomplish whatever scheme he invents, and we want the Miller's son to win the Princess. Its appeal to the imagination is an orderly succession of images, varied and pleasing. The invention of Puss and his successful adventures make the tale one of unusual interest, vivacity, and force. The transformation of the Ogre into a Lion and again into a Mouse, and the consequent climax of Puss's management of the Mouse, bring in the touch of the miraculous. A similar transformation occurs in Hesiod, where the transformed Metis is swallowed by Zeus. This transformation may be produced by a witch, when the help of another is needed, as in Beauty and the Beast and in Hansel and Grethel; or the transformation may come from within, as in this case when the Ogre changes himself into a Mouse, or when a man changes himself into a Wolf. A situation which parallels the theme of Puss-in-Boots occurs in The Golden Goose where Dummling gets as his share only a goose, but having the best disposition makes his fortune out of his goose. Grimm's Three Feathers also contains a similar motif. D'Aulnoy's White Cat, the feminine counterpart of Puss-in-Boots, is a tale of pleasing fancy in which the hero wins the White Cat, a transformed Princess, who managed to secure for him, the youngest son, the performance of all the tasks his father had set for him.

But the most interesting parallel of Puss-in-Boots is the Norse Lord Peter told by Dasent in Norse Tales. Here the helpful Cat does not use a bag, but in true Norse fashion catches game in the wood by sitting on the head of the reindeer and threatening, "If you don't go straight to the King's palace, I'll claw your eyes out!" The Norse tale omits the bathing episode. The King wants to visit Lord Peter but the Cat manages that Lord Peter shall visit the King. The Cat promises to supply coach, horses and clothes, not by craft—their source is not given—but they are furnished on the condition that Peter must obey to say always, when he sees fine things in the Castle, that he has far finer things of his own. In the Norse tale Peter and the Cat work together, Peter is in the secret; while in the Perrault tale Puss does all the managing, Carabas is simply being entertained by the King. In the Norse tale, on the way home the coach meets a flock of sheep, a herd of fine kine, and a drove of horses. The Cat does not threaten that the caretakers shall be "chopped as fine as herbs for the pot," if they do not say all belongs to Lord Peter, but he cunningly bribes the shepherd with a silver spoon, the neat-herd with a silver ladle, and the drover with a silver stoop. In place of the Ogre's Castle, there is a Troll's Castle with three gates—one of tin, one of silver, and one of gold. The Norse Cat wins the victory by craftily playing upon the troll-nature. He gains the Troll's attention by meeting him at the gate and telling him about the secrets of agriculture, one of the secrets of men the trolls wanted to learn. Then at the height of interest, he plays upon his curiosity by getting him to look round. Whereupon, the Troll, meeting the glare of the full sun, burst; for trolls cannot bear the sight of the sun, and live. In the Norse tale, the Cat, after Lord Peter at her request cuts off her head, becomes the Princess and marries Lord Peter. In Perrault's tale, the King, with French etiquette and diplomacy, invites the Marquis to be his son-in-law.

The Story of Puss-in-Boots appeared in Straparola, 11, 1, and in Basile, 2, 4. Laboulaye, in his Last Fairy Tales, has retold the Pentamerone tale, Gagliuso, in which the Cat is a crafty advocate of his Master's interests, but the Master is ungrateful and forgets the Cat. The effect of the tale is not pleasing, it is a satire on gratitude.

The Story of Puss-in-Boots is also told by Ludwig Tieck, with twelve etchings by Otto Speckter, published in Leipzig, in 1843. A critic, writing for the Quarterly Review in 1844, "An Article on Children's Books,"[17] recommended this edition of Puss-in-Boots as the beau ideal of nursery books. Puss-in-Boots appeared also in the Swedish of Cavallius. A monograph on the Carabas tale has been written by Andrew Lang.

Tom Thumb and Little Thumb

Tom Thumb, another romantic tale suited to the first grade, is one of the most entertaining of tales. The germ of Tom Thumb exists in various forms in the books of the far East, among American Indians, and among the Zulus of South Africa. Tom Thumb is one of the oldest characters in English nursery literature. In 1611, the ancient tales of Tom Thumb were said to have been "in the olde time the only survivors of drouzy age at midnight. Old and young, with his tales chim'd mattens till the cock's crow in the morning. Batchelors and maids have with his tales compassed the Christmas fireblocke till the curfew bell rings candle out. The old shepheard and the young plowboy, after a days' labour, have carol'ed out a Tale of Tom Thumb to make them merry with, and who but little Tom hath made long nights seem short and heavy toyles easie."

Tom Thumb, as has been previously mentioned, most probably was transmitted to England by the early Norsemen. The Tale of Tom Thumb, as told by Jacobs, was taken from the chap-book version in Halliwell. The first mention of Tom is in Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft, in 1584. Tradition says that Tom died at Lincoln, which was one of the five Danish towns of England. A little blue flagstone in the cathedral, said to be his tombstone, was lost and has never been replaced during recent repairs early in the nineteenth century. Tom Thumb was first written in prose by Richard Johnson, in 1621. In Ashton's Chap-Books of the Eighteenth Century we have a facsimile of the chap-book, The Famous History of Tom Thumb. The tale is in three parts. The first part, which is much superior to the rest of the tale, was taken from a copy printed for John Wright, in 1630. The second and third parts were written about 1700. The first part closes with the death of Tom from knightly feats. He was buried in great pomp, but the fairies carried him to Fairy Land. The first part closed with a promise of the second:—

The Fairy Queen, she lov'd him so As you shall understand, That once again she let him go Down to the Fairy Land.

The very time that he return'd Unto the court again, It was as we are well inform'd In good King Arthur's reign.

When in the presence of the King, He many wonders wrought, Recited in the Second Part Which now is to be bought

In Bow Church Yard, where is sold Diverting Histories many; And pleasant tales as e'er was told For purchase of One Penny.

The second part opens with Tom's return to Fairy Land. His second death is caused by a combat with a cat. Again he is taken to Fairy Land. In the third part the Fairy Queen sends Tom to earth in King Thunston's reign. His final death occurred from the bite of a spider.

The Life and Adventures of Tom Thumb appeared in the Tabart Collection of Fairy Tales, noted before, and a version entirely in verse was included in Halliwell. A monograph on Tom Thumb was written by M. Gaston Paris. Little Thumb as it appeared in Perrault and in Basile, was a tale similar to the German Hansel and Grethel. Thumbling, and Thumbling as Journeyman are German variants. Andersen's Thumbelina is a feminine counterpart to Tom Thumb, and in Laboulaye's Poucinet we have a tale of the successful younger brother, similarly diminutive.

There were current many old stories of characters similar to Tom Thumb. A certain man was so thin that he could jump through the eye of a needle. Another crept nimbly to a spider's web which was hanging in the air, and danced skillfully upon it until a spider came, which spun a thread round his neck and throttled him. A third was able to pierce a sunmote with his head and pass his whole body through it. A fourth was in the habit of riding an ant, but the ant threw him off and trampled him. In a work written in 1601, referred to in Grimm's Household Tales a spider relates:—

Once did I catch a tailor proud Heavy he was as elder wood, From Heaven above he'd run a race, With an old straw hat to this place, In Heaven he might have stayed no doubt, For no one wished to turn him out. He fell in my web, hung in a knot, Could not get out, I liked it not, That e'en the straw hat, safe and sound, Nine days ere him came to the ground.

A delightful little rhyme, Tom Thumb, is among Halliwell's Nursery Rhymes. It may refer to the Danish History of Tom Thumb:

I had a little husband No bigger than my thumb; I put him in a pint pot And there I bade him drum: I bridled him and saddled him, And sent him out of town; I gave him a pair of garters To tie up his little hose; And a little handkerchief To wipe his little nose.

The English version of Tom Thumb as we know it today, opens with a visit of the magician Merlin at the cottage of an honest and hospitable ploughman. Merlin rewarded the Goodman and his Wife for their hospitality by calling on the Queen of the fairies, who brought to the home, Tom Thumb, a boy no bigger than a man's thumb.

The time of the tale is in the days of Merlin and King Arthur's court. The tale is marked by a number of distinct English elements. The introduction of the Queen of the Fairies, of Fairy Land and the visit there, and of the fairy clothes they make for Tom, are all decidedly English. The sly ways of Tom, his tricks and his cleverness are distinctly English humor. He played with the boys for cherry-stones, and took theirs. He had so much curiosity that he fell into his mother's pudding. He was so light that on a windy day he had to be tied to a thistle when his mother went to milk the cow; and so, with his oak-leaf hat, he got caught in the cow's one mouthful. After other strange adventures he arrived at King Arthur's court where he became the favorite. His feats at tilts and tournaments give a glimpse of English court life, with its pastime of hunting; and fighting with the sword brings in the knight element. The story has little plot, being a succession of many episodes and a repetition of some. It shows little constructive ability, promises to be a perpetual tale, and is ended only by sudden death at the poisonous breath of the spider. Tom Thumb is one of the tales of pure fancy, with no underlying meaning, created for pure entertainment, to please children and grown-ups by its little people and little things. The moral is in the effect of Tom's character.

Perrault's Little Thumb tells how a poor Fagot-maker and his Wife sat by the hearth, sad with famine, and Little Thumb overheard their words. When they started to the wood to gather fagots, Little Thumb, like Hansel, scattered pebbles. The parents left the seven children in the wood but little Thumb guided them home by his pebbles. They set out a second time, when Little Thumb scattered bread-crumbs; and as the birds ate them, the children were lost. Little Thumb climbed a tree and saw the light of the Ogre's cottage afar off. The children reached the Ogre's cottage where Little Thumb changed the golden crowns of the seven little Ogresses, and putting them on his brothers, saved their lives. Then they all fled through the wood and hid in a rock, while the Ogre in his seven-league boots, pursued them and lay down to rest at the rock in which they were hidden. Little Thumb sent his brothers home, stole the fairy boots, and through craft, persuaded the Ogre's Wife to give him all the Ogre's gold. So, rich and happy, he returned to his father's home.

This tale shows a number of common motifs that appear in other tales:

(1) The design of distressed parents to expose children to the forest.

(2) The discovery and prevention of the scheme by a child.

(3) The repetition of incident; the clew spoiled by the birds. The trail motif, similar to the one in Hansel and Grethel.

(4) The arrival of children at the home of the Ogre.

(5) The shifting of crowns to the heads of his brothers.

(6) The flight of the brothers pursued by the Ogre in seven-league boots.

(7) Little Thumb, stealing the boots and winning court favor, or the Ogre's treasure.

Some say that in this tale, symbolically, the forest represents night; the crumbs and pebbles, stars; and the Ogre, the sun. Little Thumb, because of his cunning and invention, has been called the Ulysses of the fairy tales. His adventure with the Ogre at the rock, while not a parallel one, reminds one of Ulysses and Polyphemus. Both succeeded in getting the better of the giant. An English edition of this tale was illustrated by William Blake.

Snow White and Rose Red

Snow White and Rose Red, besides blending the romantic and the realistic, illustrates rather completely how the old tale may stand the tests which have been emphasized here. As a romantic type, it contains adventure and the picturesque. It arouses emotion. It contains objects of beauty; and the strange Bear and the stranger Dwarf, about both of whom there is a sense of mystery. It exaggerates character and incidents beyond the normal,—the Mother and Daughters were more lovely than mortals usually are,—and the harmony between man and beast may belong to the millennium rather than to this common earth. This is one of the most romantic of fairy tales in that it is a highly idealized type.

The story was current in Germany before the time of the Grimms, and appeared in the collection of Caroline Stahl. The rhyme,—

Snowy-white, rosy-red, Will ye strike your lover dead?

was taken from a popular song, and is found in a child's story in Taschenbuch Minerva for 1813.

Snow White and Rose Red is full of many beauties; the characters are beautiful, the setting is beautiful, and the spirit of the whole is full of beauty. There is sister-love; and mother-love—not the selfish kind that loves but its own, but that similar to the rich growth of our modern times, when mother-love seeks to include those without the home. There is genuine kindness that pours its sweetness on the Bear or on the Dwarf, that falls like the rain on the deserving and on the ungrateful; there is devotion to animals and a lack of enmity between man and beast; and there is a portrayal of the beauty of domestic life and of the charms of childhood in simple life—its play, its pleasure, and its tasks. This is all set as in two pictures whose sky is the golden glow of passion for the sun and the spring-time and summer it brings. In the first picture, on the edge of the forest stands a little cottage before whose gate grow two rose-trees, a red rose-tree and a white rose-tree, not only symbols of the beauty of the spring-time and of the rich fruitage of summer, but also symbols typifying the more wondrous beauty of the character of the two children, Snow White and Rose Red. In the second picture, a tall palace rears itself, before whose gate grow two rose-trees also, a red rose-tree and a white rose-tree, not only symbols of the same beauty of spring-time and fruitage of summer, but also symbols typifying the beauty of loveliness and the fairness of happiness and prosperity that guarded from harm the lives of the deserving Snow White and Rose Red, and continued to bless them to the close.

First, looking at the characters in this tale, we see a Mother who illustrates the richness of womanhood. She managed her own home and kept it a place of beauty and cheer. She had two daughters, both lovely, but very different. She recognized this difference and respected it, and permitted each child to enjoy a delightful freedom to grow as was her nature. She permitted the children to play but she also commanded willing obedience. She arranged their work with fairness so that each had her share and each seemed free in doing that work to use her individual taste and judgment. She taught her children to spin and to sew, and she read to them. She told them about the guardian Angel who watched over them to keep them from harm. She was not anxious when they were out of sight, for even when Snow White and Rose Red stayed in the wood all night and slept on the leaves, she had no fear, for no accident ever happened to them. As a strong, noble woman, without fear, and full of love, pity, and fairness,—George Eliot's ideal of highest character,—the Mother of Snow White and Rose Red has no equal in the fairy tales.

The two Children, beautiful as the roses that grew outside the cottage, were both industrious, good, amiable little girls, who in their natural sweetness showed the spirit of the Golden Age when peace and good-will dwelt among men. They were natural children and they loved to play. They gathered berries in the forest, they played hide-and-seek among the trees, they waded in the river, went fishing, made wreaths of flowers, and played with their animal friends. They fed the hares cauliflower, or watched the fawns grazing and the goats frisking; and even the birds loved them and did not fly away when they were near. In the home they kept things not only clean but beautiful; they not only did work but took pleasure in doing that work. Now at a time when domestic life in the home is being threatened, Snow White and Rose Red gives a realistic picture of the beauty of domestic life, its simple joys and charm. In summer there was always a nose-gay for the Mother, and in winter there was a cheery fire with a copper kettle over it, shining like gold. And in the evening when the snow fell fast outside, inside was warmth and comfort. The Children sat sewing and the Mother reading, while a lamb and a white dove beside them enjoyed their protection and care.

The entrance of the Bear gave the Children a natural thrill of fear. But the Mother, with beautiful hospitality, gave the Bear protection and kindness and led them to overcome that fear. To the Bear they showed that good nature which willingly serves; and in the tricks they played with their comrade they showed a great strength of vitality and that freedom which grows where there is no repression.

The Bear departed at spring-time; and as he left Snow White thought she saw glittering gold under his coat. This seems to hint that the tale is symbolic, typifying the change of seasons. Spring, the Bear, took refuge in the cottage during the cold winter months; but in the spring he had to go abroad into the forest, to guard his treasures from the evil Dwarf of winter.

The Children again showed their sweetness and good nature when, while gathering sticks, they came upon the Dwarf, with his wrinkled face and snow-white beard, the end of which was caught in a split of a tree. The contrast is delightful, between the cross and impatient Dwarf and Rose Red who offered to fetch help, and Snow White who politely tried to soothe his impatience by cutting off the end of his beard with her scissors. This time the Dwarf snatched a sack of gold which lay at the foot of the tree, and fled, most ungrateful, not even thanking the Children. The Children had two other adventures with the Dwarf; and these, together with their adventure with the Bear, make up the plot of the story. They met the Dwarf a second time, one day when they went fishing. Then Rose Red told him to be careful or he'd fall into the water, because a great fish was pulling on the bait and his beard became entangled in the fishing-line. Snow White again cut off the end of his beard to free him and again he snatched his bag—this time of pearls, lying among the rushes—and fled. One day, on going to town to buy thread, needles, laces, and ribbons, they met the Dwarf a third time. This time an eagle had caught him and was about to carry him off. The Children, with compassion, held on and freed him; but again he scolded, seized his bag of precious stones, and slipped away to his cave. On their return from town, the Children again met the Dwarf, in the wood, counting his treasure. Again he was very angry, but just then the Bear arrived out of the forest and demanded the life of the Dwarf. The Dwarf offered up in his stead, Snow White and Rose Red. But the Bear, faithful to his old comrades, slew the Dwarf, and then becoming a beautiful Prince, went home with the Sisters. Snow White married the Prince and Rose Red his Brother, and they all lived with their Mother happily in the beautiful palace.

When the Bear slew the Dwarf spring returned to the land. The Dwarf with his snow-white beard seems to typify winter. Each time the Dwarf's beard was cut the beard of winter became shorter, another winter month was gone, and there remained a shorter season. The bag of gold which the Dwarf first took might signify the golden fruit of autumn, and the pearls and diamonds which he next took, the ice and snow of winter. The Dwarf's beard became entangled in the fishing-line when the icy winds of winter began to give the pond its frozen coat; and then the animals of the wood were compelled to seek a refuge. When the Bear came out of the wood to meet the Dwarf and slew him, the time for the departure of winter was at hand, and spring returned to the land.

This fairy tale evidently shows a good, interesting plot, with something happening all the time. The climax is very distinctly marked, everything leads up to the meeting of the Bear and the Dwarf in the forest. The characters present interesting variety and strong contrasts. The setting is unusually beautiful: the cottage, the wood, the lake, the town, the hillside, the palace, and the two symbolic rose-trees. The tale appeals to the emotions of love, kindness, compassion, and gratitude. It presents to the imagination distinct episodes: the home-life of the Children in the cottage, their life in the wood, their adventure with the Bear, their three adventures with the Dwarf, and the meeting of the Bear and the Dwarf. The conclusion follows closely upon the climax,—the Bear, grateful to the kind Children, saved their lives and re-transformed, became a Prince. The happy marriage brings the tale to a close, with the palace home guarded by the two rose-trees. The message of the tale is the possible beauty of woman's love and character, and the loveliness of spring and of summer.

A Modern Tale[18]

The Elephant's Child

The Elephant's Child might be examined here more particularly because it is unusually interesting as an example of the complete test applied to the child's fairy tale. One need not test it as to interest for it was written especially for children by one who could play with them. As to literature it certainly has mind and soul; there is no doubt about its structure or its appeal to the sympathies. The quantity of good humor and fun it bestows upon childhood is a permanent enrichment; for even a child's world has need of all the good cheer and fun that can be given to it.

This tale is especially interesting also because it might be classed as almost any one of the types of tales. It is not accumulative though it possesses to a marked degree three characteristics of the accumulative tale, repetition, alliteration, and all sorts of phonic effects. And it is not an old tale. But it is not only one of the most pleasing animal tales we possess but one of the best humorous tales having the rare quality of freshness. It is realistic in its portrayal of animal life; and it is highly romantic in its sense of adventure, the heroic, the strange, and the remote.

As a short-story it shows the essentials, originality, ingenuity, and compression. The single interest is how the Elephant got his trunk, and everything points to the climax of his getting it. The plot is "entertaining, novel, comical and thrilling." The structure is very easily seen in these ten episodes:—

1. The introduction; the family; the Child; his home; his questions; the new, fine question. 2. The Elephant's Child set out to answer his own question. 3. The Elephant's Child met Kolokolo Bird. 4. The Elephant's Child journeyed to the Limpopo. 5. The Elephant's Child met the Python. 6. The Elephant's Child met the Crocodile. He got his trunk. (Climax.) 7. The Elephant's Child gained experience from the Python. 8. The Elephant's Child's journey home. 9. The Elephant's Child's return home. 10. Conclusion. How all elephants got trunks. Peace.

The characters are unique and interesting. They are usual animals but unusual in what they say. They exhibit animal traits and motives but they also show us a hidden meaning in their actions and words. They seem living, they speak directly; yet they preserve the idea of the fable for they are symbolic. The Elephant's Child typifies human innocence, the inexperience of youth; the Kolokolo Bird, a friend; the Python, experience or wisdom; and the Crocodile, guile or evil. All the animals become very interesting because we are concerned to know their particular reason for spanking the "'satiable Elephant's Child." What they say is so humorous and what they do is consistent, in harmony with their natural animal traits. The Child is the hero. He is a very attractive character because he has that rare charm we call temperament. He is curious, polite, and sweet, and follows his own nose in spite of everything. He wins out with strength, experience, and a new nose; and we are rejoiced at his triumphs. His questions are so funny and yet they seem quite what any elephant with a bump of curiosity might ask. To the Giraffe—"What made his skin spotty?" To the Hippopotamus—"Why her eyes were red?" To the Baboon—"Why melons tasted just so?" And at last, "What does the Crocodile have for dinner?"

The setting of the tale is suggested continually in expressions which show visual imagination of a high order: such as, "And he lived in Africa"; "dragged him through a thorn bush"; "blew bubbles into her ear"; "hove him into a hornet's nest"; and "from Graham's Town to Kimberley and from Kimberley to Khama's Country, and from Khama's Country east by north to the Limpopo."

The tale possesses most delightful humor. A verbal magic which fairly scintillates with the comic spirit, and clinging epithets of which Kipling is a master, suggest the exact picture needed. Humor is secured largely through the use of the unique word; as, "spanked," "precisely as Kolokolo Bird had said," and "for he was a Tidy Pachyderm." Often it is increased by the use of newly coined words; as, "hijjus," "curtiosity," "scalesome, flailsome, tail," "fever-trees," "self-propelling man-of-war," and "schloop of mud." Another element of humor in the tale is the artistic use of repetition, which has been previously referred to as one of the child's interests. Sometimes one meaning is expressed in several different ways; as, "immediately and directly, without stopping, for a long time." Or we are given contrasted terms; as, "a little warm but not at all astonished," and then later, "very warm and greatly astonished." One main element of humor is this way in which expressions reflect back on preceding ones. Sometimes we are given very surprising, startling, expressions; as, "wait-a-bit-thorn-bush "—which reminds us of the "all-alone-stone" in Water Babies—and "he sang to himself down his trunk."

As to imagination, The Elephant's Child is a delightful illustration of the appeal to the associative, the penetrative, and the contemplative imagination. While its philosophy may be understood in part by the child it has a deeper meaning for the adult. It seems to imply that it is the way of life to spank somebody else. It is the stronger who spank the weaker until they become strong enough to stand up for themselves. Then nobody spanks anybody any more and there is peace. When the Child asked a question that no one would answer he set out to find his own answer just as in life it often is best to work to answer one's own questions. When the Elephant trusted the Crocodile he got something to keep just as in life the innocent may bear the marks of a contest though in no sense responsible for the contest. Experience in the guise of the Python helped the Child in his contest for life with the advice his own common sense would have offered. As an allegory of Experience The Elephant's Child does not view life as a whole; it gives but a glimpse of life. It would say: Experience teaches us to make the best with what we have. The way to get experience is to try a new power, just as the Child with his trunk tried to kill the fly and eat grass. As soon as he had received his new power he tested it on the Hippopotamous. He won the respect of his kind by beating them at their own game.

The emotional appeal in The Elephant's Child would repay study. The dominant emotional tone is that of the adventurous hero with his "'satiable curtiosity." There is vividness of emotion, steadiness of emotion, and a rich variety in the contrasts of feeling. Emotion of a moral quality is characteristic of its implied message of worldly wisdom but it does not leave one exactly satisfied.

The form of the story is a splendid example of a literary classic style. A pleasing humorous touch is given to the unity of the tale by making the Elephant's Child pick up with his new trunk, on his way home, the melon-rinds he had scattered on his journey to the Limpopo. The coherence in the tale is unusually fine and is secured largely by expressions which look backward or forwards; as, "By and by when that was finished," or "One fine morning," or "That very next morning." Any study will show that the tale possesses the general qualities of form and has its parts controlled by the principles of composition.



OUTLINE

I. THE WORTH OF FAIRY TALES

I. Two public tributes 1

II. The value of fairy tales in education 3

1. They bring joy into child-life 3

2. They satisfy the play-spirit of childhood 4

3. They give a power of accurate observation 6

4. They strengthen the power of emotion, develop the power of imagination, train the memory and exercise the reason 6

5. They extend and intensify the child's social relations 7

6. In school they unify the child's work or play 8

7. In the home they employ leisure time profitably 9

8. They afford a vital basis for language-training 10

III. References 12

II. PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION FOR FAIRY TALES

I. The interests of children 13

1. Fairy tales must follow the law of composition and must contain the interests of children 13

a. A sense of life 14

b. The familiar 14

c. The surprise 15

d. Sense impression 17

e. The beautiful 18

f. Wonder, mystery, magic 19

g. Adventure 19

h. Success 20

i. Action 20

j. Humor 21

k. Poetic justice 22

l. The imaginative 23

m. Animals 24

n. A portrayal of human relations, especially with children 24

o. The diminutive 25

p. Rhythm and repetition 26

q. The simple and sincere 28

r. Unity of effect 29

2. Fairy tales must follow the law of the emotions and avoid elements opposed to the interests of the very young child 30

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