A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II.
by Bulstrode Whitelocke
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From Whitehall Whitelocke went to his own house at Chelsea, where he found his wife and family in good health, but in no small passion, surprised with the great and sudden joy, which ofttimes brings no less disturbance to the tempers of people, especially of the more tender and affectionate sex, than other surprises do; sudden fear, grief, and joy, are often equal in their operation upon constitutions and affections. Nor was Whitelocke's wife alone in this surprise; another with her, at the return of her husband, could not forbear, in all that company, her extraordinary expressions of joy at the happy meeting of her own most near relation.

From the time of Whitelocke's departure from hence, to his entry into Upsal, Whitelocke spent forty-seven days; five months he staid there, and in his return from Upsal to this place cost him forty-three days; and in all these eight months' time of his absence from his dear relations and country the Lord was pleased so to own him and his, and so graciously to preserve and prosper them, that himself and a hundred persons in his company, after so long a journey, so great a change of climate and accommodations, such hardships endured, such dangers surmounted through His goodness, the business effected beyond the expectation of those who employed him, Whitelocke and all his company were through mercy returned to their country and relations, in as good condition and health as when they went forth, not one of them left behind dead or sick or impaired in their health, but some improved and bettered therein. Only Whitelocke, being ancient, will have cause to remember the decay of his strength and health by the hardships and difficulties of this service; but more cause hath he to remember the wonderful goodness of God to him and his company abroad and to his wife and family at home, in His blessing and preservation of them, and in the comfort and safety of their meeting after so long and perilous a separation, for which he is obliged to praise the name of God for ever.

After ceremonies past at his coming to his own house, Whitelocke sent Captain Beake to Hampton Court, to acquaint the Protector with his return, to present his duty, and to receive his commands when Whitelocke should wait upon his Highness to kiss his hand, and to give him an account of his negotiation. Beake returned this evening from Hampton Court to Whitelocke with this answer:—that the Protector expressed much joy at the news of the safe arrival of Whitelocke and of his company in England; that he looked upon it as a mercy, and blessed God for it; and that he much desired to see Whitelocke, and hoped, on Monday next, at Whitehall, to have his company, who should be very welcome to him.

A little while after this message returned, there came two of the Protector's gentlemen, sent by him to Chelsea in his name, to visit Whitelocke and to bid him welcome home, to inquire of his health, and to testify the contentment the Protector received by Whitelocke's happy return home, and that he hoped on Monday next to see him. Whitelocke desired the gentlemen to present his humble thanks to the Protector for this great favour to inquire after so mean a servant, who hoped to have the honour to wait upon his Highness at the time appointed by him.

July 2, 1654.

[SN: The Protector compliments Whitelocke on his return.]

The Lord's Day.—Whitelocke began to enjoy some more privacy and retirement than he had been lately accustomed unto, and was at the public church with his wife and family, and courteously saluted and bid welcome home by many. In the evening the Protector sent another compliment to Whitelocke by Mr. Strickland, one of his Council, who came to Whitelocke's house, and told him that he was sent by the Protector to salute him, and to inquire of his health after his long and dangerous voyage, and to assure him of the great joy his Highness received by Whitelocke's safe arrival in England, and the desire he had to see him, and personally to entertain him. Whitelocke desired his most humble thanks might be returned to his Highness for this great favour, giving him the opportunity of seeing so honourable a person as Strickland was, and for taking such care of so poor a servant as Whitelocke, and to let his Highness know that he should obey his Highness's commands in waiting on him the next day as he appointed.

July 3, 1654.

[SN: His audience of the Protector.]

Whitelocke came to Whitehall about nine o'clock this morning, where he visited Mr. Secretary Thurloe, who brought him to the Protector, and he received Whitelocke with great demonstration of affection, and carried him into his cabinet, where they were together about an hour, and had this among other discourses:—

Protector. How have you enjoyed your health in your long journey, both by sea and land? and how could you endure those hardships you were put unto in that barren and cold country?

Whitelocke. Indeed, Sir, I have endured many hardships for an old crazy carcase as mine is, but God was pleased to show much mercy to me in my support under them, and vouchsafed me competent health and strength to endure them.

Prot. I have heard of your quarters and lodging in straw, and of your diet in your journey; we were not so hardly nor so often put to it in our service in the army.

Wh. Both my company and myself did cheerfully endure all our hardships and wants, being in the service of our God and of our country.

Prot. That was also our support in our hardships in the army, and it is the best support, indeed it is, and you found it so in the very great preservations you have had from dangers.

Wh. Your Highness hath had great experience of the goodness of God to you, and the same hand hath appeared wonderfully in the preservation of my company and myself from many imminent and great dangers both by sea and land.

Prot. The greatest of all other, I hear, was in your return home upon our coast.

Wh. That indeed, Sir, was very miraculous.

Prot. I am glad to see you safe and well after it.

Wh. I have cause to bless God with all thankfulness for it as long as I live.

Prot. I pray, my Lord, tell me the particulars of that great deliverance.

Thereupon Whitelocke gave a particular account of the passages of that wonderful preservation; then the Protector said:—

Prot. Really these passages are full of wonder and mercy; and I have cause to join with you in acknowledgment of the goodness of the Lord herein.

Wh. Your Highness testifies a true sense thereof, and your favour to your servant.

Prot. I hope I shall never forget the one or the other,—indeed I hope I shall not; but, I pray, tell me, is the Queen a lady of such rare parts as is reported of her?

Wh. Truly, Sir, she is a lady excellently qualified, of rare abilities of mind, perfect in many languages, and most sorts of learning, especially history, and, beyond compare with any person whom I have known, understanding the affairs and interest of all the States and Princes of Christendom.

Prot. That is very much; but what are her principles in matters of religion?

Wh. They are not such as I could wish they were;[435] they are too much inclined to the manner of that country, and to some persuasions from men not well inclined to those matters, who have had too much power with her.

Prot. That is a great deal of pity; indeed I have heard of some passages of her, not well relishing with those that fear God; and this is too general an evil among those people, who are not so well principled in matters of religion as were to be wished.

Wh. That is too true; but many sober men and good Christians among them do hope, that in time there may be a reformation of those things; and I took the boldness to put the Queen and the present King in mind of the duty incumbent upon them in that business; and this I did with becoming freedom, and it was well taken.

Prot. I think you did very well to inform them of that great duty which now lies upon the King; and did he give ear to it?

Wh. Yes truly, Sir, and told me that he did acknowledge it to be his duty, which he resolved to pursue as opportunity could be had for it; but he said, it must be done by degrees with a boisterous people, so long accustomed to the contrary. And the like answer I had from the Archbishop of Upsal, and from the Chancellor, when I spoke to them upon the same subject, which I did plainly.

Prot. I am glad you did so. Is the Archbishop a man of good abilities?

Wh. He is a very reverend person, learned, and seems very pious.

Prot. The Chancellor is the great wise man.

Wh. He is the wisest man that ever I conversed with abroad, and his abilities are fully answerable to the report of him.

Prot. What character do you give of the present King?

Wh. I had the honour divers times to be with his Majesty, who did that extraordinary honour to me as to visit me at my house; he is a person of great worth, honour, and abilities, and not inferior to any in courage and military conduct.

Prot. That was an exceeding high favour, to come to you in person.

Wh. He never did the like to any public minister. But this, and all other honour done to me, was but to testify their respects to your Highness, the which indeed was very great, both there, and where I passed in Germany.

Prot. I am obliged to them for their very great civility.

Wh. Both the Queen, and the King, and his brother, and the Archbishop, and the Chancellor, and most of the grandees, gave testimony of very great respect to your Highness, and that not only by their words, but by their actions likewise.

Prot. I shall be ready to acknowledge their respects upon any occasion.

Wh. The like respects were testified to your Highness in Germany, especially by the town of Hamburg; where I endeavoured, in your Highness's name, to confirm the privileges of the English merchants, who, with your Resident there, showed much kindness to me and my company.

Prot. I shall heartily thank them for it. Is the Court of Sweden gallant, and full of resort to it?

Wh. They are extreme gallant for their clothes; and for company, most of the nobility and the civil and military officers make their constant residence where the Court is, and many repair thither on all occasions.

Prot. Is their administration of justice speedy? and have they many law-suits?

Wh. They have justice in a speedier way than with us, but more arbitrary, and fewer causes, in regard that the boors dare not contend with their lords; and they have but few contracts, because they have but little trade; and there is small use of conveyances or questions of titles, because the law distributes every man's estate after his death among his children, which they cannot alter, and therefore have the fewer contentions.

Prot. That is like our gavelkind.

Wh. It is the same thing; and in many particulars of our laws, in cases of private right, and of the public Government, especially in their Parliaments, there is a strange resemblance between their law and ours.

Prot. Perhaps ours might some of them be brought from thence.

Wh. Doubtless they were, when the Goths and Saxons, and those northern people, planted themselves here.

Prot. You met with a barren country, and very cold.

Wh. The remoter parts of it from the Court are extreme barren; but at Stockholm and Upsal, and most of the great towns, they have store of provisions; but fat beef and mutton in the winter-time is not so plentiful with them as in the countries more southerly; and their hot weather in summer as much exceeds ours, as their cold doth in winter.

Prot. That is somewhat troublesome to endure; but how could you pass over their very long winter nights?

Wh. I kept my people together and in action and recreation, by having music in my house, and encouraging that and the exercise of dancing, which held them by the ears and eyes, and gave them diversion without any offence. And I caused the gentlemen to have disputations in Latin, and declamations upon words which I gave them.

Prot. Those were very good diversions, and made your house a little academy.

Wh. I thought these recreations better than gaming for money, or going forth to places of debauchery.

Prot. It was much better. And I am glad you had so good an issue of your treaty.

Wh. I bless God for it, and shall be ready to give your Highness a particular account of it, when you shall appoint a time for it.

Prot. I think that Thursday next, in the morning, will be a good time for you to come to the Council, and to make your report of the transactions of your negotiation; and you and I must have many discourses upon these arguments.

Wh. I shall attend your Highness and the Council.

July 4, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke's friends celebrate his return.]

This day was spent in visits, very much company resorting to Whitelocke's house to bid him welcome into England, so that, by the multitude of company, he had not any opportunity of recollecting himself and his thoughts, touching the matters which he was to communicate to the Council the next day; but it could not be avoided, and he must take such time as would be afforded him.

July 5, 1654.

[SN: A solemn thanksgiving for his safe return.]

By Whitelocke's appointment, all his company who were with him in Sweden, came this day to his house at Chelsea, where divers others of his good friends met them, to the intent they might all join together in returning humble and hearty thanks to God for his great mercy and goodness to them, in their preservation and wonderful deliverances in their voyage, in blessing them with health and with success in their business, and bringing all of them in safety and comfort to their native country and most dear relations.

Being for this end met together in a large room prepared for them, they began the duty; and first, Mr. Peters acquainted them with the occasion of the meeting, recommending all to the direction and assistance of the Lord. He spoke to them upon the Psalm pertinent to the occasion, and to the mention of the voyage, hardships, dangers, and difficulties, wherein God had delivered them; and what sense these things ought to work upon their hearts, and what thankfulness they ought to return to God for his mercies.

After a psalm sung, Mr. Ingelo, one of Whitelocke's chaplains, prayed with them, and then amplified the favours and deliverances which God had wrought for them, the great difficulties and dangers wherein He had preserved them, and their unworthiness of any mercy; he exhorted them to all gratitude to the Author of their mercies: in all which he expressed himself with much piety, ingenuity, and with great affection. Mr. George Downing, who had been a chaplain to a regiment in the army, expounded a place of Scripture very suitable to the occasion, and very ingeniously and pertinently. After him, Mr. Stapleton prayed very well, and spake pertinently and feelingly to the rest of the company, his fellow-travellers. Then they sang another psalm; and after that, Mr. Cokaine spake very well and piously, and gave good exhortations on the same subject.

[SN: Whitelocke's address to his company.]

When all these gentlemen had ended their discourses proper for the occasion, Whitelocke himself spake to the company to this effect:—


"You have heard from our worthy Christian friends many words of precious truth, with which I hope all our souls are refreshed, and do pray that our practice may be conformed. The duty of this day, and of every person, is gratiarum actio: I wish we may all act thankfulness to our God, whereunto we are all obliged who have received so great benefits from Him. In a more peculiar manner than others I hold myself obliged to render thanks—

"1. To our God, who hath preserved us all, and brought us in safety and comfort to our dear country and relations.

"2. To our Christian friends, from whom we have received such powerful instructions this day, and prayers all the days of our absence.

"3. To you, Gentlemen, who have shown so much affection and respect in bearing me company in a journey so full of hardships and dangers.

"I am of the opinion of the Roman soldier who told Caesar, 'I have in my own person fought for thee, and therefore that the Emperor ought in his own person to plead for the soldier' (which he did); and have in your own persons endured all the hardships, difficulties, and dangers with me: and were I as able as Caesar, I hold myself as much obliged in my own person to serve you, and, to the utmost of my capacity, shall do all good offices for any of you, who have, with so much affection, respect, and hazard, adventured your persons with me.

"I am obliged, and do return my hearty thanks, to our worthy friends who have so excellently performed the work of the day, and shall pray that it may be powerful upon every one of our hearts, to build us up in the knowledge of this duty; and I should be glad to promise, in the name of all my company, that we shall give a ready and constant observance of those pious instructions we have received from you.

"Some here have been actors with us in our story; have gone down to the sea in ships and done business in great waters; have seen the works of God and His wonders in the deep; His commanding and raising the stormy wind, lifting up the waves thereof, which mount up to the heavens and go down again to the deep, whose souls have melted because of trouble, and have been at their wits' end: then have cried unto the Lord in their distress, and He hath brought them out of trouble. We have seen Him make the storm a calm, and the waves thereof still: then were we glad, and He brought us to our desired harbour. Oh that we would praise the Lord for His goodness, for His wonderful works! Let us exalt Him in the congregation of the people, and praise Him in the assembly of the elders.

"These my companions, who have been actors, and others, I hope will give me leave to make them auditors of some special providences of the Lord, wherein we may all reap benefit from the relation. The Apostle saith, 2 Pet. i., 'Wherefore I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance of these things, though you know them, and be established in the present truth.' To all I may say, with the wise man (Prov. viii.), 'Hear! for I will speak of excellent things,' free mercies, great deliverances, wonderful preservations: excellent things to those who were sharers of them in action, and for the contemplation of those who are hearers of them; therefore I may shortly recite some of the most eminent of them.

"In the first day of our voyage with a fair wind, at night it changed, and we were stopped till comfortable letters came to me, which otherwise could not have come, and were no sooner answered but the wind came fair again. When we toiled in the open sea with cross winds and tempests, driven near to our own coast back again, God sent us then fair weather and a good gale for our voyage. How was He pleased to bring us so very near great danger on the Riff, and then bring us safe off from it and hold on our course again!

"When we were in no small danger in the tempestuous seas on the back of the Skaw, when the anchors dragged a league in one night with the storm, and every moment we expected to be devoured by the raging waves, there the Lord was also our deliverer; as He also was upon the rocky coast of Norway and in the difficult passage to the harbour of Gothenburg. Throughout our voyage the providence of God watched over us and protected us. Thus did He in our land journey, where the extreme hardships we were put unto are sufficiently known to all of us, and will to our life's end be felt by some of us.

"My particular preservation was wonderful from an intended assassination by one who thrust himself into my company to have the better opportunity to execute it; but, overcome with kindness, his heart relented, and he forsook his purpose and my company.

"If the snow had fallen (as in other years) in the time of our travel, we could not have passed our journey; but He who rules the heavens and the earth restrained it till we came within half a day of our journey's end, and in safety He conducted us to Upsal. The same Providence kept us there, and when some of our company were sick and hurt, restored health again.

"It was marvellous and unexpected, that in a foreign country, at such a distance from friends and acquaintance, God should raise us up friends out of strangers, namely the Queen, foreign ministers, and great officers, in whose sight we found wonderful favour, to our preservation under God and a great means of effecting what we came about, maugre the labours and designs of our enemies against it, and their plots and attempts for our destruction, had not our Rock of Defence secured us.

"I should detain you very long, though I hope it would not be thought too long, to recite all our remarkable mercies; and it is an excellent thing that they are so numerous. We are now coming homewards. How did our God preserve us over the Baltic Sea from innumerable dangers of the rocks, sands, coasts, islands, fierce lightnings, storms, and those high-swelling waters! Such was our preservation in the Elbe, when our countrymen leaped into the water to bring us off from danger, and when the tempests hurried us up and down, by Heligoland, then towards Holland, then to the northward, then to the southward, in the open breaking rough seas, when we had lost our course and knew not where we were.

"Above all other was that most eminent deliverance near our own coast, when our ship was stuck upon the sand twelve leagues from any shore, when no help nor human means were left to save us, when pale death faced us so long together, when no hopes remained to escape his fury or the rages of the waves, which we expected every instant to swallow us; even then, to show where our dependence ought to be, our God would make it His own work to deliver us. He it was that raised the wind, and brought it from the higher part of the bank, to shake our fastened ship, and crumble the loose sands; and no sooner had we taken a resolution of praying and resigning our souls to God, but He gave us our lives again, moving our ship by His powerful arm, making it to float again, none knowing how or by what means, but by the free act of His mercy, and not a return of ours, but of the prayers of some here present, and divers others our Christian friends, who at that very time were met together to seek the Lord for us and for our safe return.

"Methinks the hearts of us who were partakers of these mercies should rejoice in the repetition of them, and those that hear them cannot but say they hear excellent things; and certainly never had any men more cause than we have of returning humble and hearty thanks to God who hath thus saved us.

"And having received these mercies, and been delivered out of these distresses, I may say to you, as Jacob said to his household (Gen. xxxv.), 'Let us arise and go to Bethel;' let us serve God and praise His name who answered us in the day of our distress, and was with us in the way which we went. Let us also keep Jacob's vow: 'The Lord hath been with us and kept us in our way, and brought us again to our fathers' house in peace; let the Lord be our God.' Let not any of our former vanities or lusts, or love of the world, be any more our God, but let the Lord be our God; let our thanksgiving appear in owning the Lord for our God, and in walking answerable to our mercies; let our prayers be according to the counsel of the Apostle (Eph. v.), 'See then that ye walk circumspectly, giving thanks always for all things.' How much more are we bound to do it from our special mercies!

"Gentlemen, give me leave to conclude with my particular thanks to you who accompanied me in my journey, and have manifested very much respect, care, diligence, courage, and discretion. You have, by your demeanour, done honour to our profession of religion, to our country, to yourselves, to your Ambassador, who will be ready to testify the same on all occasions, and to do you all good offices; chiefly in bearing you company to return praises to our God, whose mercies endure for ever."

After these exercises performed, wherein Whitelocke was the more large in manifesting the abounding of his sense of the goodness of God towards him, and was willing also to recollect his thoughts for another occasion, the company retired themselves; and Whitelocke complimented his particular friends, giving them many thanks who had shown kindness to his wife and family, and had taken care of his affairs in his absence.

[SN: A banquet held in State, as in Sweden.]

He bid them all welcome, and desired them to accompany company him the next day to his audience before the Protector and Council. Then he led them into a great room, where the table was spread, and all things in the same state and manner as he used to have them in Sweden, that his friends might see the fashion of his being served when he was in that condition, and as his farewell to those pomps and vanities.

The trumpets sounding, meat was brought in, and the mistress of the house made it appear that England had as good and as much plenty of provisions as Sweden, Denmark, or Germany. His friends and company sat down to meat as they used to do in Sweden; the attendants, pages, lacqueys, and others, in their liveries, did their service as they were accustomed abroad. Their discourse was full of cheerfulness and recounting of God's goodness; and both the time of the meat and the afternoon was spent in rejoicing together for the present mercy, and for the whole series of God's goodness to them; and in the evening they parted, every one to his own quarters.

July 6, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke give an account of his Embassy to the Council.]

Whitelocke went in the morning early to Whitehall. At Secretary Thurloe's lodging he found most of his company, the gentlemen in their habits, the others in their liveries; and in a short time they were all come together, to attend their Ambassador to his last audience, who was put to the patience of staying an hour and a half at Master Secretary's lodging before he was called in to his Highness; then, being sent for, he went, attended in the same manner as he used to go to his audiences in Sweden. Being come to the outward room, he was presently brought into the Council-chamber, where the Protector sat in his great chair at the upper end of the table, covered, and his Council sat bare on each side of the table. After ceremonies performed by Whitelocke, and great respect shown him by the Protector and his Council, Whitelocke spake to this effect:—

"May it please your Highness,

"I attend, by your command, to give an account of the discharge of that great trust and weighty burden which, through the assistance of God, I have undergone in my employment to Sweden, and with the success of that negotiation, wherein I shall not waste much of your time, for which you have other great affairs; but, in as few words as I can, I shall with clearness and truth acquaint your Highness and your Honourable Council with those matters which I apprehend most fit and worthy of your knowledge.

"After the receipt of my commission and instructions from the Parliament then sitting, to go Ambassador to Sweden, I neglected no time, how unseasonable soever, to transport myself to that country. Upon the 5th of November I embarked at the Hope, and after ten days' voyage, through many storms, enemies, and dangers, it pleased God on the 15th of November to bring me in safety, with all my company, into the port of Gothenburg. The next day I despatched two of my servants to the Court with letters to Prince Adolphus, the Grand Master, and to the Ricks-Chancellor of Sweden, to advertise them of my arrival, and to desire their advice whither to direct my journey to attend the Queen.

"In this city I received many civilities and testimonies of respect to your Highness and this Commonwealth from the magistrates, officers, and others there; and a small contest I had with a Dutchman, a Vice-Admiral of her Majesty's, about our war with his countrymen, and about some prizes brought in by me, wherein I took the liberty to justify the proceedings of this State, and ordered, upon submission, the release of a small Dutch prize taken by me.

"Having refreshed myself and company some days, I began my land journey the last day of November. The military officers accompanied me out of town; the citizens and garrison-soldiers stood to their arms, and with many volleys of great and small shot (the bullets passing somewhat too near for compliments) they gave me an honourable farewell.

"In our journey we met with extreme hardships, both in the weather and in want of necessary accommodations. The greater towns where we quartered showed much respect to your Highness and this Commonwealth; only in one town a little affront was given in words by a praetor, who acknowledged his fault, and it appeared to proceed more from drink than judgement. In all places the officers took great care, with what the country would afford, to furnish what I wanted; the ways were prepared, waggons and horses brought in, and all things requisite were done by the country, upon command of her Majesty.

"After twenty-one days in our land-journey, near four hundred miles from Gothenburg up into the country, in that climate in December, it pleased God through all our difficulties to bring us safe to Upsal the 20th of December. About half a league from the town, the Master of the Ceremonies, and after him two Senators with two coaches of the Queen's, and those of the Spanish Resident and of divers grandees, met me, and with more than ordinary ceremony conducted me to a house in the town, by the Queen's order taken up and furnished for me. Divers compliments passed from the Queen herself and many of her Court, expressing much respect to your Highness and this Commonwealth, in the person of your servant.

"By favour I obtained my first audience from the Queen the 23rd of December, the particular passages whereof (as of most other matters which I have to mention) were in my letters imparted, as they arose, to Mr. Secretary Thurloe, and by him, I presume, to your Highness and the Council. Two or three days after this I procured a private audience from her Majesty, when I showed her my commission, and took time to wait on her with my proposals.

"The Spanish Resident, Don Piementelle, now in this Court, expressed high respects for your Highness and this Commonwealth, and particular affection to me; and I, knowing his great favour with the Queen and his own worth, contracted an intimacy of friendship with him, as I had also with M. Woolfeldt, the King of Denmark's brother-in-law, with Field-Marshal Wrangel, Grave Tott, the Queen's favourite, and with divers senators and great men, but especially with the old Chancellor.

"I found very useful for your Highness's service there Mr. Lagerfeldt, Secretary Canterstein, Mr. Ravius, and others; and I had good assistance from my countrymen, General-Major Fleetwood, a true friend to England, my Lord Douglas, Colonel Hamilton, and others.

"And having now given your Highness some account of persons, I come to the matter of my negotiation, which I laid the best I could.

"By advice I made my applications to the Queen herself, and, as much as I could, put the business upon her personal determination, which she liked, and it proved advantageous. I presented to her at once all my articles, except three reserved. The articles proposed a league offensive and defensive; whereupon she objected the unsettledness of our Commonwealth, the present peace of her kingdoms, and our being involved in a war. To which I answered, that her kingdoms could not long continue in peace, and would have as much need of our assistance as we of theirs; and our war and successes against Holland were arguments that our friendship merited acceptance; that I hoped our Commonwealth was settled, and that leagues were between nations, not governments.

"This debate was very large with her Majesty, who seemed satisfied with my answers, and appointed her Chancellor to treat with me; who much more insisted upon the unsettledness of our Commonwealth and upon the same objections which the Queen had made, and received from me the same answers; which proved the more satisfactory after the news of your Highness's accession to the Government, which made this treaty proceed more freely.

"I had often and long disputes with the Chancellor upon the article touching English rebels being harboured in Sweden; most of all, touching contraband goods, and about reparation of the losses of the Swedes by prizes taken from them in our Dutch war by us, besides many other objections, whereof I have given a former account by letters. The Chancellor being sick, his son Grave Eric was commissioned to treat with me in his father's stead, and was much more averse to my business, and more earnest upon the objections, than the old man, whom, being recovered, I found more moderate, yet we could not agree one way or other. And when I pressed for a conclusion, both the Queen and her Chancellor did ingenuously acknowledge, that they desired first to see whether the peace would be made between us and Holland, before they came to a determination upon my treaty; wherein I could not but apprehend reason: and when the news came that the peace between your Highness and the Dutch was concluded, I urged a conclusion of my treaty; and what the Chancellor and I differed in, the Queen was pleased to reconcile, and so we came to the full agreement contained in this instrument, signed and sealed by the Queen's Commissioners, which I humbly present to your Highness and this Honourable Board; and which I hope, through the goodness of God, may be of advantage to this Commonwealth, and to the Protestant interest."

Here Whitelocke, making a little pause, delivered into the Protector's hand the instrument of his treaty, fairly written in Latin, in a book of vellum, with the hands and seals to it of the Ricks-Chancellor and his son Grave Eric, which being done, Whitelocke went on in his speech.

"I cannot but acknowledge the great goodness of God to me in this employment, in my preservation from attempts against my person, raising me up such eminent friends, giving me so much favour in the eyes of strangers, inclining the Queen's heart to an extraordinary affection and favour towards me, and giving this good success to my business, notwithstanding the designs and labours of many enemies to the contrary. The treaty with me being thus finished, the business came on of the Queen's resignation of the Crown, wherein she was pleased to express a great confidence in a stranger, by imparting it to me many weeks before, whereof I took the boldness to certify your Highness.

"The Prince who was to succeed the Queen was sent for to Upsal, and their Ricksdag, or Parliament, was to meet there in the beginning of May. Your Highness will not expect many arguments of your servant's longing desires of returning, when he had advice that your frigates sent for him were in the Elbe; yet, judging it might conduce to your service to salute the Prince, I staid till his entry (which was in great state) into Upsal, where I saluted him from your Highness, and acquainted him with my negotiation, which he well approved; and, to testify his great respect to your Highness and this Commonwealth, he came in person to visit me at my house, and used me with so much extraordinary favour and ceremony, that never the like had been done before to any ambassador. We had several conferences at large, much discourse of your Highness and of this Commonwealth, with the particulars whereof I shall acquaint you at your better leisure.

"The time of the Queen's resignation being near, I thought it not convenient for me to be then upon the place, but removed to Stockholm; where I was when the resignation and new coronation were solemnized at Upsal. The magistrates of Stockholm expressed good respect to your Highness and this Commonwealth. From hence I embarked the 1st of June, in a good ship of the Queen's, to cross the Baltic Sea. She sent one of her Vice-Admirals, Clerke, to attend me; and, after a dangerous voyage and bad weather, the Lord gave us a safe arrival at Luebeck, on the 7th of June. The magistrates, by their Syndic, here bid me welcome and expressed some respect, and made some requests by me to your Highness.

"From Luebeck I travelled over Holstein and Lueneburg, and came the 10th of June to Hamburg; where I was also very civilly saluted by some of the magistrates and Syndic; and most of the Lords came afterwards to me, and testified extraordinary respect and service to your Highness and this Commonwealth. My countrymen, the company of Merchant Adventurers there, showed very much kindness to me, and I endeavoured to do them service to the Lords of the town, making use of your Highness's name therein.

"I departed from Hamburg the 17th of June; Mr. Bradshaw, your Highness's worthy Resident there, and others of my countrymen, showing much kindness to me, both whilst I was there and at my departure from this city. I embarked in your Highness's frigate, near Glueckstadt, but was detained for some days in the Elbe by cross winds, and in some danger, but in more when we came into the open sea. But above all, the Lord was pleased to appear for us on the 28th day of June, when our ship stuck upon the sands, above twelve leagues off from the coast of Yarmouth: and when there was no means or help of men for our escape, but we expected every moment to be drowned by the waves, then it pleased God to show his power and free mercy by his own hand to deliver us, and, after two hours' expectation of death, to reprieve us, to set our ship on float again, and to bring us all in health and safety to your Highness's presence, and to our dear country and relations.

"The Queen and the new King were pleased to honour me with jewels off their pictures, and a gift of copper, I having bestowed my horses (of more worth) on them and whom they appointed, and which I refused to sell, as a thing uncomely for my condition in your Highness's service.

"Thus, Sir, I have given you a clear and full account of my transactions; and, as I may justify my own diligence and faithfulness therein, so I cannot but condemn my many weaknesses and failings; of which I can only say that they were not wilful, and make a humble demand to your Highness and this honourable Council, that I may obtain your pardon."

When Whitelocke had ended his speech and a little pause made, the Protector, pulling off his hat and presently putting it on again, desired Whitelocke to withdraw, which he did, and within a quarter of an hour was called in again. The Protector, using the same ceremony as before, spake to him to this effect:—

[SN: Cromwell's answer to his speech.]

"My Lord,

"The Council and myself have heard the report of your journey and negotiation with much contentment and satisfaction, and both we and you have cause to bless God for your return home with safety, honour, and good success, in the great trust committed to you; wherein this testimony is due to you, that you have discharged your trust with faithfulness, diligence, and prudence, as appears by the account you have given us, and the issue of the business. Truly, when persons to whom God hath given so good abilities, as He hath done to you, shall put them forth as you have done, for His glory and for the good of His people, they may expect a blessing from Him, as you have received in an ample measure.

"An acknowledgment is also due to them from their country, who have served their country faithfully and successfully, as you have done. I can assure your Lordship it is in my heart, really it is, and, I think, in the hearts of all here, that your services in this employment may turn to an account of advantage to you and yours; and it is just and honourable that it should be so.

"The Lord hath shown extraordinary mercy to you and to your company, in the great deliverances which he hath vouchsafed to you; and especially in that eminent one which you have related to us, when you were come near your own country, and the enjoyment of the comforts of your safe return. It was indeed a great testimony of God's goodness to you all,—a very signal mercy, and such a one as ought to raise up your hearts and our hearts in thankfulness to God, who hath bestowed this mercy on you; and it is a mercy also to us as well as to you, though yours more personally, who were thus saved and delivered by the special hand of Providence.

"The goodness of God to you was also seen in the support of you, under those hardships and dangers which you have undergone in this service; let it be your comfort that your service was for God, and for his people, and for your country. And now that you have, through his goodness, passed them over, and he hath given you a safe return unto your country, the remembrance of those things will be pleasant to you, and an obligation for an honourable recompense of your services performed under all those hardships and dangers.

"For the treaty which you have presented to us, signed and sealed by the Queen's Commissioners, I presume it is according to what you formerly gave advice to us from Sweden. We shall take time to peruse it, and the Council have appointed a committee to look into it, together with your instructions, and such other papers and things as you have further to offer to them: and I may say it, that this treaty hath the appearance of much good, not only to England, but to the Protestant interest throughout Christendom; and I hope it will be found so, and your service thereby have its due esteem and regard, being so much for public good, and so discreetly and successfully managed by you.

"My Lord, I shall detain you no longer, but to tell you that you are heartily welcome home; that we are very sensible of your good service, and shall be ready on all occasions to make a real acknowledgment thereof to you."

When the Protector had done speaking, Whitelocke withdrew into the outward room, whither Mr. Scobell, Clerk of the Council, came to him with a message from the Protector, that Whitelocke would cause those of his retinue, then present, to go in to the Protector and Council, which they did; and the Protector spake to them with great courtesy and favour, bidding them welcome home, blessing God for their safe return to their friends and native country, and for the great deliverances which He had wrought for them. He commended their care of Whitelocke and their good deportment, by which they had testified much courage and civility, and had done honour to religion and to their country; he gave them thanks for it, and assurance of his affection to them when any occasion should be offered for their good or preferment. They withdrew, full of hopes, every one of them, to be made great men; but few of them attained any favour, though Whitelocke solicited for divers of them who were very worthy of it.

This audience being ended, and with it Whitelocke's commission, he willingly parted with his company and greatness, and contentedly retired himself with his wife and children in his private family. After his return from the Council, Whitelocke dismissed his company and went to those gentlemen whom he had desired to act as a committee for him before his going out of England; these he desired to examine the state of his accounts with his officers, to satisfy what remained due to any, and to make up his account, to be given in tomorrow to the Council's committee.

July 7, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke renders a minute account of the negotiation to a Committee of Council.]

According to the appointment of the Protector and Council, signified to him by a letter from Mr. Jessop, Clerk of the Council, Whitelocke repaired to Whitehall, to the Lord Viscount Lisle and Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes, the Committee of the Council, appointed to peruse and examine his proceedings: to them he produced his commission, orders, credentials, and instructions; and all was sifted into, by virtue whereof he acted throughout by his whole Embassy.

He deduced his negotiation from the beginning of his Treaty to the conclusion of it, with all the reasons and circumstances of his transactions. They took cognizance of all, narrowly searched into and examined everything, comparing all particular passages and actions with the rules and instructions given him; and upon the whole matter they acknowledged that Whitelocke had given them full satisfaction in every point, and all his proceedings were by them, and upon their report to the Protector and Council afterwards, fully approved and commended by them.

July 8, 1654.

[SN: The Committee of Council audits his accounts.]

Whitelocke again solicited the Committee of the Council that his accounts might be examined and stated, and order given for the payment of what remained due to him, which he had expended out of his own purse in their service, and was reasonable for him to expect a reimbursement of it. The Committee were pleased to take great pains in pursuing and examining his papers, books, and accounts, not omitting (with strictness enough) any particular of his actions and expenses; and after all their strait inquisition and narrow sitting, they again acknowledged, which upon their report was confirmed by the Council, that his management of this affair had been faithful and prudent, his disbursements had been just and necessary, his account was clear and honest, and that he ought to be satisfied with what remained upon his accounts due to him. The remainder due to him was above L500, and, notwithstanding all their promises, Whitelocke could never get it of them.

The sum of all was, that for a most difficult and dangerous work, faithfully and successfully performed by Whitelocke, he had little thanks and no recompense from those who did employ him; but, not long after, was rewarded by them with an injury: they put him out of his office of Commissioner of the Great Seal, because he would not betray the rights of the people, and, contrary to his own knowledge and the knowledge of those who imposed it, execute an ordinance of the Protector and his Council as if it had been a law. But in a succeeding Parliament, upon the motion of his noble friend the Lord Broghill, Whitelocke had his arrears of his disbursements paid him, and some recompense of his faithful service allowed unto him.

His hopes were yet higher, and his expectation of acceptance was from a superior to all earthly powers; to whom only the praise is due, of all our actions and endeavours, and who will certainly reward all his servants with a recompense which will last for ever.

July 9, 1654.

[SN: A familiar letter.]

I received this letter from my brother Willoughby:—

"For my Lord Whitelocke, at Chelsea, humbly these.

"My Lord,

"I being this day commanded by the two within-named persons in your letter to consummate their nuptials, and in that to bear the part of a father, am so confident of my power, as (were it not my Lord Whitelocke's request, whose interest with them exceeds a mock father) he might be assured of not failing of his commands; but that done which this morning I am going about, I am by them desired to jog on to Stanstead, so that I fear I shall by that means be disappointed of attending you upon Wednesday; and that, I assure you, will go to Nancy's heart, she being yesterday resolved to have visited you this morning at Chelsea, had she not apprehended your early being in town; but wherever we are, our thankfulness to God for your safe return you shall not fail of, nor of the keeper tomorrow night. So I rest,

"My Lord, "Your affectionate brother to serve you, "WILL. WILLOUGHBY. "July."

I have inserted this and other letters, that you may observe the change of styles and compliments in the change of fortunes and conditions.

July 10, 1654.

I had been several times to visit my Lord Lambert since my coming home, he being a person in great favour with the army, and not without some close emulation from Cromwell; but his occasions were so great, that I could not meet with him. I therefore desired the Earl of Clare, who was very intimate with Lambert, to contrive a conveniency for my meeting with my Lord Lambert, whereupon he sent me this letter, directed

"For the Lord Whitelocke, at Chelsea.

"My Lord,

"Hearing your Lordship had been several times to see my Lord Lambert and missed, and I desiring that there should be no mistakes between you, I sent Mr. Bankes to signify so much to his cousin Lambert, who, being come this morning to town, says he will be very glad to see your Lordship about two this afternoon, and Mr. Bankes will wait on your Lordship to him, if you please to be in the Park, in the walk between the elms on this side the water. So I rest

"Your Lordship's humble servant, "CLARE."

I met Mr. Bankes at the time appointed, who brought me to my Lord Lambert, and he received me with great civility and respect; we had much discourse together about Sweden, and Germany, and Denmark, and the business of my treaty; and we parted with all kindness, and he desired to have my company often.

July 11, 1654.

I received this letter from my Lady Pratt:—

"For my ever-honoured friend the Lord Whitelocke, these humbly.

"My Lord,

"Hearing that it is absolutely in your power to dispose of the time of the Assizes, and an unexpected accident being fallen out, which, will make them extremely prejudicial to us if they begin so soon, my humble suit to your Lordship is to defer them till, etc. This favour, as it will be an extraordinary great one, so it will lay a suitable obligation upon,

"My Lord, your most humble servant, "MARGARET PRATT."

I could not gratify this lady's desire, being not yet sworn a Commissioner of the Great Seal; but I returned her a civil answer and excuse; and I have inserted the more letters, that you may see the style and compliments of divers persons, and note their change upon the change of times.

July 12, 1654.

[SN: A more formal letter.]

I received this letter from the Lord Chief Baron Wylde:—

"For the Right Honourable the Lord Ambassador Whitelocke, these, at Chelsea.

"Right Honourable and my very good Lord,

"It is not my happiness to be in place or condition to wait upon your Lordship, as I would, to present my humble service to you, and the gratulations due for your safe and happy return, for your long and hazardous, but I hope successful journey, wishing the honour and happiness which belongs to your most known deservings may ever attend you, with a reward from above for those inestimable favours by which you have for ever obliged me to you and all that is mine; who, after the long course I have run, through all the degrees of my laborious calling, my services to my country and the Commonwealth, my great losses and sufferings for the public, and the discharge of my duty in all my several trusts and employments, have now the hoped-for comfort of all removed from me, and a dark shadow cast upon me, with all the sad consequences thereof to me and mine, and many others that have dependence on me. But God gives and takes, and is able to restore; His help I trust in, and shall still desire the continuance of your Lordship's undoubted favours, whose health and happiness I shall ever pray for, who am,

"My Lord, "Your Lordship's most faithful servant, "JOHN WYLDE. "Hampstead, 12th July, 1654."

This gentleman was very laborious in the service of the Parliament, and stiff for them, and had sustained great losses and hatred by adhering in all matters to them. He was learned in his profession, but of more reading than depth of judgement; and I never heard of any injustice or incivility of him. The Parliament made him Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, which place he executed with diligence and justice; yet upon the alteration made by Cromwell, when he assumed the Protectorship, in the nomination of officers he left out Mr. Sergeant Wylde from being Chief Baron or any other employment,—a usual reward, in such times, for the best services. He entreated me to move the Protector on his behalf, which I did, but to no effect, the Protector having a dislike of the Sergeant, but the ground thereof I could not learn.

[SN: Whitelocke's influence in Oxfordshire.]

Most places were full of trouble about their elections of Parliament men. I had recommended my son James to some of my friends in Oxfordshire, for one of the knights for that county, myself being chosen for the city of Oxford and for the borough of Bedford, and one of the knights for Bucks. I had at this time such an interest in Oxfordshire, that upon my account my son James was chosen for one of their knights for the Parliament, as appears by this letter to me:—

"For the Right Honourable his dear Father the Lord Commissioner Whitelocke, at Chelsea, these. Haste, haste.

"Dear Sir,

"I held it my duty, upon the instant of the conclusion of the elections at this place, to acquaint you that I am chosen one of the knights for the county in the next Parliament. I am told that the number of voices might justly have given the first place to me; but I freely resigned it to Lieutenant-General Fleetwood, not suffering it to be brought to trial by the poll, which many of the country desired. The persons elected are Lieutenant-General Fleetwood, Mr. Robert Jenkinson, Colonel Nathaniel Fynes, Mr. Lenthall, Master of the Rolls, and myself.

"Many of your friends appeared really for me, amongst which I can experimentally say none acted more effectually than my cousin Captain Crooke, his father, and brother. The city of Oxford was prepared very seasonably for me, wherein my cousin Richard Crooke's affections did particularly appear; and I conceive that if you shall be pleased to waive the election for the city of Oxford, no truer friend could be commended by you for their choice than my cousin Richard Crooke, in regard of his interest there, if you think it fit. I shall say no more at present in this haste, but expect your commands in all things, who am

"Your most obedient son, "J. WHITELOCKE. "Oxford, July 12, 1654."

The gentlemen of Oxfordshire did generally manifest great civility and respect to me in this business of my son; so did the citizens of Oxford; and the scholars were not behindhand in the expression of their favour and good opinion of me and my son, and they stood stoutly and generally for my son to be one of the knights for the county. Thus was my interest at this time sufficient to make another to be knight of the shire; yet when my condition fell, my interest fell with it, and I was looked upon as a stranger among them. Such is the course and vicissitude of worldly things; therefore put no trust in them.

July 13, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke summoned to resume the Commissionership of the Great Seal.]

This Order of the Council was brought unto me:—

"Thursday, the 13th of July, 1654.

"AT THE COUNCIL AT WHITEHALL: Ordered, by his Highness the Lord Protector and the Council, that the Lord Commissioner Whitelocke do attend the Council tomorrow morning, to take his oath as one of the Lords Commissioners for the Great Seal, and that the rest of the Lords Commissioners do then also attend with the Seal.

"HENRY SCOBELL, "Clerk of the Council."

Some of my friends thought it very long before this order was made, and looked upon it as some neglect to me, whereof I was likewise sensible, but had no remedy; only it seemed hard that after so perilous an undertaking, performed, through the blessing of God, faithfully and successfully on my part, my requital should be a neglect of me and my services. Yet it pleased God to give me much patience and temperance to bear this slighting and ingratitude, and I knew the condition of him from whom it came, who, when his turn was served, usually forgot the instruments.

July 14, 1654.

[SN: Receives the Seal.]

According to the Council's Order, the Lords Commissioners Lisle and Widdrington attended with the Seal at Whitehall, and I was there also. We were all called into the Council, where the Protector himself was sitting at the upper end of the table with his hat on, and the Council all uncovered. He made a short and grave speech, how much I had deserved from the Commonwealth by the great and faithful services I had performed for them, particularly in the treaty with Sweden. That in my absence, the custody of the Great Seal being to be disposed of, the Council and himself having good experience of my fidelity and abilities for that great trust, and as a testimony of their favour to me, they thought fit to nominate me for one of the Commissioners of the Seal. And I being now, through the mercy of God, safely returned again into this Commonwealth, they had appointed this time for me to take the oath of a Commissioner of the Great Seal, as the rest of the Commissioners had done before.

I then desired to see the oath, which was shown to me, and finding it to be the same that I had taken before, I took it now again; and after that, the Protector took the Great Seal in his hand and delivered it to me and the other Commissioners, and so we did withdraw with it. Sir Thomas Widdrington seemed a little distasted that I was the first Commissioner, named before him, which was done when I was out of England, and, I suppose, because I was then Ambassador Extraordinary in their actual service. We went away together to consult about the business of the Seal, and I sought to win Sir Thomas Widdrington by my civility to him.

July 15, 1654.

[SN: Entry of certain goods.]

I employed my brother Wilson to the Commissioners of the Customs, to get the copper which I had brought from Sweden, and some deal boards, to be discharged of paying custom, they being my particular goods, concerning which my brother Wilson gave me this account by his letter; and also, touching the arrears of my salary as Commissioner of the Great Seal during my absence out of England, and for one term since my coming home.

"For the Right Honourable the Lord Commissioner Whitelocke, these; Chelsea.

"May it please your Lordship,

"This morning I waited on the Commissioners of the Customs with your Lordship's letter, who expressed much readiness to answer your expectation about the Customs of the copper and deal boards, had it been in their power, their commission not exceeding a bill of store for forty shillings. But I am to wait on the Commissioners at Whitehall for regulating the Customs, on Tuesday morning (who sit not till then); they have power to grant the custom thereof, and carrying the letter from your Lordship, I question not but will take effect, and so they have acquainted me; which letter I send enclosed, that you may please in the superscription to add to the word Commissioners, 'for regulating, etc.,' which then will be fit to present to the said committee. In the meantime I have procured an order to go to work upon the small vessel, which cannot well be done until you are pleased to send word what shall be done with the deals, they being uppermost. If the barge be not ready, if you think fit, I will hire a lighter and load her therewith, which may convey them to Queenhithe or Chelsea, otherwise it will be less charge for a barge to take them in from the ship; your Lordship's pleasure shall be observed in all.

"I acquainted the Commissioners of the Customs of an order your Lordship had for L1000, which they acquainted me should be paid as soon as brought to them; since which I have received it from Mr. Earle, which I also send enclosed, that you may please to put your name underneath it, that so receipt may be made over it after their form, and on Monday it will be paid.

"My humble service to my Lady, I beseech you, present. I shall await your Lordship's answer, and ever remain

"Your Lordship's most obliged servant, "SAMUEL WILSON. "London, this 15th July, 1654."

I ordered a Henley barge to take in the deal boards from the ship, and to carry them to Fawley Court, which was done; and there I made use of them for new flooring my hall and for wainscoting of it. They were extraordinary good boards, and those of the floor were about two inches thick. There they are, and there may they long continue, for the use of me and my children; and may they put us in mind to bless God for his goodness to me in that voyage, and in my safe return to that place, and of all his preservations and mercies to me and my company!

I returned order to my brother Wilson, to be careful of receiving my money from the Commissioners of the Customs.

July 16, 1654.

I had some conference with Major G. Disborough, one of the Commissioners for the Ordnance, about his buying for the State the copper which the Queen of Sweden gave me, and I brought over from thence, being two hundred and fifty ship-pound. I desired that some merchants might look upon it, who had experience in that commodity; and what they should agree to be a reasonable price for it, I should be content to take it; and so we concluded.

July 17, 1654.

[SN: Sale of copper.]

My brother Wilson gave me this account touching my moneys and copper:—

"For the Right Honourable the Lord Commissioner Whitelocke, these; at Chelsea.

"London, the 17th July, 1654.

"May it please your Lordship,

"I sent this morning to receive your moneys at the Custom-house, and they say there is no more due to your Lordship than L750 for three terms, as is expressed in the receipt enclosed, which they have made. I would not receive it until I knew your pleasure, which, if this sum doth agree with what is your due, you may please to put your name to the enclosed receipt from them, and it will be paid in the morning. The order also I send back, that you may please to take off your name from it and send it again by the bearer.

"In the morning we shall work upon the ship, and I shall wait on the Committee at Whitehall, for the custom and excise of the copper to be free, which will come to L240. I hope I shall prevail, and shall always remain

"Your Lordship's humble servant, "SAMUEL WILSON."

There was a mistake by the Commissioners of the Customs about my money, which I rectified, and had the L1000 paid to my brother Wilson for my use. Touching the copper, I at length contracted with Major G. Disborough, who bought it for the Protector, and gave me L2500 for it, which was justly paid unto me; and the copper was employed to make brass ordnance for the ships, and was excellent good, and no ill bargain.

[SN: Mr. Henry Elsing.]

I received a letter from Mr. Henry Elsing, late Clerk of the Parliament, and the best clerk in my judgement that ever I knew, to take the sense of the House and put it in apt terms. He was an excellent scholar,—had the Italian, French, and Latin languages; a very honest and ingenious man, and fitter for much better employment than to be Clerk of the Parliament. He was my faithful and kind friend, and I owe very much of affection and gratitude to the memory of this worthy gentleman. He was in great and deserved favour of the House of Commons, and gave over his place because he would not meddle in the business about the trial of the King. He often invited Mr. Selden and me together to his house to dinner, where we had great cheer, and greater learning in excellent discourse, whereof himself bore a chief part. I was the more frequent with him, being godfather to one of his sons, and Mr. Selden the other godfather, which brought us two the oftener together to his house, to see our godson; and even in such meetings as these I gained very much of knowledge from the most learned and rational discourses of Mr. Selden.


[435] [Yet Whitelocke seems to have entertained no suspicions of the Queen's design to join the Church of Rome. Piementelle and Montecuculi were however aware of her intention on this point, and were afterwards present at her abjuration.]



{Transcriber's notes.

1 Original reads "of our father"; changed to "of your father".

2 Original reads "more prejudical to Sweden"; changed to "more prejudicial to Sweden".

3 Original reads "contrabrand goods"; changed to "contraband goods".

4 "Sunnandag" not italicised in original.

5 Original reads "Grave Eric's requst"; changed to "Grave Eric's request".

6 Original reads "unto the Prinee"; changed to "unto the Prince".

7 Original reads "and and that"; changed to "and that".

8 Original reads "Whitleocke"; changed to "Whitelocke".

9 Original reads "bacon and other provison"; changed to "bacon and other provision".

10 Original reads "en suite dequoi"; changed to "en suite de quoi". }


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