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A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II.
by Bulstrode Whitelocke
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[283] [Oxenstiern died about three months afterwards.]

[314] [It would be idle to speculate on the political motives which may have combined with other reasons to induce Christina of Sweden to conceive and execute this extraordinary design. Other sovereigns have abdicated from the lassitude of age or the burden of unpopularity, or the desire of ensuring the succession to their offspring; but the resignation of a Queen in her twenty-ninth year, surrounded by able ministers and a loyal people, and who had reigned with splendour and success, is an event without a parallel in history. The explanation of it is to be found in the eccentricity, the levity, the feverish curiosity, and the indomitable love of independence and singularity which are to be traced in every part of the Queen's character. She was a woman of powerful but ill-regulated mind, capable at one time of sharing in the speculations of Descartes or of applauding the exhortations of Whitelocke,—at another, of bowing to the spiritual bondage of Rome, and even of committing the brutal murder of Monaldeschi. The character of Cromwell pleased her by its adventurous exploits and its arbitrary tendency, and her reception of the English Embassy was as much the result of personal predilection as of policy. Whitelocke amused her by his somewhat pedantic erudition, and flattered her vanity, but he seems scarcely to have divined the extraordinary variations of her character.]



JUNE.

June 1, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke embarks in the Amarantha, and sails.]

Having been part of yesterday and all the last night upon the water, this morning, about seven o'clock, Whitelocke and all his company came to the Dollars, and, without setting foot on shore, they went on board the ship 'Amarantha,' lying there to expect them. And although this was not usual, but passengers generally stay some time at this place till their ships be ready, and to make provisions for their voyage, and spend some money at the cabaret here; yet Whitelocke seeing the wind fair, and having all his company together in the boats, was unwilling to let them be scattered by going on shore, which might be troublesome and retard his voyage by getting them all together again. For these reasons he commanded all his people to go forthwith aboard the ship, as he himself did, at which Vice-Admiral Clerke wondered, and said he had not seen the same done before.

This ship, the 'Amarantha,' had never yet been at sea, and therefore the more dangerous to adventure in her first voyage; but she was well built, a fair ship, of a good burden, and had mounted in her forty pieces of brass cannon, two of them demy cannon, and she was well manned and of good force and strength for war; she was a good sailer, and would turn and tack about well; she held a hundred persons of Whitelocke's followers and most of his baggage, besides her own mariners, about two hundred. The cabins wherein Whitelocke was were of a handsome make; the breadth of the ship was the length of his bed-cabin, and it was six or seven paces broad, and high enough for the tallest man; it was hung with red cloth, the furniture of the bed was rich cloth of gold and silver; on the table was a rich carpet, and all over it a canopy with broad fringes of silk and gold and silver. Within the bed-cabin was another room for him to retire into, with a table and benches covered with red cloth. All the gentlemen had accommodations as the ship could afford.

Being all settled in the ship, they were fain to stay for the ship-boat which the captain had sent for water; and as soon as it was returned, about ten o'clock in the morning, they weighed anchor and put the ship under sail, recommending themselves to the mercy and protection of Him who rules upon the waters as well as on dry land, and of whose goodness they had so great experience. They sailed by the place called the Scares, that is, the isles of rocks, which are there in the water and on both sides of the shore, of a strange cragginess, largeness, and number; those in the sea are full of danger, and often afford but a very strait passage for the ships to go between them, and no other course is to avoid them. From hence the sea begins to widen herself towards the furthest point of land, which they call the Lands-Ort, answerable to our English point of land called the Land's End in Cornwall. The Lands-Ort is eight Swedish leagues from the Dollars, and hither they reached by the evening, the wind being east and south-east all this day.

June 2, 1654.

[SN: The voyage.]

About eleven o'clock the last night the wind came about more to the south, yet Whitelocke advanced in his course and gained some way, but not much, the wind being almost against him; and so it continued in this morning, when there appeared a chain of rocks advancing themselves more than a Swedish mile into the sea, and not far from the isle of Oeland, to which rocks it is not good to approach too near. They could not maintain their course but to very small advantage, and by veering up and down to gain a little of the wind, and in this manner they spent this whole day: the wind continuing at south-south-east, they did not advance much all this day, only kept what they had gained before, and held plying up and down in that dangerous sea; their support was that this was the good pleasure of their God, whose will the wind and waters do obey.

Though the weather was not foul, yet it was thick with fog which arose at the foot of the horizon, and the mariners said this weather was ordinary in these seas, but very dangerous. In the evening some of the company made them pastime to divert the tediousness of the way and weather.

June 3, 1654.

[SN: The island of Gothland.]

About midnight the wind came about somewhat fairer than before, and Whitelocke gained a little in his course. At sunrising he discovered the isle of Gothland, eight leagues distant to the east from the isle of Oeland; afterwards the wind returned to the same quarter wherein it was yesterday.

The isle of Oeland is near the continent, extending itself in length by the shore eighteen Swedish miles, but hath not in breadth in any place above two Swedish miles. This is the place where the Prince of Sweden, now King, used to make his residence, in a fair castle built of stone of this island, not inferior to marble,—these stones are in great request for pavements, pillars, and other uses and ornaments in building. The pillars of the King's Chapel at Stockholm, great and high, well polished and of divers colours, were brought from this island, and they have many of these stones in the buildings of the great lords. This island is a place of the most field-pleasure of any in this country, being open and stored with red and fallow deer, with hares and conies, and with partridges, which are scarce in other parts; but here the game is preserved for the Prince's pleasure.

The isle of Gothland is about fourteen Swedish miles in length, and five in breadth. It anciently belonged to the Swedes till the Danes took it from them, and kept the possession of it till the late wars between those two crowns, when the Swedes recovered it from the Dane; and by the peace after that war the treaty left it to the Swede, and allowed for it the isle of Bornholm to the Dane, being nearer his dominions. They report that heretofore Gothland (belonging to the Goths, from whom it hath the name) was famous for the traffic of all these quarters, and had in it a large town called Wisby, where formerly certain laws were instituted touching the sea, which are observed to this day. But Luebeck, and other towns on that side, having got the trade from hence, and the sea by inundations having much diminished this isle, both it and the town are become but of small consideration.

The wind was little and very variable, and this day was a calm, so that they could advance very little in their voyage. In the evening the wind grew fresh, and increased till three o'clock the next morning, so that they made good way in their course; but these deep seas began to rise, and the ship to roll and toss so much, that some of Whitelocke's people, sensible of it and of the increasing of the wind and waves, and of the mariners' labour and disorder, began to be afraid and sick. But Whitelocke cherished and comforted them the best he could, and gave order for attendance upon them, and that they should want nothing which the ship could afford; the which was the more in his power, the command of it being wholly left to him by the Queen; and by his kindness, and ceasing of the storm, they began to recover their courage, the wind changed, and it grew more calm after the ruffling.

June 4, 1654.

[SN: The voyage.—Bornholm.]

The Lord's Day.—Still Whitelocke was toiling on the Baltic Sea. After three o'clock in the morning he advanced a good way in his course; but about ten o'clock they discovered land, which was the isle of Bornholm, distant from the point of south of Oeland eighteen German leagues. It seemeth a plain and flat ground, about eight Swedish miles in length, and about five in breadth; this isle is fruitful and well peopled, abounding in pastures, so that it yields a good revenue in butter. Many witches are affirmed to be in this isle, and no place in this sea hath more shipwrecks than upon Bornholm. Some give the reason thereof from the strait pass between this isle and the continent; yet is the coast clean and without rocks, and hath good roads; others attribute the cause of these shipwrecks to the great and dangerous sands about this and the other isles of this sea, which (especially about this isle of Bornholm) do lie out far and shallow in the sea, on which many ships have been struck and lost; and here Whitelocke's ship was in some peril, but it pleased God still to preserve him. He floated in sight of this island almost all this day, the wind veering into most points of the compass, and he was turned back from his course and lost more than he gained of his way.

About nine o'clock in the morning the ship's company, having a minister on board with them, were at their exercises of devotion, which they have every morning, beginning with singing a psalm, as we do; then the minister prays, but not long, and the conclusion is to sing about two verses of another psalm, and so they part; except on the Lord's Day, as this was, their chaplain preached a short sermon in the morning in Swedish, but none in the afternoon. Whitelocke for his own company had the usual exercises of praying and preaching by his chaplain Mr. De la Marche, Mr. Ingelo being sick.

Towards the evening the wind began to be fresh again; they kept their course near Bornholm, and might discern the castle. After Whitelocke was gone to rest, Vice-Admiral Clerke, who was on board with him, followed a ship to inquire if she heard any news of a Swedish ship laden with salt from Portugal; at which some of Whitelocke's company taking offence, the Vice-Admiral desisted; but by this deviation, the 'Amarantha' (which is not fleet of sail) lost three leagues, which she was cast back in her course, and was brought in great danger by sailing too near the shore; but the Lord guided them.

June 5, 1654.

[SN: Meet an English ship.]

In the morning Whitelocke was out of sight of Bornholm, and pursued his course, the wind blowing a little in a good quarter. About nine o'clock they descried some ships, of which one seemed to be a great one; and coming nearer, they perceived an English ship to be with them. The 'Amarantha' fired a gun to warn them to strike sail, she carrying the flag in her maintop, and being a man-of-war of Sweden. The English captain did not obey, and Clerke commanded to shoot again at him; but Whitelocke ordered Clerke first to send his boat with some of Whitelocke's servants, to advertise the English captain that Whitelocke was in the Swedish ship. They coming on board found the captain in choler, preparing to fight with the Swede, denying their sovereignty on these seas; but being informed by his countrymen that the English Ambassador was on board the Swedish ship, he presently, and Mr. Fisher, a merchant, with him, came to Whitelocke, rejoicing to see him, and said that if he had not been there the Swedish Vice-Admiral should have had hot work; but now he struck sail to the Ambassador, whom he acquainted that all was well in England; that he had brought in his ship the commissioners to agree the differences between our Commonwealth and Denmark, who were now at Copenhagen; and that when they passed the Sound, the King of Denmark's officers were very friendly to them. He told Whitelocke also that two English frigates, sent by the Protector for Whitelocke's transportation, were arrived at Hamburg, and waited for Whitelocke there; after giving him some wine, and discourse, Whitelocke dismissed this Captain Morgan to proceed in his voyage to Danzic, whither he was bound. At his parting all were friends, and Clerke gave him two guns, after the Swedish custom, but Morgan answered him with seven pieces of ordnance; then Clerke gave him two more guns, to which Morgan gave two also, and a third a little while after.

The 'Amarantha' having loitered by reason of the calm, which continued till the evening, they were most part of this day within sight of the isle of Ruegen, near the coast of Pomerland, and part of that Duchy which fell in partage to one of the duke's sons, who there kept his court in a fair castle, whereof somewhat yet remains. The island appears high to those that sail by it, and hath in length about eight German miles, and about five in breadth; the King Gustavus took it, and it hath since continued in the possession of the Swedes, and was confirmed to them by the late treaty of Munster; the coast is full of white sands, and dangerous to those who are not well acquainted with the passages, which hereabout are strait, and a bank of sand comes far out into the sea, on which Whitelocke was in great peril, within four-fathom water in the night; but they were glad to veer back again and tack about to escape the danger.

The wind blew fresh from the north-east, by which he continued his course till about midnight; when there came a hideous storm of wind, thunder, rain, and lightning, which caused them to furl their sails, and lasted about three hours; but the waves continued very high above twelve hours together afterwards, it being the nature of this sea when it is once stirred, that by reason of the great depth it will not be still again for many hours after. Some of Whitelocke's company were much affrighted with this tempest, and not without cause; but it pleased God to cease the storm, and give fair weather, and thereby more cause to remember the experiences they have had of His divine goodness throughout their whole voyage.

June 6, 1654.

[SN: The coast of Pomerania.]

In the morning; the wind continued fair, and they made good way till towards eight o'clock, when it grew calm till about seven o'clock in the evening. All this day they were upon the coast of Pomerland. One of the mariners, from the top-gallant, espying land and a town, informed them that it was Wismar; but coming nearer to the shore, they found it to be Rostock, eight leagues further from Luebeck than Wismar is. Both these towns are subject to the Crown of Sweden, port towns, and of good trade; Rostock more famous to the High Dutch for their exceeding strong and thick beer.

In the evening the wind blew fair north-west, but the sky grew thick, and the night coming on, they, for fear of falling upon the coast, tacked off again to sea, and out of their course. About eleven o'clock at night the storm began much more violent than the night before, continuing about six hours, to the imminent danger of the ship to be overset and foundered in the sea, but still God preserved them. About midnight was a horrible noise, the thunder fierce and strangely loud, the sky all in flames with the wonderful lightnings; and though it be frequent to meet with great tempests of thunder and lightnings upon this sea, and much more dreadful than those in England, yet now the officers and mariners of the ship affirmed that they never saw the like to this tempest, and that they were almost blind with the shining and flashes of this lightning. They saw also on the land houses burning, set on fire by the lightning, any flame whereof fastening upon the combustible matter of the ship the same had instantly been fired and all within her inevitably had perished. But still God was their defence and deliverer. The tempest was so outrageous that they were forced to take down their sails and let fall their anchors. Here they found the difference between Sweden and this country: there, at midnight, one might plainly read without a candle; here, though nearer the summer solstice and the days at longest, they found at least four hours of dark night, as seeming near the winter.

June 7, 1654.

[SN: Arrive at Luebeck.]

The tempest began to cease about five o'clock in the morning, and it grew fair weather, the wind coming good for them to continue and finish their voyage. Thus God preserved them from the danger of the last night as of many times before, the which Whitelocke held himself obliged more largely to describe as so many monuments, to him and his company, of the goodness of God towards them, and to preserve the memory thereof as arguments to him and his, wholly to depend upon that God of whom they have had so much experience.

The wind continued fair, and they sailed all along in the sight of land, drawing nearer and nearer to it, which was pleasant to those who had been in such storms, and were not a little longing to be at their native home. They came about ten o'clock in the morning to the road at Luebeck, and no sooner was the ship settled there but the wind ceased and blew not at all, but it became a great calm; wherein also the providence and goodness of God was seen, that had they not come to an anchor at this very moment, they must have been still roaming on the sea till the wind had come about again for them, and perhaps might have been kept out at sea many days longer. They were all filled with joy, having passed one half of their voyage, and seeing the place of their first descent on land. The 'Amarantha,' having let fall her anchors, fired two guns, and a ship of the Duke of Courland's, in the road, answered them with three. This road is a gulf between two arms of land, at the first entrance from one another about a league; but it becomes more narrow as one approacheth nearer to the mouth of the river, which is called Trave, and divides the two Duchies of Mecklenburg and Holstein. This is the road or haven belonging to the town of Luebeck, and is of good defence and safety to secure the riding of ships, and of conveniency for the trade of that town into the Baltic Sea.

After this perilous voyage of eight days' sailing on the angry Baltic Seas,—escaping the dismal, infinite, vast, craggy rocks, seen and unseen, and the covered sands and dangerous coasts, in the highest storms,—it pleased Him who giveth bounds to the deep waters and stilleth the waves thereof, to conduct Whitelocke and all his people in safety to this haven. They were not negligent to prepare for their going on shore, in order whereunto Whitelocke sent Colonel Potley and some of his servants to land, to provide horses for his coach, and waggons for his train and baggage; purposing to go that night to Luebeck, being but two German leagues from Tremon, and the days now at longest.

Potley, according to order, gave notice to the Governor of Tremon of Whitelocke's coming on shore in the territories of his masters, the Lords of Luebeck, and provided boats, horses, waggons, and all things necessary, with diligence and dexterity. Whilst this was doing, Whitelocke calls his company together into his cabin, where they gave thanks to God for their safe arrival in this place, and humbly prayed for the continuance of his blessing and presence with them, the rest of their journey yet to come.

After dinner, Whitelocke sent for Vice-Admiral Clerke and Captain Sinclair into his cabin, where he gave them thanks for the care and pains they had taken for him and his company, and for their particular respects to himself and observance of his desires; whereof he said he would by letters acquaint his Majesty of Sweden, and report to the Protector their respects to him. He desired them to accept a small testimony of his thankfulness for their civilities. He gave the Vice-Admiral sixty dollars, to distribute to the mariners, and sixty dollars more to the officers of the ship,—that is, the master and his mate, the boatswain, the constable (so they call the master gunner), the gunner's mate, and the rest. To Captain Sinclair he gave eighty ducats, and to the Vice-Admiral one hundred ducats, which were the best compliments, and thankfully accepted by them; and Whitelocke was the more liberal in these rewards, being to strangers, and for the honour of his nation.

The boats being gone, with the coaches, baggage, and most of the people, and the rest not unwilling to be on shore, Whitelocke, with most of his gentlemen, went in one of the ship-boats; the Vice-Admiral bare him company, and did him the honour to steer the boat himself; the rest of the company went in the other ship-boat. After Whitelocke was gone off the length of two or three boats, and whilst the other boat lay by the side of the ship, they fired forty pieces of ordnance, which, being so very near, did, with the wind, or fear of the cannon, strike down some that were in the boat, who were more than frighted, insomuch that one of them, after he came to Luebeck, continued very ill with swooning fits; but by the care of Doctor Whistler and good cordials, through the blessing of God, he recovered, and was well again.

They went about half a league by water from the ship to the mouth of the river, where there is a little fort with some great guns mounted, and without that are small towers for lights to direct the seamen, and a village called Tremon, where they landed, all belonging to the city of Luebeck. Mon, in High Dutch, signifies a mouth, and Tre is the name of the river; so Tremon is the mouth of the river Tre. At their landing stood, ready to receive them, a tall old man, with a long, white, venerable beard; he wore a broad belt, with a long basket-hilted sword; he was a Colonel, and Governor of that fort. He spake to Whitelocke in High Dutch, which Potley interpreted to this effect:—

"My Lord Ambassador,

"In the name of my masters, the Lords of Luebeck, I bid your Excellence welcome on shore and to this place."

Whitelocke answered him as shortly:—

"Noble Colonel,

"I heartily thank you for your civility, whereof I hope ere long to have the opportunity to acquaint your masters the Lords of Luebeck."

As Whitelocke passed by they fired three guns from the fort. The Colonel conducted Whitelocke to his house, near the landing-place, multitudes of people flocking together. The house was not stately, nor very convenient. There they were entertained with great store of very strong beer, which they call mum; and the Colonel was exceeding free to call for large flagons of it for Whitelocke and for all his people; which Whitelocke apprehending to have been the generosity of the Governor, yet fearing some disorder by it among the inferior sort, and being whispered by Colonel Potley that the Governor expected to be paid for his drink, which he usually sold to the passengers, Whitelocke ordered the reckoning to be paid, and hasted from this honourable alehouse to his coach.

It was about four o'clock in the afternoon when Whitelocke went from Tremon, from whence to Luebeck is two Dutch miles, that is, eight of our English miles. And coming with such a train, and to pass the usual ceremony in such cases to the Lords of Luebeck, Whitelocke sent Mr. Berkman and one of his servants before, to salute the Lords of Luebeck in the name of the Protector, as friends to the Commonwealth of England, and to advertise them, that the English Ambassador having occasions to pass through this city, and to be there this day, he thought it requisite to give them notice of it. In the midway between Tremon and Luebeck they came to a ferry over the Trave; the boat was large enough to carry at once two coaches and many horses. At each end of the ferryboat such artificial work is made with planks that it serves both at the coming in and going out of the boat, meeting with the planks on each side of the shore. By the weight of coach, horses, waggons, cattle, or men, the planks are so wrought that they rise and fall according to the weight upon them, and so as both those on the shore and the ends of the boat come to be even, and without more trouble in the passing over them than a bridge would be.

The great company, and some mishap of tearing one of his coaches, hindered Whitelocke's journey; but they went on in good time. About an English mile before they came to Luebeck, some company appearing on the road, Whitelocke's lacqueys alighted out of their waggons, and Whitelocke was met upon the way by an ancient person of a good portly carriage, with a great white beard, and a greater ruff. He was attended with four coaches; the first had six good horses in it, and was handsome, but not rich. The gentleman, being alighted, and then Whitelocke also, he came and saluted Whitelocke, and spake to him in the High Dutch, to this effect:—

"My Lord Ambassador,

"My masters, the Lords of Luebeck, have sent me with their coaches to conduct your Excellence into their city, and to bid you welcome hither; and to assure you likewise that whatsoever this city will afford shall be at your Excellence's service."

Whitelocke returned this answer:—

"Sir,

"I esteem it an honour to receive this respect from the Lords of Luebeck, your masters, for which ere long I hope to have the opportunity to give them thanks; and in the meantime give me leave to acknowledge your civility."

This person they call the Marshal of the town, whom the Lords sent to meet Whitelocke, to answer his civility of sending to them, which they took kindly. Then a young gentleman, well mounted and habited, met Whitelocke on the way with a packet of three weeks' letters from England, which he said Mr. Missenden, his father, received from Mr. Bradshaw, the Protector's Resident at Hamburg, with order to send them to Whitelocke to Luebeck.

Whitelocke went into the coach of the Lords of Luebeck; with him were the Marshal, and Colonel Potley to interpret for him. The country through which they passed was pleasant and fruitful, stored with groves, and fields of corn not enclosed, but much like the champaign counties of England, only more woody, and seemed the pleasanter to those who were lately come out of Sweden and from the Baltic Sea. Part of the country was the Duchy of Mecklenburg, and part of it Holstein.

When they drew near the city Whitelocke ordered that his staffiers and lacqueys, in their liveries, should walk by his coach bare, and his pages after them; then his gentlemen and others in the other coaches and waggons, in which equipage they entered the city. At the first fort they saluted Whitelocke with three pieces of ordnance, and at the gates of the city were good guards, with their muskets. The streets were filled with people, and many in the windows—not so many men as women; and those of the best rank and habit were with their bodies and smock sleeves, like the maids in England in hot weather. Here the best women, whose age will bear it, are thus habited, and with it sometimes rich clothes and jewels. When they were come into the city, the Marshal took his leave of Whitelocke, saying that he must go to the Lord, to advertise him of Whitelocke's arrival.

Whitelocke passed through a great part of the town before he came to the inn appointed for his reception, which was fairer without than within doors, the rooms for eating and lodging neither handsome nor well finished. About half an hour after he was come to the inn, the Lords of the town sent one of their officers to him, to know what time he would be pleased to appoint for them to come and salute him. Whitelocke answered, that whensoever they thought fit to do him the honour to visit him they should be welcome, and left to them the time which should be most convenient for their own occasions.

Being settled and at a little quiet, he read his letters from England. Thurloe acquaints him that the issue of his negotiation, and the prudent conduct of it, had very good acceptance in England, whither his return was much wished and prayed for. Then he informs him of all the news both foreign and domestic, and the readiness of the Protector to send ships for him to Hamburg. From Mr. Cokaine he had several letters about his bills of exchange, and other particular affairs. He had also letters from Mr. Taylor, from Resident Bradshaw, from his wife, and from several loving friends in England.

June 8, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke receives the Senate of Luebeck.]

In the morning the Lords of Luebeck sent again to Whitelocke, to know what time they might come to visit him. He answered, at their own time, and that they should be welcome to him within an hour. There came to him Martin Bokel, Doctor of the Laws, Syndic of the city, of good reputation for his learning and abilities, Jerome Bilderbeck, and Matthew Rodde, Senators and Lords of the city. The Syndic spake in French to Whitelocke to this effect:—"That, by command of the Lords of this city, those gentlemen, part of their number, and himself, were come in the name of the Lords of Luebeck to salute Whitelocke, and to bid him welcome to their city; that they rejoiced at his safe arrival here, and for the good success of those affairs wherein he had been employed." Whitelocke answered them in French, the same language in which they spake to him, and which is expected in these parts, to this effect:—"That the Lords of Luebeck had testified much respect to the Protector of England by the honour done to his servant, of which he would inform his Highness; and in the meantime he thanked them for the favour of this visit."

After many compliments, Whitelocke gave them the precedence into his lodging, which is the custom here, as in Sweden, and their discourse was in French in these matters of ceremony. Being sat together in his bedchamber, the Syndic told Whitelocke that he had a message to deliver to him from his Lords; and, according to the custom in matters of business, he desired to deliver what he had to say in Latin, and then spake to him in the following oration:—

"Illustrissime et Excellentissime Domine Legate,

"Amplissimus Senatus Lubicensis grato animo recognoscit celeberrimam nationem Anglicanam multiplici favore a multis retro annis populum mercatoresque hujus civitatis affecisse, atque etiam saeviente inter utrasque respublicas durissimo bello, incolas nostras gratiam, et, ex occasione suarum navium ad mare captarum, justitiam accepisse: amplissimus Senatus humillime gratias suas refert, quas melius testari non potuerunt, quam erga personam illius conditionis tantaeque eminentiae quantae Excellentiam vestram esse acceperant, suo speciali respectu, ad haec cum etiam Extraordinarii Legati munere a clarissimo illo statu nunc dignissime fungatur. Gratulatur amplissimus Senatus negotiationis ab Excellentia vestra peractae felicem successum, ut et tanti viri in suam civitatem adventum. Quod si apud se in sua civitate aliquid sit Excellentiae vestrae acceptu dignum, illud quicquid sit offerre in mandatis habemus.

"Dolore etiam afficitur Senatus, se tam sero de Excellentiae vestrae adventu certiorem esse factum, ut rationes unde tantus hospes, et qui in ipsius comitatu sunt, pro merito exciperentur; melius inire non potuerit, se tamen sperare a clementia vestra ipsis id crimini non datum iri. Per nos rogant hujus urbis magistratus, Excellentiae vestrae placeat, cervisiae Lubicensis vinique Rhenani (quod officiariis Excellentiae vestrae tradi curaverant) parvulum utut munus boni consulere.

"Excellentissime Domine, candore vestro freti speramus, non nobis id vitio datum iri, si etiam hoc temporis articulo paucula ex rebus nostris vestrae Excellentiae consideranda proponamus: intempestive fatemur importuni sumus, sed certiores facti, non diuturnam fore vestram in civitate nostra moram, id solliciti timemus, ne aliquando nobis similis offeratur opportunitas; ideo a dominis nostris jubemur Excellentiam vestram certiorem facere, quam plures hujus urbis naves inter navigandum negotii causa, occurrentes navibus praeliaribus Anglis, ab iisdem examen subiisse, liberatas tamen extemplo et dimissas, quod nihil suppetiarum hostibus vestris contulisse deprehendebantur; nihilominus easdem naves a quibusdam privatis vestris captoribus, capers dictis, non multo post apprehensas fuisse, et hucusque detentas esse, magno dominorum detrimento.

"Sperat amplissimus Senatus, intercedente Excellentia vestra, ex justitia et favore Domini Protectoris, restitutionem earundem secundum jus et aequum suo populo futuram, quem in finem, tam magistratus, quem hujusce civitatis populus suppliciter rogat favorem et amicitiam Celsitudinis suae Domini Protectoris, et illustrissimae reipublicae Angliae, in iis, quae vel commercia vel etiam alia spectant, posse sibi continuari."

After a little pause Whitelocke made answer in Latin to the Syndic's speech, to the effect following:—

"Spectatissimi viri,

"Recte a vobis observatum est, antiquam fuisse inter populum Anglicanum civesque Lubicenses amicitiam et mutuam officiorum benevolentiam; nec defuisse unquam nobis, data occasione, Domini mei Domini Protectoris reipublicae Angliae, Scotiae, et Hiberniae, animum benevolentissimum, quem integrum adhuc a Serenissima sua Celsitudine erga vos conservari nullus dubito. Nec suspicio mihi est, quin amplissimus Senatus, hujusque celeberrimae urbis liberi cives, Dominum meum Dominum Protectorem honore omni debito prosequentur, et benevolo affectu quotquot Anglorum, commercii aut conversationis causa, apud vos appellere voluerint.

"Referte, quaeso, meo nomine, amplissimo hujus civitatis Senatui, gratias ob respectum erga Dominum meum Dominum Protectorem rempublicamque Anglicanam, in honorifica mei eorum ministri receptione significatum, tam in appulsu meo ad suum portum, quam ad civitatem suam aditu, necnon in munere quod mihi offerre ipsis placuit: honori duco quod per me, in suis negotiis, Dominum Protectorem compellare ipsis visum est, quod munus in me libenter recipio praestandum, quamprimum Deo placuerit ad Serenissimam suam Celsitudinem mihi reditum indulgere, cui id curae est, ut unicuique quod est juris uniuscujusque tribuatur. Non equidem dubito, quin particularia favoris et respectus erga hanc celeberrimam civitatem specimina reipsa effecta comperiamini."

The Syndic replied in French, that they did give many thanks to Whitelocke, in that he was pleased to take in so good part the respect of this City to him, and desired that if there were anything here which might do him service, that he would command it. Whitelocke said he came by this City in a desire to see it and the fortifications of it, which, if they pleased to give him leave to do, he should take it as a favour. They said, that even now the Senate had ordered Monsieur Bilderbeck and the commander of their forces to wait upon Whitelocke at such time as he should appoint, to view the city, with their fortifications and magazines, and whatsoever here should be thought by him worthy of his sight. Whitelocke thanked them, and discoursed touching the government of the City, and what laws they used, to which the Syndic answered, that their government was chiefly and generally by the municipal laws and customs of the city.

[SN: The franchises of Luebeck.]

Of these gentlemen and others Whitelocke learned this city is the chief and most ancient of the Hanse Towns of Germany, and a kind of free State; that they have power to send Commissioners as public ministers to any foreign prince or State, to treat and conclude with them about any matters relating to their city, and that without the leave or knowledge of the Emperor.

The people of the city chiefly are the merchants and artificers, most of them tradesmen; and both they who are masters, and their servants, being constantly employed in trades and personal businesses, they are the less troublesome in the government of them; as to the criminal part, idleness, being the mother of mischief, causeth quarrels and debaucheries, from whence pilferings, robberies, fightings, and murders do arise; but where people are kept to occupations, traffic, and employments, as they are here, it breeds civility, peaceableness of disposition, desire of rest and quiet, and a plentiful subsistence, and gives less occasion of proceedings in criminal offences. But as to suits upon bargains and contracts, they are the more, because there be so many contracts as merchants and tradesmen must make; yet those suits are here brought to a speedy determination within themselves by their ordinary judges, which are three, and usually assisted with a doctor or licentiate in the laws, who are in great esteem in this country. These judges commonly sit thrice a week, to determine civil controversies, which they do by their own laws and customs, which also have much affinity to the civil law, especially as to the forms and manners of their proceedings; and where the matter contended for exceeds the value of a thousand rix-dollars, there the party grieved may, if he please, appeal from the sentence of these judges to the Imperial Chamber at Spires, as they also do in capital causes; but civil causes under the value of a thousand dollars are finally determined within themselves, and no appeal lies from them.

They acknowledge the Emperor as their protector, but afford him no gabels or taxes but what their deputies, whom they elect and send to the general Diet of the Empire, do assent unto. Their chief officers are a Burgomaster, like our Mayor, twenty-four Senators, like our Common Council, and a Syndic, as our Recorder. These are the chief Council and Judicatory of the city, and order all the public affairs thereof; only in some extraordinary occasions of making laws or foreign treaties, matters of war and peace, the people of the town make choice of deputies, sometimes forty or fifty,—more or less, as they please,—who sit and consult with the Senate, and by their votes by the people, who willingly submit thereunto.

The town-house of their Guildhall is reasonably fair, not extraordinary. Their Court of Justice is below at the upper end of a large hall, made four-square, with seats like the Court of Exchequer in England; above this is another Court or Council-house, greater than that below, which is for the meeting of the Deputies of the Hanse Towns, who usually all assemble here; they have also several other chambers for the meetings and consultations of their own Senators and officers about the affairs of the city.

[SN: Aspect of the city.]

In the afternoon the Commander or Lieutenant-General of the forces of the town, whom they call Obrist Lieutenant, Monsieur Andreas Keiser, and the Senator Bilderbeck, came, with four of the city coaches, to accompany Whitelocke to see the town and fortifications of it. The Senator spoke only Latin, the Lieutenant spoke good French. They went through most parts of the town, and found the figure of it exactly done in painting in a table in their magazine, with the fortifications of it: upon the view of the whole town, it seemed a pleasant and noble city. It is of great antiquity, freedom, privileges, trade, polity, and strength, few in these parts exceeding it; not unhealthful in the situation, beautiful in the buildings, profitable in the commerce, strong in the fortifications, and rich in the inhabitants.

The streets are large and fair, kept clean and sweet; the houses built of brick, generally uniform, most in the frontispieces, and covered with tile; at the entry into them, usually the first and lower room is largest, paved with Orland stone, full of streaks of red and white, and some with black and white rich marble. In this first room they use to set their best household stuff, as the chief room for entertainment; yet they will also in some part of the room have a partition with boards, above a man's height, for a kitchen, where they dress meat and hang their bacon and other provision{9}, which are not out of sight nor smell; and here also, in this room, some of their goods of merchandise are placed; but the better sort keep their houses more neat, and have kitchens and larders out of view. In the second story are ordinarily the lodging-rooms, and some for entertainment; the third and fourth stories are granaries and storehouses, which they hold better for such uses than cellars and lower rooms, which, they say, cause damage to the commodities.

The country about, for a league, and in some parts two leagues or more, belongs to the city, is within their jurisdiction, and is fruitful and pleasant, sweetly watered by the Trave, adorned by the groves and meadows, and many pleasant summer-houses for the recreation of the citizens.

[SN: Fortifications and arsenal of Luebeck.]

The town is regularly and strongly fortified, the more being situated in a plain and low country, with the rivers and waters about it; the grafts of the works are large and deep, full of water on all sides; between the bulwarks are large places, sufficient to draw together five hundred men in each vacant place; and on the banks of some of the ditches are low thorn hedges, kept cut, as good for defence as palisades. There be many pieces of ordnance mounted on several parts of the works, chiefly on the bulwarks, and divers of them are demi-cannon: the fortifications are about a league in compass; the Trave furnisheth water for all the grafts, and the earth with which the lines are made is of a good sort and well turfed. They are well stored with arms and ammunition, which Whitelocke was admitted to see in their arsenal, which is a large house; in the lower room were twelve mortar-pieces of several sizes, and two hundred pieces of brass ordnance, founded in the town, some of them great culverin, one of an extraordinary length; but there was neither powder nor ball—that was kept elsewhere; but here were the utensils to load and cleanse the guns, hung up in order, and the carriages were strong and good. The story above this was furnished with arms, few for horse or pikemen, but many muskets and swords, disposed in ranks the whole length of the room, with bandoliers between, and cases for bullets beneath; at the upper end of the room hung certain great swords, with which traitors had been beheaded; at the lower end of the room were many halberds; divers of the muskets were firelocks, others for match, and some with double barrels. There was in all, by conjecture, arms for twelve thousand foot, few pikes or horse-arms, but muskets, as most useful for a town, and according to the custom in these parts, where the companies in the town militias are only musketeers, they holding pikes not proper but in the field and against horse.

The forces of this city constantly in pay are fifteen hundred men, besides twenty-five companies of the citizens, each company consisting of two hundred men, and two troops of horse of the citizens. Their chief strength, under God, consisting in the bodies of their citizens, proper and stout men, who, if they come to fight pro aris et focis, for religion, liberty, wives and children, and estates, for their all, are full of courage; not like mercenary, unfixed, unfaithful men, whose trade is in blood, and who are pests to mankind.

[SN: Honours paid to Whitelocke.]

At their Guildhall they entertained Whitelocke and his company with wine and sweetmeats, but not profusely. After a long and large tour, they brought Whitelocke back to his inn, and did him the honour to sup with him; and, with much respect and civility, the Obrist-Lieutenant and Senator after supper took their leaves of Whitelocke. Divers men and women of the best quality of the citizens came with their children to Whitelocke's inn to see him, and many of them would stand by whilst he was at meals. He caused his people to show all civility to them, as himself did, saluting the gentlemen and seeming to offer to kiss the women's hands, the salutation of the lip not being in these countries allowed.

The Lords sent a guard of twelve musketeers to attend Whitelocke, which were placed at his door and in the street, and relieved by others during the time of Whitelocke's stay here, as an expression of their respects to him. The town musicians, who were masters, well accoutred and behaved, and played some English lessons, and the town trumpets and drums, came likewise to show their respects to Whitelocke, but the more readily in expectation of some reward from him, which expenses cannot honourably be avoided. Whitelocke's four pages, eight lacqueys, and four grooms, besides the gentlemen's lacqueys, in his livery, walked bare by his coach-side when he went abroad; himself was in his plain grey English cloth suit, with the Queen of Sweden's jewel at his breast. The people were full of respect to him in their salutations as he passed by them.

The secretary of the English company at Hamburg came to Whitelocke from the Resident and company there, to invite him to the English house there, with expression of much ceremony and respect to him as their countryman. Whitelocke was not willing to stay longer than one day in this town, and therefore ordered his officers to make preparations of horses and waggons to remove from hence tomorrow; and understanding that it was forty English miles from hence to Hamburg, and much of the way bad, he thought it too long a journey for him, with so great a train and hired horses, to travel in one day, and therefore ordered to go from hence tomorrow in the afternoon, to lie at a village midway between Luebeck and Hamburg. The Lords of Luebeck, with much courtesy, offered him to lodge in a house of theirs three leagues from hence, and to make use of their horses; but he thought it not convenient, the house not being furnished and their horses not used to travel, and he having sent before to the village midway to take up his quarters; for which reasons he excused it to the Lords, yet with many thanks for their courteous offers.

June 9, 1654.

[SN: The Lutheran Church at Luebeck.]

Several gentlemen of the English company at Hamburg, and among them his nephew, Sir Humphry Bennett's son, came hither to visit and accompany Whitelocke to Hamburg. The Senators and Syndic and Obrist-Lieutenant, who had been before with Whitelocke, came to take their leaves of him. From them and others Whitelocke learnt, that the religion professed in this city is after the doctrine of Luther and the Augsburg confession; yet some Calvinists are permitted, though not publicly, among them, and some Papists are also connived at, though not publicly tolerated to exercise their worship; yet some of them live in a college of Canons, who have a fair house and good revenues in this city.

They have many images and crucifixes in their churches: one, made of earth, of the Virgin Mary, very exactly, is believed by many goodwives of the town, that, upon worshiping and praying to it, they shall become fruitful. In the same church is a rare tablet of the passion of our Saviour, admired by artists for the rare painting and lineaments of it. Above the altar is a little image of our Lady, so contrived with wires fastened to it, that one, being hid on the other side of it, may make it turn forward and backward, to the admiration of the multitude of spectators, who know, by the motion of the image, whether the offerings which they make, and lay upon the altar, be acceptable or not; if one gives a small offering, the image turns away from it in disdain of it; if it be a fat offering, it turns towards it in token of acceptance; and though they tell these stories themselves, yet still they retain these images and trumperies among them. This church is of a good length and breadth, but the height is not proportionable: it hath few monuments of note, only some of their Bishops and Canons, among which one is indeed remarkable, which they will needs have to be believed, where a Canon was buried some hundreds of years since, yet now sometimes is heard to knock in his grave, whereupon instantly some one or other of his surviving brethren, the Canons, gives up the ghost, and comes to the dead Canon at his call.

From hence Whitelocke went and viewed the other churches, all alike furnished with images and crucifixes, and full of pews, fitted according to the quality of the parishioners. The churches are built of brick, and some of them covered with copper, which they brought from Sweden in older times. They use a liturgy, not much differing from our old Book of Common Prayer; their ministers are grave and formal; they commend them for pious and learned and good preachers; but Whitelocke, not having the favour to see one of them at his lodging, can give the less particular account of them.

[SN: The trade of Luebeck.]

Whitelocke also learnt that the trade of this city is the most of any town on this side the Baltic Sea, having a convenient port or road at Tremon, belonging to this city, from whence they send into all parts of that sea, and have the advantage for the commerce of copper, deal, hemp, flax, pitch, tar, and all the commodities of those parts; and by this port, they save the trouble and charge of going about through the Sound, which southern merchants do.

Before the Swedes had much traffic, and built their own ships, and employed their own mariners, which is not ancient, Luebeck did more flourish, and had the sole trade of Sweden, and of vending their commodities again into all parts of the world; whereby the Luebeckers grew great and rich, especially by the copper and iron which they brought from Sweden hither, and wrought it into utensils and arms, and then carried it back to Sweden for the use of the inhabitants there; who, growing in time more wise, and learning to work their own materials, and to build and employ their own ships in trade, and the city of Hamburg growing up and increasing in trade, and particularly by the staple for English cloth being there settled, and those of Luebeck not admitting strangers among them, their town began to decay, and to lessen in their trade and wealth, and is not now so considerable as in former times, yet still they drive a good trade into the Baltic Sea and other parts, but not with so great ships as others use, which they build at home, of about a hundred and fifty and two hundred tons; and they affirm that they have built here ships of four hundred tons, but there is difficulty for them to go down to the river, by reason of the shallows, which yet serves to bring up their commodities in great boats by the river, from the ships to this town. They find the smaller vessels useful for their trade, and to build them they are provided of good store of timber out of Germany, Denmark, and Sweden; and, by their consent, the King of Denmark doth sometimes make use of their town and carpenters to build ships for himself.

About three o'clock in the afternoon, the baggage and most of Whitelocke's inferior servants went away. The Lords offered Whitelocke a party of their horse for the guard of his person; but he, with thanks for their courtesy, refused it, having store of company well armed of his own retinue, besides some English of Hamburg who were come to him. The Luebeckers commended the sobriety and plainness of Whitelocke and his company; only they said his liveries were very noble; and they wondered that they saw no more drinking among them, and that he had so constant exercises of religious duties in his family.

[SN: Whitelocke proceeds to Hamburg.]

The Senators and Syndic came again to compliment Whitelocke for the Lords, and to wish him a good journey; and, after ceremonies passed, about four o'clock in the afternoon, Whitelocke took his coach for Hamburg; he had another coach and four waggons for his people. As he passed through the streets, multitudes of all sorts stood to see him go by, respectively saluting him. At the gates were guards of soldiers, and having passed the last port, they saluted him with three pieces of ordnance, according to their custom, but with no volleys of small-shot; and so he took his leave of Luebeck. Being come into the road, and his pages and lacqueys in the waggons, he made what haste he could in his journey with hired horses, and so much company.

The country was pleasant and fruitful, groves of wood, fields of corn, pastures, brooks, and meadows adorning it: it is an open champaign; few hedges, but some little ones made with dry wood, like our hurdles, for fencing their gardens and dividing their corn-grounds. The way was exceeding bad, especially for this time of the year, full of deep holes and sloughs in some places and of great stones in others. This Duchy of Holstein seems to take its name from holt, which, with them and in Sweden and with us, signifies wood, and stein, which is a stone; and this country is very full of wood and stone; yet is it fruitful, and, like England, delightful to the view, but it is not so full of towns, there not being one in the way between Luebeck and this night's quarter, which is five German, twenty English, miles. But a few small houses lie scattered by the way; and about four miles from Kettell, this night's lodging was a fair brick house by the side of a large pond, which is the house belonging to Luebeck, where they offered Whitelocke to be entertained, and he found cause afterwards to repent his not accepting their courtesy.

When they came to the lamentable lodging taken up for him this night, they found in all but two beds for their whole company. The beds were made only of straw and fleas mingled together; the antechamber was like a great barn, wherein was the kitchen on the one side, the stable on the other side; the cattle, hogs, waggons, and coaches were also in the same great chamber together. They made themselves as merry as they could in this posture, Whitelocke cheering and telling them that it was in their way home, and therefore to be borne with the less regret. They of the house excused the want of accommodations, because the war had raged there, and the soldiers had pillaged the people of all they had, who could not yet recover their former happy and plentiful condition; which was not helpful to Whitelocke and his people, who must take things as they were, and make the best shift they could. His officers had provided meat sufficient for them; he caused fresh straw enough to be laid all over the room, which was the more tolerable in this hot season. He himself lay in one of his coaches, his sons and some of his servants in straw, near him; the rest of the company, men and women, on straw, where they chose to lie in the room, only affording place for the horses, cows, sheep, and hogs, which quartered in the same chamber together with this good company.

June 10, 1654.

[SN: Journey through Holstein.]

In his coach, through God's goodness, Whitelocke slept well, and all his people on the ground on fresh straw, yet not so soundly as to hinder their early rising this morning, when they were quickly ready, none having been put to the trouble of undressing themselves the last night. His carriages, twelve great waggons, went away about four o'clock this morning, some of the gentlemen's servants in the van, one upon each waggon; his porter, butlers, and others, in a waggon in the rear, with store of pistols, screwed guns, swords, and other arms, for their defence. Whitelocke came forth about six o'clock with his own two coaches, and eight waggons for the rest of his followers. In some of their waggons they drive three horses on-breast, and each waggon will hold eight persons. They passed by better houses in this dorf than that where they quartered, which the harbingers excused, coming thither late and being strangers.

The country was still Holstein, of the same nature as yesterday. In the lower grounds they saw many storks, one whereof was killed by one of Whitelocke's company with his gun,—a thing not endured here, where they are very superstitious, and hold it an ill omen where any of them is killed. But Whitelocke, blessed be God! found it not so; yet he warned his people not to kill any of them, to avoid offence to the country, who report that these birds will not resort to any place but where the people are free, as in the United Provinces, where they have many of them, and do carefully preserve them, and near to Hamburg and other Hanse Towns.

About a mile from Kettell is a great gate cross the highway, where they take toll for the Duke of Holstein of all the waggons and carriages, a loup-shilling apiece (that is, little more than an English penny). This gate they shut against Whitelocke, but being informed who he was, they presently opened it again, and a gentleman came to Whitelocke's coach-side, excusing the shutting of the gate, being before they knew who it was that passed by. He told Whitelocke the custom and right of this toll, but that nothing was demanded of ambassadors, who were to pass freely, especially the Ambassador of the Protector and Commonwealth of England, to whom the Duke, his master, he said, was a friend. Whitelocke thanked the gentleman for his civility, acknowledging the Protector to be a friend to the Duke, and so they passed on.

About a mile and a half before they came to Hamburg, Captain Parkes, of the 'President' frigate, and Captain Minnes, of the 'Elizabeth' frigate, met Whitelocke on the way, and told him all was well in England, and that by command of the Protector they had brought those two frigates into the Elbe to transport him into England. Whitelocke told them he was very glad to see them, especially on this occasion. As they were walking and discoursing of the ships and their voyage, a great number of persons and coaches, the Resident Bradshaw, with the treasurer, the doctor, their minister, and almost all the English company, with twenty-two coaches, came to meet Whitelocke on the way, and to bring him with the more respect to Hamburg. All alighted out of their coaches, and, after salutations, the Resident told Whitelocke that the occasion of their coming forth was to testify their respects to Whitelocke, and to desire him to do their company the honour to accept of the English house at Hamburg for his entertainment. Whitelocke gave them hearty thanks for their respects to the Protector and to the Commonwealth whereof they were members, in this honour which they did to their servant. He accepted of their courteous offer, desiring the company and conversation of his countrymen above all others. They walked a little on foot together, where the Lord Resident (so they styled him) showed Whitelocke his last week's letters from Thurloe, mentioning the imprisonment of many upon suspicion that they were engaged in a plot against the Protector, and that the serious considerable malignants discovered it. He also delivered to Whitelocke private letters from his wife and other friends.

About a mile from the place where they met was a fair inn by the wayside, where the Resident moved Whitelocke to make a halt and rest himself, because if he should then go directly to the town, he would come into it just at dinner-time, which would not be convenient. Upon his persuasion, and perceiving that a preparation was here made, Whitelocke went in, where the English company entertained him with a plentiful dinner at a long table holding above sixty persons. From hence, with Whitelocke's approbation, the Resident, as from himself, sent to the Governor of the Militia at Hamburg, as Whitelocke had done before to the Lords, to advertise them of his coming. The Governor returned thanks, and said that two senators were appointed to receive Whitelocke at the Port. After dinner they all took their coaches. With Whitelocke was the Resident and Treasurer; the rest in the other coaches, the pages and lacqueys riding and walking by.

The country is here low and rich, sprinkled with rivers, and adorned with many neat and sweet houses belonging to the citizens of Hamburg, who resort to those houses in the summer-time with their families to have the fresh air.

[SN: Arrival at Hamburg.]

Almost an English mile before they came to the town, the highway was full of people come forth to see Whitelocke pass by. At the port were no Senators to receive him, but great guards of musketeers and multitudes of all sorts of people, there and through all the streets unto his lodging thronging so that the coaches could not pass till the guards made way. The people were very courteous, and Whitelocke answered to the meanest their civility, which is pleasing and not costly. The windows and doors were also crowded, which showed the populousness of the place and their expectation as to the Commonwealth of England. They brought Whitelocke to the English house, which is fair and large, the first room below, according to the fashion of Luebeck; the chambers, especially where Whitelocke lay, handsomely furnished.

[SN: Reception of the Senate of Hamburg.]

Within half an hour after his arrival, an officer of the town, in the nature of a master of the ceremonies, came from the Lords of the town to bid Whitelocke welcome thither, and to know what hour he would appoint for admittance of some of the Lords to visit him. Whitelocke returned thanks to the Lords for their respects, and prayed the gentleman to tell them that whensoever they pleased to give him the honour of a visit, they should be welcome to him. Within half an hour after came two Senators, Herr Jurgen van Holtz and Herr Jacob Silm. After ceremonies passed, Holtz spake in French to Whitelocke, to this effect:—

"Monseigneur, qui etes Ambassadeur Extraordinaire de sa Serenissime Altesse Oliver, par la grace de Dieu Seigneur Protecteur de la Republique d'Angleterre; aussitot que les Messieurs de cette ville ont ete avertis de votre intention de passer par cette ville-ci, ils ont ete desireux de temoigner leurs tres-humbles respects a Monsieur le Protecteur et a votre personne en particulier, en suite de quoi{10} nous avons recu commandement de vous venir saluer, et faire a votre Excellence la bienvenue en cette ville. Ils sont extremement aises de l'heureux succes que Dieu vous a donne en votre negociation en Suede, et qu'il lui a plu aussi vous donner un bon passage, et favoriser votre retour jusqu'en ce lieu, apres avoir surmonte beaucoup de difficultes, et echappe beaucoup de dangers, et nous prions sa Divine bonte qu'il vous rende en sauvete dans votre pays. Nous sommes aussi commandes de reconnaitre les faveurs que Monseigneur le Protecteur d'une si grande Republique a faites a notre ville et aux habitans d'icelle, et particulierement durant la guerre entre l'Angleterre et les Pays Bas, en liberant et dechargeant nos navires. Nous souhaitons a ce fleurissant etat la continuation et l'accroissement de la faveur Divine pour leur conservation et accroissement de plus en plus, et nous esperons que Monseigneur le Protecteur continuera avec la Republique ses faveurs envers notre ville, qui sera toujours prete de leur rendre tous offices et humbles respects."

After a little recollection, Whitelocke answered in French to the Senator's speech thus:—

"Messieurs, j'ai grande occasion de louer le nom de Dieu, de sa protection de moi et de ma suite, en notre long et perilleux voyage, et pour l'heureux succes qu'il m'a donne en ma negociation, et ma sauve arrivee en ce lieu, en mon retour en mon pays. Je vous desire de remercier Messeigneurs les Senateurs de cette ville du respect qu'ils ont temoigne envers sa Serenissime Altesse mon maitre et la Republique d'Angleterre, par l'honneur qu'ils ont fait a leur serviteur, de quoi je ne manquerai d'en informer: j'avais grande envie de voir cette illustre ville, et mes compatriotes qui par accord vivent ici, desquels j'ai appris avec beaucoup de contentement que leurs privileges ici etaient maintenus par Messeigneurs les magistrats, lesquels je desire d'etre informes que son Altesse mon maitre prendra en fort bon part le respect et la justice qu'on fera aux Anglais qui se trouvent ici, chose que je croie tournera en avantage aux uns et aux autres. Je vous rends graces aussi de vos bons souhaits pour la prosperite de notre nation, a laquelle Dieu a donne tant de preuves de sa presence, et je prie le meme Dieu aussi pour l'heureux succes de cette ville, et de tous les habitans d'icelle."

After Whitelocke had done, the Senator again spake to him, desiring him, in the name of the Lords of the town, to accept a small present which they had sent, in testimony of their respects towards him, and said that it was somewhat for his kitchen and somewhat for his cellar. The present which they sent for his kitchen, and was laid upon the pavement in the hall, was this:—four great whole sturgeons, two great fresh salmons, one calf, two sheep, two lambs. The present for the cellar was a hogshead of Spanish wine, a hogshead of claret wine, a hogshead of Rhenish wine, a hogshead of Hamburg beer, a hogshead of Serbster beer. Whitelocke ordered the men that brought this present to be rewarded with ten rix-dollars. He desired the senators to return his hearty thanks to the Lords for the noble present which they sent him; and after many compliments and ceremonies Whitelocke, giving the Senators the right hand, conducted them to their coach, and so they parted.

The English company entertained, with a great supper, Whitelocke and his company, who had more mind to sleep than to eat. Monsieur Hannibal Schestedt, late Viceroy of Norway, sent a gentleman to Whitelocke to know what time he would appoint for him to come and visit Whitelocke, who gave the usual answer, that whensoever he pleased to come he should be welcome.

June 11, 1654.

[SN: Divine service at Hamburg.]

The Lord's Day.—The English company and the Resident Bradshaw desired Whitelocke that one of his chaplains might preach in the chapel belonging to the English in their house, which they said was a respect to the Ambassador of England; and accordingly Mr. Ingelo preached in the morning, and a very pertinent and good sermon. The doctor, minister to the company here, preached in the afternoon, who far exceeded Mr. Ingelo in the strength of his voice and lungs, the which was not necessary for that chapel, not being large, but convenient and handsomely made up with pews and seats fit for their company.

June 12, 1654.

[SN: Interview with the Swedish Envoy to the Emperor.]

The Resident sent to the Governor to inform him that Whitelocke had a desire to see the fortifications of the town. He answered that he would send one of his lieutenants to wait on Whitelocke for that purpose; but Whitelocke and the Resident took this for no great compliment that himself came not to Whitelocke. Much company did Whitelocke the honour to dine with him; and after dinner Monsieur Bernelow, who was Ambassador from the Queen of Sweden to the Emperor, and was now upon his return home, came to visit Whitelocke, and they had this discourse in Latin.

Bernelow. I desire your Excellence to excuse me that I cannot express myself in French or Italian, but, with your leave, I desire to speak to you in Latin.

Whitelocke. Your Excellence is welcome to me; and if you choose to express yourself in Latin, you have your liberty, and I shall understand something of it.

Bern. When I heard of your Excellence's arrival in this city, though I purposed to have gone from hence, yet I deferred my journey, to the end I might see you, because I have heard in the Emperor's Court, as well by letters from her Most Serene Majesty of Sweden as from the Chancellor and other senators of that kingdom, what great satisfaction they had in the English Ambassador, etc. Now the league of friendship being concluded between the two nations, I hold myself obliged to make this salutation to your Excellence.

Wh. I have very many thanks to return to your Excellence for the honour you have done me by this visit, and for these expressions of affection and respect to the Protector, my master. I do acknowledge myself much engaged to the Ricks-Chancellor and senators of Sweden, and in the first place to her Majesty the Queen, for their favourable respect towards me whilst I was in my negotiation with them, whom I found full of honour, wisdom, and justice, in their transactions with me.

Bern. I have been for some time in the service of the Queen, my mistress, in Germany.

Wh. You met some of my countrymen in the Court of the Emperor, particularly a noble lord, whom I have the honour to know.

Bern. I met there the Earl of Rochester, who was at the Diet at Ratisbon.

Wh. What proposals did he make there?

Bern. He made a kind of precarious proposal in the name of the King, his master.

Wh. Did he obtain what he desired?

Bern. He did not much prevail in it, only he obtained a verbal promise of some money, but had no performance.

Wh. What occasion hath drawn your General Koningsmark with his forces at this time before Bremen?

Bern. It was thus by mistake occasioned. The Earl of Lueneburg had covenanted with the Spanish Ambassador to levy some soldiers for the service of the King of Spain, which levies he began without acquainting the Governor of that Circle with it, who taking this occasion, and bearing ill-will to the Earl, drew out some forces to oppose those levies. Koningsmark understanding this, and jealous that the Governor of the Circle designed to fall upon the fort of the Queen of Sweden in those parts, he drew out some forces to oppose the Governor. Those of Bremen, being informed that Koningsmark drew out his forces against them, sent some troops, who forced the Queen's subjects to a contribution and built a fort upon the Queen's land, which coming to the knowledge of Koningsmark, and that the Governor of the Circle of Westphalia intended only to suppress the levies of the Duke of Lueneburg, and not to oppose the Queen of Sweden, Koningsmark thereupon marched with his forces to the new fort built by those of Bremen, took it in and finished it, and left there a garrison for the Queen, not disturbing the trade of that city.

Wh. Here were mistakes one upon another, which might have engaged that city and the neighbours, as well as the Crown of Sweden, in a troublesome war.

Bern. All is now peaceable and well again.

They had much other discourse touching the right of the Crown of Sweden to the Duchy of Bremen; and after many compliments, the Ambassador took his leave.

[SN: Whitelocke visits the fortifications of Hamburg.]

About four o'clock in the afternoon the senator Holtz and an ancient gentleman, one of the captains of the town forces, came and accompanied Whitelocke, to show him the town and the fortifications of it, and said that the Lords had commanded them to do him this service. Whitelocke went out with them in his usual equipage, his gentlemen walking before the coach, his pages and lacqueys by it, all bareheaded, and with their swords. They viewed most parts of the city, the streets, buildings, public-houses, churches, the arsenal, the fortifications, the ships, the waters, rivers, and what was remarkable throughout the town. Great multitudes of people, especially at their Exchange, came forth to see them as they passed by, and all were very civil to them. To the works a great many of people also followed them, and continued there with them.

They brought him first to see their arsenal, which is a large house; in the lower rooms thereof lay about two hundred pieces of ordnance mounted on good carriages, fitted and useful. They were not founded in this place, but brought from other parts; two of them were double cannon, each carrying a bullet of forty-eight pounds weight; most of the others were demi-cannon and culverin. There were besides these many smaller pieces and divers mortar-pieces, some of which were near as large in the diameter as that at Stockholm. In another place were many shells of grenades and heaps of cannon-bullets. The pavement of the room was all lead, two feet deep, in a readiness to make musket bullets if there should be occasion. In the rooms above were arms for horse and foot, completely fixed and kept; the greatest part of them were muskets. Between every division of the arms were representations in painting of soldiers doing their postures, and of some on horseback. Here were many cuirasses and a great quantity of corselets, swords, bandoliers, pistols, and bullets. Here likewise hung certain old targets, for monuments rather than use, and many engines of war; as, a screw to force open a gate, an instrument like a jack, with wheels to carry match for certain hours' space, and just at the set time to give fire to a mine, petard, or the like. There were, in all, arms for about fifteen hundred horse and fifteen thousand foot. They keep a garrison constantly in pay of twelve hundred soldiers, and they have forty companies of their citizens, two hundred in each company, proper men; whose interest of wives, children, estate, and all, make them the best magazine and defence (under God) for those comforts which are most dear to them.

Some pains were taken by Whitelocke to view their fortifications, which are large, of about two German (ten English) miles in compass; they are very regular and well kept. Within the grafts are hedges of thorn, kept low and cut, held by them of better use than palisades. The bulwarks are of an extraordinary greatness; upon every third bulwark is a house for the guards, and they are there placed. There is also a building of brick, a great way within the ground upon the bulwark, and separate by itself, where they keep all their gunpowder; so that if by any mischance or wicked design it should blow up, yet it could do no hurt to the town, being so separated from it. On every bulwark there is space enough to draw up and muster a thousand men; beyond the grafts are divers half-moons, very regularly made. The grafts are broad and deep, filled with the Elbe on the one side, and with another smaller river on the other side.

The works are stronger, larger, and more regular than those at Luebeck. Above the works is a piece of ground of above five hundred yards of low ground, gained by industry from the Elbe; here they have mills to keep out or let in more or less water, as they find useful for the town and works. The lines of one side of the works are higher than on the other side, and the works better and stronger made. Here are also mounds of earth raised very high to command without; there wanted no pains nor expense to put together so great a mass of earth as is in these fortifications. Upon every bulwark is mounted one demi-cannon, besides other great guns; in other places are smaller pieces. Round about the works are great store of ordnance, well fitted, mounted, and kept; and the platforms are strong and well planked.

Having made a large tour through the greatest part of the city, Whitelocke found it to be pleasantly situated in a plain low country, fertile and delightful, also healthful and advantageous for trade; and notwithstanding the great quantity of waters on every side of it, yet the inhabitants do not complain of agues or other sicknesses to be more rife among them than in other parts.

Upon one side is a small river, the which comes a great way down the country to this town, where it loseth itself in the Elbe, having first supplied the city with wood and other provisions brought down hither by boats, for which this river, though narrow, is deep enough and navigable. On the other side of the town is the stately river of Elbe, one of the chief of these parts of Germany, which also by boats brings down out of the country great store of all sorts of provisions and merchantable commodities; and which is much more advantage to them, affords a passage for merchants hither, and from hence to vent their merchandises to all parts of the world. It is the best neighbour they have, and the branches and arms of it run through most of their streets by their doors, to the great advantage of their commerce; and although sometimes, upon an extraordinary rising of the Elbe to a great flood, these branches of it cover the lower rooms of the houses near them, to the damage of some owners, yet it makes amends by the constant benefit which it brings with it. The buildings here are all of brick, only some few of brick and timber put together, and are generally fashioned and used as is before described touching the Luebeck houses.

The district or territory belonging to the town is in some places two, in others three, in some more, German miles distant from the city, in which precinct they have the jurisdiction and revenue; and near the town are many pleasant little houses and seats, with gardens and accommodations, belonging to the citizens, to refresh themselves and their wives and children in the summer-time, to take the fresh country air, and to have a diversion for their health and pleasure. It may be said of this town, that God hath withheld nothing from them for their good. They have plenty of provisions, health, profit, and pleasure, to their full contentment, in a peaceable and just government, with freedom, strength in their magazines, fortifications, and bodies of men for their defence and protection, conveniences for their habitation and commerce, and, which is above all, a liberty to know the will of and to worship God, for the health of their own souls.

June 13, 1654.

[SN: The Diet of Germany.]

This morning Whitelocke returned a visit to the Swedes' Ambassador, Bernelow, at his lodging, where he learnt of him the manner of the sitting of the General Diet of Germany, at which he was present:—That they have three colleges or chambers: the first is the College of the Electors, where they only assemble; the second is the College of the Princes, where the Archbishops, Bishops, Dukes, Graves, and Barons meet, to the number of about one hundred and forty; the third is the College of the Free Cities, where their Deputies, about two hundred, do meet. When they consult, the Chancellor of the Empire, the Archbishop of Mentz, sends the proposal in writing to each college severally. When they are respectively agreed, then all the colleges meet together in the great hall, at the upper end whereof is a chair of state for the Emperor. On the right-hand of the chair the Electors sit, on the left-hand the principal officers of the Emperor's court; on the right side of the hall, upon seats, are the Ecclesiastic Princes, Bishops, and Abbots; on the left-hand are the Temporal Princes, upon their seats; and on the seats below, one before another, are the Deputies of the towns.

The Archbishop of Mentz, as Marshal of the College of the Electors, begins and reads the proposal, and the resolution thereupon in writing of that college; after him, the Marshal of the College of the Princes doth the like; and lastly, the Marshal of the College of the Free Towns, who is always the chief magistrate of the place where the Diet sits. If the resolution of the three colleges agrees, or of the College of the Electors and one other of the colleges, the business is determined accordingly; if the colleges do not thus agree, then they meet all together and debate the matter; whereupon, if they come not to an accord, the business is remitted to another day, or the suffrage of the Emperor decides it.

Whitelocke asked him, whether the advice of the Diet, being the supreme public council, were binding to the Emperor. He said, that the Emperor seldom did anything contrary to that advice, but held himself bound in prudence, if not in duty, to conform thereunto. Whitelocke asked him what opinion they had in the Emperor's court of the present King of Sweden. He answered, as was expected, and most true, that they have a great opinion of the King, especially for military affairs. Upon Whitelocke's invitation, he did him the honour to dine with him, and they had much and good discourse together.

[SN: Visit of M. Woolfeldt's brother-in-law.]

In the afternoon Whitelocke received a visit from Monsieur Hannibal Schestedt, whose wife was sister to Woolfeldt's lady, one of the daughters of the late King of Denmark by his second wife,—as they term it, his left-handed wife; this relation, and his own good parts, brought him in high esteem with the King, his brother-in-law, till by jealousies (particularly, as was said, in some matters of mistresses), distaste and disfavour was against him, and he was put out of his office of Viceroy of Norway, and other advantages; upon which he retired himself into these parts, and lived upon a pension of six thousand dollars yearly, allowed by the King unto his lady. Whitelocke found him a gentleman of excellent behaviour and abilities, which he had improved by his travels in most countries of Europe, and had gained perfectly the French, Italian, Dutch, English, and Latin tongues. His discourse was full of ingenuity and cheerfulness, and very free touching his own country and King, on whom he would somewhat reflect; and he spoke much of the Queen of Sweden's resignation, which he much condemned, and as much extolled the assuming of the Government by the Protector of England, and said he had a design shortly to see England, and desired Whitelocke, that when he came into England he would move to the Protector to give him leave to come into England to serve the Protector, which he would willingly do, being forbid his own country; but he prayed Whitelocke, that none might know of this his purpose but the Protector only. He told Whitelocke, that Williamson, the King of Denmark's Ambassador now in England, had been his servant, etc.

When Monsieur Schestedt was gone, Whitelocke wrote to Secretary Thurloe, and to his other friends in England, to give them an account of his being come thus far in his voyage homewards, and of the two frigates being arrived in the Elbe, that as soon as the wind would serve he would hasten for England.

[SN: A banquet to Whitelocke.]

The Resident invited Whitelocke and several Senators to a collation this evening, whither came the four Burgomasters, and five other Senators; a thing unusual for so many of them to meet a foreign public minister, the custom being in such case to depute two or three of their body, and no more; but they were willing to do more than ordinary honour to Whitelocke. And of these nine Senators every one spoke French or Latin, and some both, a thing rare enough for aldermen of a town; but the reason of it was given, because here, for the most part, they choose into those places doctors and licentiates of the laws, which employments they willingly accept, being for life, attended with great authority, and a salary of a thousand crowns yearly, besides other profits. They had a banquet and store of wine; and the Senators discoursed much with Whitelocke touching England, and the successes of the Parliament party, and the many thanksgivings for them; of which they had heard with admiration, and commended the return of thanks to God.

Upon this occasion, Whitelocke gave them an account of many particulars, and of God's goodness to them, and exhorted these gentlemen, in all their affairs, to put their trust in God, to be thankful for his mercies, and not to do anything contrary to his will. They asked how the Parliament could get money enough to pay their forces. Whitelocke told them that the people afforded money sufficient to defray the public charges both by sea and land; and that no soldiers were paid and disciplined, nor officers better rewarded, than those who have served the Parliament.

Whitelocke asked them concerning the religion professed among them, and of their government and trade, wherein they gave him good information; and he told them he hoped that the agreement made by this city with the merchants, his countrymen, would be carefully observed, and the privileges accorded to them be continued, which would be acceptable to the Protector. They answered, that they had been very careful, and should be so still, that on their part the agreement should be exactly observed. They desired Whitelocke to speak to the Protector in favour of a ship belonging to this town, in which were some moneys belonging to Hollanders, and taken by the English two years since. Whitelocke promised to move the Protector in it, and assured them that his Highness would cause right to be done to them.

At this collation Whitelocke ate very little, and drank only one glass of Spanish wine, and one glass of small beer, which was given him by a stranger, whom he never saw before nor after, and the beer seemed at that instant to be of a very bad taste and colour; nor would he inquire what it was, his own servants being taken forth by the Resident's people in courtesy to entertain them.[371] After he came to his lodging he was taken very ill, and grew worse and worse, extreme sick, with pains like the strokes of daggers, which put him in mind of a former passage; and his torment was so great that it was scarcely to be endured, the most violent that he ever felt.

He was not well after his journey from Luebeck to Hamburg, having been extremely jolted in the coach in that way full of holes and sloughs, made by their great carriages in time of the war, and not yet amended: his weariness when he came to Hamburg reprieved his pain, which highly increased this evening; and the last of his ill beer still remained with him.

June 14, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke's indisposition.]

The fierce torment continued on Whitelocke above thirteen hours together without intermission. About four o'clock this morning his secretary Earle was called to him, who waited on him with care and sadness to see his torment; nature helped, by vomits and otherwise, to give some ease, but the sharpness of his pain continued. About five o'clock this morning Dr. Whistler was called to him, who gave him several sorts of physic, and amongst the rest a drink with a powder and a great quantity of oil of sweet almonds, suspecting, by the manner of his sickness and some of the symptoms, that he might have had poison given him, which was the jealousy of most about him; and whether it were so or not the Lord only knows, who nevertheless in his goodness preserved Whitelocke, and blessed the means for his recovery. The drink working contrary to what was intended, and turning to a vomit, the doctor, perceiving the operation of nature to be that way, followed by giving of vomits, which within two hours gave some ease and brought him to a little slumber, and in a few hours after to recovery. Thus it pleased God to exercise him, and to cast him down for a little time; and when he had no expectation but of present death in a strange land, God was pleased suddenly, and above imagination, to restore and recover him; the which, and all other the mercies of God, he prays may, by him and his, be thankfully remembered.

A doctor of physic, a Jew in this town, hearing of Whitelocke's being sick, came to his lodging, and meeting with Dr. Whistler, told him in Latin, that, understanding the English Ambassador to be dangerously sick, and to have no physician about him but a young inexperienced man, therefore this Jew came to offer his service. Dr. Whistler, smiling, told Whitelocke of this rencounter, who presently sent his thanks and discharge to the Jewish doctor. Several Senators came and sent to inquire of Whitelocke's health, and to know if he wanted anything in their power to supply him for his recovery, and offered the physicians of the town to wait upon him. He returned thanks, but kept himself to the advice and care of his own doctor, whose endeavours it pleased God to bless, so that in two days Whitelocke was abroad again.

[SN: Feast given by the English Company.]

The English Company had invited divers to bear Whitelocke company at dinner this day, where they had a very great feast, and present at it the four Burgomasters and ten Senators. So many of that number had scarce been seen at any former entertainment; which though purposely made to do Whitelocke honour, yet his sickness had brought him to an incapacity of bearing them company; but whilst they were at the table, Whitelocke sent his secretary to the Resident, praying him to make his apology to the Lords, that extremity of sickness the night before had prevented him of the honour of accompanying them at this meeting; that being now somewhat recovered, he sent now to present his hearty thanks to their lordships for this great favour they had done him, wished them all health, and entreated them to be cheerful. The Lords returned thanks to Whitelocke for his civility, and about an hour after the Resident came to Whitelocke from the Lords to see how he did, to thank him for his compliment, and to know if, without inconvenience, they might be admitted to come to his chamber to see him. Whitelocke said he should be glad to see them, but privately told the Resident that he hoped they would not stay long with him by reason of his indisposition.

The Senators sat at the table from twelve o'clock at noon till six o'clock in the evening, according to the fashion of Dutchland, and were very merry, wanting no good meat or wine, nor sparing it. About six o'clock they rose from dinner, and came to Whitelocke's chamber to visit him, with many compliments, expressing their sorrow for his sickness, their wishes for his health, and offers of anything in their power which might contribute to his recovery. Whitelocke used them with all civility, and heartily thanked them for this extraordinary honour they had done him, by so many of their lordships affording him the favour of meeting at this place, and excused by his violent sickness his not bearing them company. After many compliments and a short stay they left his chamber, praying for the recovery of his health again.

Among this company of fourteen senators were no young men, but all grave and comely persons; and every one of them did particularly speak to Whitelocke, either in French or Latin, and some in both, which were hard to be met with in so many aldermen of towns in other countries. Divers of them staid in the English house till nine o'clock at night, making a very long repast of nine hours together; but it was to testify the more particular respect and honour to the English Ambassador, and is according to the usage of these parts, where, at such public entertainments, they eat and drink heartily, and seldom part in less than ten or twelve hours, cheerfully conversing together. Whitelocke took great contentment in the civility and respects of these and other gentlemen to him in this place, and in the affection, care, and attendance of his children, friends, and servants, about him in his sickness.

June 15, 1654.

[SN: The ecclesiastical state of Hamburg.]

The Lords sent a gentleman to inquire of Whitelocke's health, with compliments as before. He took some physic, yet admitted visits and discourse, from which, and those he formerly had with Senators and others, he learned that as to matter of religion they are here very strict to maintain a unity thereof, being of Plutarch's opinion, that "varietas religionis, dissolutio religionis;" and they permit no other religion to be publicly exercised by their own citizens among them but what in their government they do profess, which is according to the Augsburg confession; and Luther's opinions do wholly take place among them, insomuch that the exercise of religion in any other form or way is not admitted, except to the English Company of Merchants in the chapel of their house, and that by stipulation. Thus every one who differs from them in matters of religion must keep his opinion to himself, without occasioning any disturbance to the Government by practice or publication of such different opinion; and although many are inclined to the tenets of Calvin, yet their public profession is wholly Lutheran; answerable whereunto Whitelocke observed in their churches many images, crucifixes, and the like (not far removed from the practice of the Popish churches); particularly in their great church, which is fair and large, built with brick, are many images, rare tablets of painting, crucifixes, and a perspective of curious workmanship in colours. Their liturgy (as ours in England was) is extracted from the old Mass-book, and their divine service celebrated with much ceremony, music, and outward reverence. Their ministers are pensioners, but, as themselves affirm, liberally dealt with, and have bountiful allowances if they are holy men and good preachers; whereof they much satisfy themselves that they are very well provided in this city, to the comfort and blessing of the inhabitants.

[SN: The trade of Hamburg.]

Touching the trade of this place, Whitelocke learnt that as they are very populous, so few are suffered in idleness, but employed in some way or other of trading, either as merchants, artificers, shopkeepers, or workmen. They have an exchange here, though not a fair one, where they daily meet and confer about their affairs and contracts.

The several branches and arms of the river Elbe, which pass along by their houses, afford them the better means and advantages for bringing in and carrying forth their commodities. There is a partition between the old and the new town; the old is but a small part of it, and few merchants reside there. The ships of greatest burden come up within two miles of the city; the lesser ships, whereof there be a great number, and the great boats, come up within the town to the very doors of their houses, by the branches of the Elbe, to the great advantage of their trading.

This city is much greater than Luebeck, fuller of trade and wealth, and better situated for commerce, being nearer to England, the Netherlands, France, Spain, and all the southern and western parts; and they are not to pass the Sound in coming home again. The staple of English cloth is here, and the cloths being brought hither for the most part white, it sets on work many hundreds of their people to dress and dye and fit them; and the inhabitants of all Germany and other countries do send and buy their cloth here. At this time of Whitelocke's being here, there lay in the Elbe four English ships which brought cloth hither; one of them carried twenty-five pieces of ordnance, the least fifteen, all of good force; and the English cloth at this time in them was estimated to be worth L200,000 sterling.

In consideration of this trade and the staple of English cloth settled here, which brings wealth to this city, the Government here hath granted great privileges to the English merchants residing in this place, and they are part of the company or corporation of Merchant Adventurers of England,—an ancient and honourable society, of which Whitelocke had the favour honorarily to be here admitted a member.

June 16, 1654.

[SN: The judicial institutions of Hamburg.]

Whitelocke, being, through the goodness of God, well recovered of his distemper, went abroad this day, and was shown the Town-house, which is a fair and handsome building, of the like fashion, but more large and beautiful, than that at Luebeck, and much better furnished. Here are many chambers for public councils and tribunals; some of them have their pillars covered with copper, and pavements of Italian marble; they have also rich hangings, and chairs of velvet, blue, and green, and rare pictures. The Chamber of Audience, as they call it, is the court of justice, where the Right-herrs, who are in the nature of sheriffs, do sit to despatch and determine the causes of the citizens; and if the cause exceed the value of a hundred dollars, an appeal lies to the Senate, as it doth also in all causes criminal.

From the Senate there is no appeal in cases of obligations, letters of exchange, contracts, debts, and matters of merchandise, but therein a speedy remedy is given for the advantage of trade; but in all other cases, where the value exceeds a thousand dollars, and in all causes capital, an appeal lies to the Imperial Chamber: and in the judicatories of the city, the proceedings are according to the municipal laws and customs thereof, which nevertheless have great affinity with the Imperial civil laws, especially in the forms and manner of proceedings; and in cases where the municipal laws and customs are defective, there the proceedings are according to the civil law. They do not proceed by juries of twelve men to try the fact; but the parties contending are heard on both sides, either in person or by their advocates or proctors, as they please, and the witnesses on either side are examined upon oath; after which, the judges taking serious consideration of the whole matter and of all circumstances and proofs therein, at a set time they pronounce their sentence; and commonly the whole process and business is determined in the space of three weeks, except in cases where an appeal is brought. The judges sit in court usually twice in every week, unless in festival times, when they keep vacations, and with them their holidays are not juridical: their equal and speedy administration of justice is commended both by their own people and by strangers who have occasion to make trial of it.

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