A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II.
by Bulstrode Whitelocke
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To the Prince Whitelocke presented seven bay English horses, very handsome and serviceable for the coach; for which the Prince returned many thanks, being most acceptable to him, as he expressed, and sent a chain of gold of the value of two hundred ducats to Captain Crispe, yeoman of Whitelocke's stables, and twenty-five ducats to the servants of Whitelocke's stable. To the Prince, Whitelocke also presented a young English gelding of Fenwicke's breed, very handsome and mettlesome; the more esteemed by Whitelocke, and afterwards by the Prince, when he heard that it had been given to Whitelocke by his General.

To the old Chancellor Whitelocke presented a hogshead of good Canary wine, and a sober, handsome, strong, well-paced English pad nag, and one of his richest saddles. To Wrangel he gave an English gelding; to Tott another; to Wittenberg another; to Steinberg another; to Douglas another; and to such of the great men as the Queen directed. To Lagerfeldt he gave a clock, excellently made, which he used to have constantly with him.

To Secretary Canterstein he sent his secretary Earle with a silver standish, curiously wrought; at sight of which Canterstein seemed much discontented, till Earle showed him the manner of opening the standish, and in it forty pieces of English gold, of jacobuses, which made the present very acceptable. In like manner Whitelocke sent to the master of the ceremonies an English beaver hat, with a gold hatband, and a pair of rich English gloves; at which the Master seemed offended, saying that ambassadors used to send better presents to the master of ceremonies; but being desired to try if the gloves would fit him, he found therein forty twenty-shilling pieces of English gold, and thereby much satisfaction in the present.

To Grave Eric's lady Whitelocke presented a clock of the new make, to hang by the wall, set in ebony, with rich studs of silver. To "la Belle Comtesse," the Lady Jane Ruthven and other ladies, he presented English gloves, ribbons, silk stockings, and the like, which are of great account with them.

All the presents given away by Whitelocke in this court were estimated above L3000, and the jewels and copper bestowed on him were near the same value; so that none could accuse him to be a receiver of rewards, or that he had enriched himself by this employment.

[SN: Whitelocke takes leave of the Prince and exhorts him.]

Whitelocke had desired this day another audience of the Prince to take his leave; and towards the evening the master of the ceremonies came with two of the Queen's coaches and brought Whitelocke to the Prince's lodging, who received him with the like or greater respect than he had done before. They went directly together to the Prince's cabinet, where two chairs were set. They discoursed about half an hour upon the same subjects as their last discourse was; and now also Whitelocke earnestly advised the Prince to those things which would tend to the honour of God and to the reformation of disorders, drunkenness, swearing, and profanation of the Lord's Day, which Whitelocke told him God would require at his hands to see reformed when he should be called to the government of this kingdom, with much to the like effect; esteeming it seasonable for him to take this opportunity of pressing these things to the Prince, as he also did liberty of conscience, and what he hoped was for promoting the interest of Christ in these countries. The Prince gave good ear to these things, and seemed sensible of what was said to him; and by his answers gave hopes that when he should come to the opportunity he would endeavour the reformation of those great reigning sins in his country, whereof he professed his own detestation.

Whitelocke going to take his leave, the Prince desired him to stay longer, as pleased with the discourse on this subject; but Whitelocke was desired by the master of the ceremonies not to continue longer with the Prince, because the Queen staid within purposely for Whitelocke's coming to her. At his parting the Prince desired Whitelocke to testify his respects to the Protector and Commonwealth of England; and told Whitelocke that he might assure himself of a most entire affection to his person from the Prince, who wished him a happy return to his own country.

[SN: Visits the Queen, to take leave;]

From the Prince Whitelocke made a visit to the Queen. Grave Tott conducted him to her bedchamber, where they discoursed about half an hour touching her Majesty's affairs. She again mentioned her purpose of going to the Spa, and to go thither by land; she desired Whitelocke not to speak much of it; she said that perhaps she might yet see him at Stockholm, but, if she did not, that she would write a letter to the Protector, and send it thither to Whitelocke, upon the subject of which they had formerly spoken.

Whitelocke advised her, as he had done before, and promised to take care of her letter to the Protector, and to improve his interest the best he could for effecting what her Majesty desired, in case there should be occasion for it. She thanked Whitelocke for his advice, wherewith she seemed to be pleased, and resolved to observe it; and expressed very great respect and affection to the Protector and to Whitelocke, whom she desired to assure the Protector in her Majesty's name of the sincere affection and honour which she did bear him, and which she should continue, in whatsoever condition she should be. She wished Whitelocke a happy voyage, and with many compliments, full of great respect and civility, but not so cheerful as formerly; she twice gave him her hand to kiss, and so took leave of him.

[SN: and the Chancellor.]

From the Court Whitelocke went and visited the Chancellor, and delivered to him (what he had before promised and was put in mind to do) an engagement under his hand to procure a supply of the defect of power, which they excepted to in his commission. The engagement was thus:—

"Polliceor plenam me mihi potentiam ac facultatem procuraturum a sua Serenissima Celsitudine Domino meo, Domino Protectore Reipublicae Angliae, Scotiae, et Hiberniae, intra trimestre spatium, ab appulsu meo in quemlibet portum Angliae, ad supplendum qualemcunque defectum facultatis ac potentiae mihi antehac datae, ad tractandum cum Serenissima Majestate sua Regina Sueciae aut commissariis suis, et ad rata habenda omnia, quae inter Majestatem suam vel suos commissarios et me conclusa fuerint. Datum Upsaliae 18^o Maii, anno Domini 1654.


The Chancellor and Whitelocke fell into discourse touching their Ricksdag; part whereof follows.

[SN: The Swedish Diet and Constitution.]

Whitelocke. I received much satisfaction in the favour of being admitted to see the manner of the meeting and proceedings of your Ricksdag, and shall be glad to be instructed by you touching some of the passages of it.

Chancellor. I shall be ready to inform you the best I can in these matters, and I have had some experience in them.

Wh. In that and all other matters touching the government of this kingdom, I believe no man's experience or judgement will be opposed to yours. I pray, Father, let me know the ground of proposals being made by the Queen to the Ricksdag, and whether it be as I have heard, that they consult of nothing but what is first proposed to them by the Queen.

Chan. That is very true, and is the ground of our quiet and of avoiding factions among us; for where a Council consists of seven or eight hundred men, as our Ricksdag doth, and they hold themselves to have an equal liberty and power, and are most of them active spirits; if every one amongst them might move and propound what he pleased according to his own fancy, there would never be an end of proposals and debates, and they would break out into several factions and the greater affairs of the kingdom be retarded, and many times thrust out to make way for lesser matters for the most part but of private interest. Therefore the wisdom of our Government hath so ordered it that nothing is to be consulted upon or debated by the Ricksdag, but what is first proposed to them in writing by the King, who hath the advice of the Senators therein; and such matters as are by them judged necessary for the good of the kingdom are by the King proposed to the Ricksdag for their counsel in them.

Wh. This may be a good way to preserve your quiet; but may it not be ill for the rights and liberty of the people? As to instance in particular, if it be requisite that a new law be made relating to the people's liberty, wherein the former laws may be defective, by this course it rests only in the power of the King and Senate whether this matter shall ever come to consideration or not; for, unless they will propound it, no consideration can be had of it; and though it may be necessary as to the people's rights, yet then probably it may be against the King's power, and in that case the King will never propose it to the Ricksdag, because it makes against his power and prerogative; and so the people are by this course debarred of the means of supplying any defect as to their rights and liberties, unless the King, to lessen his own power, will first propose it to them.

Chan. This were an inconvenience if the people's rights and liberties were not already settled; but, by our laws, the boundaries of the King's power and of the people's rights are sufficiently known and established, as the King can make no law nor alter or repeal any, nor impose any tax, nor compel men to go out of the kingdom without the assent of the Ricksdag; and in that Council, which is supreme in this kingdom, every man's vote and assent is included by the deputies of the Clergy, Boroughs, and Boors, which are respectively elected, and by the chiefs of the Nobility; so that all sorts of people have their share, either in person or by their deputies, in the Supreme Council of the kingdom, by whom only those great matters can be done; and this being certain and settled, any alteration in those points tends but to further uncertainty and mischief. And if debates might be had of additions to the King's power, or to the people's liberty, it would but occasion attempts of encroaching of one upon the other, and bring trouble and uncertainty to both; whereas they being already clearly defined and known, and that there is no means of altering either of them, both the King and people are content with what they have, and endeavour nothing of disquiet unto either.

Wh. But this further debars the people from having any new law at all made, except such only as the King shall think fit, for he only can propose them; and it is a necessary thing to supply defects in laws and to make new ones, according as times and circumstances varying shall minister occasion.

Chan. There is nothing more prejudicial to any government than multitude of laws, which is prevented by this course of ours; nor is there any necessity of new laws where both the public rights and private men's property are provided for by the laws in being, which in all nations is from the original of their civil settlement taken care of. And though time and variety of accidents may occasion some defects in old laws, yet it is better they should be borne with than an inundation of new laws to be let in, which causeth uncertainty, ignorance, different expositions, and repugnances in the laws, and are the parents of contention.

Wh. But I suppose your Ricksdag hath liberty to complain of maladministration and corruption in officers and judges, and to punish them and cause redress of grievances; else the people are remediless against those public crimes, without the grace and favour of the Prince to do it of himself, which every Prince in all times will not do.

Chan. The Ricksdag may complain to the King of any offence or misdemeanour committed by any great officer, and of any public grievance to the people; whereupon the King and Senate are very ready (as it behoves them in justice and prudence) to give a remedy, which they are the more induced to do, because otherwise the people's Deputies, who have the power of the purse, may be the more backward to supply the King's occasions with money or men; and this is a good tie upon the Court, to procure justice and redress of grievances.

Wh. Your laws are founded upon great reason and prudence, and in these and most other main parts and particulars of them, ours are the same in England; but a liberty of proposing anything in our Parliament belongs to every member of it.

Chan. That hath been a great occasion of all your troubles.

Wh. I expected to have heard my father, the Ricks-Chancellor, to have made an harangue in the Ricksdag, to have acquainted them, as it is with us, with the causes of their meeting.

Chan. I confess it belongs to my place to have done it; but, by reason of an oath I had taken to my king, to endeavour to keep the crown on his daughter's head, and this assembly was called that she might resign it; therefore I desired to be excused from making that proposal.

Wh. Indeed her Majesty spake herself with an excellent grace and spirit, which was a wonder to see it done by a young lady to so great and grave an assembly; and the matter of her speech, as it was interpreted to me, was pertinent and full of weight.

Chan. Indeed she spake very well and materially, and like a prince.

Wh. I am sorry my time calls me away from further enjoyment of my father's excellent conversation.

Chan. I shall be glad if my noble son would afford me more of his company, in which I take so much contentment.

Wh. My journey tomorrow hastens me away, and occasions your less trouble.

Chan. I pray assure the Protector of the respect and high value I have for him, and of my devoted mind to serve him in anything within my power in this kingdom.

Wh. You have been pleased largely to testify this in my transactions, and your noble favours and respects to your son.

Chan. You may be confident of my affection and love to you; and I desire you to be a friend to my countrymen in England, and to take upon you their patronage in all just causes.

Wh. I shall be ready upon all occasions to perform all good offices to your Excellence and to your family, and to all of this nation; and shall satisfy the Protector of your affections for him, and of your kindness to his servant.

Chan. I am now an old man, and whilst I continue alive I shall do all that lies in my power to serve the Protector and the Commonwealth of England, and shall embrace your Excellence with a special bond of friendship, and will leave it in charge to my sons, when I am dead, to do the same.

Wh. I shall also enjoin my children to continue that obligation of friendship which I have contracted with your Excellence and your family.

Chan. I shall but add this further, to pray to God that of His mercy He would vouchsafe to you a prosperous return to your own country, and that you may find there all your family and friends in a comfortable and happy condition.

[SN: Takes leave of Oxenstiern.]

Thus the Chancellor and Whitelocke took leave of one another with as much kindness and respect as could be expressed.[283]

Whitelocke being returned to his house, Grave John Oxenstiern came to visit him; and having heard that Whitelocke took it ill that he had put off a visit desired by Whitelocke to this high Grave, yet now he was pleased to descend to excuse it to Whitelocke, because his lodging was strait and inconvenient, not fit to receive a person of Whitelocke's quality, and his lady was at that time very much indisposed in health.

The Senator Benk Schuett came in the evening to visit Whitelocke, and discoursed freely with him touching the Queen's resignation and their new King, and did not testify much of respect to the Chancellor by informing Whitelocke that yesterday, at the castle, there was a great rub, as he called it, given by the Queen to the Chancellor before the Prince and the rest of the Senators; the occasion whereof was about the island of Elsey, which the Queen desired as part of her provision, to which the Chancellor said, that it was worthy the consideration; the Queen replied, "What! is my integrity then questioned?" The Chancellor answered, that he did not question her Majesty's integrity, but spake only for her security and better satisfaction in what she desired. The Queen said, "I understand Swedish well enough, and it was not becoming you to question my integrity at all." Schuett said, that at this passage the rest of the senators were pleased, and that the Prince seemed in this, and all other occasions, to be of the Queen's mind, and to grant her more rather than less of what she desired, which was wisdom in him.

Senator Vanderlin visited Whitelocke, and, among other discourses, acquainted him the passages of the proposal for the Queen to have married the Prince; that for this purpose the Prince was sent for out of Germany, and the Queen seemed inclinable to the match; yet, after the Prince was come, she used him with a strangeness which was occasioned by the whisperings of Grave Magnus de la Gardie to the Queen, that when the Prince was in Germany he was too familiar with some ladies; at which information, he said, the Queen was so enraged that the Prince should go to other women, that she thereupon resolved not to marry him, but was otherwise very courteous and full of respect to him. Whitelocke did not dispute the authenticness of this relation, but wondered at it from a senator, touching him who was to be a king, and to use so much freedom on such a subject to a stranger.

General Douglas, the Ricks-Admiral, and Senator Bielke, also visited Whitelocke this evening while Vanderlin was with him; they discoursed of the discontent which the Dutch Resident expressed before his going away, because more respect was shown to Whitelocke by the Queen and Prince, and by the Senators and great men here, than they had shown to the Dutch Resident, who said he was a public minister as well as the English Ambassador. Whitelocke said it was true, as the Dutch Resident had remembered, that he was a public minister; and it might be supposed, that being so, he should understand the difference between a Resident and an Ambassador Extraordinary; and also between the Commonwealth of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and that of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Swedish Lords replied, that if the Dutch Resident did not understand it, nor himself, that yet it was sufficiently known in this place, and that the Resident was but laughed at for his exceptions, as being without cause, and showing his want of experience in matters of this nature.

After the Ricks-Admiral and Bielke were gone, Vanderlin and Douglas staid with Whitelocke and used great freedom of discourse with him, expressing extraordinary respect to the Protector and Commonwealth of England, and very much affection and kindness to Whitelocke, in whom they expressed great confidence. They staid with him till past twelve o'clock at night, inconvenient in respect of his intended journey the next day; but their company was very pleasing, and they took leave with great civility and kindness from each to other of them.

May 20, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke commences his journey back to England.]

Whitelocke began his longed-for journey of return to England. He had taken his leave of the Queen, Prince, Senators, and all his friends in Upsal. His business, through the goodness of God, was successfully despatched; himself and all his people in good health, and exceeding joyful to be on their journey homewards. He left not a penny of debt to any in this country, nor any unrewarded who had done him service; for his hospitality, wherein no ambassador in this Court ever exceeded him, for his conversation and dealing with all sorts of people, he had gained their love, and left no ill name behind him. The greatest part of his baggage, and most of his inferior servants, were on board a great hoy of the Queen's, to go by water to Stockholm; he and the rest of his people went by land, in order to which, upon his desire, the Hof-Stallmaster, by the Queen's command, had sent yesterday six coach-horses to be ready in the midway from Upsal to Stockholm, and this morning he sent six other horses with Whitelocke's blue coach to his lodging, to carry him the first half way of this day's journey, driven by the Queen's coachman.

Berkman had provided a sufficient number of saddle-horses, if they might be so called, he having forgot to cause saddles to be brought with them for Whitelocke's people, so that most of them were forced to make shift with straw and cushions instead of saddles; and many of the bits and stirrups were such as they had been acquainted with in their journey from Gothenburg hither; and thus they rode the two first stages.

Whitelocke took coach between seven and eight o'clock in the morning, Sir George Fleetwood, Potley, Ingelo, and Andrews, in his coach with him; the rest on horseback; they came about noon to the place where fresh horses staid for them, and did not tarry long there, wanting good entertainment, but, taking fresh horses both for coach and saddle, they proceeded in their journey. The country through which they passed was better than that near the sea, less rocky and more fruitful, not so replenished with seats of the nobility further off, as nearer to Stockholm. By the way they met General Axy Lyllye, a Senator of Sweden, newly returned out of Germany, and another Senator with him; they alighted out of their coach when Whitelocke came near them, who, seeing that, did alight also. The General had lost one of his legs in the German wars, and now carried one of wood; he and his companion were very civil in their salutation and discourse with Whitelocke, and after compliments, and inquiry by Whitelocke of the German news, they took leave and parted.

Whitelocke and his company arrived between five and six o'clock in the evening at Stockholm, the journey being seven Swedish leagues, about forty English miles. As he came in the suburbs, he saw a sad sight of many houses lately burnt down, and some pulled down to prevent the further raging of the fire, which had consumed many scores of houses in that place; and it brought to Whitelocke's remembrance, that one evening at Upsal, in his chamber window, he saw a great fire in a dorf about half a league from the town, which he observed, almost in a moment, to flash from one end of the dorf to the other, consuming all in its way,—and thus it was said to have been in these suburbs. The reason thereof is the combustible matter whereof their houses are built, being of fir timber and boards, which, especially being old, do suddenly take fire, and violently burn, hard to be quenched, few houses escaping, especially in the dorfs, where one is on fire; which causeth more than ordinary care in the inhabitants of all places to prevent that fearful danger.

Berkman conducted Whitelocke to a lodging in the suburbs, over-against the castle, which was used for an inn. This being post-night, Whitelocke made up his despatches for England, which he had prepared at Upsal, where he wrote his letters, but dated them from Stockholm, that his friends in England might thereby perceive that he was in his journey homewards, which he knew would be no small contentment to them.

May 21, 1654.

[SN: Stockholm.]

Being the Lord's Day, divers Scotch merchants, inhabitants of this city, and some English, came to Whitelocke's lodging to hear the sermon in the morning, and many of them did him the honour to dine with him; he had conference with them, and good advice from them, about his voyage to England and other matters. Lagerfeldt came also to salute Whitelocke, and to know what service he had for him, before his going from hence this evening. Whitelocke desired him to speak to the master of the customs, touching the shipping of his copper and other goods, custom free; and Whitelocke prayed Lagerfeldt also to speak to Vice-Admiral Wrangel, that the ship appointed for his transportation (which was now in the road in view of Whitelocke's lodging) might, with as much speed as could be, fall down to the Dollars; which he promised to do.

Wrangel sent to invite Whitelocke to go this afternoon to see the ships, but Whitelocke excused it by reason of the day, and sent word that tomorrow, if he pleased, he would wait upon him; and desired his advice touching his voyage. In the evening Lagerfeldt came again to Whitelocke, to give him an account what he had done by his appointment, and told Whitelocke that he should have all contentment. With Lagerfeldt came Monsieur de Geeres to visit Whitelocke, who gave him thanks for a vessel of claret wine which De Geeres had sent to Whitelocke, who said he hoped he should not stay long enough to drink it out in this place.

[SN: The Queen's garden at Stockholm.]

At Upsal Whitelocke was carried to see the Queen's garden, which scarce deserved that name, being only a piece of ground of about four or five acres, paled in according to the manner of their paling, and had in it a few hedges which, in the latter end of May, upon the thaw, began to appear a little green; but for flowers or fruit-trees there were none, except a few ordinary tulips. This put Whitelocke in mind to inquire if the Queen had a better garden here at Stockholm, where her residence usually was. The Swedes excused the meanness of the garden at Upsal because the Court was seldom there, but here they commended the garden, and offered Whitelocke the favour to see it. He went about seven o'clock this evening to view it, and to walk in the Queen's garden here. It was near unto his lodging, but at a distance from the castle; it is about six or seven acres of ground, encompassed with a pale, on which they bestow timber enough in the posts and rails, and the pales are not set upright one by another, but crosswise one upon another, between two great posts, with rivets for the pales to be put into, and so to fall down one upon the other; and the pales are two inches thick or more, made of fir timber, and the posts and rails of oak.

This garden was distinguished into walks not well kept nor gravelled, but most of them green; few flowers were to be seen there, though more than at Upsal, and most of these were tulips not extraordinary. The sides of the walks were set with elm-trees and the like, but no fruit-trees were there, nor are they common in this cold country, only, as they informed Whitelocke, in some places they have a few trees of plums, and small cherries, and of apples; but he saw none in regard of the season, nor do many persons in these parts delight in gardens or in planting fruits or flowers, this climate not encouraging thereunto; yet here were great boxes of wood with orange-trees, citron-trees, and myrtle-trees, very young, planted in them; how they thrived was not much visible.

At Whitelocke's lodging some of his people made the greater fires to air the rooms, because the plague had been lately in this city, and in that house the chimneys, it seems, being foul, and full of soot, were the sooner set on fire; and when Whitelocke came from walking in the garden he found his lodging on fire. It was a stack of chimneys which took fire; a multitude of people were ready about the house to help to quench the fire, and the officers of the city were there to order the people. Whitelocke was surprised with this unexpected accident and danger, amongst such houses; but after an hour's flame, the soot being spent and burnt, the fire went out of itself; and it was a mercy that the wind set to carry the flame towards a house which was tiled, whereas, if it had set the other way, it had carried the flame upon houses all built and covered with wood, to the extreme danger of Whitelocke's lodging and the whole city.

May 22, 1654.

[SN: The harbour of Stockholm and Swedish fleet.]

In the morning Berkman conducted Whitelocke to the haven, where lay many boats and vessels great and small, and much iron upon the quay, which is convenient, but not much stored. They passed by many fair houses belonging to the great Lords.

In the afternoon Wrangel came to Whitelocke, and conducted him to see the Queen's ships, which lie round about an island called by them the Holm, into which island none are permitted to enter without special license. This is a good harbour for the ships there to anchor safely. There lay about fifty ships of war, some of them carrying eighty pieces of cannon, some sixty, some fifty, some forty, some thirty, and all of them well fitted and useful, strongly built, but not so nimble and serviceable for fight as our English frigates. Wrangel was now in his element, and discoursed much with Whitelocke about the make and force and goodness of these ships, their force and brass cannon, which were commended by Whitelocke, who showed the difference in the make between these ships and the English frigates; that these, for strength to endure an assault and make defence, were very good, but that the English frigates had much advantage in their nimble tacking about, their fleet sailing to fetch up another ship, and the lying of their guns for use of fighting; with which discourse Wrangel seemed much pleased, and he preferred their brass cannon before those of iron, which Whitelocke assented unto as not so soon hot with firing, nor so apt to break and splinter, and do harm to their own men as the iron ordnance are.

Within this island is the office of the Admiralty, in a fair brick house built for that purpose; in another building there are the forges for all the iron-work belonging to the ships; there also are the timber yards, well stored, and places for the workmen and ship-carpenters. They were shown there likewise the magazine of powder, bullet, match, grenadoes, with other fire instruments; also the bake-houses, where they make provision of biscuit for the ships; it is a great room paved with stone, wherein are three ovens for baking, and a large cellar in which they store the biscuit. There be also stores for pork, peas, and other ship provisions, all in very good order, and carefully looked unto.

Whitelocke went on board divers of the ships, taking notice of their strength and furniture, and among them he went on board several great ships which Wrangel had taken in fight from the King of Denmark, which at present were not serviceable; but his commendation of that action, and of these ships of war lying here, was due to them, and not unpleasing to those who showed them to him. They returned by boat, making the tour of the island; and as they passed by the ships of war, they all saluted Whitelocke with two guns apiece, which number they do not exceed. As they passed along, Whitelocke was desired to go on board the 'Hercules,' a great and good ship lying there, which carried eighty pieces of ordnance, all brass; and being brought into the captain's cabin, he found there the table covered, and a banquet set upon it of sweetmeats of divers sorts, with which, and with plenty of excellent Rhenish wine, they did with great respect and civility entertain Whitelocke and his company. From thence they brought him to his lodging, weary enough with his voyage and the extreme heat of the weather.

[SN: Position of Stockholm.]

The island which Whitelocke viewed this day, and many other greater and smaller islands, upon which are buildings, do make up this city, which by some is resembled for the situation of it unto the city of Venice, which stands as this doth, upon several islands in the sea. The waters are great and deep about this city, which is compassed with mountains, except only where they give way to the passage of the waters. The town, in the prospect of it, seems to be as in the midst of the circuit of the mountains, and as it were composed of divers pieces, each of them apart making a good town, and so appear as several villages separated by the many arms of water, or by the Lake Maelaren, which come hither to meet one another, and make the large and deep water; and it seems to be the diameter of the mountains, and now all plain, by carrying away the earth of a hill within it, and the stones therewith filling up ditches and uneven grounds, and serving for foundations for their buildings, and to make their streets even and handsome; so that now it is all level, as if no hill had ever been. One of their authors saith that it is "loco et situ commodissimo, inter eximium dulcem lacum Maeler ipsumque Balticum mare in insula fundatum."

The inhabitants (who should best know it) affirm that the situation of this town is very healthful, and that notwithstanding the vast quantity of waters that do surround it, yet they are not troubled with agues, or other diseases, so much as other parts of the country. It is too, in the view of it, pleasant and noble for the situation; and the grounds about it are dry and wholesome, yet fruitful. The streets are some of them large, others more narrow; most of them are straight, the houses being equally advanced and set together. In the heart of the city they are for the most part built of stone or brick, making the fairer show by their height of four or five stories. From the North Holm or suburbs to the east is a bridge of wood, very long; from the island where the ships lie they pass another bridge to another island, both small ones, and at the mouth of the harbour for the ships of war, extending about half a league, between which and the continent are the waters of the lake and of the rivers which pass through the town from the west; from the north to the east is a park of deer, pleasant with trees and shade, contributing to the delight and health of the inhabitants; and, taken altogether, from the prospect of the mountains upon the churches, castle, houses, waters, and ships, the town appears noble and beautiful.

[SN: Legend of Stockholm.]

Whitelocke having been at the island where the ships lie, and observed it to be called the Holm, and other islands to have the same name of Holm, and Holm to be the same which we call an island, and this city named Stockholm, caused his inquiry of the original of this name of Stockholm; he was informed, in a kind of pleasant story, which is not without some probability, and the earnest affirmations of the inhabitants, who from tradition may be supposed best to know it, that the original of the name Stockholm was thus:—That there was a certain great and rich town called Bieurkoo, situate upon the lake between Upsal and this place, whereof some ruins are yet to be seen. The number of the people in that town increasing so much that the inhabitants could not be therein contained, they held a council what was fit to be done; they also consulted their idol gods, to whom they offered sacrifices and prayers for their direction. The issue was this: they came to a resolution that part of their people should go forth from them, as a colony, to seek for a new habitation, as is usual in these northern countries; that they should find out a place, and build them a new city to dwell in; and how to find out and agree upon this place was thus determined: they took a great block or piece of wood, to which they fastened some gold, and set the block a-swimming in the water, and agreed that there they would build the new town where their gods (to whom they had committed this affair) should cause the block to stay; this block floated, and, descending down the lake, at length staid at a little island about the midst of this city.

Such an island here (as in our north parts) is called Holm, and such a great block or piece of wood is by them (as with us) called a stock; and because this stock staid at this Holm, therefore here they built their city, and called it Stockholm; which, by degrees, and adding one holm or island to another, became of its present greatness.

May 23, 1654.

[SN: The Magistrates of Stockholm address Whitelocke.]

Berkman brought to Whitelocke's lodging this morning two of the magistrates of this city, deputed by their body, and in their name, to salute Whitelocke and bid him welcome to this place. One of them made a speech to Whitelocke, which was interpreted out of the Swedish by Berkman into French, to this effect:—

"My Lord Ambassador,

"The Senate of this city have deputed us in their name to salute your Excellence, and to bid you welcome to this place, where the magistrates and citizens are desirous to embrace any occasion presented to them, whereby they may testify the great respect and honour which they bear to his most Serene Highness the Lord Protector, and to the Commonwealth of England.

"They are likewise very glad of the occasion given them to express their joy for the happy alliance and friendship concluded between this kingdom and the Commonwealth of England, which we hope will be to the advantage and good of both nations, and of the Protestant interest, which is heartily wished by us. We look upon it as a very great comfort and blessing to this city, that after the misery in which we have lately been, when it pleased God to visit us with the pestilence, that the same is now so well and fully removed through Divine mercy, that we have the happiness to see a person of your condition vouchsafe his presence with us.

"Whilst the occasions of your Excellence shall stay you here, we most freely offer our services for your accommodation with whatsoever this place will afford, which your Excellence may command; and as a small testimony of the respects of our superiors, they have caused us to present a vessel of wine unto your Excellence, whereof they entreat your favourable acceptance."

Whitelocke presently answered them in English, which Berkman interpreted to them in Swedish, to this effect:—


"I rejoice with you in the mercy and goodness of God to this city, who hath caused to cease that contagious disease which lately raged among you, so that your friends (of which number I take the honour to reckon myself) may freely and safely resort to you, and converse with you as formerly. I have also some share in your joy for the friendship and alliance contracted between my Lord the Protector of the Commonwealth of England, and the Queen and kingdom of Sweden; wherein I doubt not but, through the blessing of God, both nations and the whole Protestant interest will have cause to rejoice likewise: and as my poor endeavours have not been wanting, so my hearty prayers to God shall be put up that it may come to this issue; and I shall pray for the continuance of health and prosperity to this noble city.

"I return you many thanks for your respects to my Lord the Protector and the Commonwealth whom I serve, whereof I shall not fail (when it shall please God to give me a return to my own country) to acquaint them, and to do all offices of respect in my power for your city; and I desire my thanks may be presented to your honourable Senate for their particular favour to me, and for their salutation, which I receive with all gratitude."

Whilst the citizens were with Whitelocke, Wrangel, Vice-Admiral Thysen, Vice-Admiral Clerke, Sinclair, captain of the 'Amarantha,' and others, came and did Whitelocke the honour to dine with him, and in the afternoon carried him to see the cannon which the Swedes had taken from their enemies, now laid up in a magazine for themselves; there were of them brass cannon 1100; among them were two pieces taken from the Muscovites, each of them weighing 18,000 lbs. weight, and carrying a bullet of 96 lbs. weight, as much more as the greatest whole cannon carries. There was also a basilisk of nineteen feet in length, very extraordinary, and a great mortar-piece of brass of a fathom and three fingers in diameter at the mouth of it; with many other pieces of brass ordnance taken from the Poles in their wars with them, which were now but of little use; nor were those huge pieces capable to be drawn into the field for any service there.

May 24, 1654.

[SN: Monuments and public buildings of Stockholm.]

Whitelocke walked abroad, to see the great church where the late King Gustavus Adolphus lies interred; but as yet there is no monument erected to his memory, nor are there others of magnificence or much antiquity in this or in the other great church, but store of images and crucifixes in all their churches; their building is of brick, and all their churches are covered with copper.

Whitelocke went to Wrangel's lodging to requite his visits, but found him not at home, not having sent beforehand to him. He fetched a little turn in the city, and they showed him a new building for the Ricksdag, which they call the Ruder-house, that is, the house of the Knights; it is a fair building, and the name of it remembers somewhat of the knights of our Parliament.

In this walk, Whitelocke viewed in the fair street near his lodging the monument set up to the honour of Queen Christina at her coronation, which is beautiful to the view. It is a triumphant arch, of the height of the highest houses, raised upon three arches, which give three passages; those on each side the more strait and low, the middle arch of twice the height and wideness of the other two. The frontispiece unto the tops of the arches is adorned with pillars of a fair work, between which, in the front of the building, are figured the wars, battles, and victories of Gustavus the Great: above the pillars are divers images, and above the middle of the porch is a large tablet, containing in letters of gold the original of Christina, her virtues, and the occasion of this monument. The whole building seems fair and stately, and as of stone, but in truth is only wood plastered over; rather a show, to please for a few years, than lasting. He also viewed many houses of stone and brick, some whereof were very fair and adorned with towers and figures, as those of Grave Magnus de la Gardie, Grave Gustavus Horne, General Bannier, and others, and many of them beautifully covered with copper.

In the afternoon Wrangel conducted Whitelocke to see the castle, which is also covered with copper; and that having lain there long, some Dutchmen are reported to have offered to give L10,000 for the copper, and to cover the castle again with new copper; the reason whereof they hold to be, because the copper which hath lain there so long with the sun upon it, is so refined thereby, and would yield so much gold, that it will yield what the Dutchmen bid for it and more, besides the charge of new covering it with copper as before.

This castle is the principal house in this principal city, belonging to the crown of Sweden; it is a large castle, more for conveniency of a Court than for stateliness of structure. It is almost four-square, one way longer than the other, all of brick, plastered over to make it seem as if it were of freestone, whereof there is not much in these parts fit for building; the entry into the castle is upon the north quarter; the south and east side is of fair building, four stories high, the windows not large. On the west of the quadrangle is the chapel, about a hundred and thirty feet in length, with the breadth proportionable; it is divided into three arches, upon two ranges of pillars of marble of this country, of divers colours, most in red streaks, handsome and polished. On the windows and walls are several pictures and images, after the manner of the Lutheran churches. The rooms in the castle are many, some of them large enough for the state of a Court, and most of those are two stories high, after the use of this country. The situation of the castle is pleasant and noble, by the side of the great water, upon which part of it is built, and the other part upon the island where it stands; and though of itself it be not of great strength, yet the situation, prospect of the waters, ships, vessels, islands, and buildings, on the one side, and of the country to the mountains on the other side, give it the repute of a princely palace.

In the castle Whitelocke was carried up to a room, a magazine, where were a very great number of muskets, pikes, swords, and other foot arms, excellent good, made in this country, of their own iron and steel, and kept exceeding clean, bright, and well fixed, and were said to be sufficient to arm ten thousand men completely. On the other side of the court they brought him to another room, where was a magazine of horse-arms, cuirassiers, with pistols, bright, well kept, and of an excellent make; there were also more foot-arms: in all, in this magazine, two thousand horse-arms, and five thousand foot-arms; and in the other magazine, ten thousand foot-arms. There were likewise colours, ensigns, and standards, taken from their enemies, to the number of about eight hundred; among them one taken by King Gustavus in person, and another, which Wrangel showed, that he had taken from the Duke of Saxony.

This city is doubtless as well provided of arms and all sorts of ammunition for war as any place in these parts of Europe, here being, besides the Queen's stores in the public Arsenal, arms sufficient for fifty thousand men.

Here also they showed to Whitelocke the lance of the quintain, and, according to their description of it and its use, it seems to be the same with the exercise and recreation used anciently in England, and yet retained in some counties at their marriages, which they likewise call the running at the quintain. In a great hall they showed to Whitelocke the skin, stuffed out and standing in the full proportion, of the horse which the late King Gustavus rode when he was slain; also his bloody shirt which he then wore, which is carefully preserved in a chest; where they also keep the jewel which King Gustavus wore at his coronation, and many rich swords, battle-axes, and other spoils taken from their enemies.

May 25, 1654.

[SN: The launch of the 'Falcon.']

Wrangel came to Whitelocke, and invited him to see the launching of one of their ships newly built for a man-of-war; and Whitelocke was the more curious to see the manner of it, and how they could do it, in regard they have no docks, nor ebbing and flowing of the water, which here is constantly even, and affords no advantage by flowing tides for the launching of their ships.

When Whitelocke came to the holm where the ship was to be launched, he found her with the keel set upon great planks of timber, the ship tied upright with cables, as if she were swimming; the planks upon which she stood lay shelving towards the water, and were all thick daubed with grease all along from the poop of the ship, and under her keel, to the water's side, which was within the ship's length of her head, and there the water was very deep. One strong cable held the ship from moving; and she lying thus shelving upon the planks, the cable which held her from sliding down was cut, and then the weight of the ship upon the sloping greased planks carried her with great violence down upon the planks into the sea, near a slight shoot, by force of the weight and swing wherewith she fell down. In the sea were boats ready, which came to her, and put men aboard her; and as she went off, a great shout of a multitude of people, standing by as spectators, was sent after her.

Wrangel, as an honour and compliment to Whitelocke, desired him to give the name to this ship. Whitelocke would have called her the 'Wrangel,' but the master of that name entreated it might not be so, possibly to avoid the envy of it at Court; but he desired it might be called the 'Whitelocke,' which Whitelocke thought not expedient, lest it might argue too much height in himself; nor would he call her 'Cromwell,' or the 'Protector,' because she carried but thirty guns; but seeing the mark of her guns to be the falcon, and asking whether they had any other ship of that name, they said, No; whereupon, the falcon being Whitelocke's coat of arms and the mark of the ship's guns, and she being built swifter of sail than ordinary, Whitelocke gave her the name of the 'Falcon.' This pleased Wrangel very much, and the seamen and workmen were most pleased with the gratuity which Whitelocke bestowed on them; and this ceremony and compliments being passed, Whitelocke gave many thanks to Wrangel for this honour, and so they parted.

The packet from England was brought to Whitelocke. Thurloe wrote thus:—

"I have acquainted his Highness with your Excellence's letters received yesterday, wherein he takes little content, more than that he did on his part sincerely intend a peace and union with that Crown and Kingdom, and committed the management of it to a person who hath performed his trust with honour, wisdom, and fidelity. We hope that your instructions, giving you liberty to return, are by this time arrived, etc."

By this packet Whitelocke also received letters from his wife, full of affection and piety, and from Colonel Bulstrode, his brother Wilson, Mr. Attorney Hall, Mr. Cokaine, Mr. Eltonhead, especially from his great friend Dr. Winston; and all of these letters, and several others which he received, were so many testimonies of the affection and hearty kindness of these his worthy friends.

May 26, 1654.

After Whitelocke had walked a tour in the Norden Mallum,—that is, the north suburbs of this city,—Sir George Fleetwood came to him, with whom he had much conversation in the latter time of his being in Sweden, both at Upsal and in this town, who showed much kindness and respect to Whitelocke. He informed Whitelocke that by letters from Upsal he understood that the Ricksdag had given leave to the Queen to go to Colmar, which signified that she could not go without their leave, and that she would find much difference between commanding as a Queen and obeying as a subject, and that, by the law of this kingdom, no Queen can depart out of it without leave of the Ricksdag, on forfeiture of all her estate.

[SN: Whitelocke's shipment of copper sent to London.]

A ship called the 'Swart Hundt' was by the Queen's command appointed and fitted to carry Whitelocke's copper and other goods from hence to England. By advice of friends, Whitelocke under his hand and seal desired Sir George Fleetwood to consign the copper to Whitelocke's brother-in-law, Mr. Wilson. The desire was thus:—

"I Bulstrode Whitelocke, Constable of the Castle of Windsor, one of the Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal of England, and Ambassador Extraordinary from his Most Serene Highness the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, unto her Majesty the Queen of Sweden, do hereby desire my honourable friend, Sir George Fleetwood, Knight, General-Major under the Crown of Sweden, to ship and consign unto Mr. Samuel Wilson, merchant in London, in Bishopsgate-street, two hundred ship-pound, Swedish weight, of gore copper; the which the said Mr. Samuel Wilson is to receive and dispose of according to my order. Dated at Stockholm, in Sweden, the 26th day of May, 1654.


According to which warrant, the copper was put on board the 'Swart Hundt,' fitted and victualled for England. Of Whitelocke's ship, Whitelocke gave the command and charge, and of his goods therein, to one of his servants, Taylor, by commission under his hand and seal, and to bring his copper and goods in her from hence to London, as soon as he could, wind and weather favouring. Wrangel procured this ship for Whitelocke, and a pass from the Admiralty of Sweden for her to go through the Sound; and Whitelocke thought it better to see this ship on her voyage, than to leave the sending of her away to the care of others after his departure.

[SN: His goods embarked in the Amarantha.]

Whitelocke sent the rest of his goods and baggage on board the 'Amarantha,' which weighed yesterday, and he hoped might by this time be within four leagues of the Dollars; but the wind came contrary for her advance any further, and Whitelocke must continue here till he could understand that his ship was gotten to the Dollars, which is fourteen Swedish leagues from this city, but may be gone in six or seven hours by boats in a shorter passage. His stay here seemed tedious to Whitelocke. This day the wind coming about a little towards the east, increased his hopes of getting away, for which they were in daily expectation.

[SN: The trade of Stockholm.]

By some merchants and others of this city, Whitelocke learned what was the commerce of this town, and by his own view he found it to be commodiously seated for trade and to receive all the commodities of the country's growth, which are brought hither by water; and it is the more convenient because the greatest ships may come up to the very houses and there load and unload their merchandises, never wanting water, which there is always deep, and equal in the height of it. But this city is somewhat far distant from the sea by water, so that before the ships can go between the sea and the town, they must fetch a compass of about one hundred English miles, with the danger of many rocks and islands in the way; and they must have also divers winds which are hindrances to their commerce.

The present Queen hath been curious to invite hither and to entertain many good artists, yet everything here is very dear, except the native commodities; and now Gothenburg, growing up in trade, being situate without the Sound, a more open and easy place for access of strangers,—some believe that by the growth of that, this port may be diminished. It is the better supported by the Court being commonly kept here, and consequently being the residence of the principal nobility and officers. Some courts of justice constantly, and the Ricksdag generally, being held in this city, increase the trade of it; and this being a good road for ships to defend them from injuries of weather or other dangers, makes it the more frequented.

Plenty of provisions are brought to this town for the supply of it; and most of their native commodities, as copper, iron, pitch, tar, deal, masts, and the rest, are brought hither and here shipped and transported into foreign parts; from whence their merchants and strangers do bring to this northern market all manner of merchandise here vendible; and from hence again they are vended to all the northern and eastern parts of this country, whereby their trade and wealth is also increased, so that one of their authors calls it, "Celeberrimum ac nobilissimum Septentrionis emporium." The trade of this place hath brought and settled here as inhabitants,—besides Swedes, Goths, Fins, and Laplanders,—divers of Germans, of Pomerland, Mecklenburg, Westphalia, etc.; also English, Scotch, French, Dutch, and almost of every country of Europe. Some are here now become citizens, and are treated with justice and civility by the natives, to the end that they and others may be the more encouraged to add to the riches, strength, and trade of this place.

May 27, 1654.

[SN: Detained by contrary winds.]

Whitelocke visited Sir George Fleetwood at his lodging in Stockholm, and finding with him Vice-Admiral Thysen and Peterson, both Hollanders and in service of the Crown, Whitelocke brought them all home with him to dinner, and advised with them about his voyage. The wind came more contrary to Whitelocke this day than yesterday, but he knew no other way but a patient submission to the will and time of God. Here he bestowed on a German clock sixty-two rix-dollars.

[SN: The government of Stockholm.]

From some of the magistrates and others of this city Whitelocke learned that the government thereof is by four Councils, and a Senate of the citizens, as their Common Council, consisting of twenty-four chosen yearly in this month by suffrage of the inhabitants, and justice is administered to the people by them in like manner as in other cities. Besides these officers there is a Castellan, or governor of the castle of Stockholm, who, by a peculiar authority over the city, takes care of the walls and buildings thereof, as he doth of the castle and other the King's buildings there. He is to defend the privileges of the town, and is chief in their political administration. He also orders and keeps up the revenue and trade, and suffers not the royalties of the Crown to be diminished, nor any of the public treasure, without the license of the King, to be expended. He is always one of the Ricks-Senators, and hath joined to him a Vice-Castellan, of the equestrian order, who is chief in the judgements of the city within the Senate and Councils, and is intent to the execution of justice.

[SN: The defence of Stockholm.]

The strength of this city is chiefly in the situation of it among the waters, which are no small defence, and in the bodies of their inhabitants, who make a considerable number of the soldiery, many of whom have been in foreign service. The Castellan commandeth them, sees their musters, and that they be provided with arms and in a posture of defence; and under the Castellan is a captain, who hath the military charge next under him. The main body of the town hath somewhat of a wall about it, but the suburbs and other islands are encircled with the waters, with bridges for communication.

The castle is of indifferent strength, and notably provided of arms and ammunition, as is before remembered, which adds to the strength and safety as well as command of the city. They have not a formed garrison in the town; but divers companies of the King's guards, when the Court is there, and sometimes of other regiments of the army, are quartered there, as occasions do require. The castle commands a good part of the town, and may be as a citadel upon any emergent business; and in case of any troubles at sea, the ships of war lie here in readiness forthwith to be manned, are provided with ammunition, provisions, and all things necessary for the defence and safeguard of this port and city from any attempts which may by sea be made against it.

Whitelocke made up his despatches for England, and now dated his second letters from Stockholm, attending for a wind.

May 28, 1654.

The Lord's Day.—Whitelocke, according to his custom, had a good sermon in his lodging preached by one of his chaplains in the morning, and another good sermon preached there in the afternoon by Mr. Biger, a Scotch minister, and chaplain to Sir George Fleetwood, then with him. In this city Whitelocke observed the inhabitants very orderly to frequent their parish churches, and not so much profanation of this day in this place as he had seen at Upsal, and other places in the country.

May 29, 1654.

[SN: Sir G. Fleetwood returns to the King's coronation at Upsal.]

Whitelocke with longing desires attended the coming about of the wind for his voyage; but he must stay God's time, which is always best. He could not persuade Sir George Fleetwood to stay longer with him. He thought it necessary for him to go to Upsal, to be present at the King's coronation; and at his request Whitelocke sent by him to Wrangel this letter:—

"A son Excellence le Feld-Marechal Wrangel a Upsale.


"Je n'ai pu retenir plus longtemps le General Major Fleetwood avec moi, son desir le portait si fort de se trouver a Upsale, au couronnement, de crainte qu'il ne semblerait negligent, et manquer a son devoir envers son Altesse Royale; mais la raison de ce qu'il a presente ma requete a votre Excellence est qu'il vous plaise moyenner envers son Altesse Royale, afin qu'il retourne a Stockholm; et que je puisse jouir de sa compagnie jusqu'a mon depart, qui en apparence sera differe plus longtemps que je ne le souhaiterais, a raison de la contrariete des vents.

"Je supplie votre Excellence de me faire la faveur de baiser en mon nom les mains de sa Majeste et de son Altesse Royale, et d'accepter, pour tant de faveurs que votre Excellence m'a faites, tant a Upsale qu'en ce lieu, les actions de grace de celui qui est,

"Monsieur, a votre Excellence "Tres-humble serviteur, "B. WHITELOCKE. "Stockholm, May 29, 1654."

Berkman went from hence 17th May at night, and returned this morning hither, and brought to Whitelocke this letter:—

[SN: Lagerfeldt's letter on the Swedish prizes.]

"Illustrissimo Domino Domino Bulstrode Whitelocke, Extraordinario Reipublicae Angliae in Sueciam Legato, officiocissime.

"Illustrissime et Excellentissime Domine Legate,

"Quanquam valde dubitem, an Excellentiam vestram hae litterae in Sueciam inveniant, nolui tamen, accepta hac occasione, vel meo officio deesse, vel refragari quorundam Suecorum petitioni, nam cum naves duae Suecicae, quarum naucleri Bonders et Sibrand follis vocantur, nuper ceptae et in Angliam delatae sint, sperant fore, ut, per hanc meam intercessionem, cum primis autem per benevolam Excellentiae vestrae commendationem, quantocius dimittantur. Nisi igitur mihi satis perspecta esset Excellentiae vestrae integritas, pluribus ab ea contenderem, ut dictarum aliarumque detentarum in Anglia Suecicarum navium liberationem, atque per se aequam ac amicitiae foederique mutuo conformem sibi haberet commendatam; sufficit nunc saltem indicasse Excellentiae vestrae, quippe cui nihil jucundius esse scio, quam ut amicae confoederataeque gentes, sancta fidei justitiaeque observantia, inter se strictius colligentur. De caetero Excellentiae vestrae felicem in patriam reditum exopto, ut me nostrumque Barkmannum officiose commendo. Dabam Upsaliae, 27 Maii, anno 1654.

"Excellentiae vestrae "Ad quaevis officia paratissimus, "ISRAEL LAGERFELDT."

In the evening Whitelocke walked abroad to take the air, the time of his stay here being very tedious to him, attending for a good wind, that he might proceed in his longed-for return to his native country and relations; but he submitted to the good pleasure of God, who orders all times and seasons and all things for the best. At night the wind came about a little towards the east, favouring his voyage.

May 30, 1654.

[SN: Preparations for departure.]

The wind continued this morning, as it was last night, easterly, but not sufficing for Whitelocke to go on his voyage. The Vice-Admiral Clerke coming to Whitelocke, he advised with him touching his voyage, and asked him if he thought the 'Amarantha' might with this wind be gotten to the Dollars. He answered that there could be no assurance thereof, but that possibly it might be so; whereupon Whitelocke replied, that he had a great desire to go down himself to the Dollars, before the news came of the 'Amarantha's' arrival there, because the wind might come good, and within six hours carry them out to the open sea, which, if neglected, might retard their voyage fifteen days or more. Clerke said that if Whitelocke desired to do so, that he would not advise him to the contrary, but he believed that this might expedite his voyage; only he said that Whitelocke must be content to lie on board the ship till the wind should come fair, because there was no accommodation to be had for him and his company at the Dollars. Whitelocke said he should be well contented to lie on ship-board, and prayed Clerke to cause boats to be provided for his passage to the Dollars the next day, and ordered his officers and servants to prepare all things in readiness for his departure accordingly. Wrangel came back this night from Upsal, and several other persons, though very late, having staid the solemnity of the Queen's resignation and the coronation of the new King, which they related to Whitelocke to be done this day, and in this manner and solemnity.

[SN: Relation of the ceremony of the Queen's resignation.]

About nine o'clock this morning the Queen, being attired in her royal apparel and robes of purple velvet, with her crown upon her head, and attended by all her officers and servants, came into the room prepared for that occasion, where was set a table with a rich carpet, and five great cushions laid upon it. Most of the grandees and officers were present.

Upon one of the cushions was laid the sword of state; upon the second cushion was laid the sceptre; upon the third cushion was laid the ball; and upon the fourth cushion were laid the keys.

The Queen being come into the room, after a little pause made a short speech to the company, to this effect:—

"My Lords and Gentlemen,

"You have before this time been acquainted with my resolution to resign the crown and government of this kingdom into the hands of my most dear cousin the Prince, here present with me, upon my earnest request to the Ricksdag, now convened. After long debates and much solicitation to dissuade me from it, yet at length, though unwillingly, they have assented to this my resolution; and I am now come to put the same in execution before all these honourable witnesses here present; and to you, my most dear cousin, I do heartily wish all happiness and good success in the management of the public affairs of this kingdom."

Having thus spoken, the Queen desired that some of them would take the crown from off her head, but none would do it; she then called to Grave Tott and the Baron Steinberg, expressly commanding them to do it, but they refused, till again earnestly commanded by her; they then took the crown from off her Majesty's head, and laid it down upon the fifth cushion on the table. After that was done, some others, by her command, took off the royal robes with which she was clothed and laid them down upon the table. Then the Queen, having thus divested herself of these ensigns of royalty and resigned her crown, being now in her private habit, made courtesy to the Prince and to the rest of the company, and retired into her own chamber,—an act of a strange constancy and fixedness of resolution, going through with this great work of her own abdication without the least outward show of reluctancy for what she had done, but with the same behaviour and confidence as at all other times in her particular and private affairs.[314]

For this act of the Queen's resignation they had no precedent; for the solemnity of the King's coronation they had many; and the same is at large, with all the circumstances and ceremonies thereof, set down by one of their authors, Wexionius (Epit. Descriptionis Sueciae, lib. v. c. 6), from which the ceremonies of this Coronation were not much different, and thus shortly related unto Whitelocke.

[SN: Ceremony of the King's coronation.]

After the Queen was withdrawn to her private chamber, the Ricks-officers and senators humbly desired the Prince that he would be pleased to walk to the Cathedral Church, where the Archbishop and other prelates were ready to attend his Royal Highness, and to perform the solemnities of his coronation. The whole company went thither in this order. The officers and servants of the Court went first in a very great number, together with many officers of the army and other gentlemen. After them came the nobility, the gentlemen, barons, and earls, members of the Ricksdag; then followed the Ricks-Senators, two and two, in rank. After them came the five Ricks-officers: first, the Ricks-Schatzmaster, or High Treasurer, who carried the keys; next to him, the Ricks-Chancellor, who carried the globe; after him came the Ricks-Admiral, who carried the sceptre; then one in the place of the Feldherr, or General, who carried the sword; and lastly the Ricks-Droitset, or Chief Justice, who carried the crown. After the Chief Justice came the King himself, in his ordinary habit, with a huge troop following him, and the windows and streets crowded with multitudes of people. The guards and soldiers stood in their arms as the company passed by.

Being thus come to the Cathedral, at the door stood the Archbishop with a horn of oil in his hand, accompanied with other bishops, superintendents, and many clergymen. He received the Prince at the church door, and conducted him up to the high altar, where they had prayers, and then the Archbishop anointed the Prince with the oil. They put upon him the royal apparel, put the crown upon his head, the sceptre in his right hand, and the ball into his left hand, and so he was invested into the royal dignity, and declared, with all his titles, King of Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, etc.; drums, trumpets, and loud acclamations of the people adding to the proclaiming of their new King. Not many days past they laboured to hinder the doing of it; now they shout for joy that it is done. Thus are the minds and practice of the multitude, whom nothing pleaseth long,—nothing more than novelty.

The ceremonies being performed at the Cathedral, the new King, with all his new subjects and servants, returned from thence into the castle in the same order as he came hither. By the way he was saluted with the loud acclamations of the people, "God save the King!" Thus coming to his Court as he entered it, the abdicated Queen looks out of her window, and with a cheerful countenance and voice heard by the company she wished her cousin joy of his crown and government. The King retires for a while to his private chamber, then is called forth to a sumptuous feast, where most of the nobility and senators did attend upon him and rejoice with him, and afterwards did swear fealty, homage, and allegiance to him.

But this relation was not so pleasing to Whitelocke as the thoughts of his departure from this place, and his longing to proceed in his voyage homewards.

May 31, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke takes boat and leaves the shore;]

The 'Swart Hundt' set sail this morning with Whitelocke's goods and copper, Taylor commanding her, and Swedes mariners in her; the wind was come about indifferent good, for his and for his master's voyage. Wrangel and Clerke affording Whitelocke their company at dinner, he advised with them what time of the day would be best for him to go from hence. Clerke said that the boats would be ready after dinner to transport him from hence to the Dollars, whither he hoped that by this time the 'Amarantha' might be come. He and Wrangel advised Whitelocke not to go on board the boats till six or seven o'clock in the evening, to avoid the heat of the day, and to enjoy the benefit of the cool of the night, which was better to be endured than the extremity of the heat of the day, especially upon the water; and the heat some affirmed to be at this time as violent in this country as it is in Spain or Italy. Whitelocke found it now as much hotter than England as it is colder in the winter.

About seven o'clock in the evening Whitelocke left his lodging, where they made him pay as an Ambassador Extraordinary. For the use of the house, only for eleven days, they made him pay a hundred and sixty rix-dollars; for his victuals, but one meal a day, without any dainties, they exacted above a thousand rix-dollars. Such is their unconscionable exaction upon strangers. It was time to leave them, and Whitelocke being called by Wrangel and Clerke, he went to prayers with his company, recommending themselves to the protection and blessing of God; and presently after prayers he and all his people went to the water-side, multitudes by the way saluting him with respect as he passed by, and crowding to see him take boat.

He went into a galley of the Queen's attending for him. Most of his gentlemen and Clerke were with him in the galley; the rest of his company went in a great boat provided for them. This galley had two masts bearing the Queen's colours in silk. In the hinder part of it was a room with a table and benches round about it, the table covered with crimson velvet, the benches with red cloth, and tapestry upon the floor. The room held about ten persons; the outward room about twelve men, besides the watermen for sixteen oars. At her head she carried two small pieces of ordnance, which they fired at loosing from the harbour, and the ships of war fired as they passed by. They went on in a great deep water, sometimes very broad, sometimes more narrow, on the sides whereof were huge rocks, and here and there little trees growing out of the clefts of them, with small heaps of earth lying on them, but they increase not much in that soil.

Many rocks all along on the shores, and islands of rocks, with the smell of the fir-trees on them, was a variety for strangers; and the water being calm, they made use only of their oars. The trumpets sounding where the rocks were most uneven and made concavities, gave much delight by the resounding of seven or eight echoes to one sound. Yet the multitudes of craggy rocks of vast greatness and huge tallness, with their uneven heads and ragged sides, filling all the shores and making many islands, and those causing no small danger in the passage, appeared, especially at first and to the younger seamen, very dreadful and amazing; but after a little acquaintance with them, and constant being in their company, and the seamen knowing the passage, caused the less fear, and the sevenfold answering echoes, as if they had been so many trumpets, gave delight to the hearers, with some admiration of that multiplying sound. But their cheerfulness was increased by meeting with a boat about two Swedish miles from Stockholm, whose men informed Whitelocke that the 'Amarantha' was that day come into the Dollars, which good news added hopes and spirit to the company of advancing in their voyage towards their longed-for country; and the night seemed the less tedious by discoursing of this providence, that, the same day that Whitelocke came away, his ship should fall down to be ready to meet him, and not sooner, and whereof he knew nothing beforehand.

Clerke informed Whitelocke of the places by which they passed, and the condition of the country. They came into a very narrow way and straits, about a bow-shot in length, where a great vessel could not pass, both for want of breadth and depth of water, the greater boat with Whitelocke striking the sands as she passed over. This way was to get into the road and channel for the ships from Stockholm to the Dollars, which is near twenty Swedish miles for the ships to go about. From this strait they came again into deep water, environed as before with rocks, and full of islands.

[SN: and reaches his ship at the Dollars.]

When they were within a mile of the Dollars, the wind came about to east and north-east, very fair and good to carry them out to sea, whereas before it was flat against them. Hereupon Whitelocke took occasion, the wind being now good, to order his galley to make way forthright to the 'Amarantha' without going on shore at all, which was done, although it seemed long at the latter end of the way, the company weary, and the watermen tired with rowing, though they did not at all row with that nimbleness and mettle as the English use to do.

When Whitelocke departed from Stockholm the wind was contrary to him; after he was certified by the boat which he met that the 'Amarantha' was in the Dollars, the wind suddenly changed and was fair for him, and after this providence they came in good time to the ship, the tedious passage of the night being over, wherein Whitelocke slept upon the boards and in the open air,—hardship enough for one of his age and condition, but God was his protection.


[184] [This entry is evidently a repetition of the conversation reported at length on the 5th of April. The story here related by M. Woolfeldt is his own.]

[188] "We Christina, by the grace of God Queen of Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, etc., do make known and testify, that, whereas it is the common and mutual interest of us and our kingdom, as also of Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereof, our good friend, and of the said Commonwealth, that the ancient friendship and alliance which hath always been between this kingdom and those nations be conserved and increased; and especially that the freedom of commerce and navigation do continue straitly conformed and uninterrupted; and for that cause the foresaid Lord Protector and Commonwealth have been pleased to send their Extraordinary Ambassador unto us: therefore we have commanded, and do by these presents, in the best form, command and commit unto the most illustrious our sincerely faithful and beloved the Lord Axel Oxenstiern, Chancellor and Senator of us and the kingdom of Sweden, etc., and also to Lord Eric Oxenstiern of Axel, likewise a Senator of us and of the Kingdom of Sweden, etc., that they do treat, agree, and conclude with the before-named Ambassador and Plenipotentiary about the making of a league concerning the foresaid matters and other things thereunto pertaining. Whatsoever therefore our said Plenipotentiary Commissioners shall act, conclude, and appoint with the before-named Ambassador, we shall hold the same ratified and confirmed by force of these presents; in witness and strengthening whereof, we have commanded these presents, subscribed with our hand, to be corroborated with our great seal of the kingdom. Given in our castle of Upsal, the fourteenth day of March, in the year one thousand six hundred fifty and four. CHRISTINA."

[193] [No sooner had Cromwell assumed the Protectorate than his foreign policy took a more definite shape, and was steadily directed to two great objects—peace with Holland, and the union of the Protestant States. The conclusion of the Dutch peace was however not an easy matter. Cromwell himself had declared in favour of the daring project of a union of the two Republics, and the Dutch alliance was hated by many of his stoutest military supporters. Moreover he required of the Dutch, as a condition sine qua non, that they should engage never to make the young Prince of Orange or his descendants their Stadtholder, or to give him the command of their forces. This was the secret article against which the States General most vehemently protested, and Cromwell was at length obliged to content himself with an engagement of the province of Holland to exclude the House of Orange. Even this pretension was strongly opposed by De Witt, but Cromwell insisted. The public treaty of peace was signed on the 5th of April, 1654; but it was not until the 5th of June following that the secret article was ratified. The King of Denmark, the Swiss Protestant cantons, the Hanseatic towns, and some of the Protestant Princes of North Germany were included in the treaty, which formed the complement of the negotiation on which Whitelocke was engaged in Sweden.—M. GUIZOT, Histoire de la Republique d'Angleterre, vol. ii. p. 67.]

[200] "We, Christina, by the grace of God Queen of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, etc., do make known and testify that whereas the endeavours of the illustrious and generous, of us sincerely beloved, the Lord Bulstrode Whitelocke, Extraordinary Ambassador, are most grateful to us, which he hath negotiated for the common good of our Kingdom and his Commonwealth, for the making of a league of stricter friendship between both parties: therefore, and to the end it may appear as a testimony of our goodwill and grateful memory on this behalf, we have thereupon granted and assigned, and by these our letters do grant and assign to the said Lord Ambassador two hundred pound of copper, commonly called ship-pounds; the which two hundred pounds of copper our treasurers and officers of our Chamber of Accounts are obliged, without delay, to deliver into the hands of the before-mentioned Ambassador. In greater testimony whereof we have commanded these presents, subscribed with our hand, to be confirmed by our seal. Given in our castle of Upsal, the 3rd day of May, in the year 1654. CHRISTINA."

[240] "I, the subscribed Bulstrode Whitelocke, Constable of the Castle of Windsor, and one of the Keepers of the Great Seal of the Commonwealth of England, Commissioner, Procurator, Deputy, and Extraordinary Ambassador of the Most Serene and Most High Lord Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereof and the said Commonwealth, do make known and testify, that whereas by the treaty of alliance between the said Most Serene and my Most High Lord Oliver, Lord Protector, and the Most Serene and Most Potent Prince and Lady the Lady Christina, by the grace of God Queen of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, etc., a firm peace and friendship is established: and I have judged it chiefly consonant thereunto to find out means to remove certain grievances of the people and citizens of either State, and to take away all grounds and occasions thereof which may arise in time to come. Therefore, upon some differences moved, I have agreed with the most illustrious and most excellent Lords, Plenipotentiary Commissioners and Senators of her said Royal Majesty and of Sweden, the Lord Axel Oxenstiern, Chancellor of the kingdom, etc., and the Lord Eric Oxenstiern, son of Axel, President of the General College of Trade, etc., in manner as by the following articles is expressed and explained.

"First, whereas a certain company of English exercising merchandise in Guinea have complained of one Henry Carelove, who, being Governor of the Swedish Company in that country, did take away from the English certain places inhabited by them, and did other injuries to them; but the said Swedish Company not only took upon them to prove that the before-named Governor did commit no fault, but likewise made complaint of grievances against the officers of the said English Company; but these particular differences of merchants at this time could not for certain reasons be wholly determined, and therefore it seemed most counselable to both parties that in a friendly way, without any indirect courses, they may be composed by certain Commissioners on both sides. In the meantime it is agreed that the differing hereof shall be to the prejudice of none of either part, so that neither the fellows or officers of the said companies nor any subjects or citizens of either State shall offer any injury or molestation to one another in Guinea, or in the free commerce or travelling there; but, as before is expressed, the determination of the differences being referred by both sides to the superiors, they may live friendly among themselves, and treat one another with that goodwill which is consonant to the league concluded between them. The same also shall be observed in America between the colonies of New Sweden and of the English, that they do embrace a sincere friendship, and that either party do abstain from all troubles and injuries to the other, but chiefly that they do endeavour their mutual preservation until there be a clear agreement before the deputed Commissioners on both sides about the limits of the colonies, and other rules of friendship that shall be requisite, together with other affairs of particular persons. Which matters, that they may be enjoined to all and singular the subjects and citizens of either State, and may be observed by them, I have fully taken upon me by these presents, by virtue of my commission, and do confirm by subscription of my hand, and by my seal."

[268] [Whitelocke, in his zeal to exhort the Heir-apparent to the service of God and the observance of the Lord's Day, appears to have appreciated very imperfectly the extraordinary character and the political capacity of the Prince who paid him so signal a mark of deference. Yet in the romantic and chivalrous annals of the House of Vasa, scarcely any reign is more remarkable than that of the sovereign to whom Christina ceded the throne. In the course of the ensuing five years Charles Gustavus, at the head of a chosen band of Swedish veterans, conquered Prussia, and compelled the Great Elector to acknowledge himself to be a Swedish vassal; invaded Poland, and commenced the partition of that republic; allied himself to Rakoczy, to the terror of the House of Austria, and attacked Denmark with such success that he crossed the Little Belt on the ice and laid siege to Copenhagen, which was only saved by the mediation of the Maritime Powers. Such was the splendid career of Charles Gustavus between the period of his accession to the throne and the year 1660, when he died, not having completed his thirty-eighth year. More than any of his predecessors or of his successors on the Swedish throne, he may be said to have held the Empire of the North; and the favour here shown to Whitelocke indicates the importance attached by the Swedish Prince to secure at least the goodwill of Cromwell during the prosecution of these Extraordinary enterprises.]

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