A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II.
by Bulstrode Whitelocke
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Then the Marshal of the Nobility, going forth into the open place between the forms, made his oration in the name of the nobility, much to the same purpose as the Archbishop had done, and, after his oration ended, with the like ceremony kissed her Majesty's hand, and returned to his place. Then the like was done by the Marshal of the Burgesses, and all to the same effect.

[SN: The Boor's speech.]

In the last place stepped forth the Marshal of the Boors, a plain country fellow, in his clouted shoon, and all other habits answerable, as all the rest of his company were accoutred. This boor, without any congees or ceremony at all, spake to her Majesty, and was interpreted to Whitelocke to be after this phrase:—

"O Lord God, Madam, what do you mean to do? It troubles us to hear you speak of forsaking those that love you so well as we do. Can you be better than you are? You are Queen of all these countries, and if you leave this large kingdom, where will you get such another? If you should do it (as I hope you won't for all this), both you and we shall have cause, when it is too late, to be sorry for it. Therefore my fellows and I pray you to think better on't, and to keep your crown on your head, then you will keep your own honour and our peace; but if you lay it down, in my conscience you will endanger all. Continue in your gears, good Madam, and be the fore-horse as long as you live, and we will help you the best we can to bear your burden.

"Your father was an honest gentleman and a good king, and very stirring in the world; we obeyed him and loved him as long as he lived; and you are his own child, and have governed us very well, and we love you with all our hearts; and the Prince is an honest gentleman, and when his time comes we shall be ready to do our duties to him as we do to you; but as long as you live we are not willing to part with you, and therefore I pray, Madam, do not part with us."

When the boor had ended his speech, he waddled up to the Queen without any ceremony, took her by the hand and shook it heartily, and kissed it two or three times; then turning his back to her, he pulled out of his pocket a foul handkerchief and wiped the tears from his eyes, and in the same posture as he came up he returned back to his own place again.

When the orations were all ended, one of the Queen's secretaries, by her command, read unto the Assembly a paper, which Whitelocke procured to be given to him in a copy, and translated into English.

[SN: The Queen's declaration to the Diet.]

The Proposition of her Majesty of Sweden to the Estates assembled at Upsal the 11th of May, in the year 1654.

"Since for certain reasons her Majesty found it good and necessary to assemble the Estates of the Kingdom at this time, and that they have given testimony of their obedience in their coming together, her Majesty hath great cause to rejoice that the good God hath preserved our country from all apparent harms, and principally from the contagious sickness of the plague, which spread itself in divers places the last autumn, but at present is ceased, so that we may meet together in all safety. Her Majesty rejoiceth in the good health of her faithful subjects; and this obligeth us not only to return humble thanks to our good God, but the more to supplicate Him for the future to avert his fatherly chastisements from us.

"Also her Majesty understands with great joy, that the scarcity and dearth in the late years is now changed into fruitfulness and abundance, so that the last year there was not only very great abundance of all things which the earth produceth, but further, thanks be to God, we have cause, according to appearances, to hope this year will be no less fruitful; the which great blessing of God to this country clearly shows us the great obligations which we have to Him.

"Also her Majesty calls to mind, that which she graciously mentions to her faithful subjects, how the country, within the limits thereof, is at present in a good and peaceable condition, and so hath been kept by Divine Providence, and the faithful care of her Majesty, in times of danger; and when war, and the imminent perils accompanying the same roundabout us, had the sway, yet we always continued in quiet without taking part in others' quarrels, and for this end hath always endeavoured to entertain a sincere friendship and good correspondence with her neighbours and allies.

"And as to the neighbourhood of Denmark, her Majesty hath nothing to fear, since she hath given no occasion in anything but of sincere friendship and firm peace.

"In like manner, with all possible care, by her Commissioners, hath composed the differences touching the limits between her and the Great Duke of Muscovy; and although the said Duke hath signified to her Majesty by divers envoys that he would justify the expedition of war newly made by him against the Polanders, with all the reasons thereof, yet since that is a business which can no way involve her Majesty and the Crown of Sweden, there is no cause to fear it; provided their actions be watched, and{7} that, by little and little, preparation be made, if there shall be cause to apply some remedies.

"With the King and Crown of Poland is continued the amnesty for twenty-six years, formerly accorded; and although her Majesty wisheth that this amnesty had been converted into a perpetual peace,—and for this end she hath caused pains to be taken twice at Luebeck, by the mediators and her Commissioners, and although they are not yet agreed,—nevertheless her Majesty understands so much on the part of Poland that they are not disaffected to the renewing of the treaties for a longer time, so that her Majesty hath no cause but to promise herself at length a favourable success therein.

"With the Emperor and Roman Empire her Majesty, since the peace executed in Germany, hath continued and maintained good amity and correspondence; and for this end she hath her ambassadors there, who have their places in the present Diet for the principality of Bremen, Verden, and Pomerland, among the other members of the empire who do there maintain and observe the interests of her Majesty; and for the conclusion of the peace of Germany her Majesty hath resolved, by a great embassy, to accept the possession and investiture, from the Emperor, of the conquered countries.

"Also her Majesty hath a good correspondence and friendship with France and Spain by fit means and a good alliance.

"But particularly her Majesty rejoiceth that the perilous war made in the ocean between the powerful Commonwealths of England and the United Provinces (by which we have received very great damage in our trade throughout, as it appeareth) is appeased and ended; and that, since, her Majesty hath made an alliance with the Commonwealth of England for the security of navigation and commerce, so that the faithful subjects of her Majesty may thereby hope to have great advantage and profit.

"In this posture and state of affairs, her Majesty thinks it fit to prosecute her intention, which she hath conceived some years since, and to put the same in execution, that is, to give up the kingdom of Sweden and her sceptre to his Royal Highness, the most high, most illustrious Prince Charles Gustavus, by the grace of God designed hereditary Prince of the kingdom of Sweden, Count Palatine of the Rhine in Bavaria, Prince of Juelich, Cleves, and Bergen; and this is the only business which her Majesty hath to propose to her faithful subjects at this time.

"Her Majesty also hath this gracious confidence in all the Estates here now assembled, that when they shall consider with what dexterity, pains, and travail her Majesty for ten years hath managed the affairs of this kingdom, and with such good fortune that all the counsels and intentions of her Majesty have been followed with such happy success, that the State, with great honour and reputation, hath escaped many difficulties of war, and yet enjoys such quiet, that they cannot judge or conclude that her Majesty would now make any alteration were it not for the good and safety of this nation.

"The Estates, which have been formerly assembled, know very well how earnestly her Majesty pressed that the kingdom and government might be provided of a successor, thereby to avoid and cut off the sudden accidents which happen when a government is uncertain; for which reason the Estates in that point did agree and think good heretofore that his Highness should be chosen and made hereditary Prince and successor to the crown. All this her Majesty did propose and urge till it was brought to the effect which that time produced.

"And to the end that her Majesty, during her life, may have the pleasure to see the happy effect of this design, and that the entire government may be rendered into the hands of his Royal Highness, therefore her Majesty hath resolved to quit the crown and the privileges of it, and to put them into the hands of his Royal Highness.

"And although this resolution of her Majesty may seem strange and unexpected to the Estates of the kingdom, nevertheless, according to her gracious confidence, she believes that they will consent to her quiet in retiring herself from so heavy a burden, by their contributing an assent to the proposed alteration.

"Her Majesty likewise assures herself (as the Estates by their former acts have always testified) of the esteem which they have of the person and of the rare virtues and well-known qualities of his Royal Highness; and that they will find that he will employ them to a prudent government and to their great advantage, and that at length they will not be deceived by this change, or any ways prejudiced: for which end her Majesty promiseth and offereth to contribute all her advice and counsel and endeavour,—chiefly that his Royal Highness, before his entry into the government, may assure the Estates and effectually do that which the Kings of Sweden upon the like occasions have used to do, and are by the laws and customs obliged unto.

"And on the other part, that the Estates and all the subjects of Sweden be obliged to render unto his Royal Highness that respect, obedience, and all those rights which appertain to a King, and which they are obliged to perform.

"And as her Majesty hath considered and resolved upon the means whereby her Majesty may enjoy a yearly pension to be settled upon her during her life, and having communicated her purpose therein to his Royal Highness the successor to the crown, so she graciously hopeth that her faithful subjects and the Estates will be content therewith, humbly receiving and consenting to what her Majesty hath graciously disposed.

"Her Majesty graciously requires all the Estates of the kingdom that they would, as soon as may be, consider this business, to the end that the resolution taken by her Majesty may in a short time be brought unto effect.

"Her Majesty most graciously thanks all her faithful subjects for the obedience, honour, and respect which every one of them hath faithfully testified to her Majesty during the time of her government; so that her Majesty hath received full contentment by their most humble demeanour, which hereafter, upon all occasions, she will acknowledge with all gratitude.

"Her Majesty also hopeth that her most faithful subjects will be satisfied, and give a good construction of the faithful care which her Majesty hath employed for all in general and their happiness, and chiefly for the gracious affection which she hath testified towards every one in particular.

"Her Majesty wisheth that the most high and most powerful God would conserve and protect our dear country, with all the inhabitants thereof and all the subjects, from all harm; and to conclude, that the estates of the kingdom, as well in general as in particular, may continue and increase from day to day, and may for ever flourish."

After this proposition was read, the Queen's servants were called in, and she went out of the hall, attended by them and the Ricks-Senators in the same way and manner as she came in; and after she was gone, first the Archbishop of Upsal and the clergy following him; second, the Marshal and Nobility; third, the Marshal and Burgesses; fourth, the Marshal and Boors, went out of the hall in the same order as they first came in; and when they were all gone, Whitelocke returned to his lodging.

[SN: The solemnities of the marriage resumed.]

About eleven o'clock in the evening, the master of the ceremonies came to bring Whitelocke to the remainder of the solemnities of the marriage. Whitelocke, in no good condition to go abroad, having sat up the last night, yet rather than discontent the Queen and the nobility, who had sent for him, he went with the master in the Queen's coach to the bridegroom's lodging in the castle, who met him in the outer chamber and brought him into another room where were many senators and lords; they all took their coach, and went in the same order as the day before to the Queen, where the bride and ladies were expecting them.

They came all to the great hall, where the Queen and the company took their places, and the drums beating and trumpets sounding. A gentleman entered the hall carrying a spear or pike covered with taffeta of the bridegroom's colours, all but the head, which was silver, worth about twenty crowns; he stood by the bride, holding the spear in the middle, both ends of it about breast-high, and the bridegroom was brought and placed by his bride. Then Senator Bundt made a solemn speech to the Queen, which (according to the interpretation made to Whitelocke) was to thank her Majesty for the favour which she did to the bride and bridegroom in permitting the nuptials to be in her Court; and he acquainted the Queen, and published to the company, what dowry the bridegroom had given that morning to his bride, with two thousand ducats for her provision; and that twelve of the nobility, of the alliance and friends to them both, were witnesses thereunto, and were to take care that the money should be disposed to the use of the wife and children, in case she survived her husband.

Then a gentleman read aloud the names of the twelve witnesses, who, as they were called one after another, making their honours to the Queen, went and laid their right hands on the spear; and then was published the dowry and augmentation thus by these twelve witnesses. After this the spear was laid down at the feet of the bride, and all, making their solemn reverences to the Queen, took again their places. Then the same gentleman that laid down the spear, took it up again and threw it out of the window into the great court; where a multitude of people stood expecting it, and scrambled for the head of it, and for the taffeta, which they tore in pieces and wore in their hats as the bride's favours.

After this ceremony ended, the bridegroom came and took the bride by the hand, and they marched after the torches to the sound of the drums and trumpets; after that the bridegroom took the Queen by the hand, and the bride came and took the English Ambassador by the hand, and other noblemen took their several ladies, and they marched two and two amidst the torches and to the same loud music as they had done the night before. After this the noblemen and ladies went to dance French dances and country dances; but Whitelocke having watched the night before, and not being well, he privately withdrew himself from the company and retired to his house, wondering that the Queen, after so serious a work as she had been at in the morning, could be so pleased with this evening's ceremonies.

May 12, 1654.

[SN: Despatches from England.]

About one o'clock the last night, Whitelocke, coming from the solemnities of the Court, received two packets of letters from England. He had the more cause to remember the time, because then, although midnight, he could perfectly read his letters without any candle or other light than that of the heavens, which in this season of the year scarce leaves any night at all, but so as one may well read all the night long with the help of twilight.

The letters from Thurloe of the first date acquainted Whitelocke that now he had sent duplicates of the last instructions by a ship going to Sweden. In Thurloe's second letters, dated 13th of April, he mentions the instructions sent formerly to Whitelocke, and acquaints him again with the effect of them, and the Protector's order, by which he leaves it to Whitelocke to return home when he shall judge it fit; and that if he should stay the ceremonies of the coronation of the new King, it would occasion great delay. And he writes further:—

"But in truth we cannot believe, notwithstanding all that is said, that her Majesty will quit her crown, being so well qualified in all respects to govern as she is, and seems to be very well accepted of her people."

Then he again mentions the signing of the peace with the Dutch, and that the Protector had appointed Commissioners to treat with the French, Spanish, and Portugal Ambassadors, but had not yet declared himself to any of his neighbours.

"That the business in Scotland was well; that the Protector had taken away Colonel Rich's commission, whereof the officers of his regiment were glad; that many congratulatory petitions to his Highness came from divers counties, one from Bucks; that the Protector proceeded to reformation of the law and ministry, and I hope he will merit as well in that as in the military affairs. I return your Excellence my humble thanks for your acceptance of my endeavours to serve you; I can say they come from an honest heart, which very really embraceth every opportunity wherein I may manifest myself

"Your Excellence's faithful humble servant, "JO. THURLOE. "Whitehall, 13th April, 1654."

Whitelocke received several letters in these packets from Mr. Cokaine; one, dated the 2nd of April, saith thus:—

"You will have leave from his Highness to take your first opportunity to come away, and I hope it will not be without bringing your business to a happy and an honourable issue, which is the constant subject of our requests to the Lord for you, and I doubt not but we shall have a comfortable answer. In the meantime I think, as I have hinted to your Excellence in former letters, it will not be amiss if you draw good store of bills upon us, though but pro forma, that we may get as much money for you as we can before your return, and that you may have a sufficient overplus to pay all servants' wages off, which I believe will amount to a considerable sum; and upon this peace I hope it will be no hard matter to get your bills paid, especially if your Excellence please withal to write to my Lord Protector and Mr. Thurloe and some of the Council about it. I could wish that you would make what haste you can home, for I am informed by a special hand that there is great labouring to make a Chancellor whilst you are absent, and to take that opportunity to put you by, whom I believe they doubt to be too much a Christian and an Englishman to trust in their service; but I hope God will give you a heart to submit to His will, and to prize a good conscience above all the world, which will indeed stand us in stead when all outward things cannot in the least administer to us.

"Your Excellence's most humble servant, "GEO. COKAINE. "April 2nd."

In another letter from Mr. Cokaine he saith:—

"Mr. Thurloe was pleased to acquaint me that it was his Highness and the Council's pleasure to make some alteration in the Chancery; that it was determined that your Lordship and Sir Thomas Widdrington and my Lord Lisle should have the custody of the Great Seal, and I believe an Act to that purpose will pass within few hours; but I perceive this business was not done without some tugging; but my Lord Protector and John Thurloe are true to you, and now I am out of all fears that any affront should be offered you in your absence. Mr. Mackworth deserves a letter from you; but nothing, I pray, of this business. Indeed Mr. Thurloe hath played his part gallantly and like a true friend, for which I shall love him as long as I live."

In other letters from Mr. Cokaine in this packet, dated 14th April, he saith:—

"Your old servant Abel is much courted by his Highness to be his Falconer-in-Chief; but he will not accept it except your Excellence had been here to give him your explicit leave to serve his Highness, and told me, without stuttering, he would not serve the greatest prince in the world except your Excellence were present, to make the bargain that he might wait upon you with a cast of hawks at the beginning of September every year into Bedfordshire. It is pity that gallantry should hurt any. Certainly it is a noble profession that inspires him with such a spirit.

"My Lord Protector this week hath expressed great respect to your Excellence upon the death of the Clerk of the Peace of Bucks. Some of the justices came up and moved his Highness to put one into his place, who thereupon asked who was Custos Rotulorum. They answered, the Lord Ambassador Whitelocke. He thereupon replied that the place should not be disposed of till his return. They urged it again with many reasons; but he gave them the same answer, only with this addition, that he was to return sooner than perhaps they were aware of."

By this packet Whitelocke received letters from Mr. Selden, which were thus:—

"For his Excellence the Lord Whitelocke, Lord Ambassador from the State of England to her Majesty of Sweden.

"My Lord,

"Your Excellence's last of the 3rd of February brought me so unexpressible a plenty of the utmost of such happiness as consists in true reputation and honour, as that nothing with me will equal or come near it. First, that her most excellent Majesty, a Prince so unparalleled and incomparable and so justly acknowledged with the height of true admiration by all that either have or love arts or other goodness, should vouchsafe to descend to the mention of my mean name and the inquiry of my being and condition with such most gracious expressions. Next, that your Excellence, whose favours have been so continually multiplied on me, should be the person of whom such inquiry was made. All the danger is, that your noble affection rendered me far above myself. However, it necessitates me to become a fervent suitor to your Excellence, that if it shall fall out that her Majesty and you have again leisure and will to speak of any such trifle as I am, you will be pleased to represent to her Majesty my most humble thanks, and my heart full of devotion to her, of which I too shall study to give, if I can, some other humble testimony. God send her most excellent Majesty always her heart's desires, and the most royal amplitude of all happiness, and your Lordship a good despatch and safe and timely return.

"My Lord, your Excellence's most "obliged and humble servant, "JO. SELDEN. "Whitefriars, March 2nd, 1653."

Whitelocke had also in this packet letters from his old friends Mr. Hall, Mr. Eltonhead, the Lord Commissioner Lisle, his brothers Wilson and Carleton, Mr. Peters, Sir Joseph Holland, and divers others; also letters from Hamburg, from Mr. Bradshaw, the Protector's Resident there, with some intercepted letters from the King's party, as Sir Edward Hyde and several others.

[SN: His audience of leave-taking.]

This day being appointed for Whitelocke's last audience, he was habited in a plain suit of very fine English cloth of musk-colour, the buttons of gold, enamelled, and in each button a ruby, and rich points and ribbons of gold; his gentlemen were in their richest clothes; his pages and lacqueys, above twenty, in their liveries. In the afternoon two of the Ricks-Senators, with the master of the ceremonies, came with two of the Queen's coaches to Whitelocke's house, to bring him to his audience. He received them with the usual ceremony, and after they had sat a little while in his bedchamber, one of the Senators said that by the Queen's command they were come to him to accompany him to his audience which he had desired this day, and that her Majesty was ready to receive him. Whitelocke answered, that he was always desirous to wait upon her Majesty, and not the less now because it was in order to return to his own country. They made no long compliments, but went down and took their coaches.

The noblemen's coaches sent thither to accompany him went first, then followed his two coaches, and last the Queen's coaches. In the last of them sat the two Senators in the fore-end, Whitelocke in the back-end, and the master in the boot; the gentlemen in the several coaches, the pages and lacqueys walking and riding behind the coaches. At the bridge of the castle was a guard of musketeers more than formerly, of about two companies, with their officers; they made a lane from the bridge to the end of the Court. As soon as Whitelocke was alighted out of the coach, the Ricks-Hofmeister with his silver staff met him at the stairs' foot, very many of the Queen's servants and courtiers with him very gallant. Whitelocke's gentlemen went first, two and two up the stairs; after them the Queen's servants, then the master of the ceremonies, then the Hof-Marshal, then the two Senators and Whitelocke between them, followed by his sons, his chaplains, physician, secretaries, and steward, and after them his pages and lacqueys. In this order they mounted the stairs, and through the great chamber to the guard-chamber, where the Queen's partisans stood in their rich coats, with the arms of Sweden embroidered with gold, their swords by their sides, and rich halberds gilded in their hands; they stood in a fixed posture, more like images than men. When they came to the audience-chamber, there was scarce room for any of Whitelocke's gentlemen to come in; but by the civility of the Queen's servants room was made for them, and they made a lane from the door of the chamber to the upper end near the Queen, who was upon a foot-pace covered with carpets, and a rich canopy over her head. Her habit was black silk stuff for her coats, and over them a black velvet jippo, such as men use to wear; she had upon her breast the jewel of the Order of the Knights of Amaranta; her hair hung loose as it used to do, and her hat was after the fashion of men. A great number of senators and of civil and military officers and courtiers,—many more than ordinarily did appear at any audience,—stood all bare about her, and a few ladies were behind her. She stood upon the carpets before the state with her hat on; and when Whitelocke came first into the room, and pulled off his hat, the Queen presently pulled off her hat; and when Whitelocke made his honours, she answered him, though at that distance, with a short curtsey. After his three obeisances, being come up to the Queen, he kissed her hand; then the Queen put on her hat, and Whitelocke{8} put on his hat, and after a little pause, with high silence and solemnity in all the company, Whitelocke took off his hat, and the Queen took off her hat likewise, and all the time of his speaking both of them were uncovered. Whitelocke, having made his ceremonies, spake to the Queen thus:—

[SN: Whitelocke's farewell speech.]


"I confess that the time of my absence from my relations and concernments in my own country would have seemed very tedious, had I not been in the public service and honoured with admittance into your Majesty's presence, whose favours, answerable to your greatness though above my merit, have been enlarged towards me during the whole time of my residence under the just and safe protection of your Majesty; the which,—with the civilities of those most excellent persons with whom I treated, and of those who have been pleased to honour me with their acquaintance in your Court,—I shall not fail to acknowledge with all respect.

"But, Madam, to your Majesty I shall not presume to return any other acknowledgment than by the thanks of my Lord the Protector, who is able to judge of the affection shown to him, and to the Commonwealth whereof he is the head, by the honour done unto their servant.

"Madam, it is your great judgement in the public interest, and your desire to advance the good of your own State and that of your neighbours, and the particular respect that you bear to my master, whereby the business trusted to my care by his Highness is brought to such an issue as I hope will be a solid foundation of great and mutual prosperity to both these nations.

"I have nothing to add on my part, but to entreat that my failings and errors, not wilfully committed, may be excused; to take my leave of your Majesty, and to assure you that there is no person who honours you more than I do, and who shall be more ready to lay hold on any opportunity whereby I may endeavour, to the utmost of my power, to contribute to the happiness and prosperity of your royal Majesty and of your people."

As it was done at Whitelocke's first audience, so he now ordered it, that Monsieur De la Marche, one of his chaplains, did, at the end of every sentence, as Whitelocke spake, interpret the same to the Queen in French. During all the time of his speaking to the Queen she looked him wistly in the face and came up very near unto him, as she had done at his first audience,—perhaps to have daunted him, as she had done others, but he was not daunted; and when he had made an end of speaking, after a little pause the Queen answered him in the Swedish language, which was then interpreted in Latin to Whitelocke, to this effect:—

[SN: The Queen's reply.]

"My Lord Ambassador,

"It may well be that your stay in this place, where you have been so ill accommodated, and your absence from your near relations and native country, hath been tedious to you; but I can assure you that your residence in my Court hath been a contentment to myself and to those who have had the honour to converse with you in this place; and it would have been a blemish to me and to all under my government if in this time anything of injury or danger had fallen out to your person or to any of your people. I hope I may say that there hath been no such thing offered to you, and I am glad of it.

"I do not know that your judgement hath deceived you in anything but this, that you have too great a value of my understanding of public affairs. It hath been your prudent management of the business committed to your trust by the Protector, and my particular respects to him and to your Commonwealth, with the good inclinations of the people of this country towards you, and the general interests of the Protestant party, which have brought your business to effect, and which, I hope, will occasion much good and happiness to these nations and to all the Evangelical party. And truly, Sir, your demeanour on all occasions requires from us this testimony, that we have found much honour and great abilities to be in you; and I should be very unwilling to part with so good company, were it not in order to your own satisfaction for your return to England.

"I know no errors committed by you here, but desire your excuse of the want of those expressions of our respect which this place would not afford. The thanks are due to you for your patience, and for the affection which you have testified to me and to this nation, from whom you may depend upon a firm friendship and amity, with a true respect to the Protector and Commonwealth of England, and an honourable esteem of yourself in particular, to whom we wish a safe and prosperous return to your own country."

After the Queen had done speaking, Whitelocke had some private discourse of compliment with her in French, to give her Majesty thanks for her noble treatment of him and many favours to him; then, according to the usage of this Court, he delivered to Mr. Lagerfeldt, standing by, a copy of his speech, in English, signed by him with his hand, and another copy of his speech in Latin, not signed by him, to be presented to the Queen. Then Whitelocke took his leave, and kissed her Majesty's hand, who gave him the adieu with great respect and civility. He was conducted back to his coach with the same ceremony as he was brought to his audience; and the same two senators, with the master of the ceremonies, returned with him to his house, and after usual compliments passed between them, they returned to the Court.

The trouble of the day was not yet ended; but after Whitelocke had come from the Court, Lagerfeldt brought to him the articles touching Guinea which were agreed upon and signed and sealed by the Queen's Commissioners, as the other part of them was by Whitelocke.[240]

After the great toil of this busy day, a yet greater toil must be undergone by Whitelocke to make his despatches for England. By his letters to Thurloe he again acquainted the Council with the good conclusion of his treaty, and with his taking leave of the Queen in his last audience; and sent him copies of the speeches, and gave an account of the business of Guinea, with all material passages since his last letters, and his resolution and way of return home. He also answered the letters of every one of his friends, which were very many; but that to his wife, as he was afterwards informed, caused much trouble and passion, that by this date of the letter, 12th May, she perceived that he was not removed from Upsal in his journey to return homewards.

May 13, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke takes leave of his friends.]

Whitelocke began his visits and compliments to take his leave of his friends in this Court; and herein he was to be very exact, and not to omit any one who had given him the honour of former visits. He, to be the less subject to mistakes, set down in writing the names of those whom he was to visit, which made a long catalogue; but he must get through it, as part of the business of an ambassador. And this day he began by visiting the French and Holland Residents, and the Grave Leonhough, whose discourses were concerning the peace between England and the Dutch, the English strong fleet at sea, of the Queen's resignation, and other general themes not necessary to be repeated.

[SN: The Sound Dues.]

Woolfeldt gave a visit to Whitelocke and discoursed on the same subjects, but more particularly of the interest of England and the payment of toll to the King of Denmark at the Sound, wherein Whitelocke had good information from him, and such as, if it had been hearkened unto, would have been of great advantage to the Protector and Commonwealth of England. So great an interest Whitelocke had gained in the affection and friendship of this gentleman, that he would not conceal from him anything that he knew, who knew more than any other that Whitelocke met with concerning the Sound, the King of Denmark, the Court and courtiers here, or whatsoever related to Whitelocke's business and to England.

May 14, 1654.

This Lord's Day Sir George Fleetwood did Whitelocke the favour to bear him company at his house, and told him that the Queen and her Lords were pleased with his deportment at his last audience, and with his speech then made, which they commended, but is here omitted. He and others also acquainted Whitelocke that the Queen took great pleasure at his carriage at the solemnity of the nuptials at Court, and that he would dance with them; and both the Queen and her courtiers said that the English Ambassador knew how to lay aside the gravity of an ambassador when he pleased, and could play the courtier with as good a grace as any one that ever they saw, with much to the like effect.

May 15, 1654.

[SN: A private audience of the Queen.]

Whitelocke visited Marshal Wrangel and General Wittenberg, and went from thence to the castle to visit Grave Tott, who told him that the Queen had altered her purpose of sending him into England, and would do him the honour to retain him with her, but that yet he hoped in a short time to see England. Whitelocke said he should be glad to meet him, and to do him service there. They discoursed of the Queen's residence in Pomerland, or some other place near this country, and of the discommodities and inconveniences which would arise thereby. Whitelocke told him that if the Queen had leisure, that he should be glad to wait on her; and Tott went presently to know her pleasure, and promised to bring word to Whitelocke if he might see the Queen, and did it at the Lady Jane Ruthven's lodging, whither Whitelocke was gone to take his leave of that lady; whence he brought Whitelocke to the traverse of the wardrobe, where her Majesty came to him and conducted him into her bedchamber, where they thus discoursed:—

Whitelocke. I humbly thank your Majesty for admitting me to be present at the meeting of the Ricksdag.

Queen. How did you like the manner and proceedings of it when you were there?

Wh. It was with the greatest gravity and solemnity that I ever saw in any public assembly, and well becoming persons of their quality and interest.

Qu. There be among them very considerable persons, and wise men.

Wh. Such an assembly requires such men, and their carriage showed them to be such; but, Madam, I expected that your Chancellor, after he spake with your Majesty, should, according to the course in our Parliaments, have declared, by your direction, the causes of the Council's being summoned.

Qu. It belongs to the office of the Chancellor with us to do it; and when I called him to me, it was to desire him to do it.

Wh. How then came it to pass that he did it not, when his place and your Majesty required it?

Qu. He desired to be excused, and gave me this reason, that he had taken an oath to my father to use his utmost endeavour to keep the crown on my head, and that the cause of my calling this Diet was to have their consents for me to quit the Crown; that if he should make this proposition to them, it would be contrary to the oath which he had taken to my father, and therefore he could not do it.

Wh. Did not your Majesty expect this answer?

Qu. Not at all, but was wholly surprised by it; and when the Ricksdag were met, my Chancellor thus excusing himself, there was nobody appointed by me to declare to them the cause of their meeting; but rather than the Assembly should be put off, and nothing done, I plucked up my spirits the best I could, and spake to them on the sudden as you heard, although much to my disadvantage.

Wh. Indeed, Madam, you were much surprised; and I cannot but wonder that you should have no intimation given you beforehand of your Chancellor's resolution; but your Majesty will pardon me if I believe it proved no disadvantage to you, when I had the honour to see and hear with how excellent a grace and how prince-like your Majesty, in so great an assembly and on a sudden, delivered your mind and purpose.

Qu. You are apt to make the best construction of it; you see I did adventure upon it, remembering that they were my subjects, and I their Queen.

Wh. Madam, you spake and acted like yourself, and were highly complimented by the several Marshals, but above all the rest by the honest boor.

Qu. Was you so taken with his clownery?

Wh. It seemed to me as pure and clear natural eloquence, without any forced strain, as could be expressed.

Qu. Indeed there was little else but what was natural, and by a well-meaning man, who has understanding enough in his country way.

Wh. Whosoever shall consider his matter more than his form will find that the man understands his business; and the garment or phrase wherewith he clothed his matter, though it was rustic, yet the variety and plain elegancy and reason could not but affect his auditors.

Qu. I think he spake from his heart.

Wh. I believe he did, and acted so too, especially when he wiped his eyes.

Qu. He showed his affection to me in that posture more than greater men did in their spheres.

Wh. Madam, we must look upon all men to work according to their present interest; and so I suppose do the great men here as well as elsewhere.

Qu. Here I have had experience enough of such actings; I shall try what they do in other places, and content myself, however I shall find it.

Wh. Your Majesty will not expect to find much difference in the humours of men, as to seeking themselves, and neglecting those from whom they have received favours.

Qu. It will be no otherwise than what I am armed to bear and not to regard; but your particular respects I shall always remember with gratefulness.

Wh. Your Majesty shall ever find me your faithful servant. Do you intend, Madam, to go from hence to Pomerland?

Qu. My intentions are to go presently, after my resignation, to the Spa; but wheresoever I am, you have a true friend of me.

Wh. There is no person alive more cordially your Majesty's servant than I am.

Qu. I do believe it, or else I should not have communicated to you such things as I have done.

Wh. Your Majesty hath therein expressed much confidence in me, which I hope shall never deceive you, however my want of abilities may not answer your Majesty's favours to me.

Qu. I have no doubt of your faithfulness, and you have sufficiently manifested your abilities. Give me leave to trouble you with the company of a gentleman, my servant, whom I purpose to send over with you to England, to take care for those things which I desire to have from thence.

Wh. He shall be very welcome to me and my company, and I shall give him my best assistance for your Majesty's service.

Qu. I shall thank you for it, and command him to obey your directions.

Wh. Madam, if you please to accept a set of black English horses for your coach, I shall take the boldness to send them to your stables; and pray your Majesty that the Master of your Horse may furnish me for my journey to Stockholm.

Qu. I do thankfully accept your kindness, and all mine are at your service.

Wh. I have interrupted your Majesty too long. I desired the favour of this opportunity to present my most humble thanks to your Majesty for all your noble favours to me and my company.

Qu. I entreat your excuse for the meanness of my presents. I could not do therein what I desired, nor after your merit.

Wh. Madam, there is nothing of my merit to be alleged; but your Majesty hath testified much honour to the Protector and Commonwealth whom I serve.

Qu. England is a noble country, and your master is a gallant man. I desire you to assure him, on my part, of all affection and respect towards him.

Wh. Your Majesty may be confident of the like from his Highness; and your humble servant will heartily pray for your Majesty's prosperity, wherever you are.

Qu. I wish you a happy voyage and return to your own country.

After he came from the Queen, Whitelocke met with the Baron Steinberg, Master of her Horse, whom he acquainted with what he had moved to her Majesty, and he was very forward to accommodate Whitelocke.

[SN: Discourse with Grave Eric on the customs of Swedish nuptials.]

From hence he went and visited Grave Eric Oxenstiern, who discoursed with him about the solemnity of the nuptials at Court, and asked him how he liked it.

Wh. They were very noble; but I pray, my noble brother, instruct me what the meaning was of the dowry given by the bridegroom to the bride the next morning; and what do you call that dowry?

Gr. Eric. By the ancient custom of this country, the next morning after the wedding-night the husband bestows upon his wife a gift of money according to his estate, to show how he is pleased with the cohabitation, and to make some provision, in case of his death before her, for the wife, and children which he shall have by her; and this we call a morgen-gaven—a morning's gift.

Wh. The same word morgen-gaven is in the old terms of our English laws, and expounded to signify a second dowry, and hath much affinity with this of yours and in that of your twelve witnesses who testified the contract of marriage and the morgen-gaven; to which our trials by twelve men, whom we call juries because they are sworn, are somewhat like, and they are so many witnesses as well as judges of the fact.

Gr. Eric. I believe your customs and ours had the same original.

Wh. I find much resemblance between them and yours. What do you call the twelve that laid their hands on the spear?

Gr. Eric. We call them the twelve witnesses (les douze temoins).

Wh. What do you call the spear or pike which the gentleman held?

Gr. Eric. We call it weppun.

Wh. We have the same word, weapon, for all manner of arms and warlike instruments. What do you call the laying of their hands upon the spear?

Gr. Eric. We call it tack,—weppun-tack, to touch the spear.

Wh. We have also the word tack, for touching; and we have, in the northern parts of England, a particular precinct or territory which we call a Wapentake, and a territorial court of justice there which we call a Wapentake Court; and a very learned gentleman from whom I received letters in my last packet, Selden, derives the name of Wapentake from weapon and tack; and saith they used to come to that court with their weapons, and to touch one another's weapons, from whence came the appellation of Wapentake.

Gr. Eric. Tacitus observes that at the public assemblies and councils of the Germans, they used to meet with their weapons, and when anything was said that pleased them they would touch one another's spears or weapons, and thereby make a noise, to testify their consent and approbation.

Wh. Your ceremony of laying down the spear at the feet of the bride puts me in mind of another passage in Tacitus, 'De Moribus Germanorum;' that when a man was married, he used to bring his arms and lay them at the feet of his bride, to signify that he would not take them up nor go forth to war, being newly married, without the leave of his wife, to whom he had now given the command of himself and of his arms.

Gr. Eric. Our customs and those of the ancient Germans have much resemblance; but I never heard so good observations upon the ceremonies of a wedding as your Excellence hath made.

Wh. I am delighted with these antiquities; but your Excellence shows your opinion to be that of a brother.

From Grave Eric, Whitelocke went to visit the Senator Schuett, and Lynde, who lodged in one house, and met him at the door; and this day he made seven visits, besides his attendance upon the Queen, hastening to get over these matters of compliment and ceremony, that he might be upon his journey to Stockholm.

May 16, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke entertains a party of ladies.]

Whitelocke visited General Douglas, who had been to visit him before, and now showed great respect unto him, and gave him many thanks for the English horse which Whitelocke had bestowed on him. After this, Whitelocke visited the Ricks-Admiral and the Senators Rosenhau and Bundt.

In the afternoon he visited Woolfeldt, who brought Whitelocke into the room where his lady and other ladies of great quality were with her. Whitelocke imagined some design to be herein, because it was a thing so unusual to bring gentlemen and strangers into the company of their ladies; and it fell out to be so, for Whitelocke, discoursing with the Lady Woolfeldt, who spake perfect French, she complained that she knew not where to have a place to see the entry of the Prince into Upsal. Whitelocke knowing his house to be conveniently situate for that purpose, and understanding the lady's complaint, he, to free her from the danger of not seeing that solemnity, offered to her and to the rest of the ladies in her company, to command his house, which if they pleased to honour with their presence to see the entry of the Prince, he should take it as a great favour from their Excellencies; and the ladies readily accepted of his offer.

They presently came to Whitelocke's house. With the Lady Woolfeldt was the Countess John Oxenstiern, the Countess Eric Oxenstiern, the Countess Tott, the Baroness Gildenstiern, and seven or eight other ladies of great quality. Before the Prince came into the town, Whitelocke caused a collation to be set on the table for the ladies, all after the English fashion, creams, tarts, butter, cheese, neats' tongues, potted venison, apples, pears, sweetmeats, and excellent wine. They ate heartily, and seemed to be much pleased with it and with the Ambassador's discourse, who strove to be cheerful with the ladies, and found it not unacceptable to them.

[SN: The entry of the Prince.]

The Prince's entry and reception into Upsal this evening was thus:—The day before, by the Queen's command, notice was given to all the senators, the nobility, gentry, and persons of quality about the Court and in town, to come in their best equipage on horseback, at one o'clock this afternoon to the castle, to attend the Queen on her going out to meet the Prince. They accordingly resorted to the Court, a very great number, and attended the Queen forth in this order, all passing and returning by Whitelocke's window. First, Major-General Wrangel marched in the head of four troops of horse of Upland, proper men and well armed, their horses not tall but strong; every horseman carried ready in his hand one of his pistols, and his sword by his side, and most of them were well habited. Then marched Colonel Bengt Horne in the head of the gentlemen and servants of the senators and other volunteers, marching three and three abreast. After these rode about six of the Queen's kettle-drums and twelve trumpets. Then came Mr. Eric Flemming, Governor of Copperberg, Marshal of the Nobility, followed by the heads of the families of the nobles in the same order as they are matriculated in the Ricksdag. They were generally very rich in clothes and well horsed, lords and gentlemen of principal note and consideration in their country, and members of the Ricksdag; they also rode three and three abreast. After them rode Mr. Gabriel Gabrielson, Marshal of the Court, and was followed by all the senators then in town, being about thirty, riding two and two abreast, grave in their habits for the most part, and well horsed. Then came the Ricks-Stallmaster and the Hof-Stallmaster—that is, the Master of the Horse of the Kingdom, and the Master of the Horse of the Court—riding bareheaded. After them came the Queen, gallantly mounted, habited in her usual fashion in grey stuff, her hat on her head, her pistols at her saddle-bow, and twenty-four of the Gardes-du-Corps about her person. After the Queen followed the Great Chamberlain, Grave Jacob de la Gardie, and Grave Tott, Captain of the Guards, both bareheaded. After them the Grave Donae, Gustavus Oxenstiern, and Gustavus Jean Banier, riding bareheaded. Then rode all the gentlemen of the Queen's chamber, then the pages of her chamber. After them, in the last place, marched Colonel Line, in the head of four companies of the Guards, well armed, and indifferently well habited.

In this order they marched about half a league out of town, to the place appointed to meet the Prince, who was there attending. When they came thither, Major-General Wrangel marched to the left, leaving sufficient room that the Guards might pass to the right hand, the volunteers and Queen's servants likewise turned to the left hand, and the Marshal of the Nobility to the right, with the Hof-Marshals; and all this train kept excellent order and discipline, as did the Prince's train, which was also very great.

The Prince was alighted from his horse before the Queen came very near to him. When the Queen alighted, all the senators likewise alighted from their horses, but the nobility did not alight from horseback. After his Royal Highness had kissed the Queen's hand, she discoursed a little with him, he being bareheaded all the time, and showing great respect to her as to his Queen. Then the Queen mounted again on horseback, the Prince waiting on her. The troops marched back to the town in the same order as they came forth, with great addition to their numbers. The Prince's gentlemen and servants, who were a great number, fell into the troop where those of the Queen were, betwixt her gentlemen and the senators' gentlemen,—his pages after the Queen's. Himself rode after the Queen, and sometimes she would call him (as she did in the street) to speak with him, and then he rode even with her, but all the way bareheaded whilst he rode by the Queen and she talked with him.

The Prince was in a plain grey cloth suit of a light colour, mounted upon a very brave grey horse, with pistols at his saddle and his sword by his side. The Queen's lacqueys were in rich yellow liveries; the Prince's lacqueys in blue liveries, near twenty, walking by them. There were many led horses of the Queen's and of the Prince's, and seven or eight sumpter-horses of the Prince's; the sumpter-clothes all of blue velvet, with the Prince's arms embroidered on them, and rich silver fringe about them; the grooms and sumpter-men in the same livery, about twenty of them.

In this equipage they marched through the streets of Upsal, multitudes of people being spectators of their entry in the ways and windows. When they came to the Castle court, the nobility and volunteers alighted, and walked two and two before the Queen up into the great hall and to the antechamber; and the Queen being come into her withdrawing-room, after some little discourse there with the Prince and compliments passed, he went to the lodgings prepared for him, with not a few waiting on him who was the rising sun.

Whitelocke had spoken to the master of the ceremonies touching the saluting of the Prince and the manner of his reception, whereof he wished to know somewhat beforehand, to govern himself accordingly, and to avoid any indignity or dishonour to be put upon the Protector and Commonwealth by his person. The master having spoken to the Prince about it, brought word now to Whitelocke, that when he moved his Royal Highness touching Whitelocke's reception, the Prince said that the English Ambassador should have no cause to complain of any want of respect in his reception. The more to manifest this, about ten o'clock this evening, the Prince sent one of the gentlemen of his bedchamber, who came attended with three lacqueys, and spake to Whitelocke in French, that the Prince, his master, commanded him to salute Whitelocke in his name, and to inform him of the Prince's arrival in this place, and that it was a great satisfaction to him to hope that he should have the contentment to see the English Ambassador, and to entertain him before his departure from Sweden.

Whitelocke desired that his thanks might be returned to his Royal Highness for this honour, and that he hoped to obtain from him the favour to give him leave to salute him and to kiss his hand; that to do this on the part of the Protector, his master, was at present the only occasion of Whitelocke's continuance in this place; and for this end he had moved the master of the ceremonies to know the pleasure of his Royal Highness, and to inform Whitelocke what time might be convenient to wait upon the Prince. The gentleman replied, that Whitelocke's company would be very acceptable to the Prince his master, and he doubted not but an account would be given thereof to Whitelocke to his full contentment.

Whitelocke had sent this day to Grave John Oxenstiern, to know what time he might give him a visit; and the Grave returned a proud answer, that it would not yet be convenient.

May 17, 1654.

The Resident of Holland came to visit Whitelocke near dinner-time, which gave him occasion to invite his stay; and he and Sir G. Fleetwood, Mr. Bloome, Colonel Hambleton, Monsieur Lyllicrone, and two Dutch gentlemen, did Whitelocke the favour to be at his table. Whitelocke gave the Resident the respect of the upper end of the table, as he had formerly done to the French and Spanish Residents; and the Dutch gentleman was well pleased with it, and with the English entertainment.

[SN: Whitelocke's audience of the Prince.]

Whitelocke, having received so great a respect from the Prince, did again desire the master of the ceremonies to know what time might suit with the Prince's leisure to give Whitelocke leave to wait on him. This afternoon the master came to Whitelocke, and informed him that the Prince had appointed four o'clock this afternoon to give Whitelocke audience, and the master said that he would come with the Queen's coaches to bring Whitelocke to the castle when it was time; and accordingly he came between five and six o'clock this evening. Whitelocke and his company went with the master to the castle, and as soon as he was alighted out of his coach, he was received by the Marshal and gentlemen of the Prince, a great number of them, at the foot of the stairs; some of them were very richly habited. They walked first up the stairs, and those of Whitelocke's train followed them; the master of the ceremonies was on Whitelocke's left hand. When they came to the guard-chamber, the Prince in person came thither to receive Whitelocke at the door thereof, the same place where the Captain of the Queen's Guard used to meet and receive Whitelocke, who was a little surprised, not expecting such a high favour as to be met by the Prince so far from the room of audience.

The Prince was plain, in his habit of black silk, accompanied by a great number of the senators, officers, and nobility, which caused Whitelocke to know him, and with due respect to salute him, as he did Whitelocke; and after a few compliments between them, the Prince desired Whitelocke to advance, who excused himself, but the Prince pressed it; the contest was almost half an hour who should go first, till the master of the ceremonies, by command of the Prince, whispered to Whitelocke to give way to the pleasure of the Prince, who was resolved to give Whitelocke the precedence, thereby to testify the great respect and honour which he had for the Protector, and for Whitelocke his servant. Thereupon Whitelocke said to the Prince, that since he understood it to be the pleasure of his Royal Highness, he would obey his commands; and so they went on together, the Prince giving Whitelocke the right hand; and there was no occasion (by reason of the largeness of the doors) for one to go before the other.

In the third room from the place where the Prince met Whitelocke was the audience chamber; there were set two rich chairs upon foot-carpets one against the other under a canopy of state; here was also much ceremony between the Prince and Whitelocke, who should take the right-hand chair; but the Prince would have Whitelocke to sit there; and the room was full of senators, officers, noblemen, courtiers, and others of quality.

Whitelocke had advised in what language to speak to the Prince. He held it not fit to speak in English, because he came not to him as ambassador, nor in Latin, there being nothing of treaty between them; but being a matter of ceremony, he was advised and informed that it was the Prince's desire that Whitelocke should speak to him in French, the which he understood very well: and accordingly, being both set, and their hats on, after a little pause Whitelocke put off his hat, and then the Prince did so likewise; then both putting on their hats again, Whitelocke spake to the Prince to this effect:—


"Je repute a grand bonheur l'opportunite qui m'est presentee de baiser les mains de votre Altesse Royale, et la saluer de la part de Monseigneur le Protecteur de la Republique d'Angleterre, d'Ecosse, et d'Irelande, avant mon depart de ce royaume; ce que j'eusse fait plus tot et en autre lieu, sinon que la necessite d'attendre l'issue de ce qui m'a ete donne en charge m'en avait empeche: mais depuis sa conclusion, j'ai tarde expres pour ajouter a ma satisfaction celle d'avoir rendu mes devoirs a votre Altesse Royale, et lui temoigner l'amitie et les respects de sa Serenissime Altesse mon maitre."

After Whitelocke had done speaking the Prince staid a little time, and then in French answered him to this purpose:—

"Monseigneur l'Ambassadeur,

"Ce m'aurait ete un grand trouble si, apres la conclusion de vos affaires en cette cour, vous aviez ete dans l'inconvenience d'attendre mon arrivee en cette place; je suis bien aise de me trouver ici devant votre depart de ce pays, qui m'a donne le contentement de vous connaitre, et l'occasion de temoigner le grand respect que j'ai a Monseigneur le Protecteur et a la Republique que vous servez, et je recois beaucoup de satisfaction qu'une amitie et alliance soit contractee entre ce royaume et votre Republique, de laquelle j'espere et crois qu'elle sera pour le bien des deux nations, et pour l'interet des Protestants.

"Il n'y a personne qui a plus d'estime de Monseigneur le Protecteur que moi, et de votre Republique; et j'ai tant entendu de votre honorable et prudent maniement des affaires que vous aviez ici, que ce m'a fait desirer de vous connaitre et d'avoir l'opportunite de converser avec vous, que vous m'avez presentement alloue, et je vous en remercie, et pour les respects de Monseigneur le Protecteur, qu'il vous a plu me presenter en son nom, et qui me sont fort agreables."

After the speeches were ended, the Prince spake to Whitelocke to go with him into his cabinet, which he did, and staid discoursing with him there above an hour together, all the company staying in the outer room. They soon fell into a freedom of discourse, but at this time chiefly concerning the affairs of England, the peace with the Dutch, and the English fleet now at sea; also somewhat in particular to the Protector, his management of affairs, and of their late troubles; in all which Whitelocke endeavoured to give the Prince satisfaction, without doing injury to any one. The Prince brought Whitelocke back again to the same place where he met him; and his servants went with him to his coach, and the Master of the Ceremonies brought him to his own house.

After Whitelocke was returned home, Lagerfeldt came to him, and told him that the Prince was very much pleased with the discourse between them, and with Whitelocke's deportment; and Lagerfeldt said he believed that the Prince would visit Whitelocke tomorrow; who said he could not expect such an honour, but was glad that anything of his discourse was grateful to his Royal Highness.

Lagerfeldt informed Whitelocke that Grave Eric and Lagerfeldt were to go to Stockholm upon some public occasions by command of the Ricksdag. Whitelocke asked him what the business was; but Lagerfeldt was not forward to declare it, nor Whitelocke to press it; but he learned from another that the Ricksdag had deputed two of every State to go to Stockholm to extract out of the public records and acts the special privileges granted to the people at the coronation of any king, and of the present Queen, which they judged fit to be now considered and ratified before the coronation of their new King. They were also to bring hither the acts of the Ricksdag when the Prince was declared heir of the crown, and such other things as pertained to this business. Whitelocke desired Lagerfeldt to do somewhat for him at Stockholm touching the sending away of his copper from thence for England.

May 18, 1654.

[SN: The Ladies' message to Whitelocke.]

The ladies who were at Whitelocke's house to see the entry of the Prince, sent thanks to Whitelocke for his noble treatment of them, which was done by Woolfeldt and the master of the ceremonies, whom Whitelocke desired to make his excuse to the ladies, and to intercede with them to pardon the affront which Whitelocke had put upon them by entertaining such noble ladies with so mean a collation. The master said he durst not deliver any such message to them, who were so well pleased with Whitelocke's treatment of them; which appeared the more, in that the Lady Woolfeldt sent to him to bestow upon her, being great with child, some of his English cheese. Whitelocke sent her all he had left, and to other ladies what they desired, his English sweetmeats and other cakes, which with them were of great esteem.

[SN: The Prince visits Whitelocke.]

Whitelocke having this forenoon visited several Senators and great Lords, and being returned home, a servant of the Prince, a Baron of great esteem, came to him from the Prince, to know if Whitelocke's leisure would permit to receive a visit from his Royal Highness in the afternoon. Whereunto Whitelocke answered, that if the Prince had any service to command him, he would wait upon his Royal Highness at his Court; the Baron replied, that the Prince intended a visit to Whitelocke at Whitelocke's house, who said he could not expect nor admit of such a condescension in the Prince and high favour to him, but that he would wait upon the Prince in the afternoon. The Baron said that must not be, but that it was the resolution of the Prince to testify that extraordinary respect to the Protector and to Whitelocke, as to come in person to visit Whitelocke at his own house; who said, that if it were the pleasure of the Prince to have it so, he should attend the receiving of that great honour at such a time as his Royal Highness should think fit to afford it to him.

Woolfeldt, and Douglas, and several others, being with Whitelocke at dinner, they discoursed of this extraordinary high respect of the Prince to the Protector and to Whitelocke, and said that it was partly occasioned by the exceptions taken by the public Ministers in this Court at the reception which the Prince gave unto Whitelocke yesterday beyond what he used to afford them of respect and honour; and this coming to the Prince's ear, he said that if they were offended with him for that, he would yet give them further cause of being displeased, and thereupon sent to Whitelocke that he would this afternoon visit him; they also informed Whitelocke, as Lagerfeldt had done, that the Prince was much satisfied with the discourse of Whitelocke, and his demeanour.

About three o'clock in the afternoon the Prince came to Whitelocke's house, attended with a very great train. He was in one of the Queen's coaches, which was followed by several of his own coaches, all with six horses apiece, and sundry gentlemen on horseback, with the principal officers of the Court and of the army, besides his own gentlemen, officers, servants, pages, and lacqueys to a great number, waiting on him. It fell out to be on the day of a fair, kept in the open place before Whitelocke's house, so that, with the people coming to the fair, and the Prince's train, the streets were exceedingly crowded.

As the Prince alighted out of his coach, Whitelocke was there to receive him, all the gentlemen of Whitelocke's train attending on him, and his servants in livery making a lane, about twenty on each hand, from the Prince's coach to Whitelocke's house, through which the Prince and he passed, Whitelocke giving the Prince the right hand, which he scrupled not to take in that place. They went together covered into Whitelocke's house, sat down in his bedchamber, and fell into much freedom of discourse for above two hours together. In the meantime the lords and gentlemen of the Prince's train being in several other rooms, according to their respective qualities, Whitelocke had taken order to be entertained by his officers and servants, not only with discourse, but with good wine brought from England, and such collation as was then to be had and was pleasing to them.

The Prince and Whitelocke had variety of discourses; and Whitelocke looking upon this as an opportunity whereby he might speak in such things as might tend to the honour of God, and which his own subjects perhaps would not so plainly make known to him, Whitelocke used the more freedom, and part of their discourse was—

Prince. I am very glad that your affairs have permitted you a stay in this place so long as to give me the opportunity of your company, wherein I take much contentment.

Whitelocke. Your Royal Highness doth very much honour me in esteeming my company worth your notice, and herein you are pleased to testify great respect to the Protector, my master, and to the Commonwealth whom I serve.

Pr. I have a very true honour for the Protector, and for England, where I have been, and account it one of the best countries in the world.

Wh. It is indeed, Sir, a very good country, and honoured by your knowledge of it and having been upon it.

Pr. But I doubt that by your late troubles it may be much damaged.

Wh. Truly, Sir, God hath so ordered it that those desolations which usually attend on war, especially a civil war, have not been so much in our country as others have felt who have been plunged in those miseries.

Pr. It is a great blessing to you, especially considering your change hath been so great and your troubles so lasting.

Wh. Our troubles endured a long time, but, blessed be God, at present we enjoy peace and settlement after our changes. The discourse here is now altogether of the voluntary change like to be in your Highness's country.

Pr. Her Majesty is pleased to take a resolution to resign her government, and I am commanded hither upon that occasion, though altogether unsought for by me.

Wh. You are, Sir, every way worthy of it, and the more for not seeking it; and being the will of God is to bring you to such an increase of power as to the royal dignity, it will turn most to your own and your people's good, to employ your power to the honour of Him that gives it, and to prefer His service by whom kings reign before any other concernments.

Pr. I must acknowledge that throughout the whole course of my life God hath been very good to me, and I am the more engaged to honour Him and to do Him service in any station wherein he shall be pleased to set me.

Wh. Your Royal Highness will be pleased to pardon my freedom of speaking to you what I understand may be most for the honour of God and your service.

Pr. Such discourse is most pleasing to me, especially from a person of such piety and honour as I esteem you to be, and who can have no private ends thereby.

Wh. We have observed in England, and it is so everywhere, that the blessing of God follows those that serve Him.

Pr. That is a true rule; but our service must be in heart, and not in profession or outward show only.

Wh. It is true that the enemies of the Parliament use to reproach them with hypocrisy in their profession of religion and with their preaching to their soldiers; yet that our profession is real doth appear somewhat in this, that the blessing of God hath accompanied our profession and our practice; and when our enemies are in debauchery and injuring the people, our officers and soldiers meet together, exhorting one another out of the Scripture and praying together, and God hath given His blessing thereupon.

Pr. I do very well approve that course, and your profession and practice in matters of religion; but we hear of too much difference of opinion among you in those matters.

Wh. We have indeed too much difference of opinion among us in matters of religion; but yet the public peace is not broken, but carefully preserved.

Pr. But if there be not a uniformity among you in those matters, your peace will be endangered.

Wh. We do not yet find that danger; and we look upon it as a liberty due to all Christians to take what way of worship they think best for the good of their own souls.

Pr. Suppose the way they take be not agreeable to the Word of God?

Wh. The consequence thereof will be their own misery.

Pr. But should not the magistrate lead them and constrain them in the right way?

Wh. We hold the better way to be, by meek exhortations and instructions to endeavour to reclaim them from any error, and not by force to compel men's consciences, as is used in these parts.

Pr. What if mild means will not work upon them?

Wh. They will have the worst of it; but as long as they do not break the public peace, it is hard for the magistrate imperiously to command and force his brethren to worship God after his opinion; and it is not imaginable that he should take more care of men's souls than they themselves, whose consciences ought to be free.

Pr. We are somewhat strict in this point in our country.

Wh. But I have heard that your Royal Highness hath shown moderation, and indulged this liberty, in other countries where you commanded.

Pr. I did not think fit to be so severe in this point in Germany as we are in Sweden.

Wh. I think your Highness did therein according to the mind of God, who will not have a restraint upon His children in the worship of Him; and I hope you will in time take off the severity of your laws here in this particular.

Pr. I am no friend to severity of laws upon men's consciences; but reformation among us is not soon to be brought about, where there hath been a long usage of the contrary.

Wh. In England we have of late obtained great reformation in many things, particularly touching the observation of the Lord's Day; and pardon me, Sir, if I wish the like reformation in this kingdom, and that the Lord's Day were not so much neglected, nay profaned, as I have seen in this place. I hope and humbly advise your Royal Highness that, when God shall place you in the sovereignty over this people, you will take care to provide a remedy and reformation herein, and also of that sin of excessive drinking and swearing with which the people are so much infected, and which may cause a fear lest the anger of God should go forth against this nation; but it will be very much in your power to apply a fit remedy to these evils, and doubtless God will require it at your hands, as his vicegerent.

Pr. I have not heard many soldiers discourse in this strain; but I like it well, and it becomes you; and I hope God will assist me, if He shall call me to the government of this people, to acquit my duty to Him and to His people for the restraining of these sins, which I acknowledge are too common among us.

Wh. In doing so, you will render service to God, and find His blessing to accompany such most pious, most honourable, and truly royal endeavours; and I hope your Highness will not think amiss of this liberty which your servant hath taken, to speak to you of these things.

Pr. I am so far from thinking amiss of it or taking in ill part what you have said to me, that I do most heartily thank you for it, and do promise that I shall be mindful to put in practice the good counsel you have given me, as soon as it shall please God to give me an opportunity for it, and that the temper of this people will bear it; being convinced of the duty which lies upon me herein, and the service and honour which will thereby be done to God and to the people of this kingdom, both in respect to their temporal and eternal estate.

Wh. I am very glad to find your Royal Highness so sensible hereof, and shall humbly and earnestly leave it to your thoughts.

Pr. I hope I shall not forget it.[268]

They had other discourse touching the princes and states of Christendom, particularly of the House of Austria, and of the design of the Papists against the Protestants, the which, and the increase of the interest of Rome, Whitelocke said could not be better prevented than by a conjunction of the Protestants; to which the Prince fully agreed. The Prince took his leave of Whitelocke with very great respect and civility.

After the Prince was gone, there came to Whitelocke Grave Eric Oxenstiern and Lagerfeldt, to take their leaves of Whitelocke, they being to go to Stockholm by command of the Ricksdag; and Grave Eric gave unto Whitelocke a paper, in French, of damage sustained by a Swedish ship taken and brought into London, which he recommended to Whitelocke to be a means that satisfaction might be procured.

[SN: Whitelocke goes to a running at the ring.]

Whitelocke being informed that now at the Court, among other solemnities and entertainments to welcome the Prince, the gallants used the exercise and recreation of running at the ring, a pleasure noble and useful as to military affairs, improving horsemanship, and teaching the guidance of the lance, a weapon still used by horsemen in these parts of the world; this generous exercise having been in use in England in Whitelocke's memory, who had seen the lords, in presence of the King and Queen and a multitude of spectators, in the tilt-yards at Whitehall and at St. James's House, where the King, when he was Prince, used also that recreation: it made Whitelocke the more desirous to see the same again, and whether, as they used it here, it were the same with that he had seen in England. He went incognito in the coach of General Douglas, without any of his train, to the place where the running at the ring was. He would not go into the room where the Queen and Prince and great lords were, but sat below in a room where the judges of the course were, with divers other gentlemen, who, though they knew Whitelocke very well, yet seeing him cast his cloak over his shoulder, as desiring not to be known, they would take no notice of him—a civility in these and other countries usual.

The Senator Vanderlin, Grave Tott, and the Baron Steinberg were the challengers to all the rest; and of the other part were Marshal Wrangel, Grave Jacob de la Gardie, and nine or ten others. All were well mounted; Wrangel upon an English horse, given him by Whitelocke. Their clothes, scarfs, feathers, and all accoutrements, both of men and horse, were very gallant. They ran for a prize which the Queen had ordained, and they comported themselves with much activeness and bravery; and it was the same exercise which Whitelocke had formerly seen in his own country.

May 19, 1654.

[SN: The Sound Dues.]

Woolfeldt visited Whitelocke in the morning, and brought with him a paper concerning the Sound, written in French with his own hand, wherein he showed much affection to the Protector and to England, and as much distaste to his own country. The paper Whitelocke laid up, and transcribed in a larger treatise.

[SN: Effect of the Prince's visit.]

Woolfeldt acquainted Whitelocke that the public ministers in this Court discoursed much of the extraordinary respect showed by the Prince to the English Ambassador, both in his reception and the Prince's visit to him. And particularly the Danish Ambassador was greatly discontented, and said that never any ambassador had that honour done him before, and it was so far beyond what he had received that he knew not how to bear it; that the entertainment of public ministers of the same character ought to be with the same ceremony, and not one to be preferred so much as the English Ambassador had been before others of equal quality with him, and much matter of complaint of that nature; which being reported to the Prince, he said that neither the Danish Ambassador nor any other public minister had cause to complain that he had not given them the respect due to their several qualities; and if he, out of a particular affection to the English Protector and Ambassador, had a mind to express more than ordinary particular respects to them, it was no wrong or cause of complaint to any other public minister, who had what was due to him, because another had perhaps more than was due to him; and he said he understood not why his condition should render him less capable than other gentlemen to show particular respects where they did bear a particular affection.

General Douglas, a Scottish gentleman in great favour and honour in this country, came late this year to the Court, being hindered by a violent ague upon his coming hither. He made frequent visits to Whitelocke, and expressed much of respect and civility to him as his countryman.

[SN: Whitelocke dines with General Douglas.]

This day Whitelocke was to dine with Douglas by a solemn invitation; and during the whole time of his residence in this Court he never was invited to any of their tables, but now to Douglas, and before to Grave Eric, notwithstanding the freedom of his table to most of them. With Whitelocke were invited his two sons, Potley, Beake, and Croke. There they met Grave John Oxenstiern, Wrangel, Wittenberg, Bundt, Horne, Vanderlin, Colonel Bannier, and one of the Prince's servants. Of these that thus met, nine had been in commission as generals, two of the English and of the Swedes seven, which was noted as very observable. They sat at table in the same manner as they did at Grave Eric's entertainment, Whitelocke in the midst of the table, the company in their ranks on either side, and all the dinner they sat bare.

The entertainment was very high and noble, as could be had in this place, and four courses very full, which made a long dinner, in which time Whitelocke was solicited often to begin and pledge healths, which he would not do, but left others to their liberty, as he desired his. The healths they drank among themselves were in large beer-glasses of sack, which made them discourse the more freely; and most of it was of England and the late troubles there, of particular passages of the war, of Scotland, of the fleet now at sea, and the Dutch treaty; in all which Whitelocke gave them some satisfaction, as they did to him touching the Queen's resignation, the present Ricksdag, and the new King's coronation.

[SN: Whitelocke receives a jewel from the Prince.]

The same gentleman who had been before from the Prince with Whitelocke, a Baron of great account, first gentleman of the Prince's bedchamber, a proper, well accomplished person, came to Whitelocke by command of the Prince, with remembrance of his Highness's hearty respects and affection to Whitelocke. After some compliments passed, the Baron took out of his pocket a little box of crimson velvet, and told Whitelocke that his Royal Highness had commanded him to present to Whitelocke that token of the Prince's love and respects to him, and, opening the box, showed to Whitelocke a noble jewel, a case of gold enamelled, the one side of it set thick all over with diamonds, some of them fair ones, and on the other side was the Prince's picture, lively and well taken.

The Baron said to Whitelocke that the Prince desired his excuse because in so short a time he could not procure a better present, but he desired Whitelocke to accept of this as a testimony of his affection to him. Whitelocke answered, that he had not merited so much favour from his Royal Highness, but desired the Baron to return his hearty thanks to the Prince, which he would also do himself when he had the honour to come in his presence.

[SN: Account of presents made by Whitelocke.]

Upon this occasion Whitelocke took account of the presents which he had in this Court, besides the several and many gratuities and rewards which he had formerly bestowed on many of the Queen's inferior servants, as musicians, guards, pages, lacqueys, trumpets, coachmen, wardrobe men, and others; to whom he had been liberal, to a considerable sum, necessary in his judgement to be done for the honour of his nation, and agreeable to what had been constantly by ambassadors there before him.

Besides these smaller matters, first he sent to the Queen eight black English horses, very handsome, large, brave, and useful horses for the coach, and now in good case; four saddle-horses he had formerly presented to her, all of them were in this place worth to be sold L1000. The looking-glass which he gave the Queen when she was his Valentine was worth L100, besides an English Bible richly bound, English stuffs, a cabinet of spirits, and other smaller presents. The Queen's officers gave no reward to Whitelocke's gentleman of his horse, the clerk of his stable, or to his coachman and people that carried them, though it was presumed that the Queen had ordered it, as she had done upon other the like occasions.

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