A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II.
by Bulstrode Whitelocke
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To recover his lost time, Whitelocke (as he often used when business pressed him) wrote one letter himself and dictated two others to his secretaries at the same time, and so, in effect, wrote three letters at once. The letter which he now wrote to Secretary Thurloe contained his whole transactions since his last letters to him; and the conclusion of the letter, showing the state of his negotiation, was this:—

"This afternoon Grave Eric came to me from the Queen, who desired that my audience, appointed this day, might be put off till the holidays were past, and said that by reason of the sacrament upon Easter Day, this day and tomorrow were to be spent in preparation thereunto; but he told me that she commanded him to receive my objections to his articles in writing, the which I gave him according to that large paper which you will receive herewith. We had very much debate upon the particulars, much of it according to what I have mentioned before.

"I have thought fit to send you this large paper that you might see the whole business before you at one view, and it hath cost me some pains. I shall continue my best endeavours to bring your business to a good effect. I am put to struggle with more difficulties than I could expect, and their policy here is great. One may soon be overtaken with long, intricate, and new proposals; but I hope God will direct me, whom I do seek, and shall not wilfully transgress my instructions.

"When I speak with the Queen, she seems to be satisfied; and then some of the grandees seek to persuade her to a contrary opinion, and to keep me from her, and lay objections in the way to cross it (for we want no enemies here). I then endeavour again to satisfy the Queen, and break through their designs as well as I can; to do which, and to get a good despatch against all opposition, and yet so as not to supplicate anything from them, nor in the least to prostitute the honour of my Lord Protector and of the Commonwealth, or to prejudice them, is a task hard enough for a great favourite, much more hard for a stranger, and whose differing principles may render him the less acceptable. However, I shall hope that the Lord will direct me for the best, whether they agree with my judgement or not.

"If I can conclude with them, I shall presently be upon my return, and hope within a week or two to receive his Highness's order to give me leave to come home. What I cannot consent to or obtain at present, I presume they will be contented to have referred to a future agreement, wherein there can be no prejudice (in my humble opinion) to your affairs.

"I ask your pardon for my tedious informations, wherein I take no pleasure; but supposing the business to require it, I presume you will excuse

"Your very affectionate friend to serve you, "B. WHITELOCKE. "Upsal, 24th March, 1653."

Most of the night was spent by Whitelocke in making his despatches for England; neither did he neglect any one friend from whom he had received the favour and kindness of their letters to him here; by which civility he obtained the more advice and intelligence from England, and made good use of it in this Court. His constant letters from his wife and other private friends he also found of much comfort and advantage to him.

March 25, 1654.

[SN: New Year's Day, Old Style.]

This day, by the Swedish computation as well as that of England, is the first day of the year 1654.

Mr. Bloome came to Whitelocke with a compliment from the Chancellor, that he was sorry he could not visit Whitelocke before his going out of town, because he was ill, and retired himself into the country, to be quit from business and to recover his health; and at his return he would come to Whitelocke and confer with him.

This gentleman Whitelocke apprehended to be often sent to him as a spy, to inquire of his intentions, and therefore he thought good to make use of him by telling such things to him as Whitelocke thought and wished might be again reported by Bloome unto the Chancellor. Therefore, among other discourses, Whitelocke told Bloome that France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Denmark, and other princes and states, had sent their public ministers to the Protector, desiring friendship with him; but his Highness having sent his Ambassador into this kingdom, they had testified so little respect to him, that in three or four months' time they had not vouchsafed to give him an answer to his proposals.

Mr. Symonds, an Englishman, excellent in his art of graving and taking off pictures in little, in wax, for which he had regard in this Court and promises of money, this person often frequented Whitelocke, his countryman, and his house, and after some time made a request to Whitelocke to speak to the Queen in his favour. Whitelocke, knowing that ambassadors' offices ought not to be cheap, told Symonds in a kind of drollery that surely he could not expect such a courtesy from him, since, being an Englishman, he had not acquainted the English Ambassador with any matter of consequence, nor done any service to his country, since Whitelocke's arrival here; that when he should deserve it, Whitelocke would be ready to do him service.

March 26, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke reproves the English for disorder on the Lord's Day.]

The Lord's Day.—Divers English and Scots came to the public duties of the day in Whitelocke's house; and amongst other discourse Whitelocke learnt from them that Waters, one of his trumpets, going late in the evening to his lodging, was set upon by some drunkards with their swords, and wounded, whereof he continued very ill. Whitelocke examined and reproved some of his company for disorders committed by them on the Lord's Day and other days, which he told them he would not bear; and it was the worse in their commitment of those crimes, and the less reason for them to expect a connivance thereat, because Whitelocke had so often and so publicly inveighed against the profanation of that day in this place; but among a hundred some will be always found base, vicious, and wicked.

March 27, 1654.

[SN: Festivities of Easter Monday.]

This being Easter Monday, some of Whitelocke's people went to the castle to hear the Queen's music in her chapel, which they reported to Whitelocke to be very curious; and that in the afternoon was appointed an ancient solemnity of running at the ring. Some Italians of the Queen's music dined with Whitelocke, and afterwards sang to him and presented him with a book of their songs, which, according to expectation, was not unrewarded.

Whitelocke went not abroad this festival-time to visit anybody, nor did any grandees come to visit him; he had an imagination that they might be forbidden to do it, the rather because Piementelle and Woolfeldt, who were accustomed to come often to him, had of late refrained to do it, and had not answered Whitelocke's last visit in ten days. The Queen had also excused her not admitting Whitelocke to have audiences, by saying she was busy or sick, when, at the same time, Piementelle and others were admitted to her presence, and for two or three hours together discoursed with her. This was resented and spoken of by Whitelocke so as it might come to the Queen's ear.

March 28, 1654.

[SN: The Swedes desire to defer the treaty until the new reign.]

After the master of the ceremonies had dined with Whitelocke, and was in a good humour, he desired Whitelocke to withdraw from the rest of the strangers, and that he might speak privately with him; and going into the bedchamber, the master told him that he had heard from some that Whitelocke had expressed a discontent, and the master desired to know if any had given him offence, or if there were anything wherein the master might do him service. Whitelocke said he apprehended some occasion of discontent in that he had attended here near four months, and had not yet obtained any answer to his proposals. The master excused the delay in regard of the Queen's purpose of quitting the Government. Whitelocke said he believed that occasioned much trouble to her Majesty, and which gave him cause to doubt that his frequent visits of her Majesty might give her some inconvenience. He replied that Whitelocke's company was very agreeable to the Queen, though at present she was overcharged with business.

Whitelocke. I do acknowledge the favours I have received from her Majesty, and your civilities to me, for which I shall not be ungrateful.

Mast. Cer. Would it not be of advantage to your business to attend for the conclusion of it until the coronation of our new King, to be assented to by him; by which means the alliance will be more firm than to have it done by the Queen so near her quitting of the Government?

Wh. I shall hardly stay so long a time as till the beginning of the reign of your new King, nor have I any letters of credence or commission but to the Queen; and I believe that all acts done by her before her resignation will be held good, and particularly this touching the friendship with England, which, I suppose, will be also very agreeable to his Kingly Highness, and be inviolably observed by him.

Mast. Cer. I do not doubt but that the new King will observe the alliance which the Queen shall make with England, but perhaps it might better be made with the new King himself; and although you have no letters of credence to him, yet you may write into England and have them sent to you.

Wh. That will require more time than I have to stay in this place. I believe the new King will not be crowned yet these two or three months; and it will be two months from this time before I can receive new credentials from England, and two or three months after that before I can return home; by which account I shall be abroad yet eight months longer, which will be till the next winter; and that would be too long a time for me to be absent from my family and affairs in England.

Mast. Cer. I shall speak with the Queen in this business, and shortly return to you.

It was imagined by Whitelocke that the master of the ceremonies was purposely sent to him to sound him touching the deferring of the treaty; and the like errand Mr. Bloome came to him about; and Whitelocke fully declared to them his distaste of any thought thereof, and the more at large and positively because he knew what he said would be reported to the full to her Majesty and to the Chancellor.

March 29, 1654.

The master of the ceremonies came to Whitelocke from the Queen to excuse Whitelocke's not having had audiences when he desired them; which he said was because her Majesty had been so full of business, which had hindered her, and particularly because of the holidays; but he said, if Whitelocke pleased to have his audience tomorrow, the Queen would be glad to see him. Whitelocke desired the master to return his thanks to her Majesty for her favours, and to let her know that he should be ready to attend her at such time as she should appoint. The master said he would acquaint her Majesty herewith, and so went away in the midst of dinner.

[SN: Lord Douglas visits Whitelocke.]

The Lord Douglas, a Scotsman, came to visit Whitelocke. He is an ancient servant to this Crown; he was a page to King Gustavus Adolphus, and by him preferred to military command, wherein he quitted himself so well that he was promoted to be General of the Horse, and was now a Baron and Ricks-Stallmaster, or master of the horse, in Sweden. He excused himself that he had not oftener visited Whitelocke, being hindered by his sickness of an ague, which had held him thirty weeks, and had not yet left him. He said that the next day after his arrival here the Queen asked him if he had been to see the English Ambassador, and that Whitelocke was much obliged to the Queen for her good opinion of him: whereof Whitelocke said he had received many testimonies, and of her respects to the Protector and Commonwealth as well as to their servant. Douglas said, that besides her respect to the Protector, she had a particular respect for Whitelocke; with much discourse of that nature.

[SN: Further excuses for delay.]

He then went to visit his old comrade Colonel Potley, who was ill and kept his chamber. He fell upon the discourse that it would be convenient for Whitelocke to stay here till the coronation of the new King, that the treaty might be concluded by him: to which the same answers were given by Whitelocke as he had before given to the master of the ceremonies.

Whilst the Lord Douglas was in Whitelocke's house, Grave Eric came to Whitelocke by command of the Queen, to excuse the delay of his business, and that some of his audiences had been remitted. He said, her Majesty had been informed by the master of the ceremonies that Whitelocke should say he had demanded audiences three times, and could not obtain one. Whitelocke answered, that there was a little mistake therein, though there was something near it, and said, it was not his desire to occasion trouble to her Majesty. Eric answered, that the Queen desired Whitelocke would excuse her by reason of the holidays, during which time they did not use in this country to treat of any business, and that the Queen had likewise many other hindrances; but that whensoever it should please Whitelocke to come to her Majesty, he would be very welcome. He said, he was going out of town to his father to conduct him hither, and that within a day or two he would visit Whitelocke, and that his business would have a speedy despatch. Whitelocke wished him a good journey, and that he and his father might have a safe and speedy return hither.

Piementelle sent to Whitelocke to move the Queen to grant her pardon to a Swede who had killed another, for which by the law he was to die; and Piementelle offered to second Whitelocke, if he would entreat the Queen for her pardon to the homicide. Whitelocke desired to be excused herein, alleging that he, being a public minister, it was not proper for him nor for Piementelle to interpose with her Majesty in a matter of this nature, and particularly touching her own subjects, and in a matter of blood; but this denial Piementelle seemed to take ill, and to be more strange to Whitelocke afterwards.

The holidays being past, Piementelle had his audience appointed this day to take his leave of the Queen. Whitelocke sent his son James and some others of his gentlemen to be present at it, who reported to Whitelocke that Piementelle spake to the Queen in Spanish, and that she answered him in Swedish, which was interpreted by Grave Tott; that Piementelle observed very much ceremony, and when he made his public harangue to the Queen he grew very pale and trembled, which was strange for a man of his parts, and who had been so frequent in his conversation with her Majesty. But some said it was a high compliment, acted by the Spaniard to the life, to please the Queen, who took delight to be thought, by her majesty and presence, to put a dread and daunting upon foreigners; which in a truth she was noted often to do when public ministers had their audiences in solemnity with her Majesty.

March 30, 1654.

[SN: An interview with the Queen.]

One of the Queen's lacqueys came to Whitelocke's house in dinner-time, to desire him, from the Queen, to come to her at two o'clock. Whitelocke was a little sensible of the quality of the messenger, and therefore himself would not speak with him, but sent his answer by one of his servants, and accordingly waited on the Queen.

He was met at the guard-chamber by Grave Tott and divers of the Queen's servants, with more solemnity than ordinary, and presently brought to the Queen. After her excuse of his not having had audiences she fell into discourse of his business. Whitelocke presented to her a form of articles, according to his own observations upon those articles he had formerly given in, and upon those he received from Grave Eric. Thereupon the Queen said to him, "You will not consent to any one of my articles, but insist upon all your own." Whitelocke showed her wherein he had consented to divers of her articles, and for what reasons he could not agree to the rest. They had discourse upon the whole, to the same effect as hath been before remembered.

The Queen told Whitelocke, that if those articles should not be concluded, that nevertheless the amity between the two nations might be continued. Whitelocke answered, that it would be no great testimony of amity, nor proof of respect to the Protector and Commonwealth, to send back their servant after so long attendance, without effecting anything. The Queen said she would despatch his business within a few days, and, she hoped, to his contentment. Whitelocke told her it was in her Majesty's power to do it; that he could not stay until the change whereof people discoursed, and that he had her Majesty's promise for his despatch, which he knew she would not break.

Then the Queen fell into other discourses, and in particular of poetry; which occasion Whitelocke took to show her a copy of Latin verses made by an English gentleman, a friend of Whitelocke's, and sent over to him hither, and which he had now about him, and knew that such diversions were pleasing to the Queen.[71]

At his leisure hours, Whitelocke turned these verses into English, which ran thus:—

"To the most Illustrious and most Excellent Lord, the Lord Whitelocke, Ambassador Extraordinary to the Most Serene Queen of Sweden. An Ode.

Whitelocke, delight of Mars, the ornament Of gownmen, from thy country being sent, Tribunals languish; Themis sad is led, Sighing under her mourning widow's bed. Without thee suitors in thick crowds do run, Sowing perpetual strife, which once begun, Till happy fate thee home again shall send, Those sharp contentions will have no end. But through the snowy seas and northern ways, When the remoter sun made shortest days, O'er tops of craggy mountains, paths untrod, Where untamed creatures only make abode, Thy love to thy dear country hath thee brought, Ambassador from England. Thou hast sought The Swedish confines buried in frost, Straight wilt thou see the French and Spanish coast; And them fast bind to thy loved Britany In a perpetual league of amity. So wilt thou arbitrator be of Peace, Her pious author; thou wilt cause to cease The sound of war, our ears it shall not pierce; Thou wilt be Chancellor of the universe. Christina, that sweet nymph, no longer shall Detain thee; be thou careful not to fall, Prudent Ulysses, under those delights To which the learned Circe thee invites. Thy chaste Penelope doth call thee slow; Thy friends call for thee home; and they do know New embassies, affairs abroad, at home, Require thy service,—stay till thou dost come. Thou, Keeper of the Seal, dost take away Foreign contentions; thou dost cause to stay The wars of princes. Shut thou Janus' gate, Ambassador of peace to every state."

The Queen was much delighted with these and other verses which Whitelocke showed her; read them over several times, and desired copies of them, which Whitelocke sent her; and in this good humour she wished Whitelocke to leave with her a copy of his articles as he had now revised them, and to come to her again the next day, when she would give him a further answer, and, she hoped, to his contentment.

[SN: Spain suspected of intriguing against the treaty.]

Woolfeldt visited Whitelocke, and excused his long absence by reason of the holidays. He informed Whitelocke with much freedom, that it was against the interest of Spain that England and Sweden should be in alliance together, and that Whitelocke's negotiation had been hindered by the Spanish Resident here, more than by any other. Whereunto Whitelocke said little positively, but compared his words with the late carriage of Piementelle,—especially since Whitelocke did not so heartily entertain the Queen's motion (which probably Piementelle put her upon) to have the Spaniard included in the league with England and Sweden, which Whitelocke was not empowered to treat upon, and Whitelocke also remembered the deferring of his audiences lately desired.[73] But these things he was to keep to himself, and to court Woolfeldt, which he did, and Piementelle likewise, who came to visit Whitelocke whilst Woolfeldt was with him, and made the same excuse as he had done for his long absence. They had much general discourse, but nothing (as usually before) touching Whitelocke's business. Piementelle said he purposed to depart from Upsal within seven or eight days; that yesterday he had taken his leave of the Queen, and came in the next place to take his leave of Whitelocke, who gave him thanks for this honour, and said he was sorry for the departure of Piementelle, whereby he should have a very great loss in being deprived of the acceptable conversation of so honourable a friend.

[SN: Despatches from England complaining of delay.]

Whitelocke received many letters from England; in those from Thurloe he saith:—

"I am sorry your last letters give us no greater hopes of that which we so much long for, to wit, your Excellence's speedy return home; it seeming by them that the treaty was not much advanced since your last before, notwithstanding the great care and diligence used by your Excellency for the promoting thereof, as also the great acceptance you have with the Queen and Court, as is acknowledged by other public ministers residing there. It is now more than probable they will expect the issue of the Dutch business before they will come to any conclusion; as also to see what terms we are like to be upon with France, that so the Queen may manage her treaty with England accordingly, which I suppose she may not be long ignorant of. In the meantime his Highness thinks he is somewhat delayed on her part."

Then Thurloe relates all the passages of the Dutch Ambassadors, and that, in effect, they had agreed to the articles; of the endeavours of the French to have a league with the Protector, and no less of the Spaniard. And he writes at large the news of the Archduke, as also that of Scotland and Ireland, and confutes the rumour of a discontent in the army of the Protector.

In another letter from Thurloe of a later date, received by the same post, he saith thus:—

"His Highness understands by your Excellence's last letters, that the treaty with the Queen of Sweden will much depend upon the treaty with the Dutch here, and until the issue of that be known no great matter is to be expected from your negotiation: concerning which, it being very probable that before the next ordinary it will be seen what issue the Dutch treaty will be brought unto, his Highness will refer his further directions to you till then; leaving it to your Excellence to proceed upon the former instructions as you shall find it convenient, and for his service according as affairs now stand."

The clause in this letter, of referring further directions till after the issue of the Dutch treaty, was some trouble to Whitelocke's thoughts, fearing it might delay his return home; but he laid hold upon the latter part of this letter, whereby it is left to Whitelocke to proceed upon the former instructions as he should find it convenient and for his Highness's service; which, as it reposed a great trust in Whitelocke, so it gave him warrant to conclude his treaty, and obliged him to the more care to perform that trust which they had so fully put in him.

[SN: Claim on behalf of the Swedish ships in England.]

Mr. Bonnele representing to the Protector the losses which the Swedes suffered by the ships of England, the Protector caused an answer thereunto to be returned, the copy whereof was sent by Thurloe to Whitelocke, and was thus:—

"Whereas Mr. Bonnele, Resident of the Queen of Sweden, hath, by a paper of the 4th of March, remonstrated to his Highness that several ships and goods belonging to the said Queen and her subjects are taken at sea by the ships of this State, and brought into these parts, contrary to the declaration of the Council of State, 1st April, 1653, whereby they did declare, that for preventing the present obstruction of trade, all ships truly belonging to the Queen or her subjects, of Sweden, that should bring with them certificates from her said Majesty, or the chief magistrate of the place from whence they come, grounded upon the respective oaths of the magistrates and loaders that the said ship and lading do belong bona fide to the said Queen or her subjects, and to no stranger whatsoever, should and might freely pass without interruption or disturbance. His Highness hath commanded that it be returned in answer to the said Resident, that although the said declaration was to be in force for the space of three months, in which time a form of passport and certificates was to be thought of for preventing fraud and collusion, yet no provision of that nature having been yet agreed upon, and it being contrary to his intention that the goods and ships belonging to her said Majesty or subjects (with whom he desires to conserve all good correspondence) should in the meantime suffer inconvenience or prejudice by the ships of this State, hath renewed, as he doth hereby renew, the said declaration with respect to the present treaty now on foot between the two nations, wherein some course may be provided for preventing the said frauds.

"And to the end there may be the better effect of this declaration, his Highness hath given order to the Judges of the Admiralty that if any ships or goods be brought into these parts belonging to her Majesty or subjects, that the producing of certificates according to the said declaration, in open Court and upon oath made by them that do produce such certificates, that they are good and authentic, and obtained without fraud or deceit, that the Judges shall thereupon (there being no proof before them to the contrary) discharge the said ships or goods without further delay. Provided that such ships were not bound with contraband goods to the ports or harbours of any of the United Provinces.

"For the herring-buss, there having been proceedings thereupon in the Court of Admiralty, and a sentence of condemnation given against her as belonging to the enemies of this State, his Highness does not conceive that it can be expected from him to interpose in matters belonging to the decision of that Court; besides, the law having in the ordinary course provided a remedy, by way of appeal, in case of wrong or injustice done by that Court.

"For the goods of Mr. Alexander Cecconi, supposed to be taken by a ship belonging to this State, orders have been given by the Council concerning them, and some return made upon those orders; and the said Commissary may rest assured that speedy and effectual justice will be done in that particular.

"JO. THURLOE. "March 10th, 1653."

These orders of the Council Whitelocke caused to be translated into Latin, that he might communicate them as he saw occasion.

March 31, 1654.

[SN: Reports to England.]

Whitelocke despatched a great number of letters to his friends in England: in those to Secretary Thurloe he gave a full account of all transactions of his negotiations and passages here since his last letters.

This day, though the post-day, Woolfeldt again visited Whitelocke, to his no little interruption in his despatches; yet from him Whitelocke learned many things in relation to Denmark, for the advantage of England, and Woolfeldt testified great affection and respect to the Protector and Commonwealth. He was also interrupted by his attendance upon the Queen, according to her appointment. The Chancellor came forth from her as Whitelocke went in, and he told Whitelocke that the Queen, hearing of his being without, had sent to desire him to come in to her. Whitelocke read some of his news to the Queen, and the paper which the Protector had caused to be given to her Commissary Bonnele at London; upon which Whitelocke took the boldness a little to paraphrase, and her Majesty was well pleased with it. They fell into discourse of the treaty, much to the same effect as formerly; but Whitelocke staid the less time with her Majesty, because he presumed that the Chancellor and his son waited without to speak with her about his business. She promised Whitelocke to send him an answer of his business the next day, and that one of her ships should be ready at the Dollars (the mouth of the haven of Stockholm) to transport him to Luebeck when he should desire it; which was acceptable to Whitelocke to think on, and he thanked her Majesty for it.

Thus was March passed over, full of trouble, yet nothing effected in his business.


[41] [The Ambassador's verses I have ventured to omit, as alike destitute of elegance, point, or metre.]

[71] "Ad Illustrissimum et Excellentissimum Dominum, Dominum Whitelocke, Legatum Angliae Extraordinarium apud Serenissimam Sueciae Reginam. Ode.

"Vitloce, Martis deliciae, decus Gentis legatae; te sine, languidum Moeret tribunal, et cubili In viduo Themis ingemiscit. Denso cientes agmine cursitant, Et sempiternas te sine consuunt Lites, neque hic discordiarum Finis erit, nisi tu revertas. Sed te nivosum per mare, per vias Septentrionum, per juga montium, Inhospitales per recessus Duxit amor patriae decorus. Legatus oras jam Sueonum vides Bruma sepultas; mox quoque Galliam, Hispaniam mox cum Britannis Foedere perpetuo ligabis. Sic pacis author, sic pius arbiter Gentes per omnes qua sonuit tuba Dicere; cancellariusque Orbis eris simul universi. Christina, dulcis nympha, diutius Ne te moretur: qui merito clues Prudens Ulysses, sperne doctae Popula deliciasque Circes. Te casta tentum Penelope vocat, Vocant amici, teque aliae vocant Legationes, te requirunt Ardua multa domi forisque. Custos Sigilli tu dirimes cito Pugnas forenses, bellaque principum Legatus idem terminabis: Tu (sera candida) claude fanum."

[73] [This change was probably the consequence of the negotiations then going on between Louis XIV. and Cromwell in London, which had excited the jealousy of the Spanish Court, as is stated by Thurloe in the next page.]


April 1, 1654.

[SN: A capital execution in Sweden.]

In the morning, in the market-place, near Whitelocke's lodging, was an execution of one adjudged to die for a murder. The offender was brought into the midst of the market-place, which was open and spacious, and a great multitude of people spectators. The offender kneeled down upon the ground, a great deal of sand being laid under and about him to soak up his blood, and a linen cloth was bound about his eyes: he seemed not much terrified, but when the company sang a psalm, he sang with them, holding up his hands together, and his body upright, his doublet off. He prayed also with the company, but made no speech to them; nor did any other speak to the people. The executioner stood behind him, with a great naked sword in his hand and a linen apron before him, and while the offender was praying the headsman in an instant, at one back-blow, cut off his head, which fell down upon the sand; and some friends took it from the executioner, and carried it away with the body to be buried. Presently after this execution was past, two other offenders for smaller crimes were brought to the same place, to suffer the punishment of the law, which they call running the gauntlet,—a usual punishment among soldiers.

[SN: Running the gauntlet.]

The people stood in length in the market-place about a hundred yards, leaving an open space or lane between them of about five yards' distance; then the offender, being naked to the waist, was brought to one end of the lane or open place. The people had rods or switches of birch given to as many as would take them; the offender was to run or go, as he pleased (and one of them walked but a Spanish pace), from one end of the lane of people to the other, twice or thrice forward and backward; and all the way as he went, the people who had the switches lashed the offender as he passed by them, harder or softer, as they favoured him. These are the most usual ways of executions which they have for criminal offences, and they do not execute men by hanging, which they say is only fit for dogs; but in cases of great robberies and murders sometimes they execute justice by breaking the offenders upon the wheel, and leave the quarters of the body upon it; some whereof were in the way as Whitelocke passed in his journey by the great wilderness.

[SN: Vestiges of the Scandinavian mythology.]

In the afternoon Senator Schuett came to Whitelocke and invited him to take the air to see the town of old Upsal, about a mile off; and being there, Schuett showed him three great mounts of earth, cast up by the hands of men, for monuments in memory of their ancient famous kings, whose seat had been here, and the place of their coronation. These mounts had been dedicated to three of their Pagan gods: the one to the god whom they call Teuo, who was Mars, and from him they have the name of the day of the week Teuosdag, which we call Tuesday, and the Germans Tuisconsdaeg, and the Latins Dies Martis; the second mount was dedicated to their god Woden, so they called Mercury, and from thence their day of the week is named Wodensdag, which we also call Wednesday, the Germans Wodensdaeg, and the Latins Dies Mercurii; the third mount was dedicated to their goddess Freya, so they called Venus, and from thence comes the name of their Friedsdag, which we call Friday, the Germans Frigdaeg, and the Latins Dies Veneris.

There were also other relics of decayed mounts, which Whitelocke guessed to have been dedicated to their other gods, from whom they gave the names of the other days of the week: as, to Thor, whom they called Jupiter, and, from whence the day Thoresdag, which we call Thursday, the Germans say Thorsdaeg, and the Latins Dies Jovis; another mount dedicated to their god Setorn, from whence they call Setornsdag, as we say Saturday, the Germans Saeternsdaeg, and the Latins Dies Saturni; another mount dedicated to Sunnan, as they call the Sun, and from thence that day Sunnandag{4}, as we say Sunday, the Germans Sunnandaeg, and the Latins Dies Solis; the last mount dedicated to Monan, that is the Moon, and from thence the name of their Monandag, which we call Monday, the Germans Monandaeg, and the Latins Dies Lunae.

[SN: The war between Muscovy and Poland.]

In discourse upon the way, Schuett informed Whitelocke of the matter of the embassy from the Great Duke of Muscovia to the Queen of Sweden, which was to acquaint her Majesty that the Great Duke had begun a war against the King of Poland, because in a letter of his to the Great Duke he had omitted one of his great titles,—a heinous offence, and held by the Great Duke a sufficient ground of war, and of his resolution to sacrifice the blood of his fellow-Christians to satisfy his wicked pride. Another ground of the war was because a certain Governor of a province in Poland, in a writing, had placed the name of the father of the Great Duke before the name of the present Great Duke; which was so great an indignity, that for the same the now Great Duke demanded of the King of Poland to have the head of that Governor sent to him, and that not being done, was another cause of the begun war. To this the Queen answered, that it did not appertain to her to give her opinion in a matter of this nature, whether she did approve or disapprove of what was done by the Great Duke, but she did presume that the King of Poland would therein give fitting satisfaction to the Great Duke; and that she did wish that there might be peace between these two Princes and all the Princes of Christendom. And with this answer the Envoys of the Great Duke returned as wise as they came.

[SN: Denmark threatens Hamburg.]

Schuett also communicated unto Whitelocke an intelligence that the King of Denmark had levied some forces which he designed against Hamburg,—pretending injuries done to him by that city in relation to his pretensions of dominion there, which probably might occasion a war between Denmark and that free city, which had strength and riches and people and wisdom to defend themselves; and Schuett advised Whitelocke that if this should be so, that then he should take his voyage some other way, and that it would be a great disturbance and danger to him to go by Hamburg and those quarters, which would be infested with soldiers, and that then it would be his best way to return by Gothenburg; but he did persuade Whitelocke by all means to salute the Prince of Sweden by the way of his return. Whitelocke said he thought it not probable that the King of Denmark would at this time engage in a war against Hamburg, and that his levying of soldiers might breed a jealousy in the Crown of Sweden; that the certainty thereof could not be long undiscovered, and accordingly he should govern his own resolutions; that it would be difficult for him to stay in his journey to salute the Prince, but he much desired and intended it before his departure.

April 2, 1654.

Although the Lord's Day, yet the English and Scots who were in the town, and not of Whitelocke's family, went abroad to take the air, and did not resort, as they used to do, to Whitelocke's house to the exercises of divine worship, which were duly performed in his private family; and after those sacra peracta, Whitelocke retired himself to his private studies and meditations upon the word of truth. This day likewise the Queen went abroad to take the air, and passed through the town in her coach, attended by many gentlemen and others in her train, to the ill example of her people, and after the bad custom of this place.

April 3, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke takes the air with the Queen.]

The Queen sent to Whitelocke to invite him to accompany her to take the air.

By the way Whitelocke visited Woolfeldt, who had much discourse with him about the English fleet then at sea. From him Whitelocke went to Court, and attended the Queen in her coach to take the air. They had not much discourse about his business, and he thought not fit to interrupt her Majesty's pleasures with serious discourses, but sought to delight her with matters of diversion and mirth. When they were come back to the castle, the Queen said to Whitelocke:—

Queen. Tomorrow my Chancellor will present you with the articles drawn up by him, with some alterations which I judge to be reasonable; and that shall be my final resolution about them.

Wh. Hath your Majesty commanded any mention in those new articles concerning contraband goods?

Qu. There is a specification of them.

Wh. Indeed, Madam, I can hardly consent to any alteration upon the subject of contraband goods, whilst the edict of the Hollanders is in force thereupon.

Qu. After you have considered these new articles, we will speak together again about them.

Then the Queen retired to her chamber, and Whitelocke being come home, the Secretary Canterstein came to him from the Chancellor to excuse his not coming to visit Whitelocke, and said that, by the Queen's command, the Chancellor had sent a new copy of articles to Whitelocke. He presently read them, and had much discourse with the secretary upon them, who said he did not doubt but that, after communication with the Chancellor, Whitelocke would receive satisfaction.

April 4, 1654.

Whitelocke visited Piementelle, and they had this discourse:—

Piementelle. The Ambassador of Denmark did me the honour to visit me, and we had much discourse together about the English fleet now at sea; he told me that in it were ten thousand foot soldiers embarked for the North, which would occasion great trouble to the King his master, if it should be so, which I acknowledged.

Whitelocke. Your Excellence knows that I have not been at the Council of State in England for six months last past, so that I know not the secret designs of my Lord Protector; but I believe it is no very difficult matter to land men in Denmark.

Piem. What progress hath the French Ambassador made in the treaty between you and France?

Wh. If the Queen will be pleased to give my despatch, I hope to be upon the place before the treaty with the French be concluded. I have somewhat to communicate to the Protector touching a treaty with Spain, which your Lordship very well knows; and it would be to purpose that his Highness should know it before the conclusion of a treaty between England and France.[85]

Piem. I am assured that the Queen will despatch you in good time. But I advise your Excellence in your return not to pass by Denmark, for it is ill trusting of that King; but your better way will be to Luebeck, and from thence to Hamburg, and if you do not find ships ready there, you may travel by land to Cologne, and from thence to Dunkirk; which will be much better than to go by Holland, where they do exceedingly exact upon strangers, and your Commonwealth hath more enemies there than in any other place, besides the common people are rude and insolent.

Wh. I am engaged to you for your good advice, which I intend to follow.

After their discourse, Whitelocke presented Piementelle his medal in gold very like him, and it was received by Piementelle with much affection. Then Piementelle entreated Whitelocke to give him a passport for his servant, who had the charge of conducting his baggage by sea to Dunkirk, that he might freely pass the men-of-war of England; the which was willingly done by Whitelocke, under his hand and seal.[86]

April 5, 1654.

[SN: Conference with the Chancellor.]

In the morning Whitelocke went to the Chancellor's lodging, and found his son Grave Eric with him. The Chancellor made a long apology to excuse the delay of the treaty, and said:—

Chancellor. My indisposition of health hath chiefly occasioned the delay, yet was I so solicitous of your business, that I entreated the Queen to appoint some other person in my stead, who might confer with your Excellence; and her Majesty was pleased to appoint my son for that service.

Whitelocke. I was very sorry for your Excellence's want of health, both in regard of my affection to your person, and in respect of the protraction of my business; yet I was glad that your son, my Lord Eric, was appointed to confer with me, and had rather have the transaction of my business by yourself or some of your family than by any other. I am now come to you to confer upon those articles which yesterday I received from you.

Then Whitelocke gave the Chancellor a paper of his animadversions upon his articles. The debate began upon the ninth article; and as to the sale of goods taken from enemies and prohibiting the buying of arms, the Chancellor said this would abolish their trade, and would be of no advantage to England, because those arms, and equally as good, might be had from other places; and if the English did light upon them, they would have the benefit by it. Whitelocke said it would be a great inconvenience to furnish the enemies of either nation with arms which could not be had elsewhere than in England or Sweden, and that this clause would put a bridle in the mouths of the enemies of either nation. The Chancellor and his son replied that arms might be had in the province of Liege,[88] and in many other places in Germany; that Sweden scarce afforded any other commodities but arms, or such things as were serviceable for war; and that the Queen would by no means be induced to that clause as Whitelocke would have it.

Then they debated upon the eleventh article, the issue whereof was for Whitelocke to consent to a special designation of prohibited goods. Whitelocke desired that the catalogue and designation of them might be referred to his return into England, and he would agree that within two months after that there should be a specification of prohibited goods in the name of the Protector.

The Chancellor urged that the specification might be now agreed upon, and produced a paper specifying them, which they alleged was delivered by the Council in England unto Bonnele. Whitelocke said he did not remember the same, and that he was ignorant what goods were prohibited by the Dutch placard, which was fit to be known before any specification made by him.

Upon the twelfth article Whitelocke urged, that as to the form of the letters of safe-conduct, it might also be referred to his return into England. They produced a form exhibited by Lagerfeldt to the Council in England, and desired that the same form might be now agreed upon. Whitelocke answered that the Council of State had not approved the form given in by Lagerfeldt, and therefore it was not fit for him to consent to it; nor could he apprehend any reason why they should not consent to refer the agreement of a form unto his return to England; and the rather, because in the meantime the subjects of the Queen might enjoy the benefit of an edict made by the Protector in great favour of them, which declaration Whitelocke had caused to be delivered to the Chancellor.

To the thirteenth article, as to satisfaction of damages, their debate was to the like effect as formerly.

Upon the sixteenth article they had also debate. Whitelocke desired that the words "de usu littorum in piscatione" might be altered to these words, "de piscatione et usu littorum." They alleged that this would seem to deny their fishing upon their own coasts. Whitelocke said, the other would seem as if England had given up their right as to the fishing, and left all at liberty to those that pleased to take it.

This was the sum of the debate of near three hours. The conclusion was that they would certify the Queen of all these matters, and in short acquaint Whitelocke with her answer; which he desired might be as speedy and positive as they pleased, because if they should reduce him to that necessity, that before he could agree he must send to the Protector to know his pleasure, he could not receive an answer of his letters in less than two months' space, within which time the Queen purposed to resign her government, and then his commission would be at an end. The Chancellor said he desired Whitelocke should be speedily in England, not only for the sake of his wife and children, but likewise because then they could promise themselves that they had a good friend in England.

[SN: Alarm excited by the English fleet.]

Whitelocke visited the French Resident, who was very inquisitive what might be the design of the English fleet now at sea; whereunto, as to much other of his discourse, Whitelocke did not much study for answers, only he was careful not to let fall any words which might lessen their amusement about the fleet.[90]

In the evening Woolfeldt visited Whitelocke and discoursed of the same matter; whereof Whitelocke made some use and of this gentleman, to heighten their jealousies about this fleet. Woolfeldt acquainted Whitelocke that the Ambassador of Denmark had made a complaint against him to the Queen, that Woolfeldt had deceived the late King of Denmark of certain sums of money, which he should have disbursed for the late King of England against the Parliament; and that the present King of Denmark having been informed that Woolfeldt had lost his papers at sea, and so could not produce his acquittances, the King took the advantage thereof against Woolfeldt, and now, by his Ambassador, charged him before the Queen for those moneys: but that he disappointed the Danish Ambassador by producing before the Queen his papers and acquittances, which his enemies believed had had been lost; and so was justified before the Queen, to the great discontent of the Ambassador. Whitelocke said he was very glad that Woolfeldt came so well off, and that he perceived the Queen had, by the the treaty, a capacity, as well as by his residence, to examine and do right in such matters.

[SN: Conversation of a Danish gentleman who betrays his country.]

This day Whitelocke had discourse about Norway and the Sound with a Danish gentleman of great quality and experience whom he had obliged, who desired to have his name concealed;[91] but part of this discourse follows:—

Dane. Now is a good time for the Protector to send some ships towards these parts.

Whitelocke. What places are there in Norway considerable as to the interest of England?

Dane. There are two places in Norway not far from Gothenburg which are easy to be taken, and are excellent harbours, wherein England might keep some ships constantly, and command all that pass by to the Baltic Sea.

Wh. What are the names of those places?

Dane. The one of those havens is called Marstrang; but that I do not like so well because of the Paternoster Rocks, which are very dangerous for coming out if the wind sit northerly, and the fort there is commanded by the hills near it. But the other place, called Flecker Town, is an island, and hath a going-in and coming-out two ways; it is an excellent harbour, and ships may ride in it at such a distance from the land (being a broad water) that none from the land can hurt them. There is a little fort in this island which may easily be taken, not having above forty or fifty men in it, and the works decayed. Those who assail it must land their men on the south-east side of the island, the fort being on the other side, and they may easily be masters of it; and from thence having some ships, they may go in and out at their pleasure, and command all passing by; and none can come into the harbour to them if they make up the fort, which is soon done, and the passage not above musket-shot to be commanded, and there are no guns there of any consideration at this time.

Wh. How shall they do for victuals there to get fresh from the land?

Dane. There is plenty of butter and cheese, sheep and hogs; and the poor country people will be no trouble to you, but be willing to be commanded by you.

Wh. What towns are there near it?

Dane. Higher in the country is Bergen, the chief town for trade there, and rich enough. Your ships may easily come into that harbour, and plunder the town and get a great booty, and return to Fleckeren Town again.

Wh. Is there anything to be done at Iceland?

Dane. I wonder you do not send, in August or September, four or five ships to Iceland, being men-of-war. They may have twenty or thirty Dutch ships, laden with fish, butter, and hides, which will make no resistance at all; and it would be a rich prize, and might be had without danger or difficulty.

Wh. Is the castle of Elsinore so strong a piece that it cannot be taken without much expense and danger?

Dane. This will not be the best design for England: it is a small, strong castle, and doth not signify much; though it be esteemed a piece of importance, it is not so.

Wh. It commands the passage of the Sound.

Dane. Most men believe so, but it is mistaken. I have seen an experiment to the contrary, that a boat, being placed in the middle of that narrow passage of the Sound, they shot at it from the castle of Elsinore, and likewise from the castle of Helsingborg on the other side, with the greatest guns they had, and yet they could not reach the boat from either side by two thousand paces; nor is it so narrow in the passage but that a ship may, when she pleaseth, sail by those castles in despite of them.

Wh. What harbour is there at Elsinore?

Dane. There is no harbour for ships to ride in, and in foul weather they will be in danger to be all lost, because they must ride in the open sea, which there is extreme perilous; and therefore Elsinore is not worth the keeping, if England had it. But their best design would be to go directly to the town of Copenhagen with fifty or sixty good ships, with landsmen in them; and it is easy enough to take that town, for the works of it are not strong, nor is it well guarded, and it would be easier to take that town than Elsinore; and if England were masters of it, the castle would quickly come in to them; and at the town they should have a good haven for their ships, and a small matter would build a better fort near the town than Elsinore is, and would command the passage more than the castles do, and make you masters of the Sound and of all the trade of the Baltic Sea.

Wh. What revenue would be gained thereby?

Dane. More than will maintain your ships and forces there, and will command all the island of Zealand.

Wh. I should be glad to meet you there.

Dane. If you summon me by your letters, I will give you a meeting at Copenhagen, or those whom the Protector will send thither; and if you will meet me there, I doubt not but to show you a way to get that town without much difficulty; and then you will have all the isle of Zealand, which is the best part of Denmark, and the rest will follow, being weary of the present tyranny and ill-usage of their King. And if you were masters of Zealand, you might thereby keep in awe the Swede, the Hollander, and all the world that have occasion for the commodities of the Baltic Sea.

Wh. Why then doth not the King of Denmark now keep them in such awe?

Dane. Because he hath neither the money nor ships nor men that England hath.

Wh. What is the ground and reason of payment of the tolls at Elsinore, if ships may pass by without the leave of the castles there?

Dane. Because that is known but to a very few; and what I have told you is under secresy, and I desire that none but the Protector may know it from you; and as for the grounds of paying the tolls at Elsinore, it is rather from the keeping of the lights in Jutland and upon that coast, than from any command that Elsinore hath of the ships that go that way.

Wh. I have heard those lights are very useful.

Dane. Unless they were kept, it would be impossible for ships to sail there in the long nights in winter; and the trade doth enforce them to come that way in October and November, when the nights are very long, because of bringing wine into those parts after the vintage, which is in September.

Wh. They are likewise to carry home corn, which is not inned till August and September. Did not the Hollanders refuse to pay the toll?

Dane. Once they did, and thereupon the last King of Denmark, by advice, commanded that the lights upon the coast should not be kept; and the Hollanders in that autumn lost above thirty ships upon the Danish coast, and came and entreated the King that the lights might be kept again, and promised to pay the tolls as formerly, and have done so ever since.

Wh. Let me say to you, in freedom, how can you, being a native of Denmark, satisfy yourself to discover these things to me, whereby prejudice may come to your country?

Dane. I do not think I betray my country in this, though, my country having left me to be an exile, I might justly leave them; and wheresoever I breathe and am maintained is more my country than that where I was born, and which will not let me breathe there; yet in this I think I may do good service to Denmark, to free them from the tyranny they are under, and to bring them into the free government of the Protector, to whom I shall do any service in my power. But for the King of Denmark, he is governed by his Queen and a few of her party, men of no honour nor wisdom nor experience in public affairs, but proud and haughty, according to the way of these parts of the world.

Wh. I shall not fail to make known to the Protector your great affections to him.

April 6, 1654.

[SN: Effects of the English fleet in the North.]

Monsieur Miller, who had been Resident at Hamburg for her Majesty, came to visit Whitelocke, and after dinner discoursed much of the English fleet now at sea, which, he said, did amuse all the northern parts of the world, what the design thereof might be. Whitelocke did not lessen the wonder, especially in relation to Denmark; yet affirmed nothing positively, as indeed he could not. He inquired of Monsieur Miller if the King of Denmark were making any preparations at sea, or of land forces, or had any design towards Hamburg. Miller said he knew of none, and in his discourse gave Whitelocke good information of the government, strength, and trade of that Hanse Town.

The Secretary Canterstein came to Whitelocke from the Chancellor, and brought to him the articles upon which they had last treated, now altered according to Whitelocke's desire, except that which concerned the forbidding of our enemies to buy arms in the countries of our confederates. He also delivered to Whitelocke the draft of a preamble for the articles, and another article for the ratifying of all the rest; whereunto Whitelocke consented, and thanked God that his business was brought so near to a good conclusion. Whitelocke received his packet from England, and Thurloe wrote that the Protector was sensible of the Queen's delaying of Whitelocke, but approved his proceedings. He sent this enclosed order:—

"AT THE COUNCIL CHAMBER, WHITEHALL: "Friday, 17 Martii, 1653.

[SN: Order in Council in the matter of a Swedish prize.]

"On consideration of a letter, this day read in Council, sent from the Lord Ambassador Extraordinary with her Majesty of Sweden, mentioning, among other things, the taking of the ship 'Charity,' Paul Paulsen, master, by a private man-of-war, and the carrying of her into Dover, and the hard usage of the master and mariners, which ship is claimed by some citizens of Gothenburg, subjects of the said Queen:

"Ordered, That it be referred to the Commissioners of the Admiralty speedily to put this matter in a way of examination; and, for their information in the premises, to send for the commander of the said man-of-war, and to receive a particular account and satisfaction concerning the disposal of the ship and goods, and the usage of the master and mariners, and thereupon to state the whole case and report it to the Council, to the intent speedy justice may be done therein; and the said Commissioners are likewise to take order that all further proceedings touching the said ship, or her lading or disposal of any part thereof, be stayed and forborne till their report made and further order thereupon shall be given by the Council.

"W. JESSOP, Clerk of the Council."

Thurloe wrote that in case the information given to Whitelocke were found to be true, that the parties offending would be severely punished and right done to those who were injured; and that the Council were very sensible hereof, as a hindrance to Whitelocke's proceedings and a dishonour to the Protector. He also wrote unto Whitelocke that there was little scruple now of an agreement upon the Dutch treaty, which was as good as concluded; and he sent the news of France and of Scotland and Ireland, as well as that of England, as he constantly used to do. Whitelocke caused this order to be translated into Latin, and made use of it for the advantage of his business.

A description was given to Whitelocke, in writing, of the manner of making gunpowder in these parts, and of their mills and vessels for it, not unlike in many things to their way in England.

April 7, 1654.

[SN: The Queen's plans after abdication.]

Whitelocke waited on the Queen, and she was pleased to discourse with him to this effect:—

Queen. I am resolved to retire into Pomerland, and this summer to go to the Spa to drink the waters for my health.

Whitelocke. Give me leave, Madam, to put you in mind of two things to be specially taken care of: one is the security of your own person, the other is the settling of your revenue. Your Majesty, being of a royal and bountiful spirit, cannot look into such matters so much beneath you as expenses or accounts; and if care be not taken therein, and good officers, your Majesty may be disappointed and deceived.

Qu. I thank you for this counsel. I intend to have Mr. Flemming with me, to take charge of my revenue; he is a discreet, wise man, and fit for that employment, and to order the expenses of my house; I believe he will neither deceive me himself nor permit others to do it, for he is faithful to me.

Wh. Such a servant is a jewel. I hope care is taken that your Majesty's revenue be secured in such a manner that you shall not depend upon the pleasure of any other for the receipt of it, but to be in your power as mistress of it, not as a pensioner.

Qu. It shall be settled according to the advice you gave me, and I thank you for it.

Wh. Madam, I account it a happiness if in anything I may be serviceable to your Majesty. Whom doth your Majesty take with you beside Mr. Flemming of that quality?

Qu. I desire the company of Mr. Woolfeldt and his lady, if they will go with me.

Wh. I suppose they will be very serviceable to your Majesty; and I hope it will not be long, after the business here effected, before you transport yourself into Pomerland, lest any designs should be against your liberty, for, Madam, in this age there be few persons to be trusted.

Qu. That is too great a truth, and I thank you for the caution. I could freely trust yourself with any of my concernments; and if you will come to me into Pomerland, you shall be as welcome as any man living, and we will be merry together.

Wh. I humbly thank your Majesty for your great favour to your servant, who hath a wife and children enough to people a province in Pomerland, and I shall bring them all thither to do your Majesty service.

Qu. If you will bring your lady and all your children and family thither, and settle yourself there, you shall want nothing in my power, and shall be very welcome to me.

Wh. I am your Majesty's most humble servant; and I pray, Madam, give me leave to ask your Majesty, whether you judge it requisite for me to wait on the Prince of Sweden before my going out of this country.

Qu. I think it very fit and necessary for you to see the Prince before you leave this country; it will be taken as a respect from the Protector to him, and if you do not, it will be looked upon as a neglect of him.

Wh. I am obliged to do all that lies in my power to enlarge the Protector's interest.

Qu. The Prince being to succeed in the Crown, and in so short a time, it will be fit to keep a fair correspondence with him and to show respect to him, whereof your visit will be a good testimony.

Wh. Madam, your opinion will be a great direction to me in my affairs.

Qu. I think it will be an advantage to your business for you to speak with the Prince himself, who will take it in good part, and hold himself the more obliged to the observance of what shall be agreed upon in your present treaty, being acquainted therewith by you that made it.

Wh. I hope the treaty which your Majesty shall make will be observed by any who shall succeed you; but I acknowledge it is very advisable for me to have some discourse with his Royal Highness, to give him an account of the treaty, and I shall inquire where I may attend him.

Qu. You must go from hence to Stockholm, and so to Nordkoeping, and the castle where the Prince now resides is within a league of that town; you may have my coaches and horses to transport you, and my servants to guide you thither.

Wh. I humbly desire your Majesty to make choice of any of my coach-horses or saddle-horses that may be useful for you, and to command them; they are all at your Majesty's service.

Qu. I shall not make choice of any; but if you bestow any of them upon me, they will be very acceptable.

Wh. I humbly acknowledge your Majesty's great favour in affording a despatch to my business.

Qu. I wish you with the Protector, because I see you are a faithful servant to him, and worthy to serve any prince in Christendom.

Wh. Your Majesty ever had a favour for me, and in nothing more than in my despatch.

Qu. I think it not fit for you to be in Sweden too near the time of the coronation of the new King; and then to go away, and not to see him, would be worse.

Wh. I do intend, upon your Majesty's advice, to salute him before my going away, and shall desire that the ships may meet me near the place where his Royal Highness is.

Qu. I will give order for it, and will be gone myself not long after; if I had staid here I should have been glad of your longer stay.

Whitelocke took his leave of the Queen, and, being returned home, Field-Marshal Wrangel visited him, and after dinner, being in a good humour, discoursed freely and much of the English fleet at sea. Whitelocke showed him a draught of the ship 'Sovereign,' with her dimensions, guns, and men, wherewith he was much pleased. He told Whitelocke that, by command of the Queen, he had prepared ships for Whitelocke's transportation from Stockholm to Luebeck.

[SN: Whitelocke reports on the treaty to Thurloe.]

Whitelocke made his despatches for England, and in his letters to Thurloe gave this account of the treaty:—

"1. Their first article differs not in substance from the first which I proposed, and therefore I did not object against it; but as to all of them, I reserved a liberty to myself of further consideration and objection. I did a little stick upon the word 'colonias' in this article, lest it might tend to anything of commerce in America; but finding it only to relate to the amity, I passed it over.

"2. The first part of it agrees in substance with my sixth article, the latter part of it with my fourth article; only I objected against their words in this article, 'in damnum illius,' who should be judge thereof, and the omission of that part of my fourth article against harbouring of enemies and rebels.

"3. Their third article agrees in substance with my second article, but is more general, not naming the Sound, and explaining the word 'aliorsum' in my second article; and I desired that the word 'populos' might be added after the word 'subditos.'

"4. Their fourth in the beginning agrees with my third article; that of it touching the trade of America and the fishing I answered, as I gave you a former account, and thereupon denied it, as also that part of it which concerns importation of goods in foreign bottoms, being contrary to our Act of Parliament. In this latter end of their fourth article they likewise bring in again the business of fishing implicitly in the words 'maribus, littoribus,' etc., and therefore I desired that all that part might be left out, and in lieu thereof I offered the latter part of my third article beginning with the words 'solutis tamen,' etc., and the last of my reserved articles to be admitted; or else, I desired that this whole article of theirs might be omitted, and in lieu thereof my third article, and the last of my reserved articles to be admitted; and they likewise insist to have these words added if that part of their fourth article be omitted, viz. 'quoad Americae commercium, piscationem halecum, et mercium importationem, de his in posterum erit conventum.'

"5. Their fifth article agrees in substance with my eleventh, only hath more words to express the same matter.

"6. Their sixth agrees in substance with my thirteenth article, with the addition of words for kind usage, and the omission of the proviso in my thirteenth article as to breaking of bulk; which yet seems to be supplied by the latter part of their sixth article, of conforming to the ordinances of the place.

"7. Agrees with my reserved article, marked with fifteen, only the words 'nihil inde juris' I thought fit to be omitted, because in the treaty we are not to meddle with particular rights; yet the sense and desire thereof is answered in the words for restitution. I offered them, if they liked not this, my fifteenth article, which is one of those reserved, omitting only that part as not conducing to this article, viz. 'Et si lis,' etc.

"8. Agrees in substance with my twelfth article, only the expressions here are longer; and that for justice to be had agrees with the latter part of my reserved article fifteenth.

"9. In the general differs not in the substance from my seventh, and the beginning of my reserved articles; and the laws in this ninth article, first, second, third, and fourth, are not contrary to the substance of mine; but to the fifth I excepted, as contrary to part of my seventh article, and to their sixth law, as to bringing in of ships and goods from enemies; both which nevertheless, in case we have peace with the Dutch, will be more to our advantage, in my humble opinion, to continue in than to be omitted; as also that not to contend in the harbours; and so the first, second, third, and fourth laws. The seventh law, I humbly conceive, not differing in substance from my articles, nor disadvantageous to England. To their sixth law I desired that my seventh article might be added, the which they denied, as to forbid enemies to either to buy arms, etc.

"10. Agrees in part with my ninth, only the latter part of it seems to bring in the trade of America, and a liberty contrary to the Act of Navigation; but they insist that the same is saved by the latter words of this article, 'modo consuetudines antiquae;' but I was not satisfied herewith, and desired that that part of it which is marked might be omitted, and the latter part of my ninth article, viz. 'utrisque utrinque observantibus,' etc. inserted, which I humbly conceive will help it; or else I desire that this tenth article may be wholly omitted, and in lieu thereof my ninth may be agreed.

"11. To this article of theirs I wholly excepted, because it agrees not with any of mine, nor with reason, that when our enemies have forbidden any to bring contraband goods to us, that yet we should permit them to be brought unto our enemies. They told me that the Queen had sent unto the States to repeal that placard of theirs. I answered, that when I was certified that that placard was repealed, I would then desire to know the Protector's further pleasure herein; but before that be done, I thought it would be in vain to trouble him about it.

"12. Is not expressly in any of my articles, but agreed by the Council of State unto Mr. Lagerfeldt, only the form of the letters of safe-conduct not fully assented unto; therefore I desired that the same might be remitted to a future agreement; but as to the rest of this article, it is not repugnant to the substance of mine, that the navigation and commerce may be free.

"13. In the first part of it agrees almost verbatim with my tenth article; the latter part of it, concerning satisfaction for losses, is much altered from what it was at first exhibited, and is now put on both parties, and referred to future agreement, wherein there can be no prejudice to our Commonwealth; but before, it was reproachful to the justice thereof and laid on our part only; now it is no more than what the Council and State promised in their papers to Mr. Lagerfeldt.

"14. Agrees in substance with my ninth article.

"15. Contains the substance of my fifth article, but is expressed more generally, and, as I humbly believe, no less to the advantage of our Commonwealth.

"I found more readiness in the Queen to consent to what I proposed than in her Commissioners; but some things she told me she could not consent to, because they were against the interest of her people, and were not considerable to England. I gave her thanks for my despatch. She said she had an ambition to have the honour of making an alliance with the Protector herself before she quitted the Government, and that she might testify her respects to him, and therefore had gone as far as possibly she could; and indeed there is now very little difference, but only in words and expressions, from the sense and substance of what I first proposed. And I presume that what is here agreed by me will give good satisfaction and contentment to the Protector and Council, and I apprehend it clearly within my instructions; acknowledging the goodness of God to me in this business, where I met with so many difficulties, and of so great weight, that yet in a fortnight's time it should be brought to a full conclusion, with honour and advantage to the Protector and present Government, for which I have taken all care.

"The articles are not yet drawn up, but I hope we shall sign them the next week, and presently after I intend to demand audience to take my leave and to remove from hence, and, as soon as I can, to come to Luebeck, and from thence to Hamburg; and I have by this post humbly desired my Lord Protector to appoint some of his ships to meet me at Hamburg as soon as they can, for my transportation from thence to England. And I humbly entreat your favour to put his Highness in mind of it, and that you will take care that the orders may be had, and the ships to come as soon as may be to the Elbe, to Hamburg, where I shall stay for them, or till I receive his Highness's further commands; and I choose this way as the shortest, and where I shall meet with any despatches that may come from England. I presume you will be troubled with an importunate suitor for hastening my return.

"I received your letters of the 17th March, and the order of the Council concerning the Swedish ship, for which I return my humble thanks. The Queen, and the Chancellor and others here, were much satisfied with it. The Chancellor and his son have been very civil to me, and lately furthering my despatch. I hope the same goodness of God which hath hitherto brought me through this great business will give me a safe return to my dear country and friends, where I may have opportunity with thankfulness to acknowledge your constant favour and kindness to

"Your affectionate friend to serve you, "B. W. "Upsal, April 7th, 1654."

April 8, 1654.

[SN: A masque at Court.]

The master of the ceremonies came to Whitelocke from the Queen, to desire his company this evening at a masque; and they had this discourse:—

Whitelocke. Present my thanks to her Majesty, and tell her I will wait upon her.

[SN: Precedence claimed by Denmark.]

Mast. Cer. What would your Excellence expect in matter of precedence, as in case you should meet with any other ambassador at the masque?

Wh. I shall expect that which belongs to me as Ambassador from the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and I know no other ambassador now in this Court besides myself, except the Ambassador of the King of Denmark, who, I suppose, hath no thoughts of precedence before the English Ambassador, who is resolved not to give it him if he should expect it.

Mast. Cer. Perhaps it may be insisted on, that he of Denmark is an ambassador of an anointed king, and you are only ambassador to the Protector—a new name, and not sacre.

Wh. Whosoever shall insist on that distinction will be mistaken, and I understand no difference of power between king and protector, or anointed or not anointed; and ambassadors are the same public ministers to a protector or commonwealth as to a prince or sultan.

Mast. Cer. There hath always been a difference observed between the public ministers of kings and of commonwealths, or princes of inferior titles.

Wh. The title of Protector, as to a sovereign title, hath not yet been determined in the world as to superiority or inferiority to other titles; but I am sure that the nation of England hath ever been determined superior to that of Denmark. I represent the nations of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Protector, who is chief of them; and the honour of these nations ought to be in the same consideration now as it hath been formerly, and I must not suffer any diminution of that honour by my person to please any whatsoever.

Mast. Cer. I shall propose an expedient to you, that you may take your places as you come: he who comes first, the first place, and he who comes last, the lower place.

Wh. I shall hardly take a place below the Danish Ambassador, though I come into the room after him.

Mast. Cer. But when you come into the room and find the Danish Ambassador set, you cannot help it, though he have the upper place.

Wh. I shall endeavour to help it, rather than sit below the Danish Ambassador.

Mast. Cer. I presume you will not use force in the Queen's presence.

Wh. Master, it is impossible for me, if it were in the presence of all the queens and kings in Christendom, to forbear to use any means to hinder the dishonour of my nation in my person.

Mast. Cer. I believe the Danish Ambassador would not be so high as you are.

Wh. There is no reason why he should: he knows his nation never pretended to have the precedence of England, and you, being master of the ceremonies, cannot be ignorant of it.

Mast. Cer. I confess that your nation always had the precedence of Denmark when you were under a king.

Wh. I should never give it from them though they were under a constable.

Mast. Cer. If you insist upon it, the Danish Ambassador must be uninvited again, for I perceive that you two must not meet.

Wh. I suppose the gentleman would not expect precedence of me.

Mast. Cer. I can assure you he doth.

Wh. I can assure you he shall never have it, if I can help it. But I pray, Master, tell me whether her Majesty takes notice of this question of precedence, or did she wish to confer with me about it?

Mast. Cer. The Queen commanded me to speak with you about it, hoping that the question might be so composed that she might have the company of you both at her entertainment.

Wh. I shall stay at home rather than interrupt her Majesty's pleasures, which I should do by meeting the Danish Ambassador, to whom I shall not give precedence, unless he be stronger than I.

Mast. Cer. The Queen makes this masque chiefly for your Excellence's entertainment, therefore you must not be absent, but rather the Danish Ambassador must be uninvited; and I shall presently go about it.

[SN: Order on the Swedish ships.]

Whitelocke returned a visit to Grave Eric, and showed him the Order of the Council touching the Swedish ships, much in favour of them, and which seemed very pleasing to the Grave; but he also showed to Whitelocke several letters which he had received from masters of Swedish ships, of new complaints of taking of their ships; and he desired that the Order showed him by Whitelocke might be extended to those whose ships had been since taken; which Whitelocke promised to endeavour, and said that he should be in a better capacity to serve him, and to procure discharges for their ships and goods, when he should be himself in England; and therefore desired that, by his despatch, they would hasten him thither, which the Grave promised to do. At his going away, Grave Eric invited Whitelocke to dine with him on Monday next, and to come as a particular friend and brother, and not by a formal invitation as an ambassador. Whitelocke liked the freedom, and promised to wait on him; and was the more willing to come, that he might see the fashion of their entertainments, this being the first invitation that was made to him by any person in this country.

General Grave Wirtenberg visited Whitelocke. He is a Finlander by birth, of an ancient family, who had applied himself wholly to the military profession, wherein he became so eminent, and had done so great service for this Crown, that he was had in great esteem, especially with the soldiery. He was a Ricks-Senator, and one of the College of War, and at present had the charge of General of the Ordnance, which is of higher account here than in England, being next in command to the Generalissimo, and over the soldiery which belong not to the train, and is often employed as a general. This gentleman seemed worthy of his honour; he was of a low stature, somewhat corpulent, of a good mien, and plain behaviour, more in the military than courtly way. His discourse declared his reason and judgement to be very good, and his mention of anything relating to himself was full of modesty. He took great notice of the English navy and soldiery, and of the people's inclinations and violent desires of liberty. He spake only Swedish and High Dutch, which caused Whitelocke to make use of an interpreter, his kinsman Andrew Potley.

[SN: The masque.]

In the evening, according to the invitation from the Queen, Whitelocke went to Court to the masque, where he did not find the Danish Ambassador. But some of the Court took notice of the discourse which had been between the master of the ceremonies and Whitelocke touching precedence, and they all approved Whitelocke's resolution, and told him that the Queen highly commended him for it, and said that he was a stout and faithful servant to the Protector and to his nation, and that she should love him the better for it; nor was the contest the less pleasing because with the Dane in Sweden.

From eight o'clock at night till two the next morning they were at the masque, which was in the usual room fitted for the solemnity, in which the Queen herself was an actor. The floor where they danced was covered with tapestry and hung about with red velvet, but most adorned by the presence of a great number of ladies richly dressed and beautified both by nature and habit, attending on their mistress; and there were also many senators, officers, courtiers, and nobility,—a very great presence of spectators. The music was excellent, especially the violins, which were many, and rare musicians and fittest for that purpose. The Queen herself danced very well at two entries: in the first she represented a Moorish lady, in the second a citizen's wife; in both the properties were exactly fitted, and in all the rest of the actors and dancers.

There were no speeches nor songs; men acting men's parts, and women the women's, with variety of representations and dances. The whole design was to show the vanity and folly of all professions and worldly things, lively represented by the exact properties and mute actions, genteelly, without the least offence or scandal.

It held two hours; and after the dances the Queen caused her chair to be brought near to Whitelocke, where she sat down and discoursed with him of the masque. He (according to his judgement) commended it and the inoffensiveness of it, and rare properties fitted to every representation, with the excellent performance of their parts by all, especially by the Moorish lady and citizen's wife; at which the Queen smiled, and said she was glad he liked it. He replied, that any of his countrymen might have been present at it without any offence, and he thanked her Majesty for the honour she gave him to be present at it. The Queen said she perceived that Whitelocke understood what belonged to masques and the most curious part of them, the properties,—with much like discourse; after which she retired to her chamber, and Whitelocke to his lodging.

April 9, 1654.

Monsieur Bloome came to dine with Whitelocke, and to put him in mind of Grave Eric's request{5} to him to dine with him the next day. He also sent to invite Whitelocke's two sons and Colonel Potley.

[SN: The Spanish Envoy departs with rich presents.]

In the afternoon Piementelle came to take his leave of Whitelocke, and said he intended to begin his journey the next morning. Whitelocke offered himself or his coaches and servants, to attend him out of town; but he said it was not the custom when a public minister departed from a place to use any ceremony, but to leave him to the liberty of ordering and taking his journey, but thanked Whitelocke for his favour.

Though it were the Lord's Day, yet Piementelle fell into discourse of the last night's masque, which he could not be present at publicly as formerly, because he had taken his leave of the Queen and Senators, yet, being desirous to see it, was admitted into the tiring-room; and he told Whitelocke that after the Queen had acted the Moorish lady and retired into that room to put off her disguise, Piementelle being there, she gave him her visor; in the mouth whereof was a diamond ring of great price, which shined and glistered gloriously by the torch and candle light as the Queen danced; this she bade Piementelle to keep till she called for it. Piementelle told her he wondered she would trust a jewel of that value in the hands of a soldier; she said she would bear the adventure of it. And when the masque was ended, Piementelle offered the ring again to the Queen, who told him that he had not kept it according to her commands, which were till she called for it, which she had not yet done, nor intended as long as she lived, but that he should keep it as a memorial of her favour. The Spaniard had cause to rest satisfied with the Queen's answer and her real and bountiful compliment, the ring being worth ten thousand crowns, which he brought away with him, besides many other jewels and presents from the Queen of great value, not publicly known. He took leave of Whitelocke and of his sons, Colonel Potley, and the gentlemen, with great civility.

April 10, 1654.

[SN: Whitelocke dines with Grave Eric Oxenstiern.]

Between eleven and twelve o'clock, the usual dining-time here, Whitelocke, with his sons and Potley, attended only by two gentlemen, one page, and two lacqueys, went to Grave Eric's lodging to dinner. His rooms were not stately nor richly furnished, but such as could be had in that place. The outer room for servants was like a little hall; within that was a larger room, narrow and long, where they dined; within that was a smaller room hung with tapestry, used for a withdrawing-room: all below stairs, which is not usual in these parts.

Grave Eric met Whitelocke at the door of the lodging; in the dining-room was his father the Chancellor, and divers friends with him. The father and son went in with Whitelocke to the withdrawing-room, where, after a quarter of an hour's discourse, they were called to dinner, the meat being on the table; then a huge massy basin and ewer of silver gilt was brought for them to wash—some of the good booties met with in Germany. After washing, one of the pages (after their manner) said grace in Swedish.

The table was long and narrow; in the middle of it, on the further side, under a canopy of velvet, were set two great chairs: Whitelocke sat in the right-hand chair, and Woolfeldt in the other, on his left-hand. On the other side of the table, over against these, were set two other like great chairs; in the right-hand chair sat the Ricks-Droitset, and in the left-hand chair the Chancellor. By Whitelocke sat Grave Gabriel Oxenstiern and Senator Vanderlin in lesser chairs, and by Woolfeldt sat Whitelocke's sons and Potley. On the other side, in lesser chairs, by the Droitset, sat the Senators Beilke and Bundt the younger; by the Chancellor sat Senator Bundt the elder and Baron Douglas; at the upper end of the table sat Grave Eric, and at the lower end stood the carver. The dishes were all silver, not great, but many, set one upon another, and filled with the best meat and most variety that the country did afford; and indeed the entertainment was very noble—they had four several courses of their best meat, and fish and fowl, dressed after the French mode.

They had excellent Rhenish wine, and indifferent good sack and claret; their beer very thick and strong, after the manner of the country. When the four courses were done, they took off the meat and tablecloth, and under it was another clean cloth; then they brought clean napkins and plates to every one, and set a full banquet on the table, and, as part thereof, tobacco and pipes, which they set before Whitelocke as a special respect to him, and he and two or three more of the company took of it as they sat at table; and they so civilly complied with Whitelocke as not to observe their own customs, but abstaining from healths or any excess.

They all sat bare at the table, according to their usage, chiefly (though no occasion were for it at this time) to avoid the trouble of often putting off and on their hats and caps in healths. They were full of good discourse, more cheerful than serious. Most at the table spake or understood somewhat of English, for which reason they were chosen to accompany Whitelocke here, as a compliment to his nation; they discoursed also in several other languages, as Swedish, High Dutch, French, and Latin.

After dinner, which was very long, they sat yet longer at the table, Whitelocke expecting when they would rise; till Douglas informed him, that he being the guest, and an ambassador, they used it as a respect to him, that none of the company would offer to rise till he first arose from the table. As soon as this was known to Whitelocke, he presently rose and the rest with him, and the Chancellor and he retired into the withdrawing-room; where, after compliments and thanks for his noble treatment (which it was said the father made, though put out in the son's name, and was full of respect and magnificence), Whitelocke thought fit to show to the Chancellor his powers to treat, and they had conference to this effect.

[SN: Whitelocke exchanges his full powers.]

Whitelocke. Father, if you please to peruse this writing, you will be satisfied that the Protector, since the late change of Government in England, hath thought me worthy to be trusted and furnished with sufficient power as to this treaty.

Chancellor. My dear son, this is very full, and a large testimony of the good opinion your master hath of you. All your powers and the originals of your commissions (according to custom) are to be left with us, to be registered in our Chancery.

Wh. I suppose you will also deliver to me the originals of your powers, to be enrolled (according to the English custom also) in our Chancery.

Chan. That shall be done.

Wh. The like shall be done on my part; and the Protector will be ready to do whatever shall be judged further necessary for the ratifying of this business.

Chan. It will be requisite that you let me have in Latin your instructions from the Protector.

Wh. I shall cause it to be done, except such part of them as are secret.

Chan. That which is to be reserved in secresy I desire not to see; there will be sufficient besides to show your powers.

Wh. They will fully appear.

Chan. I should counsel you, before your departure out of this kingdom, to make a visit to the Prince of Sweden; he will take it in good part, and it will testify a respect of the Protector to him, and render the alliance the more firm.

Wh. It is my purpose to visit the Prince; not that I am in doubt of the validity of the treaty made with the Queen, unless the Prince approve of it, but, as you advise, to show the respect of the Protector to his Kingly Highness, and to acquit myself of a due civility.

Chan. It will be fit for you to do it; and I shall advise you, at your return home, to put the Protector in mind of some particulars which, in my judgement, require his special care.

Wh. I shall faithfully do it, and I know they will be received with much the more regard coming from you: I pray do me the favour to let me know them.

[SN: Oxenstiern's advice to Cromwell.]

Chan. I would counsel the Protector to take heed of those dangerous opinions in matters of religion which daily increase among you, and, if not prevented and curbed, will cause new troubles, they never resting till themselves may domineer in chief.

Wh. Will not the best way to curb them be to slight them, and so they will fall of themselves?

Chan. I doubt they have taken too much root to fall so easily; but if they be not countenanced with preferments, they will the sooner wither and decay.

Wh. That will surely lessen them.

Chan. The Protector must also be careful to provide money and employment for his soldiers, else he will hardly keep them in order.

Wh. That is very requisite; and for money there is good provision already made.

Chan. He must likewise be watchful of the King's party, who will be busy at work, especially upon the new change.

Wh. The care thereof is the life of our affairs, and his Highness is most vigilant.

Chan. It behoves him to be so, for they that could not vanquish him by arms will endeavour to do it by craft and treachery of your own party, which you must look to.

Wh. He hath good intelligence of their plots.

Chan. It will also be prudence in him to let the people see that he intends not to rule them with an iron sceptre, nor to govern them by an army, but to give them such a liberty and enjoyment of the benefit of their laws that the continuance of his government may become their interest, and that they may have no cause to desire a change; else, though they must bear the yoke for a time, yet as soon as they meet with an opportunity they will shake it off again.

Wh. This is counsel proper to come from such a mind and judgement as yours is, and I shall not fail to report it to his Highness; and your Excellence hath rightly stated the disposition of my countrymen, who love peace and liberty, and will hardly brook slavery longer than they are forced to it by necessity; and the best way to govern them is to let them enjoy their laws and rights, which will rule them better than an iron sceptre.

Chan. It is the disposition of all generous and free people, as the English are, whom I truly respect, and him that is their head, that gallant person the Protector.

They had much other discourse; and after being together till six o'clock, the father and son, and the Chancellor and Whitelocke, called one another, and all the company parted.

April 11, 1654.

[SN: The Queen proposes a secret article.]

The Chancellor had promised to procure Whitelocke his despatch in a few days. He sent Canterstein to communicate to him the articles drawn in form, with the amendments, to see if there were any mistake in them. Whitelocke and the secretary perused them together, and agreed on all except two or three points, in which was some small difference; and Canterstein promised to hasten the engrossing of them.

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