Now Kurnavati had bound Hamayoun, the son of Baber, to her cause by a curious ceremony: she having sent him the Rakhi (bracelet), and he having bestowed on her the Katchli (corselet), he was bound, in consequence of this bond, to assist the lady in any time of need. Too late to save Chitor, he retook it, and restored Bikramajit to the throne; but the guardian goddess had turned her face from the doomed city, and its final fall was at hand. The Emperor Akbar, having laid almost all India at his feet, determined to bring the proud princes of Rajputana into subjection. He attacked Chitor, but was foiled by the masculine courage of the Rana's concubine queen.
Again, in 1568, the Emperor Akbar attacked, and this time he found the fated city in evil case, for Oodi Singh, the Rana, for whom in infancy his nurse had sacrificed her own child, was a degenerate son of his race. He left Chitor to be defended by his lieutenants Jeimul and Putta.
In the first "saka" by Alla, twelve crowned heads defended the "crimson banner" to the death. In the second, when conquest, at the hand of Bahadur, came from the south, the chieftain of Deola, a noble scion of Mewar, claimed the crown of glory and of martyrdom. But on this, the third and greatest struggle, no royal victim appeared to appease the Cybele of Chitor and win her to retain its battlements as her coronet.
When Jeimul fell at the Gate of the Sun, the command devolved upon Putta of Kailwa, a lad of sixteen. His mother commanded him to don "the saffron robe," then, with him and his young bride, she fell full armed upon the foe, and the heroic trio died before the eyes of the war-worn garrison.
Once more was the Johur commanded, while 8000 Rajputs ate the last "beera" together, and put on their saffron robes. The gates were thrown open, "and few survived to stain the yellow mantle by inglorious surrender."
Thus in the blood-red cloud of battle sank for ever the Sun of Chitor; for from this, the third and last "saka," the ruined city never rose. Her doom has been as the doom of Babylon, of which Isaiah declared: "It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation ... but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there.... And the wild beasts ... shall cry in their desolate houses, and ... in their pleasant palaces:... Her days shall not be prolonged."
The top of the long ascent being reached, the last gate, the Hathi Pol, is passed, and the wayfarer finds himself in the midst of the great dead city, which lies in ruins for three miles along the bastioned brow of the mountain.
Just beyond the first group of stately ruins, we came on the building which was probably the palace built by Lakha Rana in 1373. Here we sat and rested until the elephant, bearing the ladies and the lunch, stalked sedately round the jutting angle of a decayed fort, and then we wended our way along a road lined with many a half-fallen temple, until we reached the ancient palace where, six hundred years ago, dwelt the ill-starred Padmani, whose loveliness brought such woe upon Chitor. Here, in a cool chamber overlooking the tank, upon the brink of which the palace stands, we lunched; afterwards threading our way among the fallen fragments of many a stately shrine and palace towards the high point on which the great Jain Tower of Fame rears its deeply-sculptured shaft into the sky.
For a thousand years the innumerable stone gods which encircle the tower in endless profusion have watched with sightless eyes over the city. Grey already with age were they when they saw, raised in pristine beauty, the shattered domes and broken columns which now lie prone in the brushwood far beneath their feet. What ghastly scenes those stony faces have surveyed, when, swept by the scathing steel, the city has run red with blood, and her defenders have fallen to the last man. One crowning horror, though, they have been always spared, for no maid or matron of Chitor ever deigned to bow her neck beneath the yoke of the Mogul, but rather dared to face a fiery death in the bowels of the great cavern beneath the city than yield her honour to the conqueror.
The Tower of Fame is being repaired by the present Rana, under the superintendence of our host and a party of native workmen. Masons and most skilful carvers in stone were busily engaged in the restoration of parts that had fallen into dangerous decay—an extremely flimsy-looking scaffolding, made apparently of light bamboos, tied together in wisps, and forming a fragile-looking ramp, wound spirally up the outside of the tower. My host seemed to consider it a perfectly safe means of ascent, and as the workmen did not appear to slip off in any appreciable numbers I felt constrained to go up. I should like to have done it on all fours! The climb was well worth undertaking, as it enabled one to inspect the astonishing and finely-carved figures which encrust the whole exterior of the column.
From the Tower of Fame we made our way to the other great landmark of Chitor—the Tower of Victory.
Passing and examining en route many elaborately-carved temples, whose domes rose amid the strangling masses of desert tree and shrub, we came to the base of the red tower, whose shaft, four-square and in perfect preservation, has, with its more venerable brother of Fame, watched for so many centuries over the fallen fortress of Chitor.
Not far away, the rocky wall on which the city stands is shattered into a gloomy chasm, half-hidden in rank vegetation, which, clinging with knotted root to ledge and crevice, hangs darkly over a stagnant pool. Here was the awful portal, "the Gau Mukh," or "cow's mouth," by which, when all was lost to Chitor save honour, her women entered the subterranean cavern while the fuel was heaped high, and an honourable death by suffocation awaited them.
The burning Indian day was over, and the sun blazed red in the west, as we mounted our elephant and paced along the road towards the Hathi Pol. Darker grew the ghostly domes and shattered battlements against a golden sky, and the swift southern night fell, dark yet luminous, as we turned down the hill and left the dead city, splendid in its loneliness and isolation, asleep within its crumbling walls.
Our dinner-table was set out on the platform of the station at Chitorgarh, and our bedrooms were close by, our host and hostess sleeping in the "special" by which they were to return to Udaipur in the morning, while we slept in a siding, ready to be coupled up to the early train from Bombay.
Late into the warm and balmy night we paced the platform; for there seemed to be always something still to say, and we found it hard to part from our charming friends; realising, too, that this was the end of our holiday, and that before us lay merely the toil and bustle of a return to commonplace, everyday life. At last, though, the final fag-end of a cheroot was thrown away, the last hand-grips given, and the parting came.
There is little more to say.
All Thursday we rushed through the wide landscape; saw the parched plains stretch far into the dusty horizon; saw the lean men and leaner cattle, to whom the grim spectre of famine is already foreshadowed; flew past populous villages and creaking water-wheels, noting every phase of a scene now familiar, yet always delightful.
Late in the evening we changed at Baroda, and dawn next morning saw us speeding across the swamps and inlets, which gave place ere long to the palm groves and clustering houses which marked the farther limits of the suburbs of Bombay.
We found the heat—damp and oppressive—very trying after the drier air of Rajputana, and the Taj Mahal Hotel below our expectations in all respects save price. It is undoubtedly better than most Indian hotels, but yet it is not good!
Bombay is chiefly connected in our minds with the inevitable fuss and worry of packing and departure.
As we left the Taj Mahal Hotel, in a conveyance piled high with miscellaneous baggage, we saw the last of our faithful and indispensable Sabz Ali, as he hurriedly quitted the hostelry in our wake, fearful lest undue delay should jeopardise the possession of the spoils he was carrying off, wrapped in bulging bundles of goodly size.
Jane and I were sorrier, I think, to part with him than he with us. After all, we were but troublesome charges, for whose well-being he had to answer to "General 'Oon Sahib,"—charges who had not been quite so lavish with their incalculable riches as they should have been, and who doled out rupees, and even annas, with a sorely grudging hand; still I think Sabz Ali, as he made his way to the station, with many rupees lining his inmost garments, and a flaming "chit" carefully stowed away, felt a certain regret at parting from the "sahibs," who had really shown a very fine appreciation of his merit, and were sending him back with much honour to his own country.
Late in the afternoon, as the spires and roofs of the city stood dark against the sky, and the many steamers and native dhows showed black upon a flood of liquid gold, the Persia got under way, and we slowly left the anchorage, steaming out into the fading light.
We stood long, leaning over the bulwarks and watching the lights of Bombay, at first so distinct, melt gradually into a line of tiny stars as the gulf widened that separated us from the land where we had spent so many happy days.
I wonder if we shall ever revisit it? I trust so ... and yet——
"As a rule it is better to revisit only in imagination the places which have greatly charmed us ... for it was not merely the sights that one beheld which were the cause of joy and peace. However lovely the spot, however gracious the sky, these things external would not have availed but for contributory movements of mind and heart and blood—the essentials of the man as then he was."
 These notes on the history of Chitor are taken, it need hardly be said, from Tod's Rajast'han, he being the authority on Rajputana. An account of the above incident is given somewhat differently by Maurice in his Modern History of Hindostan (1803), who also relates that Akbar used the same trick to enter Rhotas in Behar, after being long baffled by the apparent impregnability of that fortress.
 The Jain Tower of Fame was also left standing, it dates from about A.D. 900.
 It is also attributed to Lakha Rana, A.D. 1373.
 And sister of the Rahtore queen, Jowahir Bae.
 The infant Oodi Singh being threatened with death by conspirators, his Rajputni nurse hid him in a fruit-basket, and, covering it with leaves, had it conveyed out of the fort, substituting her own child just as Bimbir, the usurper, entered the room and asked for the prince. Her pallid lips refused to utter sound, but she pointed to the cradle and saw the swift steel plunged into the heart of her child.
 "Henry Ryecroft"
BIG GAME LICENSE No. I, Price Rs. 60 (sixty only).
This license will remain in force from the 15th of March 190 to the 15th November 190, and is subject to the Kashmir Stata Game Laws; it permits the Licensee to shoot the undermentioned game in the Districts and Nullahs open to sportsmen, and, subject to Rules 8 and 9 of these Laws, small game between the above dates.
- - - No. permitted No. actually Size of District. Name of Animal. to be shot. heads. shot. - - - Markhor of any variety 2 Ibex 4 Ovis Hodgsoni (Ammon) 1 Ovis Vignei (Sharpu) 4 Ovis Nahura (Burhal) 6 Thibetan Antelope 6 Do. Gazelle 1 Kashmir Stag 2 Serow 1 Brown Bears 2 Tehr 6 Goral 6 Pigs, Black Bears and No limit. Leopards - - -
Name of Licensee Address Signature of Licensee on returning License
N.B.—This portion of the License to be returned to the Secretary, Game Preservation Department.
- NAME OF SHIKARIES, &c., EMPLOYED - - - Name of Nature Place of Residence. Serial Shikari Father's of - REMARKS. No. or Name. employ- Village Tehail District Coolie. ment. - - - - - - - -
This License does not permit the Licensee to shoot in any of the closed tracts or preserves mentioned in Rules 2 and 10, Kashmir State Game Laws, nor in the Gilgit district, nor in the Astor or Kaj-nag districts, without the special permit laid down under Rule 2.
Dated (Sd.) AMAR SINGH, GENERAL, RAJA, The Vice-President of Council, Jammu and Kashmir State.
I certify that a copy of Kashmir State Game Laws, 190, has been issued herewith,
Signature of Official granting License
NOTE—This License will be shown on demand and is not transferable. A fee of Re. 1 will be charged for a duplicate copy.
From the earliest times the Kashmiris have been objects of contempt and derision, whilst the women have been—perhaps unduly—lauded for their looks and general excellence.
The Kashmiris themselves are of opinion that "once upon a time" they were an honourable and valiant folk, brought gradually to their present condition by foreign oppression.
To a certain extent this is probably true, but, according to the Rajatarangini Kulan, they were noted for dishonesty and cunning long before the evil days of conquest and adversity. Bernier speaks well of the men, calling them witty and industrious. Doubtless the Kashmiri character, originally none too good, was ruined during the long years of cruelty and injustice to which he was subjected by the Tartars, Afghans, and Sikhs, who, from the day when Akbar put him into women's clothes, treated him as something lower than a brute.
Forster, writing in 1783, abuses the Kashmiri, whom he stigmatises as "endowed with unwearied patience in the pursuit of gain." He speaks of the vile treatment to which he was subjected by his then rulers the Pathans, observing that Afghans usually addressed Kashmiris by striking them with a hatchet, but, he concludes, "I even judged them worthy of their adverse fortune."
Elphinstone (1839) is of opinion that "the men are excessively addicted to pleasure, and are notorious all over the East for falsehood and cunning;" and again, "The Cashmerians are of no account as soldiers."
"Many fowls in a yard defile it, and many Kashmiri in a country ruin it," says the proverb. Lawrence goes very fully into the Kashmiri character, and dwells upon its few good points, giving him credit for great artistic feeling, quick wit, ready repartee, and freedom from crime against the person. He considers the last merit, though, to be due to cowardice and the state of espionage which exists in every village!
I was told (but perhaps by a prejudiced person) of a Kashmiri who, during the great flood of 1903, he being safely on the shore, saw his brother being swept down the boiling river, clinging to his rapidly disintegrating roof. The following painful conversation ensued:—
"Whither sailest thou, oh brother, perched upon the birch bark of thine ancestral roof?"
"Ah! brother dear. Save me quick! I drown!"
"Truly that can I; but say, what recompense wilt thou give me?"
"All I have in the world, brother—two lovely rupees."
"Tut, tut, little one; thou takest me for a fool. Two rupees, forsooth, for five perchance I will deign to save thy worthless life."
"Three, then, three, carissimo—'tis all I have—and make haste, for I feel my timbers parting, and I know not how to swim."
"Farewell, oh, dearest brother! I could not possibly think of taking so much trouble for three rupees, especially as, now I come to think of it, I can borrow a singhara pole, and, in due time, will prod for thy corpse in the Wular! Mind thou wrappest the lucre snugly in thy cummerbund, that it be not lost—farewell, little brother!"
While the gentlemen of the Happy Valley have been lashed by the tongue and pen of every traveller, the ladies, on the contrary, have been rather overrated.
In all communities where the men are invertebrate the women become the real heads of the family, doing not only most of the actual work, but also taking the dominant position in affairs generally. This I have observed strikingly in the case of the three "slackest" male races I know—the Fantis of the Gold Coast, the Kashmiri, and the crofters of the West Highlands.
Opinion is divided on the question of female loveliness in Kashmir.
Marco Polo (who probably only got his ideas of "Kesmur" from hearsay) echoed the prevalent opinion by saying, "The women although dark are very comely" (ch. xxvii.). Bernier is enthusiastic: "Les femmes surtout y sont tres-belles," and hints at their popularity among the Moguls.
Moorcroft, Vigne, and others swelled the laudatory chorus until Forster, "having been prepossessed with an opinion of their charms, suffered a sensible disappointment," and even was so rude as to criticise the ladies' legs, which he considered thick!
Lawrence saw "thousands of women in the villages, and could not remember, save one or two exceptions, ever seeing a really beautiful face;" but the heaviest blow was dealt them by Jacquemont, who, as a gay Frenchman, should have been an excellent judge: "Je n'avais jamais vu auparavant d'aussi affreuses sorcieres!"
I had hoped to have given, through the kindness of Colonel Ward, a full list of the birds of Kashmir. Up to the time of going to press, however, the complete list has not been made out. A very large proportion, however, has been published in the Journal of the Bombay Nat. Hist. Society. I would refer those desirous of a knowledge of the birds of Kashmir to the above Journal for 23rd April and 20th Sept. 1906, and 15th Feb. 1907. Also to Hume and Henderson's Lahore to Yarkand, and to Le Mesurier's Game, Shore, and Water Birds of India, to which I am indebted for the following:—
"In Kashmir, out of 116 genera of land birds, 34 have a wide range, 32 are characteristic of the Palar Arctic, 29 of the Indian, and 21 of the Himalo-Chinese sub-region. Only one species is peculiar to Kashmir, a very normal bullfinch (pyrula)."
The flora, which is most interesting, has yet (as far as I know) to be treated independently of the neighbouring regions. Royle is scientific but antiquated, and I know of no better list than that given by Lawrence in his Valley of Kashmir.
It may interest any one intending a trip to Kashmir to see a note of reasonable expenses as incurred by two people during a nine-month absence from England. Therefore I append a precis of ours.
It is to be remembered that a saving might be effected in many particulars by any one knowing something of the country. We had to buy our experience. Fully L10 or L12 could be saved in wages, as at first we had a fighting tail like "Ta Phairson" of "four-and-twenty men and five-and-thirty pipers"—and pipers have to be paid! We also hired tents when we did not really require them. Against these outgoings, however, it should be borne in mind that, thanks to the kindness of friends, we paid a merely nominal rent for a "State" hut at Gulmarg. At Abbotabad, Jaipur, and Udaipur, also, we had no hotel bills to meet.
PRECIS OF EXPENSES—TWO PERSONS
LONDON TO KARACHI (25 Days) L s. d. L s. d. Half-Return fares, 1st class, London to Trieste, and thence by Austrian Lloyd (unaccelerated) 60 0 0 Hotels, sleeping-car, gratuities, wine bills, &c. 16 15 0 Baggage expenses 8 15 7 ————— 85 10 7
BOMBAY TO LONDON (25 Days) Share of fares 60 0 0 Hotel expenses and sundries, as before 10 6 8 Baggage expenses, dock dues, &c. 17 11 4 ————— 87 18 0
KARACHI TO SRINAGAR (16 Days) Rail and baggage expenses to Pindi 12 6 8 Landau and two ekkas to Srinagar, inclusive of gratuities, tolls, &c. 10 10 8 Hotels, Dak bungalows, &c. 13 18 9 Duty on firearms (repayable on leaving) 1 16 8 Resais, waterproof for luggage, kettles, &c. 1 19 3 Servant's fare to Karachi, wages, &c. 2 12 8 ————— 43 4 8 ——————- Carry forward 216 13 3
EXPENSES IN KASHMIR (6 Months) L s. d. L s. d. Brought forward 216 13 3
Food, wine, washing, cigars, &c. 72 7 3 Wages, inclusive of various clothes 42 9 9 Amusements, golf and tennis subscriptions, &c. 11 7 2 Hire of boats, tents and equipment 17 6 5 Transport coolies and ponies 33 14 11 Hire of hut at Gulmarg 5 6 8 Sundry furniture, cooking gear, yakdans, &c. 9 0 8 —————- 191 12 10
BARAMULA TO BOMBAY (1 Month)
Landau and four ekkas, with gratuities and tolls. 13 14 0 Dak bungalows, hotels, &c. 18 5 8 Wages, inclusive of gratuities 6 14 0 Rail, Pindi to Bombay (via Udaipur) 16 17 0 Baggage 5 2 8 Hire of carriages, &c. 1 4 11 ————— 61 18 3 Loss by exchange on cheques. 5 19 7 —————— Total 476 3 11 ============
INDEX AND NOTES
ABBOTABAD, A frontier station garrisoned by a mobile force of Gurkhas and Royal Artillery, whence any descent from the Black Mountain or Chilas country can be checked. Named after Lieutenant Abbot, who reduced the neighbourhood to order in 1845-48. Aden, Occupying a warm corner just outside the straits of Babol-Mandeb; was the first addition made to the British dominions in the reign of Queen Victoria, having been taken from the Arabs in 1839. Agates, Agra, Rose to importance under the Moguls, becoming their seat of government after Akbar quitted the city he had built, Fatehpur-Sighri, until Aurungzeb removed the seat of government to Delhi. Akbar, The third, and in many ways the greatest, of the six "Great Mogul" Emperors of India. A warrior first, he consolidated his conquests with the genius of an enlightened statesman. Alsu, A small village on the north-west shore of the Wular Lake. Amar Singh (General Raja Sir Amar Singh, K.C.S.I.), Brother of His Highness Sir Pratab Singh, G.C.S.I., Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir; is Vice-President of the States Council and owner of much land in Kashmir, the prosperity of which he has done much to promote. Amber, The ancient capital of Jaipur; was built in the eleventh century, its Rajput rulers being the powerful allies of Chitor during her struggles against the Mohammedan invasion. The Palace was built by Raja Maun, circa 1600, in the days of Akbar, whose cousin he was by marriage ( comp. ). Amber was deserted in 1728 by Jey Singh for his new city of Jaipur. Amethyst, This stone should be much worn in Scotland, particularly on New Year's Day, it having been (according to the Greek derivation of the name) an antidote to drunkenness! Amira Kadal, The highest of the seven bridges at Srinagar; a fine modern structure, replacing that built by Amir Khan Jawan Sher, the Pathan, who also built Sher Garhi. Anda, Egg. Anna, the sixteenth part of a rupee, value one penny. Apharwat, One of the Pir Panjal range, which rises above Gulmarg, height 14,500 feet. Aru, A small village, beautifully situated about seven miles above Pahlgam. Asti, "Go slow." Astor, A district on the main route from Kashmir to Gilgit, the village is about ninety-two miles from Bandipur. Two passes (the Rajdiangan, or Tragbal, 11,800 feet, and the Boorzil, 13,500 feet) have to be crossed. About ten passes are issued each season to sportsmen, markhor and ibex being the game. Atchibal, A village seven miles from Islamabad, where many springs burst out from the rocks. Atchibal was a favourite pleasure-garden of the Mogul Emperors, the remains of which still exist. Aurungzeb, The last of the six "Great Moguls"; deposed and imprisoned his predecessor Shah Jehan in 1658, and reigned until 1707. Bigoted and intolerant, he shares with Sikander the odium of having destroyed many of the ancient Hindu temples of Kashmir. Avantipura, The modern village is near the extensive ruins named after King Avanti Verma, which formed once the capital of Kashmir.
Bahamarishi, (Baba-pam-Rishi=Father Smoothbeard.) A village some three miles below Gulmarg; the ziarat is named after a rishi, or ascetic, of the sixteenth century. Baloo, (Kashmiri, Harpat) "Rara avis in terras, nigroque similima cignis." Anglice, a bear. Bandipur, An important village on the north shore of the Wular Lake, the starting-point for Gilgit, &c. Oddly enough, Bandipur is not marked on the Ordnance Map. Bandobast, A bargain or arrangement. Bappa, An eighth-century Rajput hero, and ancestor of the present chiefs of Mewar; appears to have had strong Mormon proclivities. Baramula, The third town in Kashmir, having some 900 houses, is built on the Jhelum at its outflow from the Kashmir Valley: it is also built on the west focus of seismic disturbance in Kashmir, and was destroyed by an earthquake in 1885, when 3000 Baramulans were killed. We were unaware of these interesting facts on the morning of April 4! The "Palms of Baramoule," which Moore sang of, are like snakes in Iceland—they do not exist. Bara singh, The Kashmir stag. Bawan, Beera, Bejbehara, The ancient Vijayasvara, a picturesque village and bridge about four miles below Islamabad. Bernier, F., a Frenchman attached to the court of Aurungzeb as medical adviser; wrote Voyage a Kachemire. Bhanyar, Bheostie, The Indian Aquarius—the water-bearer. Bhils, Birch, (Kashmiri, Burza) The bark used in making the paper for which Kashmir was noted, also for roofing, it being strong and impervious to water. Blue pine, Pinus Excelsa, (Kashmiri, Yar.) Bombay, Books on Kashmir:(1) Bernier, Voyage a Kachemire (Utrecht, 1724); (2) Forster's (G) Journey from Bengal to England (London, 1798); (3) Moorcroft, Travels in Kashmir, &c. edited by Wilson, 1841; (4) Jacquomont (V), Voyage dans l'Inde (Paris, 1841); (5) Vigne (G. T.), Travels in Kashmir, &c., 1844; (6) Hugel's Travels, 1845; (7) Drew, Jummoo and, Ktishmir Territories; and (8) Lawrence's Valley of Kashmir 1895. Budmash, A scoundrel. Bund, An embankment or dyke to bank a river. Burra, Big, or great.
Carnelian, "Flesh-stone"—for origin read Marryat's Pacha of Many Tales Chakhoti, Chandni Chowk, Chaplies, Chappar, Paddle with heart-shaped blade. Chatris, The cenotaphs of the Maharanas of Mewar; they stand in a walled enclosure between Udaipur and the railway station. Chonar, Plaianus Orientals or Oriental plane. This magnificent tree is supposed to have been introduced into Kashmir by the Mogul Emperors. It grows to a great size, one measured by Lawrence being sixty-three feet five inches in circumference at five feet above the ground! There is a very fair specimen in Kew Gardens, between the pond and the "herbaceous border." Chilas, Chit, A note or letter, and also a character or recommendation, Every man collects something, from pictures to tram tickets—the native collects "chits." Like other collectors he will beg, borrow, or steal to improve his store, and life is made a burden by the perpetual writing and reading of these mendacious documents. Chitor, Chittagul Nullah, The next nullah to the south-west of the Wangat. The village of Wangat is wrongly placed in it, according to the Ordnance Map. Chondawats, A Rajput clan. Chota, Little, Chota Hazm = petit dejeuner or early breakfast. Chowkidar, A functionary whose principal duty seems to be to snore in the verandah at night and scare other robbers away. Chupatty, A flabby sort of scone. Chuprassie, Cockburn's Agency, The nearest approach to "Whiteley's" in Kashmir.
Dak, Post. Dak Bungalow=posting station. Dal Lake, Dal means lake (in a plain), while nag is a mountain tarn. Dandy, A sort of enclosed chair with four projecting arms, wherein pretty ladies are carried when it doesn't suit them to walk. Degchies, Cooking utensils—best made of aluminium, owing to the unclean ways of native scullions. Dekho, See, look! Delhi, The capital of the Mogul Emperors, dating from 1638, when Shah Jehan commenced to build the great fort. The ancient city lies some miles to the south. Delhi was taken by General Lake in 1803. Deodar, (Kashmiri, Diar.) Cedrus Lebani, var. Deodara. The most valuable tree in Kashmir, where it was formerly abundant. It is now chiefly found in the north-west districts, and it is carefully cherished by the "Jungly Sahib" and his myrmidons. Dobie, The thing that ruins all your shirts and causes you to shatter the Third Commandment. Domel, Village with Dak Bungalow, at the confluence of the Jhelum and the Kishenganga. Doolie, Doras, Dounga, "The boats of Kashmir are very long and narrow, and are rowed with paddles from the stern, which is a little elevated, to the centre; a tilt of mats is extended for the shelter of passengers or merchandize" (Forster); the mats are made of "pits" (reed mace), a swamp plant. Drogmulla, Dubgam, A village at junction of the Pohru with the Jhelum, about seven miles above Baramula.
EARTHQUAKE, An upsetting event of too frequent occurrence in Kashmir. Particularly severe visitations occurred in 1827 and 1885 (see Baramula). Echo Lake, A small tarn on the top of Apharwat. Ek, One. (Ek dam=immediately.) Ekka, Embroidery, Erin Nullah, Eshmakam, =Eysh Makam("the delightful halting-place") Above the village stands the shrine of Zyn-u-din, one of the four disciples of the Kashmir patron saint, Shah Nur-u-din.
FATERPUR-SIGHRI, Ferozepore Nullah, Floating Gardens,
GANESBAL, The boulder, red-stained and extremely sacred, which lies in the middle of the Lidar; bears some fancied likeness to Ganesh (the elephant-headed god). Gangabal, A sacred lake, lying under the north glaciers of Haramok at the elevation of 12,000 feet. It is said to be a source of the Ganges(!) and is an object of pilgrimage Ghari, Ghari Habibullah, Ghari Wallah, The Jehu of these parts. Ghat, Gold mohur, Golf, Gram, Grass shoes, Gujar, Is not a Kashmiri, being a member of the semi-nomad tribes which graze buffaloes and goats upon the hills. He speaks Parimu or Hindki. Gulmarg, (The Rose Marg.) The most frequented resort of the English in Kashmir during July and August; stands some 8500 feet above the sea, wherefore some people find the air too rarefied. Gulmarg was first mentioned by Yusaf Khan in 1580. Gunderbal, A village placed where the Sind River debouches into the plain. The starting-point for Leh and Thibet. Gupkar, Town of Gopaditya(?). A wine-manufacturing suburb of Srinagar, overlooking the Dal. Gurais, A large village on the Bandipur-Gilgit route, lying on the right bank of the Kishenganga, about forty-two miles from Bandipur.
HARAMOK, The predominating mountain (16,903 feet) of the valley, from almost every part of which his square-headed bulk is visible; hence the name, which means "all faces" or "all mouths." A legend holds that a vein of emerald lies near the summit, and that within view of this gem no snake can live Harbagwan, Hari Parbat, ("The Green Hill") So named on account of the gardens and vineyards which clothed its sides. Became the residence of Akbar, who built the wall round foot of hill in 1597. The fort on top was the work of the Pathan, Atta Mohamad Khan. Haripur, Harwan, Hasrat Bal Mosque, (The Prophet's Hair.) Various fairs and festivals are held here, the principal one being held upon the day that the Prophet rode up to Heaven on his mule Al Barak (the Thunderer). This mule, by-the-bye, is one of the five favoured beasts which the Mohammedans believe destined to immortality; the others are (1) Abraham's Ram, (2) Balaam's Ass, (3) the one upon which Christ rode on Palm Sunday, and (4) the dog which guarded the seven sleepers. Hassanabad Mosque, Built by Nur Jehan Begum (Nourmahal), and destroyed by the Sikhs. Hassan Abdal, (Abdal=fanatic). Hoopoe, Un-natural history of.
INSECTS, Of benign insects such as butterflies there are singularly few. Both mosquitoes and flies are very troublesome during the hot weather in the valley. Visits to native huts will probably lead to an introduction to other insects. In India ants become a nuisance: I met with a foraging party of extremely large and well-nourished ones as I entered my bath place one morning. I recognised them for the descendants—decadent somewhat—of the famous fellows who played Alberich to the Gold of Hindostan and regarding which Herodotus (commonly known as the Father of History, or of Lies, I forget which) asserted that they were of the bigness of foxes and ran with incredible swiftness. He evidently got this yarn from Pliny—
"Indicae Formicae. Aurum ex cavernus egerunt terrae Ipsis autem color Fehum magnitudo Aegypti Luporum" (Lib. xi. ch. 31)—
and passed it on to Sir J. Maundevil, who swallowed it greedily. "Theise pissmyres ben grete as houndes; so that no man dar come to the hilles, for the pissmyres wolde assaylen hem and devouren hem" (ch. xxx) For the wily method of catching the ants napping, together with other contes drolatiques, read Maundevil's Travels. Iris, (Kashmiri, Krishm) Succeeds the tulip and precedes the rose as typical of Kashmirian Flora, is used as fodder, and the fibre makes ropes, which are, however, not durable. Islamabad, (Or Anant Nag, the "Place of Countless Springs.") Is the second city in Kashmir, having about 9000 inhabitants; stands at the head of the navigable Jhelum, fifty miles by water and thirty-two by land above Srinagar.
Jade, Jagganath, Jain, A small sect founded by Mahavera, a contemporary of Gautama. The Jains were great temple-builders. Jehangir, Jeimal, With Putta, one of the national heroes of the Rajputs. They fell, while mere boys, in the heroic defence of Chitor against Akbar. Jey Singh, (Sowar Jey Singh.) Succeeded to the throne of Amber in 1699, founded Jaipur in 1728. He wrote the following, which I had not read when I visited his observatory at Jaipur "Let us devote ourselves at the altar of the King of Kings, hallowed be his name! In the book of the register of whose power the lofty orbs of Heaven are but a few leaves, and the stars, and that heavenly courser the sun, small pieces of money in the treasury of the Most High." Jheel, A small lake, or pond. Jhelum, (Kashmiri, Veth, Hindu, Vetasta, the ancient Hydaspes.) Rises at Vernag, becomes navigable at Kanbal, and is so for 120 miles, when it forms rapids below Baramula. Average breadth at Srinagar in December 210 feet, average depth 9 feet. Johur,
Kaj-nag, Kali, ("The Terrible.") Wife of Shiva or Mahadeva. Kanbal, Karachi, Karewas, "Where the mountains cease to be steep, fan-like projections, with flat, arid tops, and bare of trees, run out towards the valley" (Lawrence) Kashmir=Kashuf-mir (the country of Kashuf). Was ruled by Tartar princes from about 150-100 B.C. for several centuries; conquered after a year's struggle by Mahmoud of Guznee (1014-1015 A.D.). Invaded by Baber and Humayun, and finally conquered by latter in 1543, and formally annexed by Akbar in 1588. After the fall of Delhi (Nadir Shah) in 1739, Kashmir fell into the hands of Amirs of Cabul in 1753. It was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh in 1819, and, after the defeat of the Sikhs at the hands of the British, was handed over to Gulab Singh of Jammu for twenty-five lacs of rupees "Kailasa is the best place in the three worlds, Himalaya the best part of Kailasa, and Kashmir the best place in Himalaya" (Rajatarangini Kulan). Kastoora, Merula Boulboul (the grey-winged ousel). Jane bought "Freddie" one day in Srinagar, and he has been our friend and companion ever since—being at this present (August 1907) in rude health. Khansamah, A Cook. Khubbar, News—usually untrustworthy. Khud, A steep slope or precipice. Khudstick, An alpenstock made of tough wood, usually of Cotoneaster baccillaris (lun); should be well tested before purchase, as life may depend on its strength. Killanmarg, A wide sloping marg above Gulmarg, just above the pine forest on the slopes of Apharwat. Kilta, Creel made of the pliant withes of the Wych Hazel, Parrotia Jacquemontiana (Chob-i-poh). Kishenganga, A large affluent of the Jhelum which drains the Tilail Valley, passes Gurais, and joins the Jhelum below Muzafferabad. Kitardaji, Forest house in the Machipura. Kitmaghar, Bearer. Kobala, Kohinar, Kolahoi, or Gwash Brari, 17,800 ft. The loftiest peak in Kashmir proper. It has not yet been ascended. Koolan, Kralpura, Kulan, A peak of the Pir Panjal, at the head of the Ferozepore Nullah. Kulgam, or Kuligam. Kunis, Kurnavati, Kutab Minar,
Lacquer, Lahore, Capital of the Punjab. An ancient and interesting city, which (like Agra and Delhi) only attained its zenith of prosperity in the days of Akbar. Lakri, A stick (at Gulmarg also a golf-club). Lalpura, A charming village in the Lolab. Larch, Lidar, Liddar, or Lambodri, Drains the Kolahoi district, and forms the first substantial affluent of the Jhelum, which it joins below Islamabad. Lidarwat, A small Grujar village fifteen miles above Pahlgam, on the left bank of the river, about 10,000 ft. above sea-level. Logue or Log, Folk. Lumbadhar, The headman of a village.
Machipura, "The Place of Fish"—why, I cannot imagine! The district lying along the east foothills of the Kaj-nag. Mahadeo, (Mahadeva or Shiva) A sacred mountain and object of pilgrimage, north of Srinagar, 13,500 feet high. Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, H.H. Sir Pratab Singh, G.C.S.I., succeeded his father Ranbir Singh (who was third son of Gulah Singh) in 1885. The family is of the Rajput Dogras. "His kindness to all classes has won him the affection of his people" (Lawrence). Maharana, H.H. the Maharana Dhiraj Sir Fateh Singh, G.C.S.I., of Udaipur, is head of the Rajput princes in point of blood, being descended from the Suryabansi, or Children of the Sun. Mahseer, Malingam, Manji or Hanji, A Kashmiri water-thief or boatman. Manserah, Mar (snake) Canal. A dirty but most picturesque waterway between the Dal and the Anchar Lakes. Marg,(Margh?) Persian for a garden abounding in plants. Margam, Martand, The principal temple in Kashmir—stands on a high karewa some few miles from Islamabad. Metal-work, Mewar, Mogul, The Moguls were a warlike people of Central Asia, who, under Timur (Tamerlane) their chief, sacked Delhi in 1398. At the great battle of Panipat, in 1524, Baber the Mogul (direct descendant of Timur) defeated the Sultans of Delhi. He was the first of the six "Great" Moguls (the others being Humayun, Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jehan, and Aurungzeb), who ruled India with unparalleled magnificence for 150 years. Mulberry, (Morus sp. Kashmiri Tul) A very precious tree in Kashmir, on account of the silk industry. It grows to a great size, attaining a girth of 25 feet. Murghi, A fowl. Murree, A hill station and sanatorium, 37 miles from Rawal Pindi, on a hill 7500 feet above the sea. Its importance dates from 1850. Forster speaks of it as a small village in 1786. Musafferabad, ("The Place of Victory") Built by Masufer Khan, Rajah of Chikri. Mussick, Water-skin.
NAG, A mountain lake or tarn. Nagas, Human-bodied, snake-tailed gods. Nagmarg, Nanga Parbat, A great mountain in the Chilas country, 26,620 feet high (the fourth in point of height in the world), Mommery and two guides were destroyed in 1895, probably by an avalanche, while attempting the ascent. Nassim Bagh, ("The Garden of Delicious Breezes") A favourite spot in the days of the Mogul Emperors. Akbar planted 1200 chenars. Neem tree. Neve, Dr. A. He and his brother are surgeons to the Kashmir Medical Mission, where for many years they have carried on the somewhat thankless task of benefiting the natives. Nishat Bagh, ("The Garden of Drink") Nopura, A village on the Pohru. Nourmahal, ("Light of the Palace"), or, more properly, Nur Jehan Begum ("Light of the World"), was the wife of Jehaugir, celebrated in Mooree's Lalla Rookh. Her life story was very curious. See Forster's Journey from Bengal to England, London, 1798. Nullah, A valley or ravine. Numdah,
ONTALA, Oodi Singh,
PADMANI, "The Lotus-lovely Lady." Pagdandy, A short cut. Pahlgam, "The Shepherd's Village," A Kashmiri summer resort for those who like quiet. It is 27 miles from Islamabad up the Lidar Valley, and is somewhat over 7000 feet above the sea. Pampur, (Padma-pur, city of Vishnu, or Padmun-pur, "the place of beauty"), principally noted now for its Pampur roti or bread, a speciality of the place. Pandrettan, or Pandrenthan, Puranadhisthana, "the old capital." Was built in the time of Partha by his Prime Minister, Meru. Parana Chauni, Patan. "The City" or "Ferry," the ancient Sankarapura, Sankaravarma having built two temples there at the end of the eighth century. Peechy, Afterwards, later, by-and-bye Peri Mahal, "The Abode of the Fairies." Built on the hill above Gupkar by Prince Dara Shikoh, probably for astronomical purposes Piasse, The onion. Pice, See Rupee. Pichola Lake, Pir Panjab, PirDogri for peak Pantzal, Kashmiri for ditto Pir also meant a saint, particularly one who lived in the pass in the days of Shah Jehan and Aurungzeb and who was interviewed by Bernier. The Pir Panjal was the route followed by the Moguls when coming to Kashmir, and, rough as it is, they sent elephants along it. The highest peak of the Pir Panjal is Tatakuti, 15,500 feet. Pohru, Poonch, A native state lying south-west of Kashmir, to which it is tributary. The Raja Buldeo Singh is cousin to the Maharajah of Kashmir. Poplar. There are two varieties of Poplar in Kashmir, the Italian or Black Poplar, and the White, the latter attains a great size, one near Gurais measuring 127 feet in height and 14-1/2 feet in girth. Porcelain, Port Said, Puttoo, Native cloth.
RAINAWARI, Rajput, The brave and chivalrous inhabitants of Rajputana. Bernier, probably influenced by Mogul opinion, attributes much of their valour to opium, as the following curious extract shows "Ils sont grands preneurs d'opium, et je me suis quelque fois etonne de la quantite que je leur en voiois prendre; aussi ils s'y accoutumerent des la jeunesse; le jour d'une bataille ils ne s'oublient pas de doubler la dose; cette drogue les anime ou plutot les enyvre, et les rend insensibles an danger, de sorte quils se jettant dans le combat comma des betes furieuses, ne sachant ce que c'est de fuir ... c'est un plaisir de les voir ainsi avec leur fumee d'opium dans la tete s'entre embrasser quand on est pret de combattre et se dire adieu les uns aux autres, comme gens qui sont resolus de mourir."—Vol. i. p. 54. Ramble-tamble egg, Scrambled eggs. Ram chikor, The great snow partridge (Tetragallus Himalayensis). Rampur. A small village in the Jhelum Valley, and a village on the way into the Lolab via Kunis. Rawal Pindi, Rassad, "Field Allowance" or extra rations given to coolies when doing any mountain work or away from supplies. Resai, Roorkhee chair, An extremely comfortable and portable chair made by the R.E. at Roorkhee. Rope bridge, Rupee=one fifteenth of a sovereign, or 1s. and 4d. 12 pice (or pies)= 4 paisa = 1 anna = 1 penny 16 annas = 1 rupee.
SAAF kuro, "Make clean." Saktawats, A Rapjut clan. Sari, A woman's garment, usually brilliant in colour, blood-red and dark blue being favoured. Sekwas, Sellar, Serow, Nemorhaidus bubalerius. Sesodia, The ruling family of Udaipur, formerly known as Gehlote. Shadipur, "The Place of Marriage"—probably with reference to the junction of the Sind and Jhelum rivers. Shah Jehan, The greatest builder of the Mogul Emperors. Ruled from 1627 to 1658, when he was deposed and imprisoned by Aurungzeb. Shalimar, Shalimar Bagh, Shambrywa, One of the peaks of the Kaj-nag. Shiah, A Mohammedan sect, usually much at variance with those of Sunni persuasion. Shikara, A light sort of canoe. Shikari, A necessary joint in the "fighting tail" of the sportive visitor to Kashmir. Usually a fraud, but, if not too proud, makes quite a good golf caddy. Shisha Nag, "The Glassy or Leaden Lake." Silver fir, Abies Webbiana (Kashmiri, Sungal). Grows to a great height, being known 110 feet high and 16 feet in girth. Sind Desert, Sind Valley, Singhara, Meaning "horned nut," the water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa). An article of diet much prized by the Kashmiri. Sogul, Sonamarg, "The Golden Marg." A summer station high up the Sind Valley on the route to Leh and Ladak. Sopor, =Sonapur, or the Golden City. A somewhat unclean little town of some 600 houses on the Jhelum, about eight miles by road and twelve by water above Baramula. Spill Canal, Cut in 1904, after the Great Flood of 1903, to carry some of the river clear of Srinagar and ease the pressure on the bund. Spruce, Picca, Morunda. (Kashmiri, Kachal.) Srinagar, Surga Nagur, City of the Sun. Has a population of 120,000. Became capital in 960 A.D., when the ancient city of Pandrettan was burnt in the reign of Abimanyu. The city was called Kashmir until recently, Martand being called Sringar by Jacquemont. Sultanpur, Sumbal, Said to be the site of the ancient city Jayapura. Sunt-i-kul = "Apple-tree Canal."
TAJ MAHAL, The magnificent tomb of Mumtez Mahal, favourite wife of Shah Jehan. Takht-i-Suleiman, A steep isolated hill rising nearly 1000 feet above Srinagar, crowned by a temple which is built on the ruins of a very ancient edifice. The Takht or Throne of Solomon is, according to the legend, the place which Solomon occupied during his mythical visit to Kashmir. Tangmarg, "The Open Marg". Is the village about 1500 foot below Gulmarg, which is the nearest point to Gulmarg attainable by wheeled conveyance. Tattoo, A pony. Tehsildhar, The functionary who has jurisdiction over a tehsil. Temples, For full description read Lawrence (Valley of Kashmir, chap. vi.) Their ruined state is partly due to earthquakes, but probably still more to the iconoclastic activity of Sikandar (d. 1416) and Aurungzeb. Tilail, Tonga, Topaz, Name derived from the Greek "to conjecture"—because no one knew whence they came! Tower of Fame, Tower of Victory, Tragbal, Tragam, A large village south-west of the Lolab, whence a route leads to Musafferabad. Tret, A station at the foot of the Murree hills on the road to Rawal Pindi. Trieste, Tronkol, Turquoise,
UDAIPUR, The capital of the ancient and powerful Rajput State of Mewar, founded by Oodi Singh after the fall of Chitor. Uri,
WALNUT, A valuable tree in Kashmir, where its fruit and timber are both greatly esteemed; grows to a very large size, one in the Lolab having a girth of 18 feet 10 inches. Wangat, Wardwan, The mountainous district on the east of Kashmir. Water buffalo, An ungainly and "sneevish" beast beloved of Gujars and nobody else. Weights 2 lbs. (English)=1 seer. 40 seers = 1 maund. Wood carving, Wular, Means "cave". The largest lake in India, being 12-1/2 x 5 miles in average extent. In floods it covers much extra space. Wych hazel, See Kilta.
ZIARAT, A Mohammedan shrine. Zoji La, The pass at the head of the Sind Valley which is crossed on going to Leh, height 11,300 feet.