With Pugin's "Contrasts" began the "Battle of the Styles." This was soon decided in Pugin's favour, so far as ecclesiastical buildings were concerned. Fergusson, who is hostile to Gothic, admits that wherever clerical influence extended, the style came into fashion. The Cambridge Camden Society was founded in 1839 for the study of church architecture and ritual, and issued the first number of its magazine, The Ecclesiologist, in 1841. But the first national triumph for secular Gothic was won when Barry's design for the new houses of Parliament was selected from among ninety-seven competing plans. The corner-stone was laid at Westminster in 1840, and much of the detail, as the work went on, was furnished by Pugin.
It was not long before the Gothic revival found an ally in the same great writer who had already come forward as the champion of Pre-Raphaelite painting. The masterly analysis of "The Nature of Gothic" in "The Stones of Venice" (vol. i., 1851; vols. ii. and iii., 1853), and the eloquence and beauty of a hundred passages throughout the three volumes, fascinated a public which cared little about art, but knew good literature when they saw it. Eastlake testifies that Ruskin had some practical influence on English building. Young artists went to Venice to study the remains of Italian Gothic, and the results of their studies were seen in the surface treatment of many London facades, especially in the cusped window arches, and in the stripes of coloured bricks which give a zebra-like appearance to the architecture of the period. But, in general, working architects were rather contemptuous of Ruskin's fine-spun theories, which they ridiculed as fantastic, self-contradictory, and super-subtle; rhetoric or metaphysics, in short, and not helpful art criticism.
Ruskin's adhesion to Gothic was without compromise. It was "not only the best, but the only rational architecture." "I plead for the introduction of the Gothic form into our domestic architecture, not merely because it is lovely, but because it is the only form of faithful, strong, enduring, and honourable building, in such materials as come daily to our hands."  On the other hand, Roman architecture is essentially base; the study of classical literature is "pestilent"; and most modern building is the fruit of "the Renaissance poison tree." "If . . . any of my readers should determine . . . to set themselves to the revival of a healthy school of architecture in England, and wish to know in few words how this may be done, the answer is clear and simple. First, let us cast out utterly whatever is connected with the Greek, Roman, or Renaissance architecture, in principle or in form. . . . The whole mass of the architecture, founded on Greek and Roman models, which we have been in the habit of building for the last three centuries, is utterly devoid of all life, virtue, honourableness, or power of doing good. It is base, unnatural, unfruitful, unenjoyable, and impious. Pagan in its origin, proud and unholy in its revival, paralysed in its old age." 
Ruskin loved the religious spirit of the mediaeval builders, Byzantine, Lombard, or Gothic; and the pure and holy faith of the early sacred painters like Fra Angelico, Orcagna, and Perugino. He thought that whatever was greatest even in Raphael, Leonardo, and Michelangelo came from their training in the old religious school, not from the new science of the Renaissance. "Raphael painted best when he knew least." He deplored the harm to Catholic and Protestant alike of the bitter dissensions of the Reformation. But he sorrowfully acknowledged the corruption of the ancient Church, and had no respect for modern Romanism. Against the opinion that Gothic architecture was fitted exclusively for ecclesiastical uses, he strongly protested. On the contrary, he advised its reintroduction, especially in domestic building. "Most readers . . . abandon themselves drowsily to the impression that Gothic is a peculiarly ecclesiastical style. . . . The High Church and Romanist parties . . . have willingly promulgated the theory that, because all the good architecture that is now left is expressive of High Church or Romanist doctrines, all good architecture ever has been and must be so—a piece of absurdity. . . . Wherever Christian Church architecture has been good and lovely, it has been merely the perfect development of the common dwelling-house architecture of the period. . . . The churches were not separated by any change of style from the buildings round them, as they are now, but were merely more finished and full examples of a universal style. . . . Because the Gothic and Byzantine styles are fit for churches, they are not therefore less fit for dwellings. They are in the highest sense fit and good for both, nor were they ever brought to perfection except when they were used for both." 
The influence of Walter Scott upon Ruskin is noteworthy. As a child he read the Bible on Sundays and the Waverley Novels on week-days, and he could not recall the time when either had been unknown to him. The freshness of his pleasure in the first sight of the frescoes of the Campo Santo he describes by saying that it was like having three new Scott novels. Ruskin called himself a "king's man," a "violent illiberal," and a "Tory of the old-fashioned school, the school of Walter Scott." Like Scott, he was proof against the religious temptations of mediaevalism. "Although twelfth-century psalters are lovely and right," he was not converted to Catholic teachings by his admiration for the art of the great ages; and writes, with a touch of contempt, of those who are "piped into a new creed by the squeak of an organ pipe." If Scott was unclassical, Ruskin was anti-classical. The former would learn no Greek; and the latter complained that Oxford taught him all the Latin and Greek that he would learn, but did not teach him that fritillaries grew in Iffley meadow. Even that fondness for costume which has been made a reproach against Scott finds justification with Ruskin. "The essence of modern romance is simply the return of the heart and fancy to the things in which they naturally take pleasure; and half the influence of the best romances, of 'Ivanhoe,' or 'Marmion,' or 'The Crusaders,' or 'The Lady of the Lake,' is completely dependent upon the accessories of armour and costume."  Still Ruskin had the critical good sense to rate such as they below the genuine Scotch novels, like "Old Mortality" and "The Heart of Mid-Lothian"; and he is quite stern towards the melodramatic Byronic ideal of Venice. "The impotent feelings of romance, so singularly characteristic of this century, may indeed gild, but never save the remains of those mightier ages to which they are attached like climbing flowers, and they must be torn away from the magnificent fragments, if we would see them as they stood in their own strength. . . . The Venice of modern fiction and drama is a thing of yesterday, a mere efflorescence of decay, a stage dream."  For it cannot be too often repeated that the romance is not in the Middle Ages themselves, but in their strangeness to our imagination. The closer one gets to them, the less romantic they appear.
MEDIEVAL SOCIAL IDEALS.—It is obvious how a fondness for the Middle Ages, in a man of Scott's conservative temper, might confirm him in his attachment to high Tory principles and to an aristocratic-feudal ideal of society; or how, in an enthusiastic artist like Pugin, and a gentleman of high-strung chivalric spirit like Sir Kenelm Digby, it might even lead to an adoption of the whole mediaeval religious system. But it is not so easy, at first sight, to understand why the same thing should have conducted Ruskin and William Morris to opinions that were more "advanced" than those of the most advanced Liberal. Orthodox economists looked upon the theories put forward in Ruskin's "Unto this Last" (1860), "Munera Pulveris" (1862-63), and "Fors Clavigera" (1871-84), as the eccentricities of a distinguished art critic, disporting himself in unfamiliar fields of thought. And when in 1883 the poet of "The Earthly Paradise" joined the Democratic Federation, and subsequently the Socialist League, and was arrested and fined one shilling and costs for addressing open-air meetings, obstructing public highways, and striking policemen, amusement was mingled with disapproval. What does this dreamer of dreams and charming decorative artist in a London police court?
But Socialism, though appearing on the face of it the most modern of doctrines, is in a sense reactionary, like Catholicism, or knight-errantry, or Gothic architecture. That is, those who protest against the individualism of the existing social order are wont to contrast it unfavourably with the principle of association which is found everywhere in the Middle Ages. No mediaeval man was free or independent; all men were members one of another. The feudal system itself was an elaborate network of interdependent rights and obligations, in which service was given in return for protection. The vassal did homage to his lord—became his homme or man—and his lord was bound to take care of him. In theory, at least, every serf was entitled to a living. In theory, too, the Church embraced all Christendom. None save Jews were outside it or could get outside it, except by excommunication; which was the most terrible of penalties, because it cut a man off from all spiritual human fellowship. The same principle of co-operation prevailed in mediaeval industry and commerce, organised into guilds of craftsmen and trading corporations, which fixed the prices and quality of goods, the number of apprentices allowed, etc. The manufacturer was not a capitalist, but simply a master workman. Government was paternal and interfered continually with the freedom of contract and the rights of the individual. Here was where Carlyle took issue with modern Liberalism, which proclaims that the best government is that which governs least. According to the laissez-faire doctrine, he said, the work of a government is not that of a father, but of an active parish constable. The duty of a government is to govern, but this theory makes it its duty to refrain from governing. Not liberty is good for men, but obedience and stern discipline under wise rulers, heroes, and heaven-sent kings. Carlyle took no romantic view of the Middle Ages. He is rather contemptuous of Scott's mediaeval-picturesque, and his Scotch Calvinism burns fiercely against the would-be restorers of mediaeval religious formularies and the mummeries of "the old Pope of Rome"—a ghastly survival of a dead creed. He said that Newman had the brain of a good-sized rabbit. But in this matter of collectivism versus individualism, Carlyle was with the Middle Ages. "For those were rugged, stalwart ages. . . . Gurth, born thrall of Cedric, it is like, got cuffs as often as pork-parings; but Gurth did belong to Cedric; no human creature then went about connected with nobody; left to go his way into Bastilles or worse, under Laissez-faire. . . . That Feudal Aristocracy, I say, was no imaginary one. . . . It was a Land Aristocracy; it managed the Governing of this English People, and had the reaping of the Soil of England in return. . . . Soldiering, Police and Judging, Church-Extension, nay, real Government and Guidance, all this was actually done by the Holders of Land in return for their Land. How much of it is now done by them; done by anybody? Good Heavens! 'Laissez faire, Do ye nothing, eat your wages and sleep,' is everywhere the passionate half-wise cry of this time." 
From 1850 onwards, in which year Ruskin made Carlyle's acquaintance, the former fell under the dominion of these ideas, and began to preach a species of Aristocratic Socialism. He denounced competition and profit-seeking in commerce; the factory system; the capitalistic organisation of industry. His scheme of a regenerated society, however, was by no means so democratic as that imagined by Morris in "News from Nowhere." It was a "new feudalism" with a king at the head of it and a rural nobility of "the great old families," whose relations to their tenantry are not very clearly defined. Ruskin took some steps towards putting into practice his plans for a reorganisation of labour under improved conditions. "Fors Clavigera" consisted of a series of letters to workingmen, inviting them to join him in establishing a fund for rescuing English country life from the tyranny and defilement of machinery. In pursuance of this project, the St. George's Guild was formed, about 1870, Ruskin devoting to it 7,000 pounds of his own money. Trustees were chosen to administer the fund; a building was bought at Walkley, in the suburbs of Sheffield, for use as a museum; and the money subscribed was employed in promoting co-operative experiments in agriculture, manufacturing, and education.
In 1848 the widespread misery among the English working class, both agricultural labourers and the operatives in cities, broke out in a startling way in the Chartist movement. Sympathy with some of the aims of this movement found literary expression in Charles Kingsley's novels, "Yeast" and "Alton Locke", in his widely circulated tract, "Cheap Clothes and Nasty"; in his letters in Politics for the People over the signature "Parson Lot"; in some of his ballads like "The Three Fishers"; and in the writings of his friends, F. D. Maurice and Thomas Hughes. But the Christian Socialism of these Broad Churchmen was by no means of the mediaeval type. Kingsley was an exponent of "Muscular Christianity." He hated the asceticism and sacerdotalism of the Oxford set, and challenged the Tractarian movement with all his might. Neither was this Christian Socialism of a radical nature, like Morris'. It limited itself to an endeavour to alleviate distress by an appeal to the good feeling of the upper classes; and by setting on foot trade-unions, co-operative societies, and workingmen's colleges. Kingsley himself, like Ruskin, believed in a landed gentry; and like both Ruskin and Carlyle, he defended Governor Eyre of Jamaica against the attacks of the radical press.
Ruskin and Morris travelled to Socialism by the pathway of art. Carlyle had early begun his complaints against the mechanical spirit of the age, and its too great reliance on machinery in all departments of thought and life. But Ruskin made war on machinery for different reasons. As a lover of the beautiful, he hated its ugly processes and products. As a student of art, he mourned over the reduction of the handicraftsman to a slave of the machine. Factories had poisoned the English sky with their smoke, and blackened English soil and polluted English rivers with their refuse. The railroad had spoiled Venice and vulgarised Switzerland. He would like to tear up all the railroads in Wales and most of those in England, and pull down the city of New York. He could not live in America two months—a country without castles. Modern architecture, modern dress, modern manufactures, modern civilisation, were all utterly hideous. Worst of all was the effect on the workman, condemned by competitive commercialism to turn out cheap goods, condemned by division of labour to spend his life in making the eighteenth part of a pin. Work without art, said Ruskin, is brutalising. To take pleasure in his work, said Morris, is the workman's best inducement to labour and his truest reward. In the Middle Ages every artisan was an artist; the art of the Middle Ages was popular art. Now that the designer and the handicraftsman are separate persons, the work of the former is unreal, and of the latter merely mechanical.
This point of view is eloquently stated in that chapter on "The Nature of Gothic" in "The Stones of Venice," which made so deep an impression on Morris when he was in residence at Oxford. "It is verily this degradation of the operative into a machine which, more than any other evil of the times, is leading the mass of the nations everywhere into vain, incoherent, destructive struggling for a freedom of which they cannot explain the nature to themselves. Their universal outcry against wealth and against nobility is not forced from them either by the pressure of famine or the sting of mortified pride. These do much, and have done much in all ages; but the foundations of society were never yet shaken as they are at this day. It is not that men are ill-fed, but that they have no pleasure in the work by which they make their bread, and therefore look to wealth as the only means of pleasure. It is not that men are pained by the scorn of the upper classes, but they cannot endure their own; for they feel that the kind of labour to which they are condemned is verily a degrading one, and makes them less than men. . . . We have much studied and much perfected, of late, the great civilised invention of the division of labour; only we give it a false name. It is not, truly speaking, the labour that is divided; but the men—divided into mere segments of men—broken into small fragments and crumbs of life, so that all the little piece of intelligence that is left in a man is not enough to make a pin, or a nail, but exhausts itself in making the point of a pin, or the head of a nail. . . . And the great cry that rises from all our manufacturing cities, louder than their furnace blast, is all, in very deed, for this—that we manufacture everything there except men. . . . And all the evil to which that cry is urging our myriads can be met only . . . by a right understanding, on the part of all classes, of what kinds of labour are good for men, raising them, and making them happy; by a determined sacrifice of such convenience, or beauty, or cheapness as is to be got only by the degradation of the workman." 
Morris' contributions to the literature of Socialism include, besides his romance, "News from Nowhere," two volumes of verse, "Poems by the Way" (1891)and "The Dream of John Ball"; together with "Socialism: Its Growth and Outcome" (1893), an historical sketch of the subject written in collaboration with Mr. E. Belfort Bax. Mackail also describes a satirical interlude, entitled "The Tables Turned, or Nupkins Awakened," which was acted thrice at Farringden Road in the autumn of 1887—a Socialistic farce in the form of a mediaeval miracle play—a conjunction quite typical of the playwright's political principles and literary preferences. Morris' ideal society, unlike Ruskin's, included no feudal elements; there was no room in it for kings, or nobles, or great cities, or a centralised government. It was primitive Teutonic rather than mediaeval; resembling the communal type described in "The House of the Wolfings." There were to be no more classes—no rich or poor. To ordinary Socialists the reform means a fairer distribution of the joint product of capital and labour; higher wages for the workingman, shorter hours, better food and more of it, better clothes, better houses, more amusements—in short, "beer and skittles" in reasonable amount. The Socialism of Ruskin and Morris was an outcome of their aesthetic feeling. They liked to imagine the work people of the future as an intelligent and artistic body of handicraftsmen, living in pretty Gothic cottages among gardens of their own, scattered all over England in small rural towns or villages, and joyfully engaged in making sound and beautiful objects of use, tools, furniture, woven goods, etc. To the followers of Mr. Hyndman these motives, if not these aims, must have seemed somewhat unpractical. And in reading "Fors Clavigera," one sometimes has a difficulty in understanding just what sort of person Ruskin imagined the British workman to be.
THE NEO-ROMANTICISTS.—The literature of each new generation is apt to be partly an imitation of the last, and partly a reaction against it. The impulse first given by Rossetti was communicated, through Morris and Swinburne, to a group of younger poets whom Mr. Stedman distinguishes as "Neo-Romanticists."  The most noteworthy among these are probably Arthur O'Shaughnessy, John Payne, and Theophile Marzials; though mention (want of space forbids more) should also be made of George Augustus Simcox, whose "Poems and Romances" (1869) are in the Pre-Raphaelite tradition. The work of each of these has pronounced individuality; yet, as a whole, it reminds one continually now of Rossetti, now of Morris, and again of Swinburne; not infrequently, too, of Keats or Leigh Hunt, but never of the older romanticism, never of Scott nor even of Coleridge or Tennyson. The reminder comes sometimes through a turn of phrase or the trick of the verse; but more insistently in the choice of subject and the entire attitude of the poet towards art and life, an attitude that may be vaguely described as "aesthetic." Even more distinctly than in Swinburne, English romanticism in these latest representatives is seen to be taking a French direction. They show the influence not only of Hugo and Gautier, but of those more recent schools of "decadents" which exhibit French romanticism in its deliquescent stage; writers like Theodore de Banville and Charles Baudelaire; books like Aloysius Bertrand's "Gaspard de la Nuit." Morbid states of passion, the hectic bloom of fever, heady perfumes of the Orient and the tropics; the bitter-sweet blossom of love; forced fruits of the hot-house (serres chaudes); the iridescence of standing pools; the fungoidal growths of decay; such are some of the hackneyed metaphors which render the impression of this neo-romantic poetry.
Marzials was born at, Brussels, of French parents. His "Gallery of Pigeons" is inscribed to the modern Provencal poet Aubanel, and introduced by a French sonnet. O'Shaughnessy "was half a Frenchman in his love for, and mastery of, the French language"; and on his frequent visits to Paris, made close acquaintance with Victor Hugo and the younger school of French poets. O'Shaughnessy and Payne were intimate friends, and dedicated their first books to each other. In 1870-72 they were members of the literary circle that assembled at the house of Ford Madox Brown, and there they met the Rossettis, Morris, Swinburne, and William Bell Scott. O'Shaughnessy emerges most distinctly from the group by reason of his very original and exquisite lyrical gift—a gift not fully recognised till Mr. Palgrave accorded him, in the second series of his "Golden Treasury" (1897), a greater number of selections than any Victorian poet but Tennyson: a larger space than he gave either to Browning or Rossetti or Matthew Arnold. Comparatively little of O'Shaughnessy's work belongs to the department of mediaeval-romantic. His "Lays of France," five in number, are founded upon the lais of Marie de France, the Norman poetess of the thirteenth century whose little fable, "Du coq et du werpil," Chaucer expanded into his "Nonne Prestes Tale." O'Shaughnessy's versions are not so much paraphrases as independent poems, following Marie's stories merely in outline.
The verse is the eight-syllabled couplet with variations and alternate riming, the style follows the graceful, fluent simplicity of the Old French; and in its softly articulated, bright-coloured prolixity, the narrative frequently suggests "The Earthly Paradise" or "The Story of Rimini." The most remarkable of these pieces is "Chaitivel," in which the body of a bride is carried away by a dead lover, while another dead lover comes back from his grave in Palestine and fights with the bridegroom for possession of her soul. The song which the lady sings to the buried man is true to that strange mediaeval materialism, the cleaving of "soul's love" to "body's love," the tenderness intense that pierces the "wormy circumstance" of the tomb, and refuses to let the dead be dead, which was noted in Keats' "Isabella":
"Hath any loved you well, down there, Summer or winter through? Down there, have you found any fair Laid in the grave with you? Is death's long kiss a richer kiss Than mine was wont to be— Or have you gone to some far bliss And quite forgotten me?"
Of similar inspiration, but more pictorially and externally Gothic, are such tales as "The Building of the Dream" and "Sir Floris" in Payne's volume, "The Masque of Shadows." The former of these, introduced by a quotation from Jehan du Mestre, is the history of a certain squire of Poitou, who devotes himself to necromancy and discovers a spell in an old Greek manuscript, whereby, having shod his horse with gold and ridden seven days into the west, he comes to the enchanted land of Dame Venus and dwells with her a season. But the bliss is insupportable by a mortal, and he returns to his home and dies. The poem has analogies with "The Earthly Paradise" and the Tannhaeuser legend. The ancient city of Poitou, where the action begins, is elaborately described, with its "lazy grace of old romance";
"Fair was the place and old Beyond the memory of man, with roofs Tall-peak'd and hung with woofs Of dainty stone-work, jewell'd with the grace Of casements, in the face Of the white gables inlaid, in all hues Of lovely reds and blues. At every corner of the winding ways A carven saint did gaze, With mild sweet eyes, upon the quiet town, From niche and shrine of brown; And many an angel, graven for a charm To save the folk from harm Of evil sprites, stood sentinel above High pinnacle and roof."
"Sir Floris" is an allegorical romaunt founded on a passage in "Le Violier des Histoires Provenciaux." The dedication, to the author of "Lohengrin," praises Wolfram von Eschenbach, the poet of "Parzival," as "the sweetest of all bards." Sir Floris, obeying a voice heard in sleep, followed a white dove to an enchanted garden, where he slew seven monsters, symbolic of the seven deadly sins; from whose blood sprang up the lily of chastity, the rose of love, the violet of humility, the clematis of content, the marigold of largesse, the mystic marguerite, and the holy vervain "that purgeth earth's desire." Sir Galahad then carries him in a magic boat to the Orient city of Sarras, where the Grail is enshrined and guarded by a company of virgin knights, Percival, Lohengrin, Titurel, and Bors. Sir Floris sees the sacred chalice—a single emerald—lays his nosegay upon the altar, witnesses the mystery of the eucharist, and is kissed upon the mouth by Christ. This poet is fond of introducing old French words "to make his English sweet upon his tongue"; accueillade, valiantise, faineant, allegresse, gentilesse, forte et dure, and occasionally a phrase like dieu vous doint felicite. Payne's ballads are less characteristic. Perhaps the most successful of them is "The Rime of Redemption"—in "The Masque of Shadows" volume. Sir Loibich's love has died in her sins, and he sits by the fire in bitter repentance. He hears the voice of her spirit outside in the moonlight, and together they ride through the night on a black steed, first to Fairyland, then to Purgatory, and then to the gate of Heaven. Each of these in turn is offered him, but he rejects them all—
"With thee in hell, I choose to dwell"—
and thereby works her redemption. The wild night ride has an obvious resemblance to "Lenore":
"The wind screams past; they ride so fast, Like troops of souls in pain The snowdrifts spin, but none may win To rest upon the twain."
Very different from these, and indeed with no pretensions to the formal peculiarities of popular minstrelsy, is O'Shaughnessy's weird ballad "Bisclaveret,"  suggested by the superstition concerning were-wolves:
"The splendid fearful herds that stray By midnight"— "The multitudinous campaign Of hosts not yet made fast in Hell."
Bisclaveret is the Breton word for loup garou; and the poem is headed with a caption to this effect from the "Lais" of Marie. The wild, mystical beauty of which the Celtic imagination holds the secret is visible in this lyrist; but it would perhaps be going too far to attribute his interest in the work of Marie de France to a native sympathy with the song spirit of that other great branch of the Celtic race, the ancient Cymry.
Payne's volume of sonnets, "Intaglios" (a title perhaps prompted by the chiselled workmanship of Gautier's "Emaux et Camees") bears the clearest marks of Rossetti's influence—or of the influence of Dante through Rossetti. The inscription poem is to Dante, and the series named "Madonna dei Sogni" is particularly full of the imagery and sentiment of the "Purgatorio" and the "Vita Nuova." Several of the sonnets in the collection are written for pictures, like Rossetti's. Two are on Spenserian subjects, "Belphoebe" and "The Garden of Adonis", and one, "Bride-Night" is suggested by Wagner's "Tristram und Isolde." Payne's work as a translator is of importance, and includes versions of the "Decameron," "The Thousand and One Nights," and the poems of Francois Villon, all made for the Villon Society.
Jewels and flowers are set thickly enough in the pages of all this school; but it is in Theophile Marzials' singular, yet very attractive, verses that the luxurious colour in which romance delights, and the decorative features of Pre-Raphaelite art run into the most bizarre excesses. He wantons in dainty affectations of speech and eccentricities of phantasy. Here we find again the orchard closes, the pleached pleasances, and all those queer picture paradises, peopled with tall lilied maidens, angels with peacock wings and thin gold hoops above their heads, and court minstrels thrumming lutes, rebecks, and mandolins—
"I dreamed I was a virginal— The gilt one of Saint Cecily's."
The book abounds in nocturnes, arabesques, masquerades, bagatelles, rococo pastorals. The lady in "The Gallery of Pigeons" sits at her broidery frame and works tapestries for her walls. At night she sleeps in the northern tower where
"Above all tracery, carven flower, And grim gurgoil is her bower-window";
and higher up a griffin clings against a cornice,
"And gnashes and grins in the green moonlight,"
and higher still, the banderolle flutters
"At the top of the thinnest pinnacle peak."
In a Pre-Raphaelite heaven the maidens sit in the blessed mother's chamber and spin garments for the souls in Limbo, or press sweet wine for the sacrament, or illuminate missals with quaint phantasies. Mr. Stedman quotes a few lines which he says have the air of parody:
"They chase them each, below, above,— Half madden'd by their minstrelsy,— Thro' garths of crimson gladioles; And, shimmering soft like damoisels, The angels swarm in glimmering shoals, And pin them to their aureoles, And mimick back their ritournels."
This reads, indeed, hardly less like a travesty than the well-known verses in Punch:
"Glad lady mine, that glitterest In shimmer of summer athwart the lawn; Canst tell me whether is bitterest, The glamour of eve, or the glimmer of dawn?"
This stained-glass imagery was so easy to copy that, before long, citoles and damoisels and aureoles and garths and glamours and all the rest of the picturesque furniture grew to be a burden. The artistic movement had invaded dress and upholstery, and Pre-Raphaelitism tapered down into aestheticism, domestic art, and the wearing of sunflowers. Du Maurier became its satirist; Bunthorn and Postlethwaite presented it to the philistine understanding in a grotesque mixture of caricature and quackery.
THE REACTION.—Literary epochs overlap at the edges, and contrasting literary modes coexist. There was some romantic poetry written in Pope's time; and in the very heat and fury of romantic predominance, Landor kept a cool chamber apart, where incense was burned to the ancient gods. But it is the master current which gives tinge and direction to lesser confluents; and romanticism may be said to have had everything its own way down to the middle of the century. Then reaction set in and the stream of romantic tendency ceased to spread itself over the whole literary territory, but flowed on in the narrower and deeper channels of Pre-Raphaelitism and its allied movements. This reaction expressed itself in different ways, of which it will be sufficient here to mention three: realistic fiction, classical criticism, and the Queen Anne revival.
The leading literary form of the past fifty years has been the novel of real life. The failure of "Les Burgraves" in 1843 not more surely signalised the end of French romanticism, than the appearance of "Vanity Fair" in 1848 announced that in England, too, the reign of romance was over. Classicism had given way before romanticism, and now romanticism in turn was yielding to realism. Realism sets itself against that desire of escape from actual conditions into an ideal world, which is a note of the romantic spirit in general; and consequently it refuses to find the past any more interesting than the present, and has no use for the Middle Ages. The temperature, too, had cooled; not quite down to the Augustan grade, yet to a point considerably below the fever heat registered by the emotional thermometer of the late Georgian era. Byron's contemporaries were shocked by his wickedness and dazzled by his genius. They remonstrated admiringly with him; young ladies wept over his poetry and prayed for the poet's conversion. But young university men of Thackeray's time discovered that Byron was a poseur; Thackeray himself describes him as "a big, sulky dandy." "The Sorrows of Werther," which made people cry in the eighteenth century, made Thackeray laugh; and he summed it up in a doggerel ballad:
"Charlotte was a married woman And a moral man was Werther, And for nothing in creation Would do anything to hurt her."
* * * * *
"Charlotte, having seen his body Borne before her on a shutter, Like a well-conducted woman, Went on cutting bread and butter."
Mr. Howells in Venice sneers at Byron's theatrical habit of riding horseback on the Lido in "conspicuous solitude," as recorded in "Julian and Maddalo." He notices the local traditions about Byron—a window from which one of his mistresses was said to have thrown herself into the canal, etc.—and confesses that these matters interest him very little.
As to the Walter Scott kind of romance, we know what Mr. Howells thinks of it; and have read "Rebecca and Rowena," Thackeray's travesty of "Ivanhoe." Thackeray took no print from the romantic generation; he passed it over, and went back to Addison, Fielding, Goldsmith, Swift. His masters were the English humourists of the eighteenth century. He planned a literary history of that century, a design which was carried out on other lines by his son-in-law, Leslie Stephen. If he wrote historical novels, their period was that of the Georges, and not of Richard the Lion Heart. It will not do, of course, to lay too much stress on Thackeray, whose profession was satire and whose temper purely anti-romantic. But if we turn to the leaders of the modern schools of fiction, we shall find that some of them, like George Eliot and Anthony Trollope, are even more closely realistic than Thackeray—who, says Mr. Howells, is a caricaturist, not a true realist—and of others such as Dickens and Meredith, we shall find that, in whatever way they deviate from realism as strictly understood, it is not in the direction of romance.
In Matthew Arnold's critical essays we meet with a restatement of classical principles and an application of them to the literature of the last generation. There was something premature, he thinks, about the burst of creative activity in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Byron was empty of matter, Shelley incoherent, Wordsworth wanting in completeness and variety. He finds much to commend in the influence of a literary tribunal like the French Academy, which embodies that ideal of authority so dear to the classical heart. Such an institution acts as a salutary check on the lawlessness, eccentricity, self-will, and fantasticality which are the besetting intellectual sins of Englishmen. It sets the standard and gives the law. "Work done after men have reached this platform is classical; and that is the only work which, in the long run, can stand." For want of some such organ of educated opinion, to take care of the qualities of order, balance, measure, propriety, correctness, English men of genius like Ruskin and Carlyle, in their national impatience of prescription and routine, run on into all manner of violence, freak, and extravagance.
Again, in the preface of the 1853 edition of his poems, Arnold asserts the superiority of the Greek theory of poetry to the modern. "They regarded the whole; we regard the parts. With them the action predominated over the expression of it; with us the expression predominates over the action. . . . We have poems which seem to exist merely for the sake of single lines and passages; not for the sake of producing any total impression."
"Faust" itself, judged as a whole, is defective. Failing a sure guide, in the confusion of the present times, the wisest course for the young writer is to fix his attention upon the best models. But Shakspere is not so safe a model as the ancients. He has not their purity of method, and his gift of expression sometimes leads him astray. "Mr. Hallam, than whom it is impossible to find a saner and more judicious critic, has had the courage (for at the present day it needs courage) to remark, how extremely and faultily difficult Shakspere's language often is." Half a century earlier it would have needed courage to question Hallam's remark; but the citation shows how thoroughly Coleridge and Hazlitt and Lamb had shifted the centre of orthodoxy in matters of Shaksperian criticism. Now the presumption was against any one who ventured a doubt of Shakspere's impeccability. The romantic victory was complete. "But, I say," pursues the essayist, "that in the sincere endeavour to learn and practise . . . what is sound and true in poetical art, I seemed to myself to find the only sure guidance, the only solid footing, among the ancients." All this has a familiar look to one at all read in eighteenth-century criticism; but in 1853 it sounds very much like heresy.
As an instance of the inferiority of romantic to classical method in narrative poetry, Arnold refers to Keats' "Isabella."  "This one short poem contains, perhaps, a greater number of happy single expressions which one could quote than all the extant tragedies of Sophocles. But the action, the story? The action in itself is an excellent one; but so feebly is it conceived by the poet, so loosely constructed, that the effect produced by it, in and for itself, is absolutely null. Let the reader, after he has finished the poem of Keats, turn to the same story in the 'Decameron'; he will then feel how pregnant and interesting the same action has become in the hands of a great artist who, above all things, delineates his object; who subordinates expression to that which it is designed to express."
A sentence or two from Arnold's essay on Heinrich Heine, and we may leave this part of our subject. "Mr. Carlyle attaches, it seems to me, far too much importance to the romantic school of Germany—Tieck, Novalis, Jean Paul Richter. . . . The mystic and romantic school of Germany lost itself in the Middle Ages, was overpowered by their influence, came to ruin by its vain dreams of renewing them. Heine, with a far profounder sense of the mystic and romantic charm of the Middle Age than Goerres, or Brentano, or Arnim; Heine, the chief romantic poet of Germany, is yet also much more than a romantic poet; he is a great modern poet, he is not conquered by the Middle Age, he has a talisman by which he can feel, along with but above the power of the fascinating Middle Age itself, the power of modern ideas."
And, finally, the oscillation of the pendulum has brought us back again for a moment to the age of gayety, and to that very Queen Anne spirit against which the serious and sentimental Thomson began the revolt. There is not only at present a renewed appreciation of what was admirable in the verse of Pope and the prose of Swift, but we discover a quaint attractiveness in the artificiality of Augustan manners, dress, and speech. Lace and brocade, powder and patch, Dutch gardens, Reynolds' portraits, Watteau fans, Dresden china, the sedan chair, the spinet, the hoop-skirt, the talon rouge—all these have receded so far into the perspective as to acquire picturesqueness. To Scott's generation they seemed eminently modern and prosaic, while buff jerkins and coats of mail were poetically remote. But so the whirligig of time brings in its revenges, and the old-fashioned, as distinguished from the antique, begins to have a romanticness of its own. It is now some quarter century since people took to building Queen Anne cottages, and gentlemen at costume parties to treading minuets in small clothes and perukes, with ladies in high-cushioned hair and farthingales. Girl babies in large numbers were baptised Dorothy and Belinda. Book illustrators like Kate Greenaway, Edwin Abbey, and Hugh Thomson carried the mode into art. The date of the Queen Anne revival in literature and the beginnings of the bric-a-brac school of verse are marked with sufficient precision by the publication of Austin Dobson's "Vignettes in Rhyme" (1873), "Proverbs in Porcelain" (1877), and the other delightful volumes of the same kind that have followed. Mr. Dobson has also published, in prose, lives of Steele, Fielding, Hogarth, and Goldsmith; "Eighteenth-Century Vignettes," and the like. But his particular ancestor among the Queen Anne wits was Matthew Prior, of whose metrical tales, epigrams, and vers de societe he has made a little book of selections, and whose gallantry, lightness, and tone of persiflage, just dashed with sentiment, he has reproduced with admirable spirit in his own original work.
It was upon the question of Pope that romantics and classics first joined issue in the time of Warton, and that the critical battle was fought in the time of Bowles and Byron; the question of his real place in literature, and of his title to the name of poet. Mr. Dobson has a word to say for Pope, and with this our enquiries may fittingly end:
"Suppose you say your Worst of POPE, declare His Jewels Paste, his Nature a Parterre, His Art but Artifice—I ask once more Where have you seen such artifice before? Where have you seen a Parterre better grac'd, Or gems that glitter like his Gems of Paste? Where can you show, among your Names of Note, So much to copy and so much to quote? And where, in Fine, in all our English Verse, A Style more trenchant and a Sense more terse?"
"So I, that love the old Augustan Days Of formal courtesies and formal Phrase; That like along the finish'd Line to feel The Ruffle's Flutter and the Flash of Steel; That like my Couplet as Compact as Clear; That like my Satire sparkling tho' severe, Unmix'd with Bathos and unmarr'd by trope, I fling my Cap for Polish—and for POPE!" 
But ground once gained in a literary movement is never wholly lost; and a reversion to an earlier type is never complete. The classicism of Matthew Arnold is not at all the classicism of the eighteenth century; Thackeray's realism is not the realism of Fielding. It is what it is, partly just because Walter Scott had written his Waverley Novels in the mean while. Apart from the works for which it is directly responsible, the romantic movement had enriched the blood of the literature, and its results are seen even in writings hostile to the romantic principles. As to the absolute value of the great romantic output of the nineteenth century, it may be at once acknowledged that, as "human documents," books which reflect contemporary life have a superior importance to the creations of the modern imagination, playing freely over times and places distant, and attractive through their distance; over ancient Greece or the Orient or the Middle Age. But that a very beautiful and quite legitimate product of literary art may spring from this contact of the present with the past, it is hoped that our history may have shown.
 See vol. i., pp. 31-32.
 "Apologia pro Vita Sua," p. 139.
 "It would require the . . . magic pen of Sir Walter to catalogue and to picture . . . that most miserable procession" ("Callista: a Sketch of the Third Century," 1855; chapter, "Christianos ad Leones"). It is curious to compare this tale of the early martyrs, Newman's solitary essay in historical romance, with "Hypatia." It has the intellectual refinement of everything that came from its author's pen; and it has strong passages like the one describing the invasion of the locusts. But, upon the whole, Newman was as inferior to Kingsley as a novelist as he was superior to him in the dialectics of controversy.
 See the entire section "Selections from Newman," by Lewis G. Gates, New York, 1895. Introduction, pp. xlvi-lix.
 "Essays Critical and Historical" (1846).
 "Reminiscences," Thomas Mozley, Boston, 1882.
 "Life and Letters of Dean Church," London, 1894.
 "Recollections of Aubrey de Vere," London, 1897.
 "Idea of a University" (1853). See also in "Parochial and Plain Sermons" the discourse on "The Danger of Accomplishments," and that on "The Gospel Palaces." In the latter he writes, speaking of the cathedrals: "Unhappy they who, while they have eyes to admire, admire them only for their beauty's sake; . . . who regard them as works of art, not fruits of grace."
 Cardinal Wiseman had a decided preference for Renaissance over Gothic, and the churches built under his authority were mostly in Italian styles.
 "William George Ward and the Oxford Movement," London, 1889, pp. 153-55.
 "Recollections," p. 309.
 Frederick William Faber, one of the Oxford men who went over with Newman in 1845, and became Superior of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, was a religious poet of some distinction. A collection of his hymns was published in 1862.
 "Ritterzeit und Ritterwesen."
 See vol. i., pp. 221-26.
 Vol. i., p. 44 (ed. 1846).
 Ibid., pp. 315-16.
 Ibid., p. 350.
 See vol. i., chap. vii., "The Gothic Revival."
 A view of Fonthill Abbey, as it appeared in 1822, is given in Fergusson's "History of Modern Architecture," vol. ii., p. 98 (third ed.).
 For Scott's influence on Gothic see Eastlake's "Gothic Revival," pp. 112-16. A typical instance of this castellated style in America was the old New York University in Washington Square, built in the thirties. This is the "Chrysalis College" which Theodore Winthrop ridicules in "Cecil Dreeme" for its "mock-Gothic" pepper-box turrets, and "deciduous plaster." Fan traceries in plaster and window traceries in cast iron were abominations of this period.
 Vide supra, p. 153.
 "A blast from the icy jaws of Reason, the wolf Fenris of the Teutonic mind, swept one and all into the Limbo of oblivion—that sole ante-chamber spared by Protestantism in spoiling Purgatory. Perhaps this was necessary and inevitable. If we would repair the column, we must cut away the ivy that clings around the shaft, the flowers and brushwood that conceal the base; but it does not follow that, when the repairs are completed, we should isolate it in a desert,—that the flowers and brushwood should not be allowed to grow up and caress it as before" (vol. ii., p. 380, second ed.).
 Vol. ii., p. 364, note; and vide supra, p. 152.
 Ibid., p. 289.
 Vide supra, p. 34.
 Ibid., p. 286, note.
 "Stones of Venice," vol. ii., p. 295 (American ed. 1860).
 Ibid., vol. iii., p. 213.
 Ibid., vol. ii., pp. 109-14.
 See the final instalment of "Praeterita" for an extended eulogy of Scott's verse and prose.
 "I know what white, what purple fritillaries The grassy harvest of the river-fields Above by Ensham, down by Sandford, yields." —Matthew Arnold, "Thyrsis."
 "Stones of Venice," vol. iii., p. 211.
 Ibid., vol. ii., p. 4.
 Vide supra, p. 35.
 "I reckon him the remarkablest Pontiff that has darkened God's daylight. . . . Here is a Supreme Priest who believes God to be—what, in the name of God, does he believe God to be?—and discerns that all worship of God is a scenic phantasmagory of wax-candles, organ-blasts, Gregorian chants, mass-brayings, purple monsignori, etc." ("Past and Present," Book iii., chap. i.).
 Ibid., Book iv., chap. i.
 With Morris, too, when an Oxford undergraduate, "Carlyle's 'Past and Present,'" says his biographer, "stood alongside of 'Modern Painters' as inspired and absolute truth."
 For a systematic exposition of Ruskin's social and political philosophy, the reader should consult "John Ruskin, Social Reformer," by J. A. Hobson, London, 1898.
 Vide supra, pp. 279, 280.
 For a number of years, beginning with 1854, Ruskin taught drawing classes in Maurice's Working Man's College.
 See "Characteristics" and "Signs of the Times."
 Vide supra, p. 321.
 Vol. ii., chap. vi., section xv., xvi. Morris reprinted the whole chapter on the Kelmscott Press.
 "Victorian Poets," chap. vii., section vi.
 "An Epic of Women" (1870); "Lays of France" (1872); "Music and Moonlight" (1874); "Songs of a Worker" (1881).
 "A Masque of Shadows" (1870): "Intaglios" (1871); "Songs of Life and Death" (1872); "Lautrec" (1878); "New Poems" (1880).
 "A Gallery of Pigeons" (1873).
 "Arthur O'Shaughnessy." By Louise Chandler-Moulton, Cambridge and Chicago, 1894.
 Swinburne, as a living author, is not represented in the "Treasury." O'Shaughnessy's metrical originality is undoubted. But one of his finest lyrics, "The Fountain of Tears," has an echo of Baudelaire's American master, Edgar Poe, as well as of Swinburne;
"Very peaceful the place is, and solely For piteous lamenting and sighing, And those who come living or dying Alike from their hopes and their fears: Full of cypress-like shadows the place is, And statues that cover their faces; But out of the gloom springs the holy And beautiful Fountain of Tears."
 See especially "Sir Erwin's Questing," "The Ballad of May Margaret," "The Westward Sailing," and "The Ballad of the King's Daughter" in "Songs of Life and Death."
 In "An Epic of Women."
 "From time to time bright spirits, intolerant of the traditional, try to alter the bournes of time and space in these respects, and to make out that the classical, whatever the failings on its part, was always in its heart rather Romantic, and that the Romantic has always, at its best, been just a little classical. . . . But such observations are only of use as guards against a too wooden and matter-of-fact classification; the great general differences of the periods remain, and can never be removed in imagination without loss and confusion" ("A Short History of English Literature," Saintsbury, p. 724).
 Vide supra, pp. 123-25.
 "A Dialogue to the Memory of Mr. Alexander Pope."
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Abbot, The, 42 Aben-Humeya, 246 Addison, Jos., 95 Adonais, 120 Age of Wordsworth, The, 12, 24, 34, 87, 88 Ahnung und Gegenwart, 147 Alhambra, The, 239 Allemagne, L', 139, 141-45, 192, 208 Allingham, Wm., 258, 300, 304, 324 Alonzo the Brave, 77, 83 Alton Locke, 383 Amadis of Gaul, 236, 241 Amber Witch, The, 42, 280 Ancient Mariner, The, 48, 49, 54, 74-80 Ancient Poetry and Romance of Spain, 248 Ancient Spanish Ballads, 239, 247-49 Anima Poetae, 78 Annales Romantiques, 201 Anthony, 198 Antiquary, The, 31, 33, 178 Appreciations, 42 Ariosto, Lodovico, 91, 104, 107, 109, 122 Arme Heinrich, Der, 297 Arnim, Achim von, 134, 138, 155, 167, 192, 400 Arnold, Matthew, 255, 256, 263, 274-76, 278, 280, 356, 378, 398-400, 402 Arthur's Tomb, 305 Aslauga's Knight, 168 Aspects of Poetry, 18 At Eleusis, 342 Athenaeum, The, 134 Aucassin et Nicolete, 330 Aue, Hartmann von, 297 Aulnoy, Comtesse d', 194 Austin, Sarah, 162, 170 Ave atque Vale, 349
Bagehot, Walter, 39 Balin and Balan, 347, 348 Ballad of a Nun, 263, 264 Ballad of Dead Ladies, 298 Ballad of Judas Iscariot, 263 Ballade a la Lune, 189 Ballads and Sonnets (Rossetti), 310 Ballads of Irish Chivalry, 260 Balzac, Honore de, 42 Bande Noire, La, 216 Banshee and Other Poems, The, 261 Banville, Theodore F. de, 388 Barante, P. A. P. B., 226 Bards of the Gael and the Gall, 260 Basso, Andrea de, 110 Baudelaire, Chas., 388, 389 Bax, E. B., 386 Beata Beatrix, 291, 303, 310 Beckford, Wm., 367 Belle Dame sans Merci, La, 86, 118, 119, 127, 262, 279, 303, 307 Berlioz, Hector, l80, 181 Bertrand, A., 175, 388 Beyle, Henri. See Stendhal. Biographia Literaria, 48, 55, 63, 88, 89 Bisclaveret, 393 Blackmore, Sir Richard, 269, 270 Blake, Wm., 99 Blessed Damozel, The, 285, 301, 308, 311, 343 Blue Closet, The, 305 Bluethenstaub, 167 Boccaccio, Giovanni, 92, 123, 124 Bowles, W. L., 55-73 Bowring, Sir Jno., 248 Boyd, Henry, 96, 97 Boyesen, H. H., 139, 159, 160, 165 Brandl, Alois, 50-55, 75, 77, 82, 86 Brentano, Clemens, 134, 138, 141, 147, 153, 155, 167, 192, 247, 400 Bridal of Triermain, The, 6, 13, 14 Bride's Prelude, The, 300, 311 Broad Stone of Honour, The, 363-66 Brooke, Stopford A., 261 Brown, F. M., 389 Brownie of Bodsbeck, The, 253 Browning, Elizabeth B., 277, 278 Browning, Robert, 190, 221, 276, 277 Buchanan, Robert, 263 Building of the Dream, The, 390, 391 Buerger, G. A., 83, 133, 144, 159, 192, 297 Burgraves, Les, 226, 299, 396 Burke, Edmund, 145 Burne-Jones, Edward, 285, 304, 305, 309, 318-20, 322, 324, 340 Byron, Geo. Gordon, Lord, 8, 9, 26, 53, 60, 65-73, 81, 84, 99-101, 106, 116-18, 171, 192, 195, 196, 203, 232-34, 246, 333, 396-98
Caine, T. Hall, 279, 296, 301, 302, 308 Calderon de la Barca, Pedro, 156, 192, 234, 247 Calidore, 129 Callista, 355, 357 Calverley, C. S., 249 Campbell, Thomas, 64-67, 71, 72 Cancionero, The, 246 Carlyle, Thos., 15, 35, 39, 92, 103, 110, 137, 149, 151, 160, 162, 164, 168, 171, 335, 381, 382, 384, 398, 400 Cary, Henry F., 97-99, 102 Castle by the Sea, The 170 Castle of Otranto, The, 4, 10 Cecil Dreeme, 367 Chaitivel, 390 Chartier, Alain, 118 Chasse du Burgrave, La, 189, 277 Chateaubriand, F. A. de, 90, 176, 191, 202-08, 225, 246, 363 Chatterton, Thos., 52, 54, 86, 119, 191, 300 Chaucer, Geoffrey, 93, 315-17, 328, 329 Cheap Clothes and Nasty, 383 Chevaliers de la Table Ronde, Les, 225 Childe Harold, 70, 73, 91, 99, 233 Childe Roland, 276 Christabel, 14, 27, 49, 53, 54, 75, 80-85, 126, 296 Christian Year, The, 357, 361 Christmas Carol, A, 343 Chronicle of the Cid, 236 Cinq Mars, 191 Civil Wars of Granada, The, 247 Cloister and the Hearth, The, 230, 231 Coleridge, S. T., 9, 12-14, 27, 48-63, 74-89, 97-99, 119, 126, 127, 136-38, 158, l59, 168, 291, 295-97, 314, 355 Collins, J. Churton, 257, 260 Collinson, Jas., 284, 292, 293 Colvin, Sidney, 116, 127 Conde Alarcos, 247 Congal, 260 Conquete d'Angleterre, La, 39, 226 Conservateur Litteraire, Le, 201 Conspiracy of Venice, The, 246 Contes Bizarres, 167 Contes Drolatiques, 42 Contrasts, 368-71, 375 Count Gismond, 276 Courthope, W. J., 314 Cowper, Wm., 57, 58, 68 Croker, T. C., 253, 256, 258 Cromwell, 90, 218, 221 Cross, W. L., 1, 31, 38
Dante, Alighieri, 40, 90-113, 122, 282, 290, 298-301, 310, 311, 362, 393 Dante and his Circle, 299, 303 Dante at Verona, 310 Dante Gabriel Rossetti (Sharp), 291, 292, 306 Dante's Dream, 291 Dark Ladie, The, 49, 86 Dark Rosaleen, 259 Dasent, Sir Geo., 334 Davidson, Jno., 263, 264 Day Dream, The, 265-67 Death of Mlle. de Sombreuil, The, 216 Decameron, The, 123, 124, 393, 400 Defence of Guenevere, The, 275, 296, 309, 321, 324-28 Defence of Poetry (Shelley), 101 Deirdre, 260 Dejection: an Ode, 60, 86 Delacroix, Eugene, 177, 178 De Quincey, Thos., 38 Development of the English Novel, The, 1, 31, 38 Deveria, Eugene, 178, 195 Dialogue to the Memory of Mr. Alexander Pope, 402 Dies Irae, 5, 153 Digby, Kenelm H., 319, 363-66, 379 Discourse of the Three Unities, 133 Divine Comedy, The, 92-99, 102, 103, 105, 109, 111, 282, 290, 310, 362, 366 Djinns, The, 189 Dobell, Sydney, 262, 263 Dobson, Austin, 401, 402 Don Alvaro, 246 Dondey, Theophile, 185, 190 Don Quixote, 156, 241 Dream of Gerontius, The, 362 Dream of John Ball, The, 386 Dryden, Jno., 117, 124, 125, 269 Ducs de Bourgogne, Les, 226 Dumas, Alexandre, 198, 209 Duerer, Albrecht, 152, 153, 324, 373, 374
Earthly Paradise, The, 237, 238, 315, 321, 328-32, 334, 380, 390, 391 Ecclesiologist, The, 375 Edda, The, 334 Eden Bower, 315 Eichendorff, Joseph von, 146 Eighteenth Century Vignettes, 401 Elfinland Wud, 254, 255 Elves, The, 163 Emerson, R. W., 165, 166, 307 Endymion, 121, 126, 128, 342 English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, 26, 60, 63, 69, 70, 72 English Contemporary Art, 293 Enid, 270, 272 Epic and Romance, 46, 47 Epic of Women, An, 393 Epipsychidion, 101, 310 Erfindung des Rosenkranzes, Die, 153 Erl King, The, 192 Erskine, Wm., 6, 7, 13 Espronceda, Jose de, 246 Essay on Epic Poetry (Hayley), 95 Essays and Studies (Swinburne), 349, 351 Essays on German Literature (Boyesen), 139, 159, 160, 165 Essays on the Picturesque (Price), 34 Eve of St. Agnes, The, 85, 107, 120-22, 125-29, 307 Eve of St. John, The, 13, 22, 23 Eve of St. Mark, The, 130, 131
Faber, F. W., 360, 362 Faerie Queene, The, 120, 275 Fairies, The, 258 Fair Inez, 279 Fairy Legends of the South of Ireland, 253, 256, 258 Fairy Thorn, The, 258 Familiar Studies of Men and Books, 32 Fantasio, 226 Faust, 178, 191, 192, 238 Feast of the Poets, The, 108 Ferguson, Sir Samuel, 258-60 Fichte, J. G., 137 Fin du Classicisme, La, 175 Ford, R., 246, 248 Forest Lovers, The, 230-32 Fors Clavigera, 380, 383, 387 Fountain of Tears, The, 389 Fouque, F. de la M., 36, 139, 140, 153, 162, 167-69, 324, 363, 373 Fourteen Sonnets (Bowles), 55, 58-61 Fragments from German Prose Writers, 162 Frere, Jno. H., 248 From Shakspere to Pope, 116
Gallery of Pigeons, The, 388, 394, 395 Gareth and Lynette, 274 Gaspard de la Nuit, 388 Gates, L. E., 129, 355, 356 Gaule Poetique, La, 225 Gautier, Theophile, 167, 176-81, 183-85, 187, 188, 191-93, 195-98, 202, 219, 221-25, 349, 388, 393 Gebir, 235, 237 Genie du Christianisme, Le, 90, 176, 202, 203, 205-08, 363 Gentle Armour, The, 109, 110 Germ, The, 284 German Novelists (Roscoe), 167 German Poets and Poetry (Longfellow), 167 German Romance (Carlyle), 162 Gierusalemme Liberata, 91 Girlhood of Mary Virgin, The, 287, 290, 291 Glenfinlas, 13, 22 Globe, Le, 201, 202 Goblet, The, 164 Goblin Market, The, 82 Godiva, 265 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang, 5, 92, 133, 178, 191, 192 Golden Legend, The, 297 Golden Treasury, The, 25, 389 Golden Wings, 326-28 Goldsmith, Oliver, 95 Goerres, Joseph, 138, 147, 152, 363, 400 Gosse, Edmund, 116 Goetz von Berlichingen, 5, 133, 193 Gries, J. D., 156, 247 Grimm, Jakob and Wm., 154, 162, 247, 256 Guest, Lady Charlotte, 270
Hallam, Henry, 103, 399 Han d'Islande, 196, 218 Hardiknute, 3 Harold the Dauntless, 29 Hartleap Well, 19-21, 80 Hauptmann, Gerhart, 245 Hawker, R. S., 262, 263 Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 162-64 Hayley, Wm., 95, 96 Haystack in the Floods, The, 326 Heart of Midlothian, The, 31, 33, 379 Heine, Heinrich, 35-38, 139-41, 144, 146-49, 152, 154-59, l6l, 170, 400 Heinrich von Ofterdingen, 164-66 Heir of Redcliffe, The, 357 Helvellyn, 15, l6 Henri III., 209 Heretic's Tragedy, The, 276 Hereward the Wake, 281 Herford, C. H., 12, 24, 34, 87, 88 Hernani, 186, 188, 195-200 Hero Worship, 103, 111, 335 Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders, 152, 153 Hewlett, Maurice, 230-32 Higginson, T. W., 163 Histoire du Romantisme (Gautier), 176-81, 183-85, 187, 188, 191-93, 195-98, 22l-25 Histoire du Romantisme en France (Toreinx), 202 History of France (Michelet), 226 History of Literature (Schlegel), 157 History of Spanish Literature, A (Kelly), 246, 247 History of Spanish Literature, A (Ticknor), 242, 243, 248 History of the Crusades, 226 History of the Swiss Confederation, 153 Hita, Perez de, 247 Hogg, Jas., 250-55 Holy Cross Day, 277 Homme qui Rit, L', 219, 22l Hood, Thos., 278, 279 House of Life, The, 307, 310 House of the Wolfings, The, 232, 337-39, 387 Howells, W. D., 397, 398 Howitt, Chas. and Mary, 334 Hughes, Arthur, 305-07 Hughes, Thomas., 357, 383 Hugo, Francois V., 222 Hugo, Victor Marie, 90, 137, 173, 176, 178-82, 188, 189, 194-96, 200, 214-21, 224, 226, 247, 277, 298, 299, 349, 388, 389 Hunt, Jas. Leigh, 49, 105-13, 118, 119, 121-23, 127, 388 Hunt, Wm. H., 283, 284, 288-90, 292, 302, 306, 307 Hurd, Richard, 364 Hutton, R. H., 40 Hylas, 331 Hymns to the Night, 164 Hypatia, 355 Hyperion (Keats), 117, 122 Hyperion (Longfellow), 172
Idylls of the King, 268-75, 303, 347 Illustrations of Tennyson, 257, 260 Il Penseroso, 374 Imitation of Spenser (Keats), 120 Inferno, 96, 99, 103, 191 Intaglios, 393 Irving, Washington, 239 Isabella, 123-25, 307, 390, 400 Ivanhoe, 31, 36, 39, 40, 43, 379, 397 Jameson, Anna, 374, 375 Jeffrey, Francis, Lord, 37 Jenny, 309 John Inglesant, 357 Journal des Debats, 201 Journal of Speculative Philosophy, The, 166 Journey into the Blue Distance, 162, 163 Joyce, P. W., 260 Joyce, R. D., 260
Keats (Colvin), 116, 127 Keats, Jno., 53, 54, 82, 85, 86, 107, 113-31, 172, 228, 262, 264, 279, 287, 294, 299, 300, 306, 307, 314, 315, 342, 388, 390, 400 Kebie, Jno., 292, 357, 361 Keith of Ravelston, 262, 263 Kelly, J. F., 246, 247 Ker, W. P., 46, 47 Kilmeny, 252 Kinder und Hausmaerchen, 154, 162 King Arthur's Tomb, 327 Kinges Quair, The, 306, 312 Kingsley, Chas., 279-81, 292, 355, 383, 384 King's Tragedy, The, 306, 311-13 Knaben Wunderhorn, Des, 155, 172 Knight, Death, and the Devil, The, 152, 153, 324, 373 Knight's Grave, The, 87 Kronenwaechter, Die, 167 Kubia Khan, 87
Lady of Shalott, The, 365, 271, 303, 304, 324 Lady of the Lake, The, 19, 29, 251, 379 Lament for the Decline of Chivalry, 279 Lamia, 117, 129 Landor, W. S., 16, 20, 27, 53, 54, 117, 235, 237, 395 Lang, Andrew, 330 Lara, 233 Laus Veneris, 343, 349 Lay of the Brown Rosary, The, 277, 278 Lay of the Last Minstrel, The, 3, 5, 11, 25-28, 40, 53, 85, 252 Lays of Ancient Rome, 249 Lays of France, 389, 390 Lays of the Western Gael, 260 Leading Cases done into Equity, 249 Legends of the Cid, 246 Lenore, 83, 133, 144, 192, 297, 392 Leper, The, 349 Lesser, Creuze de, 225 Letters on Chivalry and Romance, 364 Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, 41 Lettres de Dupuis et Cotonet, 226 Lewis, M. G., 77, 83, 238, 239 Liberal Movement in English Literature, The, 314 Life and Death of Jason, The, 315, 321, 328-33 Life and Letters of Dean Church, The, 358 Life of William Morris, The (Mackail), 315, 320, 331, 333, 382 Light of the World, The, 288-90 Lindsay, A. W. C., 372-74 Lines on a Bust of Dante, 105 Literary Reminiscences (De Quincey), 38 Literature and Romance of Northern Europe, 334 Literature of Europe, The (Hallam), 103 Lockhart, J. G., 5, 7, 9, 11, 22, 23, 239, 247, 248 Locrine, 346 Longfellow, H. W., 105, 109, 164, 167, 170, 172, 239, 297 Lord of the Isles, The, 29, 85 Lorenzaccio, 226 Lorenzo and Isabella, 287, 291 Loss and Gain, 357, 359 Love, 86, 127 Love is Enough, 332, 333 Lovers of Gudrun, The, 330, 334-36 Lowell, J. R., 70, 82, 93, 116, 131, 165, 203, 260 Lucinde, 157 Luck of Edenhall, The, 170 Luerlei, Die, 141 Lyra Innocentium, 357 Lyrical Ballads, 18, 48, 74
Mabinogion, The, 270, 332 Macaulay, T. B., 103, 249 Mackail, W. J., 315, 320, 331, 333, 382 McLaughlin, E. T., 43 Madoc, 237 Mador of the Moor, 251 Maeterlinck, Maurice, 326 Maidens of Verdun, The, 216 Maids of Elfin-Mere, The, 258, 304, 324 Maigron, L., 33, 34, 44-46 Mallet, P. H., 107, 229 Malory, Sir Thos., 270, 272, 303, 347, 348 Manfred, 234 Mangan, J. C., 259, 260 Manzoni, Alessandro, 133 Maerchen (Tieck), 162 Marie de France, 390, 393 Marienlieder, 148 Marino Faliero, 234 Marion Delorme, 200 Marmion, 6, 15, 23, 29, 40, 90, 379 Martyrs, Les, 225 Marzials, Theophile, 285, 387, 388, 394, 395 Masque of Queen Bersabe, The, 277, 344 Masque of Shadows, The, 390, 392 Meinhold, J. W., 42, 280 Merimee, Prosper, 30, 33 Michaud, J. F., 226 Michelet, Jules, 226 Middle Ages, The (Hallam), 103 Millais, J. E., 283-85, 287, 288, 290, 291, 307 Milton, Jno., 93, 103, 269, 374 Minstrelsy, Ancient and Modern (Motherwell), 253 Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 21, 22, 24, 26, 243, 250, 251 Modern Painters, 6, 10, 284, 292, 294 Mores Catholici, 319, 366 Morgante Maggiore, 234 Morris, Wm., 29, 232, 237, 275, 285, 296, 304-06, 309, 314-40, 345, 350, 380, 382, 384-89 Morte Darthur (Malory), 106, 270, 273, 303, 304, 324, 347, 364 Morte d'Arthur (Tennyson), 271, 272 Motherwell, Wm., 250, 253-55 Mozley, T., 358 Mueller, Johannes, 153 Munera Pulveris, 380 Muse Francaise, La, 201 Music Master, The, 258, 300 Musset, Alfred de, 180, 189, 198, 226, 247 Myller, H., 154 Mysteries of Udolpho, 83
Nanteuil, Celestin, 178, 223-25 Nature of Gothic, The, 321, 375, 385, 386 Nerval, Gerard de, 190-92, 196, 197, 225, 349 New Essays toward a Critical Method, 122 Newman, J. H., 292, 319, 354-62, 366, 381 News from Nowhere, 317, 319, 382, 386 Nibelungenlied, The, 154, 155, 297 Nodier, Chas., 194 Northern Antiquities, 107, 229 Northern Mythology. 334 Notre Dame de Paris, 178, 179, 221, 224 Novalis, 134, 137, 148, 152, 164-67, 172, 302, 400
Ode to a Dead Body, 110 Ode to a Grecian Urn, 117 Ode to the West Wind, 102 Odes et Ballades (Hugo), 176, 180, 189, 217 Odes et Poesies Diverses (Hugo), 214 Odyssey, The, 331 Ogier the Dane, 330, 332 Old Celtic Romances, 260 Old Masters at Florence, 316 Old Mortality, 31, 33, 253, 379 Old Woman of Berkeley, The, 238, 239 Oliphant, F., 353 On First Looking into Chapman's Homer, 117, 122 Oriana, 265, 313, 324 Orientales, Les, 189 Orlando Furioso, 90, 91, 109 O'Shaughnessy, Arthur, 387-90, 393 Ossian, 208, 261
Palgrave, F. T., 25, 389 Palmerin of England, 236, 241 Paradise, 311 Parochial and Plain Sermons, 360 Parsons, T. W., 105 Partenopex of Blois, 90 Past and Present, 381, 382 Pater, Walter, 42, 79 Payne, Jno., 387-93 Perrault, Chas., 194, 265, 349 Percy, Thos., 3, 54, 57, 74, 159, 238, 295 Petrarca, Francesco, 92 Phantasus, 160 Pillar of the Cloud, The, 362 Poe, Edgar A., 162, 163, 300, 301, 389 Poems and Ballads (Swinburne), 296, 339, 343, 345, 349, 350 Poems and Romances (Simcox), 388 Poems by the Way, 386 Poets and Poetry of Munster, 259 Politics for the People, 383 Pollock, Sir Frederick, 249 Pope, Alexander, 52-54, 56, 63-73, 115-17, 402 Portrait, The, 311 Praeterita, 372, 378 Preface to Cromwell, 182, 188, 218-20 Pre-Raphaelitism (Ruskin), 293 Price, Sir Uvedale, 34, 374 Primer of French Literature, A, 183, 184 Prince Arthur (Blackmore), 270 Prince des Sots, Le, 225 Princess, The, 267, 268 Prior, Matthew, 401 Prophecy of Dante, The, 100, 101 Proverbs in Porcelain, 401 Psyche, 121 Pugin, A. C., 368 Pugin, A. W. N., 360, 361, 368-72, 375, 379 Pugin, E. W., 368 Purgatorio, 362
Queen Gwynnevar's Round, 262 Queenhoo Hall, 8, 20, 32 Queen Mab, 235 Queen's Wake, The, 252, 253 Quentin Durward, 31, 36 Quest of the Sancgreall, The (Westwood), 276 Quest of the Sangreal, The (Hawker), 262 Quiberon, 216
Racine et Shakspere, 38, 186, 208, 211, 213 Radcliffe, Anne, 41, 42, 82, 193 Rapunzel, 309, 326, 327 Raven, The, 301 Reade, Chas., 230 Rebecca and Rowena, 397 Recits Merovingiens, 226 Recollections of D. G. Rossetti (Caine), 296, 297, 301, 302, 308 Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 3, 17, 74, 107, 229, 238, 243, 247 Reminiscences (Mozley), 358 Remorse, 86, 89 Richter, J. P. F., 169 Rime of Redemption, The, 392 Rime of the Duchess May, The, 277, 278 Rivas, Duke de, 246 Robertson, J. M., 122 Rogers, Chas., 96 Roi s'Amuse, Le, 200, 201 Rokeby, 29 Romancero General, The, 243, 247 Roman Historique, Le, 33, 34, 44-46 Romantische Schule, Die (Heine), 36, 139-41 Romaunt of the Page, The, 277 Roots of the Mountains, The, 337, 338 Rosa, Martinez de la, 246 Rosamond, 346, 347 Rosamund, Queen of the Goths, 346 Roscoe, Wm., 65, 66 Rose, W. S., 90 Rose Mary, 263, 311, 312 Rossetti, Christina, 82, 282, 284, 302 Rossetti, D. G., 131, 228, 258, 262, 263, 265, 282-88, 290-92, 295-315, 318-21, 323, 324, 340, 343, 345, 350, 387-89, 393 Rossetti, Gabriele, 282 Rossetti, Maria F., 282 Rossetti, W. M., 282, 284 Runenberg, The, 163 Ruskin, Jno., 6, 10, 284, 286-89, 292-94, 304, 317, 321, 324, 371, 372, 375-80, 382-87, 398
Sacred and Legendary Art, 374, 375 Saint Agnes, 267 Saint Brandan, 263 Saint Dorothy, 344 Saint Patrick's Purgatory, 238 Saintsbury, George, 50, 118, 183, l84, 295, 324, 326, 395, 396 Saints' Tragedy, The, 279, 280, 292 Samuel Taylor Coleridge und die Englische Romantik, 50-55, 75, 77, 82, 86 Scherer, Wm., 167, 170 Schiller, J. C. F., 210, 212 Schlegel, A. W., 88, 140, 144, 145, 154, 156-59, 162, 165, 172, 192, 247 Schlegel, F., 99, 134, 135, 137, 148, 151, 157-59, 172, 247, 363 Scott, Sir Walter, 1-47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 71, 75, 77, 85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 119, 120, 127, 129, 136, 158, 167, 169, 172, 173, 178, 180, 192, 212, 226, 232, 243, 246, 247, 249-53, 256, 267, 295, 313, 320, 321, 323, 329, 352-56, 367, 378, 379, 397, 402 Scott, W. B., 292, 293, 305-07, 353, 389 Selections from Newman, 355, 356 Seward, Anne, 98 Shairp, J. C., 18 Shaker Bridal, The, 164 Shakspere, Wm., 210, 222, 399 Sharp, Wm., 291, 292, 306 Shelley, P. B., 8, 25, 101, 102, 120, 232-35, 299, 310, 340, 398 Short History of English Literature, A, 50, 118, 295, 324, 326, 395, 396 Shorthouse, J. H., 357 Short Studies (Higginson), 163 Sigerson, Jno., 259, 261 Sigismonda and Guiscardo, 124, 125 Sigurd the Volsung, 336 Simcox, G. A., 388 Sintram and his Companions, 153, 162, 168, 324, 373 Sir Floris, 390-92 Sir Galahad (Morris), 306, 325, 328 Sir Galahad (Tennyson), 267, 271, 325 Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinivere, 271, 325 Sir Tristram, 7 Sister Helen, 311, 312, 345 Sisters, The, 265, 313 Sizeranne, R. de la, 293 Sketches of Christian Art, 372-74 Sleep and Poetry, 114-16 Sleeping Beauty, The, 265 Smith, Charlotte, 55 Socialism, 386 Song at the Feast of Brougham Castle, 18, 19 Song of the Western Men, 262 Sonneur de Saint Paul, Le, 193 Sorrows of Werther, The, 397 Southey, Robert, 50, 51, 55, 71, 235-39, 355 Specimen of an Induction to a Poem, 129 Specimens of German Romance, 167 Specimens of Gothic Architecture, 368 Spenser, Edmund, 3, 4, 93, 107, 120-22, 269, 275, 329 Stael, Mme. de, 134, 139, 141-45, l71, 192, 208 Staff and Scrip, 311 Stedman, E. C., 265, 387 Stendhal, De, 36-38, 186, 187, 201, 208-14 Stephen, Leslie, 10, 38, 80 Sternbald's Wanderungen, 152 Stevenson, R. L., 32 Stokes, Whitley, 259, 261 Stolberg, F. L., Count, 149, 363 Stones of Venice, 321, 375-79, 385, 386 Stories from the Italian Poets, 109-11 Story of Rimini, The, 105-07, 119, 121, 122, 390 Story of the Brave Casper and the Fair Annerl, The, 167 Student of Salamanca, The, 246 Studies and Appreciations, 129 Studies in Mediaeval Life and Literature, 43 Study of Celtic Literature, On the, 256 Succube, La, 43 Sundering Flood, The, 232, 337, 339 Swinburne, A. C., 275, 276, 296, 304, 309, 314, 315, 319, 339-51, 387-89
Table Talk (Coleridge), 12 Tables Turned, The, 386 Tale of Balen, The, 347, 348 Tale of King Constans, The, 330 Tales of Wonder, 238 Talisman, The, 28, 36, 43 Tannhaeuser, 153, 160, 264, 343, 391 Task, The, 58 Tasso, Torquato, 91, 104, 109 Taylor, Edgar, 162 Taylor, Wm., 53, 162, 238 Templars in Cyprus, The, 149 Tennyson, Alfred, 257, 260, 262, 264-75, 295, 303, 324, 325, 347, 348 Thackeray, W. M., 397, 398, 402 Thalaba the Destroyer, 235 Theocritus, 331 Thierry, Augustin, 39, 225, 226 Thomas the Rhymer, 7 Thoreau, H. D., 165 Thorpe, Benjamin, 334 Thousand and One Nights, The, 393 Three Bardic Tales, 259 Three Fishers, The, 383 Thyrsis, 378 Ticknor, Geo., 242, 243, 248 Tieck, Ludwig, 42, 134, 137, 148, 150, 152, 154, 156-65, 172, 245, 400 Tighe, Mary, 121 Tintern Abbey, 358 Todhunter, Jno., 259, 261 Tom Brown at Oxford, 357 Tracts for the Times, 292, 319, 363, 368 Treasury of Irish Poetry, A, 261 Tristram and Iseult (Arnold), 275, 278, 341 Tristram of Lyonesse (Swinburne), 275, 340 Tristram und Isolde (Wagner), 393 Troy Town, 315 True Principles of Pointed Architecture, The, 372 Tune of Seven Towers, The, 305, 326 Two Foscari, The, 234
Uhland, Ludwig, 140, 154-56, 170, 171 Ulalume, 301 Undine, 168 Unto this Last, 380
Vabre, Jule, 222 Vanity Fair, 396 Vathek, 367 Vere, Aubrey de, 259, 260, 358, 361, 366 Verses on Various Occasions (Newman), 357 Versunkene Glocke, Die, 245 Victorian Poets, 265, 387 Vignettes in Rhyme, 401 Vigny, A. V., Comte de, 188, 191, 210 Villon, Francois, 298, 299, 350, 393 Vision of Judgment, The, 70 Vita Nuova, La, 101, 299, 302, 310, 393 Volksmaerchen (Tieck), 160 Voelsunga Saga, The, 334, 335 Voltaire, F. M. A. de, 92, 94, 95 Vorlesungen ueber dramatische Kunst und Litteratur (Schlegel), 88, 158, 162, 192 Voss, J.H., 149 Voyage of Maeldune, The, 260 Wackenroder, W. H., 134, 152, 153, 159 Wagner, Richard, 153, 264, 391, 393 Walladmor, 38 Walter Scott et la Princesse de Cleves, 36 Ward, W. G., 360 Warton, Joseph, 61, 63, 64, 71, 73, 157, 158 Warton, Thos., 27, 57, 60, 61, 94, 157, 158 Water Lady, The, 279 Water of the Wondrous Isles, The, 337, 339 Watts, Theodore, 300 Waverley Novels, The, 30-39, 324, 378, 379, 403 Welland River, 328, 345 Welshmen of Tirawley, The, 260 Werner, Zacharias, 148, 149, 212, 302 Westwood, Thos., 276 White Doe of Rylstone, The, 16-18 White Ship, The, 311, 312 William George Ward and the Oxford Movement, 361 Winthrop, Theodore, 367 Wisdom and Languages of India, The, 157 Wissenschaftslehre (Fichte), 137 Witch of Fife, The, 252 Wood beyond the World, The, 337, 339 Woolner, Thos., 284 Wordsworth, Wm., 9, 12, 14-20, 48, 50-55, 71, 77, 80, 89, 119, 300, 333, 355, 358, 398
Yarrow Revisited, 14 Yeast, 383 Yeats, J. B., 261 Yonge, Charlotte M., 357 Yuletide Stories, 334
Zapolya, 89 Zauberring, Der, 168 Zeitung fuer Einsiedler, 138, 172 Zorrilla, Jose de, 246