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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume 14
by Robert Kerr
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We spent the night, which proved squally and rainy, making short boards; and the next morning, being the 17th, we anchored in Oaiti-piha Bay in twelve fathoms water about two cables length from the shore; both ships being by this time crowded with a great number of the natives, who brought with them cocoa-nuts, plantains, bananoes, apples, yams, and other roots, which they exchanged for nails and beads. To several, who called themselves chiefs, I made presents of shirts, axes, and several other articles, and, in return, they promised to bring me hogs and fowls, a promise they never did, nor ever intended to perform.

In the afternoon, I landed in company with Captain Furneaux, in order to view the watering-place, and to sound the disposition of the natives, I also sent a boat to get some water for present use, having scarcely any left on board. We found this article as convenient as could be expected, and the natives to behave with great civility.

Early in the morning, I sent the two launches and the Resolution's cutter, under the command of Mr Gilbert, to endeavour to recover the anchors we had left behind us; they returned about noon, with the Resolution's bower anchor, but could not recover any of the Adventure's. The natives came off again with fruit, as the day before, but in no great quantity. I also had a party on shore, trading under the protection of a guard; nothing, however, was brought to market but fruit and roots, though many hogs were seen (I was told) about the houses of the natives. The cry was, that they belonged to Waheatoun the Earee de hi, or king, and him we had not yet seen, nor, I believe, any other chief of note. Many, however, who called themselves Earees, came on board, partly with a view of getting presents, and partly to pilfer whatever came in their way.

One of this sort of Earees I had, most of the day, in the cabin, and made presents to him and all his friends, which were not few; at length he was caught taking things which did not belong to him, and handing them out of the quarter gallery. Many complaints of the like nature were made to me against those on deck, which occasioned my turning them all out of the ship. My cabin guest made good haste to be gone; I was so much exasperated at his behaviour, that after he had got some distance from the ship, I fired two muskets over his head, which made him quit the canoe, and take to the water; I then sent a boat to take up the canoe, but as she came near the shore, the people from thence began to pelt her with stones. Being in some pain for her safety, as she was unarmed, I went myself in another boat to protect her, and ordered a great gun, loaded with ball, to be fired along the coast, which made them all retire from the shore, and I was suffered to bring away two canoes without the least shew of opposition. In one of the canoes was a little boy, who was much frightened, but I soon dissipated his fears, by giving him beads, and putting him on shore. A few hours after, we were all good friends again, and the canoes were returned to the first person who came for them.

It was not till the evening of this day, that any one enquired after Tupia, and then but two or three. As soon as they learnt the cause of his death, they were quite satisfied; indeed, it did not appear to me, that it would have caused a moment's uneasiness in the breast of any one, had his death been occasioned by any other means than by sickness. As little enquiry was made after Aotourou, the man who went away with M. de Bougainville. But they were continually asking for Mr Banks, and several others who were with me in my former voyage.

These people informed us, that Toutaha, the regent of the greater peninsula of Otaheite, had been killed in a battle, which was fought between the two kingdoms about five months before, and that Otoo was the reigning prince. Tubourai Tamaide, and several more of our principal friends about Matavai, fell in this battle, as also a great number of common people; but, at present, a peace subsisted between the two kingdoms.

On the 19th, we had gentle breezes easterly, with some smart showers of rain. Early in the morning, the boats were again sent to recover the Adventure's anchors, but returned with the same ill success as the day before, so that we ceased to look for them any longer, thinking ourselves very happy in having come off so well, considering the situation we had been in. In an excursion which Captain Furneaux and I made along the coast, we met with a chief who entertained us with excellent fish, fruit, &c. In return for his hospitality, I made him a present of an axe and other things; and he afterwards accompanied us back to the ships, where he made but a short stay.

Nothing worthy of note happened on the 20th, till the dusk of the evening, when one of the natives made off with a musquet belonging to the guard on shore. I was present when this happened, and sent some of our people after him, which would have been to little purpose, had not some of the natives, of their own accord, pursued the thief. They knocked him down, took from him the musquet, and brought it to us. Fear, on this occasion, certainly operated more with them than principle. They deserve, however, to be applauded for this act of justice, for, if they had not given their immediate assistance, it would hardly have been in my power to have recovered the musquet, by any gentle means whatever, and by making use of any other, I was sure to lose more than ten times its value.

The 21st, the wind was at north, a fresh breeze. This morning a chief made me a visit, and presented me with a quantity of fruit, among which, were a number of cocoanuts we had drawn the water from, and afterwards thrown, over board; these he had picked up, and tied in bundles so artfully, that we did not at first perceive the cheat; when he was told of it, without betraying the least emotion, and, as if he knew nothing of the matter, he opened two or three of them himself, signified to us, that he was satisfied it was so, and then went ashore and sent off a quantity of plantains and bananoes. Having got on board a supply of water, fruit, and roots, I determined to sail in the morning to Matavai, as I found it was not likely that I should get an interview with Waheatoua, without which, it was very improbable we should get any hogs. Two of the natives, who knew my intention, slept on board, with a view of going with us to Matavai, but, in the morning, the wind blew fresh at N.W., and as we could not sail, I sent the trading party on shore as usual.

In the evening, I was informed that Waheatoua was come into the neighourhood, and wanted to see me. In consequence of this information, I determined to wait one day longer, in order to have an interview with this prince. Accordingly, early the next morning, I set out in company with Captain Furneaux, Mr Forster, and several of the natives. We met the chief about a mile from the landing-place, towards which he was advancing to meet us; but, as soon as he saw us, he stopt, with his numerous train, in the open air. I found him seated upon a stool, with a circle of people round him, and knew him at first sight, and he me, having seen each other several times in 1769. At that time he was but a boy, and went by the name of Tearee, but, upon the death of his father, Waheatoun, he took upon him that name.

After the first salutation was over, having seated me on the same stool with himself, and the other gentlemen on the ground by us, he began to enquire after several by name who were with me on my former voyage. He next enquired how long I would stay, and when I told him no longer than next day, he seemed sorry, asked me to stay some months, and at last came down to five days, promising, that in that time I should have hogs in plenty; but, as I had been here already a week, without so much as getting one, I could not put any faith in this promise; and yet, I believe, if I had staid, we should have fared much better than at Matavai. The present I made him consisted of a shirt, a sheet, a broad axe, spike-nails, knives, looking-glasses, medals, beads, &c.; in return, he ordered a pretty good hog to be carried to our boat. We staid with him all the morning, during which time, he never suffered me to go from his side, where he was seated. I was also seated on the same stool, which was carried from place to place by one of his attendants, whom he called stool-bearer. At length we took leave, in order to return on board to dinner, after which, we visited him again, and made him more presents, and he, in return, gave Captain Furneaux and me each of us an hog. Some others were got by exchanges at the trading places; so that we got in the whole, to-day, as much fresh pork as gave the crews of both the ships a meal; and this in consequence of our having this interview with the chief.[3]

The 24th, early in the morning, we put to sea with a light land-breeze. Soon after we were out, we got the wind at west, which blew in squalls, attended with heavy showers of rain. Many canoes accompanied us out to sea, with cocoa-nuts and other fruits, and did not leave us till they had disposed of their cargoes.

The fruits we got here greatly contributed towards the recovery of the Adventure's sick people; many of them, who had been so ill as not to be able to move without assistance, were, in this short time so far recovered, that they could walk about of themselves. When we put in here, the Resolution had but one scorbutic man on board, and a marine, who had been long sick, and who died the second day after our arrival, of a complication of disorders, without the least mixture of the scurvy. I left Lieutenant Pickersgill, with the cutter, behind the bay, to purchase hogs, as several had promised to bring some down to-day, and I was not willing to lose them.

On the 25th; about noon, Mr Pickersgill returned with eight hogs, which he got at Oaiti-piha. He spent the night at Ohedea, and was well entertained by Ereti, the chief of that district. It was remarkable, that this chief never once asked after Aotouroo, nor did he take the least notice when Mr Pickersgill mentioned his name. And yet M. de Bougainville tells us, this is the very chief who presented Aotourou to him; which makes it the more extraordinary, that he should neither enquire after him now, nor when he was with us at Matavai, especially as they believed that we and M. de Bougainville came from the same country, that is, from Pretane, for so they called our country. They had not the least knowledge of any other European nation, nor probably will they, unless some of those men should return who had lately gone from the isle, of which mention shall be made bye and bye. We told several of them, that M. de Bougainville came from France, a name they could by no means pronounce; nor could they pronounce that of Paris much better; so that it is not likely that they will remember either the one or the other long; whereas Pretane is in every child's mouth, and will hardly ever be forgotten. It was not till the evening of this day that we arrived in Matavai bay.

[1] Perhaps few descriptions of natural scenery excel the following, in real poetic effect:—"It was one of those beautiful mornings which the poets of all nations have attempted to describe, when we saw the isle of Otaheite, within two miles before us. The east-wind which had carried us so far, was entirely vanished, and a faint breeze only wafted a delicious perfume from the land, and curled the surface of the sea. The mountains, clothed with forests, rose majestic in various spiry forms, on which we already perceived the light of the rising sun: Nearer to the eye a lower range of hills, easier of ascent, appeared, wooded like the former, and coloured with several pleasing hues of green, soberly mixed with autumnal browns. At their foot lay the plain, crowned with its fertile bread-fruit trees, over which rose innumerable palms, the princes of the grove. Here everything seemed as yet asleep, the morning scarce dawned, and a peaceful shade still rested on the landscape. We discovered, however, a number of houses among the trees, and many canoes hauled up along the sandy beaches. About half a mile from the shore a ledge of rocks level with the water, extended parallel to the land, on which the surf broke, leaving a smooth and secure harbour within. The sun beginning to illuminate the plain, its inhabitants arose, and enlivened the scene. Having perceived the large vessels on their coast, several of them hastened to the beach, launched their canoes, and paddled towards us, who were highly delighted in watching all their occupations."—G.F.

[2] "The natives on board, seeing us work so hard, assisted us in manning the capstern, hauling in ropes, and performing all sorts of labour. If they had had the least spark of a treacherous disposition, they could not have found a better opportunity of distressing us; but they approved themselves good-natured, and friendly in this, as on all other occasions."—G.F.

[3] We tried all possible means to engage the people to sell some of their hogs to us, and offered hatchets, shirts, and other goods of value to the Taheitans; but still without success, their constant answer being, that these animals were the king's (aree's) property. Instead of acquiescing in this refusal, and acknowledging the kind disposition of the natives, who furnished us at least with the means of recovering our strength, and restoring our stock, a proposal was made to the captains, by some persons in the ships, to sweep away, by force, a sufficient number of hogs for our use, and afterwards to return such a quantity of our goods in exchange to the natives, as we should think adequate to the spoil we had taken. This proposal, which nothing but the most tyrannical principles, and the meanest selfishness could have dictated, was received with the contempt and indignation which it justly deserved."—G.F.

This remark is of an earlier date than what is mentioned in the text, but, in the whole, is more suitably introduced here. It is to the praise of Cook, that his decision of character was founded on very liberal views of morality; and that he possessed independence of soul to manifest abhorrence of sinister suggestions, at the risk of losing both the advantage aimed at, and the partiality of those who made them. An apprehension of giving offence to men who are either esteemed or felt to be useful, has perhaps occasioned as much iniquitous conduct where the law of the strongest might be adopted, as ever resulted from the influence of directly vicious principles. But from this most mischievous weakness, it was one of the excellencies of that truly great man to be exempt.—E.



SECTION XI.

An Account of several Visits to and from Otoo; of Goats being left on the Island; and many other Particulars which happened while the Ships lay in Matavai Bay.

Before we got to an anchor, our decks were crowded with the natives; many of whom I knew, and almost all of them knew me. A great crowd were gotten together upon the shore; amongst whom was Otoo their king. I was just going to pay him a visit, when I was told he was mataow'd, and gone to Oparree. I could not conceive the reason of his going off in a fright, as every one seemed pleased to see me. A chief, whose name was Maritata, was at this time on board, and advised me to put off my visit till the next morning, when he would accompany me; which I accordingly did.

After having given directions to pitch tents for the reception of the sick, coopers, sail-makers, and the guard, I set out on the 26th for Oparree; accompanied by Captain Furneaux, Mr Forster, and others, Maritata and his wife. As soon as we landed, we were conducted to Otoo, whom we found seated on the ground, under the shade of a tree, with an immense crowd around him. After the first compliments were over, I presented him with such articles as I guessed were most valuable in his eyes; well knowing that it was my interest to gain the friendship of this man. I also made presents to several of his attendants; and, in return, they offered me cloth, which I refused to accept; telling them that what I had given was for tiyo (friendship). The king enquired for Tupia, and all the gentlemen that were with me in my former voyage, by name; although I do not remember that he was personally acquainted with any of us. He promised that I should have some hogs the next day; but I had much ado to obtain a promise from him to visit me on board. He said he was, mataou no to poupoue, that is, afraid of the guns. Indeed all his actions shewed him to be a timorous prince. He was about thirty years of age, six feet high, and a fine, personable, well-made man as one can see. All his subjects appeared uncovered before him, his father not excepted. What is meant by uncovering, is the making bare the head and shoulders, or wearing no sort of clothing above the breast.

When I returned from Oparree, I found the tents, and the astronomer's observatories, set up on the same spot where we observed the transit of Venus in 1769. In the afternoon, I had the sick landed; twenty from the Adventure, all ill of the scurvy; and one from the Resolution. I also landed some marines for a guard, and left the command to Lieutenant Edgecumbe of the marines.

On the 27th, early in the morning, Otoo, attended by a numerous train, paid me a visit. He first sent into the ship a large quantity of cloth, fruits, a hog, and two large fish; and, after some persuasion, came aboard himself, with his sister, a younger brother, and several more of his attendants. To all of them I made presents; and, after breakfast, took the king, his sister, and as many more as I had room for, into my boat, and carried them home to Oparree. I had no sooner landed than I was met by a venerable old lady, the mother of the late Toutaha. She seized me by both hands, and burst into a flood of tears, saying, Toutaha Tiyo no Toutee matty Toutaha—(Toutaha, your friend, or the friend of Cook, is dead.) I was so much affected with her behaviour, that it would have been impossible for me to have refrained mingling my tears with hers, had not Otoo come and taken me from her. I, with some difficulty, prevailed on him to let me see her again, when I gave her an axe and some other things. Captain Furneaux, who was with me, presented the king with two fine goats, male and female, which if taken care of, or rather if no care at all is taken of them will no doubt multiply. After a short stay, we look leave and returned on board.

Very early in the morning on the 28th, I sent Mr Pickersgill, with the cutter, as far as Ottahourou, to procure hogs. A little after sun-rise, I had another visit from Otoo, who brought me more cloth, a pig, and some fruit. His sister, who was with him, and some of his attendants, came on board; but he and others went to the Adventure with the like present to Captain Furneaux. It was not long before he returned with Captain Furneaux on board the Resolution, when I made him a handsome return for the present he had brought me, and dressed his sister out in the best manner I could. She, the king's brother, and one or two more, were covered before him to- day. When Otoo came into the cabin, Ereti and some of his friends were sitting there. The moment they saw the king enter, they stripped themselves in great haste, being covered before. Seeing I took notice of it, they said Earee, Earee; giving me to understand that it was on account of Otoo being present. This was all the respect they paid him; for they never rose from their seats, nor made him any other obeisance. When the king thought proper to depart, I carried him again to Oparree in my boat; where I entertained him and his people with the bagpipes (of which music they are very fond) and dancing by the seamen. He then ordered some of his people to dance also, which consisted chiefly of contortions. There were some, however, who could imitate the seamen pretty well, both in country-dances and hornpipes. While we were here, I had a present of cloth from the late Toutaha's mother. This good old lady could not look upon me without shedding tears; however, she was far more composed than before. When we took leave, the king promised to visit me again the next day; but said that I must first come to him. In the evening Mr Pickersgill came back empty, but with a promise of having some hogs, if he would return in a few days.

Next morning after breakfast, I took a trip to Oparree, to visit Otoo as he had requested, accompanied by Captain Furneaux and some of the officers. We made him up a present of such things as he had not seen before. One article was a broad-sword; at the sight of which he was so intimidated, that I had much ado to persuade him to accept of it, and to have it buckled upon him; where it remained but a short time, before he desired leave to take it off, and send it out of his sight.

Soon after we were conducted to the theatre; where we were entertained with a dramatic heuva, or play, in which were both dancing and comedy. The performers were five men, and one woman, who was no less a person than the king's sister. The music consisted of three drums only; it lasted about an hour and a half, or two hours; and, upon the whole, was well conducted. It was not possible for us to find out the meaning of the play. Some part seemed adapted to the present time, as my name was frequently mentioned. Other parts were certainly wholly unconnected with us. It apparently differed in nothing, that is, in the manner of acting it, from those we saw at Ulielea in my former voyage. The dancing-dress of the lady was more elegant than any I saw there, by being decorated with long tassels, made of feathers, hanging from the waist downward. As soon as all was over, the king himself desired me to depart; and sent into the boat different kinds of fruit and fish, ready dressed. With this we returned on board; and the next morning he sent me more fruit, and several small parcels of fish.

Nothing farther remarkable happened till ten o'clock in the evening, when we were alarmed with the cry of murder, and a great noise, on shore, near the bottom of the bay, at some distance from our encampment. I suspected that it was occasioned by some of our own people; and immediately armed a boat, and sent on shore, to know the occasion of this disturbance, and to bring off such of our people as should be found there. I also sent to the Adventure, and to the post on shore, to know who were missing; for none were absent from the Resolution but those who were upon duty. The boat soon returned with three marines and a seaman. Some others belonging to the Adventure were also taken; and, being all put under confinement, the next morning I ordered them to be punished according to their deserts. I did not find that any mischief was done, and our people would confess nothing. I believe this disturbance was occasioned by their making too free with the women. Be this as it will, the natives were so much alarmed, that they fled from their habitations in the dead of the night, and the alarm spread many miles along the coast. For when I went to visit Otoo, in the morning, by appointment, I found him removed, or rather fled, many miles from the place of his abode. Even there I was obliged to wait some hours, before I could see him at all; and when I did, he complained of the last night's riot.

As this was intended to be my last visit, I had taken with me a present suitable to the occasion. Among other things were three Cape sheep, which he had seen before and asked for; for these people never lose a thing by not asking for it. He was much pleased with them; though he could be but little benefited, as they were all weathers; a thing he was made acquainted with. The presents he got at this interview entirely removed his fears, and opened his heart so much, that he sent for three hogs; one for me, one for Captain Furneaux, and one for Mr Forster. This last was small, of which we complained, calling it ete, ete. Presently after a man came into the circle, and spoke to the king with some warmth, and in a very peremptory manner; saying something or other about hogs. We at first thought he was angry with the king for giving us so many, especially as he took the little pig away with him. The contrary, however, appeared to be the true cause of his displeasure; for, presently after he was gone, a hog, larger than either of the other two, was brought us in lieu of the little one. When we took leave, I acquainted him that I should sail from the island the next day; at which he seemed much moved, and embraced me several times. We embarked to return on board, and he, with his numerous train, directed his march back to Oparree.

The sick being all pretty well recovered, our water-casks repaired, and water completed, as well as the necessary repairs of the ships, I determined to put to sea without farther delay. Accordingly, on the 1st of September, I ordered every thing to be got off from the shore, and the ships to be unmoored. On this work we were employed the most of the day. In the afternoon, Mr Pickersgill returned from Attahourou; to which place I had sent him, two days before, for the hogs he had been promised. My old friend Pottatou, the chief of that district, his wife, or mistress, (I know not which,) and some more of his friends, came along with Mr Pickersgill, in order to visit me. They brought me a present of two hogs and some fish; and Mr Pickersgill got two more hogs, by exchange, from Oamo; for he went in the boat as far as Paparra, where he saw old Oberea. She seemed much altered for the worse, poor, and of little consequence. The first words she said to Mr Pickersgill were, Earee mataou ina boa, Earee is frightened, you can have no hogs. By this it appeared that she had little or no property, and was herself subject to the Earee, which I believe was not the case when I was here before. The wind, which had blown westerly all day, having shifted at once to the east, we put to sea; and I was obliged to dismiss my friends sooner than they wished to go; but well satisfied with the reception they had met with.

Some hours before we got under sail, a young man, whose name was Poreo, came and desired I would take him with me. I consented, thinking he might be of service to us on some occasion. Many more offered themselves, but I refused to take them. This youth asked me for an axe and a spike-nail for his father, who was then on board. He had them accordingly, and they parted just as we were getting under sail, more like two strangers than father and son. This raised a doubt in me whether it was so; which was farther confirmed, by a canoe, conducted by two men, coming along-side, as we were standing out of the bay, and demanding the young man in the name of Otoo. I now saw that the whole was a trick to get something from me; well knowing that Otoo was not in the neighbourhood, and could know nothing of the matter. Poreo seemed, however, at first undetermined whether he should go or stay; but he soon inclined to the former. I told them to return me the axe and nails, and then he should go, (and so he really should,) but they said they were on shore, and so departed. Though the youth seemed pretty well satisfied, he could not refrain from weeping when he viewed the land astern.[1]

[1] Mr G.F. has been so successful in his Otaheitan delineations, that though the subject occupied no small space of our preceding volume, and must again engage our attention, when we treat of Cook's third voyage, nevertheless we cannot help running the risk of the reader's impatience by a transcript of some of his sketches. Speaking of the natives first met with, he says, "The people around us had mild features, and a pleasing countenance; they were about our size, of a pale mahogany brown, had fine black hair and eyes, and wore a piece of cloth round their middle of their own manufacture, and another wrapped about the head in curious picturesque shapes like a turban. Among them were several females, pretty enough to attract the attention of Europeans, who had not seen their own countrywomen for twelve long months past. These wore a piece of cloth with a hole in the middle, through which they had passed the head, so that one part of the garment hung down behind, and the other before, to the knees; a fine white cloth like a muslin, was passed over this in various elegant turns round the body, a little below the breast, forming a kind of tunic, of which one turn sometimes fell gracefully across the shoulder. If this dress had not entirely that perfect form, so justly admired in the draperies of the ancient Greek statues, it was however infinitely superior to our expectations, and much more advantageous to the human figure, than any modern fashion we had hitherto seen."

"It was not long before some of these good people came aboard. That peculiar gentleness of disposition, which is their general characteristic, immediately manifested itself in all their looks and actions, and gave full employment to those who made the human heart their study. They expressed several marks of affection in their countenance, took hold of our hands, leaned on our shoulders, or embraced us. They admired the whiteness of our bodies, and frequently pushed aside our clothes from the breast, as if to convince themselves that we were made like them." According to this gentleman, it was the women of the "baser sort," who yielded without difficulty to the solicitations of the sailors. "Some of them," says he, "who came on board for this purpose, seemed not to be above nine or ten years old, and had not the least marks of puberty. So early an acquaintance with the world seems to argue an uncommon degree of voluptuousness, and cannot fail of affecting the nation in general. The effect, which was immediately obvious to me, was the low stature of the common class of people, to which all these prostitutes belonged. Among this whole order, we saw few persons above the middle size, and many below it; an observation which confirms what M. de Buffon has very judiciously said on the subject of early connections of the sexes. Their features were very irregular, and, in general, very ordinary, except the eyes, which were always large and full of vivacity; but a natural smile, and a constant endeavour to please, had so well supplied the want of beauty, that our sailors were perfectly captivated, and carelessly disposed of their shirts and clothes, to gratify their mistresses. The simplicity of their dress, &c. might contribute to this attraction; and the view of several of these nymphs swimming all nimbly round the sloop, such as nature had formed them, was perhaps more than sufficient entirety to subvert the little reason which a mariner might have left to govern his passions. As trifling circumstances had given occasion to their taking the water. One of the officers on the quarter-deck intended to drop a bead into a canoe for a little boy about six years old; by accident it missed the boat and fell into the sea, but the child immediately leaped overboard, and diving after it, brought it up again. To reward his performance, we dropped some more beads to him, which so tempted a number of men and women, that they amused us with amazing feats of agility in the water, and not only fetched up several beads scattered at once, but likewise large nails, which, on account of their weight, descended quickly to a considerable depth. Some of them continued a long while under water, and the velocity with which we saw them go down, the water being perfectly clear, was very surprising. The frequent ablutions of these people seem to make swimming familiar to them from their earliest childhood; and, indeed, their easy position in the water, and the pliancy of their limbs, gave us reason to look on them almost as amphibious creatures." These trifling ornaments were most eagerly coveted by all ages and sexes, and often prized much above any other European goods however useful, so prevalent and powerful is the love of ornament in our species. "The methods to obtain them from us were very different, and consequently not always equally successful. When we distributed a few beads to one set of people, some young fellows would impudently thrust their hands in between them, and demand their share, as though it had been their due; these attempts we always made it our business to discourage by a flat refusal. It was already become difficult to deny a venerable old man, who, with a hand not yet palsied by age, vigorously pressed ours, and with a perfect reliance upon our good-nature, whispered the petition in our ears. The elderly ladies, in general, made sure of a prize by a little artful flattery. They commonly enquired for our names, and then adopted us as their sons, at the same time introducing to us the several relations, whom we acquired by this means. After a series of little caresses, the old lady began, Aima poe-eetee no te tayo mettua? "Have you not a little bead for your kind mother?" Such a trial of our filial attachment always had its desired effect, as we could not fail to draw the most favourable conclusions from thence in regard to the general kind disposition of the whole people: for to expect a good quality in others, of which we ourselves are not possessed, is a refinement in manners peculiar to polished nations. Our other female relations in the bloom of youth, with some share of beauty, and constant endeavours to please, laid a claim to our affections by giving themselves the tender name of sisters; and all the world will agree that this attack was perfectly irresistible." But it must not be imagined that the fair sisters in this happy island, any more than elsewhere, were exempt from certain ruder passions, by which, at times, they seem to vie with the lords of the creation. Mr F. has preserved a very characteristic trait of such a spirit of domination in his account of one of the Potatow's wives, which may be read, but it is to be hoped will not be imitated, by any of our female friends. "Polatehera," says Mr F. "was so like him in stature and bulk, (one of the tallest and stoutest men in the island,) that we unanimously looked upon her as the most extraordinary woman we had ever seen. Her appearance and her conduct were masculine in the highest degree, and strongly conveyed the idea of superiority and command. When the Endeavour bark lay here, she had distinguished herself by the name of Captain Cook's sister, and one day, being denied admittance into the fort on Point Venus, had knocked down the sentry who opposed her, and complained to her adopted brother of the indignity which had been offered to her." Altogether, however, this gentleman is the eulogist of the natives and country of Otaheite, and admits, that he left them with great regret. We shall conclude our extracts from his description, by the following remarks as to the language:—"Many of them seeing us desirous of learning their language, by asking the names of various familiar objects, or repeating such as we found in the vocabularies of former voyages, took great pains to teach us, and were much delighted when we could catch the just pronunciation of a word. For my own part, no language seemed easier to acquire than this; every harsh and sibilant consonant being banished from it, and almost every word ending in a vowel. The only requisite, was a nice ear to distinguish the numerous modifications of the vowels which must naturally occur in a language confined to few consonants, and which, once rightly understood, give a great degree of delicacy to conversation. Amongst several observations, we immediately found that the O or E with which the greatest part of the names and words in (the account of) Lieutenant Cook's first voyage, is nothing else than the article, which many eastern languages affix to the greater part of their substantives." He applies this observation to the name of the island which he thinks has been fortunately expressed by M. Bougainville in French, by Taiti, without the initial vowel usually given to it in English books.—E.



SECTION XII.

An Account of the Reception we met with at Huaheine, with the Incidents that happened while the Ships lay there; and of Omai, one of the Natives, coming away in the Adventure.

As soon as we were clear of the bay, and our boats in, I directed my course for the island of Huaheine, where I intended to touch. We made it the next day, and spent the night, making short boards under the north end of the island. At day-light, in the morning of the 3d, we made sail for the harbour of Owharre; in which the Resolution anchored, about nine o'clock, in twenty-four fathoms water. As the wind blew out of the harbour, I chose to turn in by the southern channel, it being the widest. The Resolution turned in very well, but the Adventure, missing stays, got ashore on the north side of the channel. I had the Resolution's launch in the water ready, in case of an accident of this kind, and sent her immediately to the Adventure. By this timely assistance, she was got off again, without receiving any damage. Several of the natives, by this time, had come off to us, bringing with them some of the productions of the island; and as soon as the ships were both in safety, I landed with Captain Furneaux, and was received by the natives with the utmost cordiality. I distributed some presents among them; and they presently after brought down hogs, fowls, dogs, and fruits, which they willingly exchanged for hatchets, nails, beads, &c. The like trade was soon opened on board the ships; so that we had a fair prospect of being plentifully supplied with fresh pork and fowls; and to people in our situation, this was no unwelcome thing. I learnt that my old friend Oree, chief of the isle, was still living, and that he was hastening to this part to see me.

Early next morning, Lieutenant Pickersgill sailed with the cutter, on a trading party, toward the south end of the isle. I also sent another trading party on shore near the ships, with which I went myself, to see that it was properly conducted at the first setting out, a very necessary point to be attended to. Every thing being settled to my mind, I went, accompanied by Captain Furneaux and Mr Forster, to pay my first visit to Oree, who, I was told, was waiting for me. We were conducted to the place by one of the natives; but were not permitted to go out of our boat, till we had gone through some part of the following ceremony usually performed at this isle, on such like occasions. The boat in which we were desired to remain being landed before the chief's house, which stood close to the shore, five young plaintain trees, which are their emblems of peace, were brought on board separately, and with some ceremony. Three young pigs, with their ears ornamented with cocoa-nut fibres, accompanied the first three; and a dog, the fourth. Each had its particular name and purpose, rather too mysterious for us to understand. Lastly, the chief sent to me the inscription engraved on a small piece of pewter, which I left with him in July 1769. It was in the same bag I had made for it, together with a piece of counterfeit English coin, and a few beads, put in at the same time; which shews how well he had taken care of the whole. When they had made an end of putting into the boat the things just mentioned, our guide, who still remained with us, desired us to decorate the young plaintain trees with looking-glasses, nails, medals, beads, &c. &c. This being accordingly done, we landed with these in our hands, and were conducted towards the chief, through the multitude; they making a lane, as it were, for us to pass through. We were made to sit down a few paces short of the chief, and our plantains were then taken from us, and, one by one, laid before him, as the others had been laid before us. One was for Eatoua (or God), the second for the Earee (or king), and the third for Tiyo (or friendship). This being done, I wanted to go to the king, but was told that he would come to me; which he accordingly did, fell upon my neck, and embraced me. This was by no means ceremonious; the tears which trickled plentifully down his venerable old cheeks, sufficiently bespoke the language of his heart. The whole ceremony being over, all his friends were introduced to us, to whom we made presents. Mine to the chief consisted of the most valuable articles I had; for I regarded this man as a father. In return he gave me a hog, and a quantity of cloth, promising that all our wants should be supplied; and it will soon appear how well he kept his word. At length we took leave, and returned on board; and, some time after, Mr Pickersgill returned also with fourteen hogs. Many more were got by exchanges on shore, and along-side the ships; besides fowls and fruit in abundance.[1]

This good old chief made me a visit early in the morning on the 5th, together with some of his friends, bringing me a hog and some fruit, for which I made him a suitable return. He carried his kindness so far, as not to fail to send me every day, for my table, the very best of ready dressed fruit and roots, and in great plenty. Lieutenant Pickersgill being again sent with the two boats, in search of hogs, returned in the evening with twenty-eight; and about four times that number were purchased on shore, and along-side the ships.

Next morning the trading party, consisting of only two or three people, were sent on shore as usual; and, after breakfast, I went to the place myself, when I learnt that one of the inhabitants had been very troublesome and insolent. This man being pointed out to me, completely equipped in the war habit, with a club in each hand, as he seemed bent on mischief, I took these from him, broke them before his eyes, and, with some difficulty, forced him to retire from the place. As they told me that he was a chief, this made me the more suspicious of him, and occasioned me to send for a guard, which till now I had thought unnecessary. About this time, Mr Sparrman, having imprudently gone out alone botanizing, was set upon by two men, who stripped him of every thing he had about him, except his trowsers, and struck him several times with his own hanger, but happily did him no harm. As soon as they had accomplished their end, they made off; after which another of the natives brought a piece of cloth to cover him, and conducted him to the trading place, where were a great number of the inhabitants. The very instant Mr Sparrman appeared in the condition I have just mentioned, they all fled with the utmost precipitation. I at first conjectured they had stolen something; but we were soon undeceived upon Mr Sparrman's relating the affair to us. As soon as I could recal a few of the natives, and had made them sensible that I should take no step to injure those who were innocent, I went to Oree to complain of this outrage, taking with us the man who came back with Mr Sparrman, to confirm the complaint. As soon as the chief heard the whole affair related, he wept aloud, as did many others. After the first transports of his grief were over, he began to expostulate with his people, telling them (as far as we could understand) how well I had treated them, both in this and my former voyage, and how base it was in them to commit such actions. He then took a very minute account of the things Mr Sparrman had been robbed of, promised to do all in his power to recover them, and, rising up, desired me to follow him to my boat. When the people saw this, being, as I supposed, apprehensive of his safety, they used every argument to dissuade him from what they, no doubt, thought a rash step. He hastened into the boat, notwithstanding all they could do or say. As soon as they saw their beloved chief wholly in my power, they set up a great outcry. The grief they shewed was inexpressible; every face was bedewed with tears; they prayed, entreated, nay, attempted to pull him out of the boat. I even joined my entreaties to theirs; for I could not bear to see them in such distress. All that could be said, or done, availed nothing. He insisted on my coming into the boat, which was no sooner done than he ordered it to be put off. His sister, with a spirit equal to that of her royal brother, was the only person who did not oppose his going. As his intention in coming into our boat was to go with us in search of the robbers, we proceeded accordingly as far as was convenient by water, then landed, entered the country, and travelled some miles inland, the chief leading the way, enquiring of every one he saw. At length he stepped into a house by the road side, ordered some cocoa-nuts for us, and after we were a little refreshed, wanted to proceed still farther. But this I opposed, thinking that we might be carried to the very farthest end of the island, after things, the most of which, before they came into our hands again, might not be worth the bringing home. The chief used many arguments to persuade me to proceed, telling me that I might send my boat round to meet us, or that he would get a canoe to bring us home, if I thought it too far to travel. But I was resolved to return, and he was obliged to comply and return with me, when he saw I would follow him no farther. I only desired he would send somebody for the things; for I found that the thieves had got so much start of us, that we might follow them to the remotest parts of the isle, without so much as seeing them. Besides, as I intended to sail the next morning, this occasioned a great loss to us, by putting a stop to all manner of trade; for the natives were so much alarmed, that none came near us, but those that were about the chief. It therefore became the more necessary for me to return, to restore things to their former state. When we got back to our boat, we there found Oree's sister, and several more persons, who had travelled by land to the place. We immediately stepped into the boat in order to return on board, without so much as asking the chief to accompany us. He, however, insisted on going also, and followed us into the boat in spite of the opposition and entreaties of those about him; his sister followed his example, and the tears and prayers of her daughter, who was about sixteen or eighteen years of age, had no weight with her on this occasion. The chief sat at table with us, and made a hearty dinner; his sister, according to custom, eat nothing. After dinner, I sufficiently rewarded them for the confidence they had put in me; and, soon after, carried them both on shore, where some hundreds of people waited to receive them, many of whom embraced their chief with tears of joy. All was now joy and peace: The people crowded in, from every part, with hogs, fowls, and fruit, so that we presently filled two boats: Oree himself presented me with a large hog and a quantity of fruit. The hanger (the only thing of value Mr Sparrman had lost) with part of his coat, were brought us; and we were told, we should have the others the next day. Some of the officers, who were out on a shooting party, had some things stolen from them, which were returned in like manner.

Thus ended the troublesome transactions of this day, which I have been the more particular in relating, because it shews what great confidence this brave old chief put in us; it also in some degree shews, that friendship is sacred with them. Oree and I were professed friends in all the forms customary among them; and he seemed to think that this could not be broken by the act of any other persons. Indeed this seemed to be the great argument he made use of to his people, when they opposed his going into my boat. His words were to this effect:—"Oree (meaning me, for so I was always called) and I are friends; I have done nothing to forfeit his friendship; why then should I not go with him?" We, however, may never find another chief who will act in the same manner, under similar circumstances. It may be asked, What had he to fear? to which I answer, Nothing. For it was not my intention to hurt a hair of his head, or to detain him a moment longer than he desired. But how was he or the people to know this? They were not ignorant, that if he was once in my power, the whole force of the island could not take him from me, and that, let my demands for his ransom have been ever so high, they must have complied with them. Thus far their fears, both for his and their own safety, were founded in reason.

On the 7th, early in the morning, while the ships were unmooring, I went to pay my farewell visit to Oree, accompanied by Captain Furneaux and Mr Forster. We took with us for a present, such things as were not only valuable, but useful. I also left with him the inscription plate he had before in keeping, and another small copper-plate, on which were engraved these words: "Anchored here, his "Britannic Majesty's ships Resolution and Adventure, September, 1773," together with some medals, all put up in a bag; of which the chief promised to take care, and to produce to the first ship or ships that should arrive at the island. He then gave me a hog; and, after trading for six or eight more, and loading the boat with fruit, we took leave, when the good old chief embraced me with tears in his eyes. At this interview nothing was said about the remainder of Mr Sparrman's clothes. I judged they were not brought in; and for that reason did not mention them, lest I should give the chief pain about things I did not give him time to recover; for this was early in the morning.

When we returned to the ships, we found them crowded round with canoes full of hogs, fowls, and fruit, as at our first arrival. I had not been long on board, before Oree himself came to inform me, as we understood, that the robbers were taken, and to desire us to go on shore, either to punish, or to see them punished; but this could not be done, as the Resolution was just under sail, and the Adventure already out of the harbour. The chief stayed on board till we were a full half league out at sea; then took a most affectionate leave of me; and went away in a canoe, conducted by one man and himself; all the others having gone long before. I was sorry that it was not convenient for me to go on shore with him, to see in what manner these people would have been punished; for I am satisfied, this was what brought him on board.

During our short stay at the small but fertile isle of Huaheine, we procured to both ships not less than three hundred hogs, besides fowls and fruits; and, had we stayed longer, might have got many more: For none of these articles of refreshment were seemingly diminished, but appeared every where in as great abundance as ever.[2]

Before we quitted this island, Captain Furneaux agreed to receive on board his ship a young man named Omai, a native of Ulietea; where he had had some property, of which he had been dispossessed by the people of Bolabola. I at first rather wondered that Captain Furneaux would encumber himself with this man, who, in my opinion, was not a proper sample of the inhabitants of these happy islands, not having any advantage of birth, or acquired rank; nor being eminent in shape, figure, or complexion: For their people of the first rank are much fairer, and usually better behaved, and more intelligent, than the middling class of people, among whom Omai is to be ranked. I have, however, since my arrival in England, been convinced of my error: For excepting his complexion (which is undoubtedly of a deeper hue than that of the Earees, or gentry, who, as in other countries, live a more luxurious life, and are less exposed to the heat of the sun), I much doubt whether any other of the natives would have given more general satisfaction by his behaviour among us. Omai has most certainly a very good understanding, quick parts, and honest principles; he has a natural good behaviour, which rendered him acceptable to the best company; and a proper degree of pride, which taught him to avoid the society of persons of inferior rank. He has passions of the same kind as other young men, but has judgment enough not to indulge them in any improper excess. I do not imagine that he has any dislike to liquor, and if he had fallen into company where the person who drank the most met with the most approbation, I have no doubt, but that he would have endeavoured to gain the applause of those with whom he associated; but, fortunately for him, he perceived that drinking was very little in use but among inferior people, and as he was very watchful into the manners and conduct of the persons of rank who honoured him with their protection, he was sober and modest, and I never heard that, during the whole time of his stay in England, which was two years, he ever once was disguised with wine, or ever shewed an inclination to go beyond the strictest rules of moderation.

Soon after his arrival in London, the Earl of Sandwich, the first Lord of the Admiralty, introduced him to his majesty at Kew, when he met with a most gracious reception, and imbibed the strongest impression of duty and gratitude to that great and amiable prince, which I am persuaded he will preserve to the latest moment of his life. During his stay among us he was caressed by many of the principal nobility, and did nothing to forfeit the esteem of any one of them; but his principal patrons were the Earl of Sandwich, Mr Banks, and Dr Solander; the former probably thought it a duty of his office to protect and countenance an inhabitant of that hospitable country, where the wants and distresses of those in his department had been alleviated and supplied in the most ample manner; the others, as a testimony of their gratitude for the generous reception they had met with during their residence in his country. It is to be observed, that though Omai lived in the midst of amusements during his residence in England, his return to his native country was always in his thoughts, and though he was not impatient to go, he expressed a satisfaction as the time of his return approached. He embarked with me in the Resolution, when she was fitted out for another voyage, loaded with presents from his several friends, and full of gratitude for the kind reception and treatment he had experienced among us.

[1] "On the walk to Oree's house, Dr Sparrman and I saw great numbers of hogs, dogs, and fowls. The last roamed about at pleasure through the woods, and roosted on fruit-trees; the hogs were likewise allowed to run about, but received regular portions of food, which were commonly distributed by old women. We observed one of them, in particular, feeding a little pig with the same fermented bread-fruit paste, called mahei; she held the pig with one hand, and offered it a tough pork's skin, but as soon as it opened the mouth to snap at it, she contrived to throw in a handful of the same paste, which the little animal would not take without this stratagem. The dogs, in spite of their stupidity, were in high favour with all the women, who could not have nursed them with a more ridiculous affection, if they had really been ladies of fashion in Europe. We were witnesses of a remarkable instance of kindness, when we saw a middle-aged woman, whose breasts were full of milk, offering them to a little puppy, which had been trained up to suck them. We were so much surprised at this sight, that we could not help expressing our dislike of it; but she smiled at our observation, and added, that she suffered little pigs to do the same service. Upon enquiry, however, we found that she had lost her child, and did her the justice amongst ourselves to acknowledge, that this expedient was very innocent, and formerly practised in Europe."—G.F.

He might have added, and still is. It is quite usual in this country to use puppies in order to draw the breasts, when distended with milk, from the want or inability of a child to suck them. But it is, perhaps, quite erroneous to ascribe the practice to affection or kindness, in either Europe or Otaheite.—E.

[2] "The people of this island appeared to be so exactly like the Taheitians, that we could perceive no difference, nor could we by any means verify that assertion of former navigators, that the women of this island were in general fairer, and more handsome; but this may vary according to circumstances. They were, however, not so troublesome in begging for beads and other presents, nor so forward to bestow their favours on the new comers, though at our landing and putting off, some of the common sort frequently performed an indecent ceremony, which is described in the accounts of former voyages, but without any of the preparatory circumstances which Ooratooa practised. We had likewise much less reason to extol the hospitality of the inhabitants, their general behaviour being rather more indifferent, and the Taheitian custom of reciprocal presents almost entirely unknown. On our walks, we were unmolested, (Mr F. relates also the assault of Dr Sparrman) but their conduct was bolder and more unconcerned than that of the Taheitians, and the explosion, as well as the effects of our fowling-pieces, did not strike them with fear and astonishment. These differences were certainly owing to the various treatment which the people of both islands had met with on the part of Europeans. There were, however, not wanting instances of hospitality and good-will even here."—G.F.



SECTION XIII.

Arrival at, and Departure of the Ships from, Ulietea: With an Account of what happened there, and of Oedidee, one of the Natives, coming away in the Resolution.

The chief was no sooner gone, than we made sail for Ulietea (where I intended to stop a few days). Arriving off the harbour of Ohamaneno at the close of the day, we spent the night making short boards. It was dark, but we were sufficiently guided by the fishers lights on the reefs and shores of the isles. The next morning, after making a few trips, we gained the entrance of the harbour; and, as the wind blew directly out, I sent a boat to lie in soundings, that we might know when to anchor. As soon as the signal was made by her, we borrowed close to the south point of the channel; and, with our sails set, shooting within the boat, we anchored in seventeen fathoms water. We then carried out anchors and hawsers, to warp in by; and, as soon as the Resolution was out of the way, the Adventure came up in like manner, and warped in by the Resolution. The warping in, and mooring the ships, took up the whole day.

We were no sooner at anchor at the entrance of the harbour, than the natives crowded round us in their canoes with hogs and fruit. The latter they exchanged for nails and beads; the former we refused as yet, having already as many on board as we could manage. Several we were, however, obliged to take, as many of the principal people brought off little pigs, pepper, or eavoa-root, and young plantain trees, and handed them into the ship, or put them into the boats along-side, whether we would or no; for if we refused to take them on board, they would throw them into the boats. In this manner, did these good people welcome us to their country.

I had forgot to mention, that Tupia was much enquired after at Huaheine; but, at this place, every one asked about him, and the occasion of his death; and, like true philosophers, were perfectly satisfied with the answers we gave them. Indeed, as we had nothing but the truth to tell, the story was the same, by whomsoever told.

Next morning we paid a formal visit to Oreo, the chief of this part of the isle, carrying with us the necessary presents. We went through no sort of ceremony at landing, but were at once conducted to him. He was seated in his own house, which stood near the water side, where he and his friends received us with great cordiality. He expressed much satisfaction at seeing me again, and desired that we might exchange names, which I accordingly agreed to. I believe this is the strongest mark of friendship they can show to a stranger. He enquired after Tupia, and all the gentlemen, by name, who were with me when I first visited the island. After we had made the chief and his friends the necessary presents, we went on board with a hog, and some fruit, received from him in return; and in the afternoon he gave me another hog, still larger, without asking for the least acknowledgment. Exchanges for fruit, &c. were mostly carried on alongside the ships. I attempted to trade for these articles on shore, but did not succeed, as the most of them were brought in canoes from distant parts, and carried directly to the ships.

After breakfast, on the 10th, Captain Furneaux and I paid the chief a visit; and we were entertained by him with such a comedy, or dramatic heava, as is generally acted in these isles. The music consisted of three drums, the actors were seven men, and one woman, the chief's daughter. The only entertaining part in the drama, was a theft committed by a man and his accomplice, in such a masterly manner, as sufficiently displayed the genius of the people in this vice. The theft is discovered before the thief has time to carry off his prize; then a scuffle ensues with those set to guard it, who, though four to two, are beat off the stage, and the thief and his accomplices bear away their plunder in triumph. I was very attentive to the whole of this part, being in full expectation that it would have ended very differently. For I had before been informed that Teto (that is, the Thief) was to be acted, and had understood that the theft was to be punished with death, or a good tiparahying (or beating), a punishment, we are told, they inflict on such as are guilty of this crime. Be this as it may, strangers are certainly excluded from the protection of this law; them they rob with impunity, on every occasion that offers. After the play was over, we returned on board to dinner; and in the cool of the evening took a walk on shore, where we learnt from one of the natives, that nine small islands, two of which were uninhabited, lay to the westward, at no great distance from hence.[1]

On the 11th, early in the morning, I had a visit from Oreo and his son, a youth about twelve years of age. The latter brought me a hog and some fruit; for which I made him a present of an axe, and dressed him in a shirt, and other things, which made him not a little proud of himself. Having staid some hours, they went on shore; as I also did soon after, but to another part. The chief hearing I was on shore, came to the place where he found the boat, into which he put a hog and a quantity of fruit, without saying a word to any body, and, with some of his friends, came on board, and dined with us. After dinner I had a visit from Oo-oorou, the principal chief of the isle. He was introduced to us by Oreo, and brought with him, as a present, a large hog, for which I made him a handsome return. Oreo employed himself in buying hogs for me (for we now began to take of them), and he made such bargains as I had reason to be satisfied with. At length they all took leave, after making me promise to visit them next morning; which I accordingly did, in company with several of the officers and gentlemen. Oreo ordered an heava to be acted for our entertainment, in which two very pretty young women were the actresses. This heava was somewhat different from the one I saw before, and not so entertaining. Oreo, after it was over, accompanied us on board, together with two of his friends.

The following day was spent much in the same manner; and early in the morning of the 14th, I sent Mr Pickersgill, with the Resolution's launch, and Adventure's cutter, to Otaha, to procure an additional supply of bananoes, and plantains, for a sea-store; for we could get little more of these articles at Ulietea than were sufficient for present consumption. Oreo, and some of his friends, paid me a pretty early visit this morning. I acquainted the chief, that I would dine with him, and desired he would order two pigs to be dressed after their manner, which he accordingly did, and, about one o'clock, I, and the officers and gentlemen of both ships, went to partake of them. When we came to the chiefs house, we found the cloth laid; that is, green leaves were strewed thick on the floor. Round them we seated ourselves; presently one of the pigs came over my head souce upon the leaves, and immediately after the other; both so hot as hardly to be touched. The table was garnished round with hot bread-fruit and plantains, and a quantity of cocoa-nuts brought for drink. Each man being ready, with his knife in his hand, we turned to without ceremony; and it must be owned, in favour of their cookery, that victuals were never cleaner, nor better dressed. For, though the pigs were served up whole, and one weighed between fifty and sixty pounds, and the other about half as much, yet all the parts were equally well done, and eat much sweeter than if dressed in any of our methods. The chief and his son, and some other of his male friends, eat with us, and pieces were handed to others who sat behind: For we had a vast crowd about us; so that it might be truly said we dined in public. The chief never failed to drink his glass of Madeira whenever it came to his turn, not only now, but at all other times when he dined with us, without ever being once affected by it. As soon as we had dined, the boat's crew took the remainder; and by them, and those about them, the whole was consumed. When we rose up, many of the common people rushed in, to pick up the crumbs which had fallen, and for which they searched the leaves very narrowly. This leads me to believe, that though there is plenty of pork at these isles, but little falls to their share. Some of our gentlemen being present when these pigs were killed and dressed, observed the chief to divide the entrails, lard, &c. into ten or twelve equal parts, and serve it out to certain people. Several daily attended the ships, and assisted the butchers, for the sake of the entrails of the hogs we killed. Probably little else falls to the share of the common people. It however must be owned, that they are exceedingly careful of every kind of provision, and waste nothing that can be eaten by man; flesh and fish especially.

In the afternoon we were entertained with a play. Plays, indeed, had been acted almost every day since we had been here, either to entertain us, or for their own amusement, or perhaps both.[2]

Next morning produced some circumstances which fully prove the timorous disposition of these people. We were surprised to find that none of them came off to the ships as usual. Two men belonging to the Adventure having staid on shore all night, contrary to orders, my first conjectures were, that the natives had stripped them, and were now afraid to come near us, lest we should take some step to revenge the insult; but in order to be better satisfied, Captain Furneaux and I went ashore to Oreo's house, which we found quite empty; he and all his family gone, and the whole neighbourhood, in a manner, quite deserted. The two men belonging to the Adventure made their appearance, and informed us that they had been very civilly treated by the natives, but could give no account of the cause of their precipitate flight. All that we could learn from the very few that durst come near us, was, that severals were killed, others wounded by our guns, pointing out to us where the balls went in and out of the body, &c. This relation gave me a good deal of uneasiness for the safety of our people gone to Otaha, fearing that some disturbance had happened at that island. However, in order to be better informed, I determined, if possible, to see the chief himself. Accordingly we embarked in our boat, having one of the natives with us, and rowed along shore to the northward, the way we were told he was gone. We soon came in sight of the canoe in which he was; but before we could come up with her he had got on shore. We landed presently after, and found he was gone still farther. An immense crowd, however, waited our landing, who entreated me to follow him. One man offered to carry me on his back; but the whole story appearing rather more mysterious than ever, and being all unarmed, I did not choose to separate myself from the boat, but embarked again, and rowed after him. We soon came before the place where our guide told us he was, and put in the boat accordingly. It grounded at some distance from the shore, where we were met by a venerable old lady, wife to the chief. She threw herself into my arms, and wept bitterly, insomuch that it was not possible to get one plain word from her. With this old lady in my hand I went ashore, contrary to the advice of my young man from Otaheite, who was more afraid than any of us, probably believing every word the people had told us. I found the chief seated under the shade of a house, before which was a large area, and surrounded by a vast number of people. As soon as I came to him, he threw his arms about me, and burst into tears, in which he was accompanied by all the women, and some of the men, so that the lamentation became general; astonishment alone kept me from joining with them. It was some time before I could get a word from any one; at last, all my enquiries gave me no other information, than that they were alarmed on account of our boats being absent, thinking that the people in them had deserted from us, and that I should take some violent means to recover them. For when we assured them that the boats would return back, they seemed cheerful and satisfied, and to a man, denied that any one was hurt, either of their own or our people, and so it afterwards proved. Nor did it appear that there was the least foundation for these alarms, nor could we ever find out by what means this general consternation first took its rise. After a stay of about an hour, I returned on board, three of the natives coming along with us, who proclaimed the peace as we rowed along shore to all they saw.

Thus matters were again restored to their former footing, and the next morning they came off to the ships as usual. After breakfast, Captain Furneaux and I paid the chief a visit; we found him at his own house perfectly easy, insomuch that he and some of his friends came on board and dined with us. I was now told that my Otaheitean young man, Poreo, had taken a resolution to leave me. I have just mentioned before, his being with us when I followed Oreo, and his advising me not to go on shore. He was so much afraid at that time, that he remained in the boat till he heard all matters were reconciled; then he came out, and presently after, met with a young woman, for whom he had contracted a friendship. Having my powder-horn in keeping, he came and gave it to one of my people who was by me, and then went away with her, and I saw him no more.

In the afternoon, our boats returned from Otaha, pretty well laden with plantains, an article we were most in want of. They made the circuit of the island, conducted by one of the Earees, whose name was Boba, and were hospitably entertained by the people, who provided them with victuals and lodging. The first night, they were entertained with a play, the second, their repose was disturbed by the natives stealing their military chest. This put them on making reprisals, by which means they recovered the most of what they had lost.

Having now got on board a large supply of refreshments, I determined to put to sea the next morning, and made the same known to the chief, who promised to see me again before we departed. At four o'clock we began to unmoor; and as soon as it was light, Oreo, his son, and some of his friends, came aboard. Many canoes also came off with fruit and hogs, the latter they even begged of us to take from them, calling out Tiyo boa atoi.—I am your friend, take my hog, and give me an axe. But our decks. were already so full of them, that we could hardly move, having, on board both ships, between three and four hundred. By the increase of our stock, together with what we had salted and consumed, I judge that we got at this island 400 or upwards; many, indeed, were only roasters, others again weighed one hundred pounds, or upwards, but the general run was from forty to sixty. It is not easy to say how many we might have got, could we have found room for all that were offered us.

The chief, and his friends, did not leave me till we were under sail, and before he went away, pressed me much to know, if I would not return, and when? Questions which were daily put to me by many of these islanders. My Otaheitean youth's leaving me proved of no consequence, as many young men of this island voluntarily offered to come away with us. I thought proper to take on board one, who was about seventeen or eighteen years of age, named Oedidee, a native of Bolabola, and a near relation of the great Opoony, chief of that island. Soon after we were out of the harbour, and had made sail, we observed a canoe following us, conducted by two men; whereupon I brought-to, and they presently came alongside, having brought me a present of roasted fruit and roots from Oreo. I made them a proper return before I dismissed them, and then set sail to the west, with the Adventure in company.

[1] "The accounts of the situation and distances of these isles, were so various and so vague, that we could by no means depend upon them, for we never met with any man who had visited them; however, they served to convince us, that the natives of the Society Isles have sometimes extended their navigation farther than its present limits, by the knowledge they have of several adjacent countries. Tupaya (Tupia), the famous man who embarked at Taheitee in the Endeavour, had enumerated a much more considerable list of names, and had actually drawn a map of their respective situations and magnitudes, of which Lieutenant Pickersgill obligingly communicated a copy to me. In this map we found all the names now mentioned, except two; but if his drawing had been exact, our ships must have sailed over a number of the islands which he had laid down. It is therefore very probable, that the vanity of appearing more intelligent than he really was, had prompted him to produce this fancied chart of the South Sea, and perhaps to invent many of the names of islands in it, which amounted to more than fifty."—G.F.

[2] Some of our readers might be profited, perhaps, by considering the moral of the following incident, which occurred at this play.—"Among the spectators we observed several of the prettiest women of this country; and one of them was remarkable for the whitest complexion we had ever seen on all these islands. Her colour resembled that of white wax a little sullied, without having the least appearance of sickness, which that hue commonly conveys; and her fine black eyes and hair contrasted so well with it, that she was admired by us all. She received at first a number of little presents, which were so many marks of homage paid at the shrine of beauty; but her success, instead of gratifying, only sharpened her love of trinkets, and she incessantly importuned every one of us, as long as she suspected we had a single bead left. One of the gentlemen fortunately happened to have a little padlock in his hand, which she begged for as soon as she had perceived it. After denying it for some time, he consented to give it her, and locked it in her ear, assuring her that was its proper place. She was pleased for some time; but finding it too heavy, desired him to unlock it. He flung away the key, giving her to understand, at the same time, that he had made her the present at her own desire, and that if she found it encumbered her, she should bear it as a punishment for importuning us with her petitions. She was disconsolate upon this refusal, and weeping bitterly, applied to us all to open the padlock; but if we had been willing, we were not able to comply with her request, for want of the key. She applied to the chief, and he as well as his wife, son, and daughter, joined in praying for the release of her ear: They offered cloth, perfume-wood, and hogs, but all in vain. At last a small key was found to open the padlock, which put an end to the poor girl's lamentation, and restored peace and tranquillity among all her friends. Her adventure had, however, this good effect, that it cured her, and some of her forward country-women, of this idle habit of begging."—G.F.



SECTION XIV.

An Account of a Spanish Ship visiting Otaheite; the present State of the Islands; with some Observations on the Diseases and Customs of the Inhabitants; and some Mistakes concerning the Women corrected.

I shall now give some farther account of these islands; for, although I have been pretty minute in relating the daily transactions, some things, which are rather interesting, have been omitted.

Soon after our arrival at Otaheite, we were informed that a ship about the size of the Resolution, had been in at Owhaiurua harbour, near the S.E. end of the island, where she remained about three weeks; and had been gone about three months before we arrived. We were told that four of the natives were gone away with her, whose names were Debedebea, Paoodou, Tanadooee, and Opahiah. At this time, we conjectured this was a French ship, but, on our arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, we learnt she was a Spaniard, which had been sent out from America.[1] The Otaheiteans complained of a disease communicated to them by the people in this ship, which they said affected the head, throat, and stomach, and at length killed them. They seemed to dread it much, and were continually enquiring if we had it. This ship they distinguished by the name of Pahai no Pep-pe (ship of Peppe), and called the disease Apa no Pep-pe, just as they call the venereal disease Apa no Pretane (English disease), though they, to a man, say it was brought to the isle by M. de Bougainville; but I have already observed that they thought M. de Bougainville came from Pretane, as well as every other ship which has touched at the isle.

Were it not for this assertion of the natives, and none of Captain Wallis's people being affected with the venereal disease, either while they were at Otaheite, or after they left it, I should have concluded that long before these islanders were visited by Europeans, this or some disease which is near akin to it, had existed amongst them. For I have heard them speak of people dying of a disorder which we interpreted to be the pox before that period. But, be this as it will, it is now far less common amongst them, than it was in the year 1769, when I first visited these isles. They say they can cure it, and so it fully appears, for, notwithstanding most of my people had made pretty free with the women, very few of them were afterwards affected with the disorder; and those who were, had it in so slight a manner, that it is easily removed. But among the natives, whenever it turns to a pox, they tell us it is incurable. Some of our people pretend to have seen some of them who had this last disorder in a high degree, but the surgeon, who made it his business to enquire, could never satisfy himself in this point. These people are, and were, before Europeans visited them, very subject to scrophulous diseases, so that a seaman might easily mistake one disorder for another.[2]

The island of Otaheite, which, in the years 1767 and 1768, as it were, swarmed with hogs and fowls, was now so ill supplied with these animals, that hardly any thing could induce the owners to part with them. The few they had at this time, among them, seemed to be at the disposal of the kings. For while we lay at Oaitipiha Bay, in the kingdom of Tiarrabou, or lesser peninsula, every hog or fowl we saw we were told belonged to Waheatoua; and all we saw in the kingdom of Opoureonu, or the greater peninsula, belonged to Otoo. During the seventeen days we were at this island, we got but twenty-four hogs, the half of which came from the two kings themselves; and, I believe, the other half were sold us by their permission or order. We were, however, abundantly supplied with all the fruits the island produces, except bread-fruit, which was not in season either at this or the other isles. Cocoa-nuts and plantains were what we got the most of; the latter, together with a few yams and other roots, were to us a succedaneum for bread. At Otaheite we got great plenty of apples, and a fruit like a nectarine, called by them Aheeva. This fruit was common to all the isles; but apples we got only at Otaheite, and found them of infinite use to the scorbutic people. Of all the seeds that have been brought to those islands by Europeans, none have succeeded but pumpkins; and these they do not like, which is not to be wondered at.

The scarcity of hogs at Otaheite may be owing to two causes; first, to the number which have been consumed, and carried off by the shipping which have touched here of late years; and, secondly, to the frequent wars between the two kingdoms. We know of two since the year 1767; at present a peace subsists between them, though they do not seem to entertain much friendship for each other. I never could learn the cause of the late war, nor who got the better in the conflict. In the battle, which put an end to the dispute, many were killed on both sides. On the part of Opoureonu, fell Toutaha, and several other chiefs, who were mentioned to me by name. Toutaha lies interred in the family Marai at Oparree; and his mother, and several other women who were of his household, are now taken care of by Otoo, the reigning prince—a man who, at first, did not appear to us to much advantage. I know but little of Waheatoua of Tiarrabou. This prince, who is not above twenty years of age, appeared with all the gravity of a man of fifty. His subjects do not uncover before him, or pay him any outward obeisance as is done to Otoo; nevertheless, they seem to shew him full as much respect, and he appeared in rather more state. He was attended by a few middle-aged, or elderly men, who seemed to be his counsellors. This is what appeared to me to be the then state of Otaheite. The other islands, that is, Huaheine, Ulietea, and Otaha, were in a more flourishing state than they were when I was there before. Since that time, they had enjoyed the blessing of peace; the people seemed to be as happy as any under heaven; and well they may, for they possess not only the necessaries, but many of the luxuries of life in the greatest profusion; and my young man told me that hogs, fowls, and fruits, are in equal plenty at Bola-bola, a thing which Tupia would never allow. To clear up this seeming contradiction, I must observe, that the one was prejudiced against, and the other in favour of, this isle.

The produce of the islands, the manners and customs of the natives, &c. having been treated at large in the narrative of my former voyage, it will be unnecessary to take notice of these subjects in this, unless where I can add new matter, or clear up any mistakes which may have been committed.

As I had some reason to believe, that amongst their religious customs, human sacrifices were sometimes considered as necessary, I went one day to a Marai in Matavai, in company with Captain Furneaux; having with us, as I had upon all other occasions, one of my men who spoke their language tolerably well, and several of the natives, one of whom appeared to be an intelligent sensible man. In the Marai was a Tupapow, on which lay a corpse and some viands; so that every thing promised success to my enquiries. I began with asking questions relating to the several objects before me, if the plantains, &c. were for the Eatua? If they sacrificed to the Eatua, hogs, dogs, fowls, &c.? To all of which he answered in the affirmative. I then asked, If they sacrificed men to the Eatua? He answered Taata eno; that is, bad men they did, first Tipperahy, or beating them till they were dead. I then asked him, If good men were put to death in this manner? His answer was No, only Taata eno. I asked him if any Earees were? He said, they had hogs to give to the Eatua, and again repeated Taatu eno. I next asked, If Towtows, that is, servants or slaves, who had no hogs, dogs, or fowls, but yet were good men, if they were sacrificed to the Eatua? His answer was No, only bad men. I asked him several more questions, and all his answers seemed to tend to this one point, that men for certain crimes were condemned to be sacrificed to the gods, provided they had not wherewithal to redeem themselves. This, I think, implies, that on some occasions, human sacrifices are considered as necessary, particularly when they take such men as have, by the laws of their country, forfeited their lives, and have nothing to redeem them; and such will generally be found among the lower class of people.

The man of whom I made these enquiries, as well as some others, took some pains to explain the whole of this custom to us; but we were not masters enough of their language to understand them. I have since learnt from Omai, that they offer human sacrifices to the Supreme Being. According to his account, what men shall be so sacrificed, depends on the caprice of the high priest, who, when they are assembled on any solemn occasion, retires alone into the house of God, and stays there some time. When he comes out, he informs them, that he has seen and conversed with their great God (the high priest alone having that privilege), and that he has asked for a human sacrifice, and tells them that he has desired such a person, naming a man present, whom, most probably, the priest has an antipathy against. He is immediately killed, and so falls a victim to the priest's resentment, who, no doubt (if necessary), has address enough to persuade the people that he was a bad man. If I except their funeral ceremonies, all the knowledge that has been obtained of their religion, has been from information: And as their language is but imperfectly understood, even by those who pretend to the greatest knowledge of it, very little on this head is yet known with certainty.[3]

The liquor which they make from the plant called Ava ava, is expressed from the root, and not from the leaves, as mentioned in the narrative of my former voyage. The manner of preparing this liquor is as simple as it is disgusting to an European. It is thus: Several people take some of the root, and chew it till it is soft and pulpy, then they spit it out into a platter or other vessel, every one into the same; when a sufficient quantity is chewed, more or less water is put to it, according as it is to be strong or weak; the juice, thus diluted, is strained through some fibrous stuff like fine shavings; after which it is fit for drinking, and this is always done immediately. It has a pepperish taste, drinks flat, and rather insipid. But, though it is intoxicating I only saw one instance where it had that effect, as they generally drink it with great moderation, and but little at a time. Sometimes they chew this root in their mouths, as Europeans do tobacco, and swallow their spittle; and sometimes I have seen them eat it wholly.

At Ulietea they cultivate great quantities of this plant. At Otaheite but very little. I believe there are but few islands in this sea, that do not produce more or less of it; and the natives apply it to the same use, as appears by Le Mair's account of Horn Island, in which he speaks of the natives making a liquor from a plant in the same manner as above mentioned.

Great injustice has been done the women of Otaheite, and the Society isles, by those who have represented them, without exception, as ready to grant the last favour to any man who will come up to their price. But this is by no means the case; the favours of married women, and also the unmarried of the better sort, are as difficult to be obtained here, as in any other country whatever. Neither can the charge be understood indiscriminately of the unmarried of the lower class, for many of these admit of no such familiarities. That there are prostitutes here, as well as in other countries, is very true, perhaps more in proportion, and such were those who came on board the ships to our people, and frequented the post we had on shore. By seeing these mix indiscriminately with those of a different turn, even of the first rank, one is at first inclined to think that they are all disposed the same way, and that the only difference is in the price. But the truth is, the woman who becomes a prostitute does not seem, in their opinion, to have committed a crime of so deep a dye as to exclude her from the esteem and society of the community in general. On the whole, a stranger who visits England might, with equal justice, draw the characters of the women there, from those which he might meet with on board the ships in one of the naval ports, or in the purlieus of Covent-Garden and Drury-Lane. I must however allow, that they are all completely versed in the art of coquetry, and that very few of them fix any bounds to their conversation. It is therefore no wonder that they have obtained the character of libertines.

To what hath been said of the geography of these isles, in the narrative of my former voyage, I shall now only add, that we found the latitude of Oaiti-piha Bay, in Otaheite, to be 17 deg. 43' 26" south, and the longitude 0 deg. 21' 25" 1/2 east from Point Venus; or 149 deg. 13' 24" west from Greenwich. The difference both of latitude and longitude, between Point Venus and Oaiti- piha, is greater than I supposed it to be, when I made the circuit of the island in 1769, by two miles, and 4-3/4 miles respectively. It is therefore highly probable, that the whole island is of a greater extent than I, at that time, estimated it to be. The astronomers set up their observatory, and made their observations on Point Venus, the latitude of which they found to be 17 deg. 29' 13" south. This differs but two seconds from that which Mr Green and I found; and its longitude, viz. 149 deg. 34' 49" 1/2 west, for any thing that is yet known to the contrary, is as exact.

Mr Kendal's watch was found to be gaining on mean time 8" 863 per day, which is only 0" 142 less than at Queen Charlotte's Sound, consequently its error in longitude was trifling.

[1] "We heard that about the time mentioned by the natives, Don Juan de Langara y Huarte, sent out from the port of Callao in Peru, had visited Otaheite, but what the particulars of that voyage are, has never transpired."—G.F.

[2] We anticipated such an opinion in a former volume, and cannot refrain quoting the following observations in support of it.—"The question, which has been agitated between the French and English navigators, concerning the first introduction of this evil to Otaheite, might be decided very favourably for them both, by supposing the disease to have existed there previous to their arrival. The argument, that some of Captain Wallis's people received the infection, does not seem to controvert this supposition, but only proves, that the women, who prostrated themselves to his men, were free from it; which was, perhaps, owing to a precaution of the natives, who might be apprehensive of exposing themselves to the anger of the strangers, by conferring such a desperate gift upon them. M. de Bougainville, with the politeness of a well-bred man, doubts whether the disease existed at Otaheite previous to his arrival or not; the English seaman asserts his opinion as facts in positive terms. We heard, however, of another disease of a different nature, whilst we stayed upon the island; and which they called o-pay-no-Peppe, (the sore of Peppe), adding that it was brought by the ship which they designed by that name, and which, according to different accounts, had either been two, three, or four months before us at Otaheite. By the account of the symptoms, it seemed to be a kind of leprosy. Nothing is more easy than to imagine, how the strangers (Spaniards) who visited Otaheite in that ship, might be erroneously charged with introducing that disease. In order to give rise to a general error of this sort, it is sufficient that it broke out nearly about the time of their arrival, and that some distant connections between them and the persons affected could be traced. This is the more probable, as it is certain, that there are several sorts of leprous complaints existing among the inhabitants, such as the elephantiasis, which resembles the yaws; also an eruption over the whole skin, and, lastly, a monstrous rotting ulcer, of a most loathsome appearance. However, all these very seldom occur, and especially the last; for the excellence of their climate, and the simplicity of their vegetable food, which cannot be too much extolled, prevent not only these, but almost all dangerous and deadly disorders."—G.F.

[3] The reader will be abundantly supplied with information respecting the fact of human sacrifices being used at this island, when he comes to the account of the third voyage performed by Cook.—E.



CHAPTER II.

FROM OUR DEPARTURE FROM THE SOCIETY ISLES, TO OUR RETURN TO AND LEAVING THEM THE SECOND TIME.

SECTION I.

Passage from Ulietea to the Friendly Islands, with an Account of the Discovery of Hervey's Island, and the Incidents that happened at Middleburg.

After leaving Ulietea, as before mentioned, I steered to the west, inclining to the south, to get clear of the tracts of former navigators, and to get into the latitude of the islands of Middleburgh and Amsterdam; for I intended to run as far west as these islands, and to touch there if I found it convenient, before I hauled up for New Zealand. I generally lay-to every night, lest we might pass any land in the dark. Part of the 21st and 22d the wind blew from N.W., attended with thunder, lightning, and rain, having a large swell from S.S.E. and S., which kept up for several days,— an indication that no land was near us in that direction.

On the 23d, at ten o'clock in the morning, land was seen from the top-mast head, and at noon from the deck, extending from S. by W. to S.W. by S. We hauled up for it with the wind at S.E., and found it to consist of two or three small islets, connected together by breakers like most of the low isles in the sea, lying in a triangular form, and about six leagues in circuit. They were clothed with wood, among which were many cocoa-nut trees. We saw no people, or signs of inhabitants; and had reason to think there were none. The situation of this isle, which is in the latitude of 19 deg. 18' S., longitude 158 deg. 54' W., is not very different from that assigned by Mr Dalrymple to La Dezena. But as this is a point not easily determined, I named it Hervey's Island, in honour of the Honourable Captain Hervey of the navy, one of the lords of the Admiralty, and afterwards Earl of Bristol.

As the landing on this isle, if practicable, would have caused a delay which I could ill spare at this time, we resumed our course to the west; and on the 25th we again began to use our sea-biscuits, the fruit which had served as a succedaneum being all consumed; but our stock of fresh pork still continued, each man having as much every day as was needful. In our route to the west we now and then saw men-of-war and tropic birds, and a small sea-bird, which is seldom seen but near the shores of the isles; we, therefore, conjectured that we had passed some land at no great distance. As we advanced to the west, the variation of the compass gradually increased, so that on the 29th, being in the latitude of 21 deg. 26' S., longitude 170 deg. 40' W., it was 10 deg. 45' E.

At two o'clock p.m. on the 1st of October, we made the island of Middleburg, bearing W.S.W.; at six o'clock it extended from S.W, by W. to N.W., distant four leagues, at which time another land was seen in the direction of N.N.W. The wind being at S.S.E., I hauled to the south, in order to get round the south end of the island before the morning; but at eight o'clock a small island was seen lying off it, and not knowing but they might be connected by a reef, the extent of which we must be ignorant of, I resolved to spend the night where we were. At day-break the next morning, we bore up for the S.W. side of Middleburg, passing between it and the little isle above mentioned, where we found a clear channel two miles broad.[1]

After ranging the S.W. side of the greater isle, to about two-thirds of its length, at the distance of half a mile from the shore, without seeing the least prospect of either anchorage or landing-place, we bore away for Amsterdam, which we had in sight. We had scarcely turned our sails before we observed the shores of Middleburg to assume another aspect, seeming to offer both anchorage and landing. Upon this we hauled the wind, and plied in under the island. In the mean time, two canoes, each conducted by two or three men, came boldly alongside; and some of them entered the ship without hesitation. This mark of confidence gave me a good opinion of these islanders, and determined me to visit them, if possible.[2] After making a few trips, we found good anchorage, and came to in twenty-five fathoms water, and gravel bottom, at three cables' length from the shore. The highest land on the island bore S.E. by E.; the north point N.E. 1/2 E., and the west S. by W. 1/2 W., and the island of Amsterdam extending from N. by W. 1/2 W. to N.W. 1/2 W. We had scarcely got to an anchor before we were surrounded by a great number of canoes full of people, who had brought with them cloth, and other curiosities, which they exchanged for nails, &c. Several came on board; among them was one whom, by the authority he seemed to have over the others, I found was a chief, and accordingly made him a present of a hatchet, spike-nails, and several other articles, with which he was highly pleased. Thus I obtained the friendship of this chief, whose name was Tioony.[3]

Soon after, a party of us embarked in two boats, in company with Tioony, who conducted us to a little creek formed by the rocks, right abreast of the ships, where landing was extremely easy, and the boats secure against the surf. Here we found an immense crowd of people, who welcomed us on shore with loud acclamations. Not one of them had so much as a stick, or any other weapon in their hands; an indubitable sign of their pacific intentions. They thronged so thick round the boats with cloth, matting, &c. to exchange for nails, that it was some time before we could get room to land. They seemed to be more desirous to give than receive; for many who could not get near the boats, threw into them, over the others heads, whole bales of cloth, and then retired, without either asking, or waiting for any thing in return. At length the chief caused them to open to the right and left, and make room for us to land.[4] He then conducted us up to his house, which was situated about three hundred yards from the sea, at the head of a fine lawn, and under the shade of some shaddock trees. The situation was most delightful. In front was the sea, and the ships at anchor; behind, and on each side, were plantations, in which were some of the richest productions of Nature. The floor was laid with mats, on which we were seated, and the people seated themselves in a circle round us on the outside. Having the bagpipes with us, I ordered them to be played; and in return, the chief directed three young women to sing a song, which they did with a very good grace; and having made each of them a present, this immediately set all the women in the circle a-singing. Their songs were musical and harmonious, and nowise harsh or disagreeable.[5] After sitting here some time, we were, at our own request, conducted into one of the adjoining plantations, where the chief had another house, into which we were introduced. Bananoes and cocoa-nuts were set before us to eat, and a bowl of liquor prepared in our presence of the juice of Eava for us to drink. Pieces of the root were first offered us to chew; but as we excused ourselves from assisting in the operation, this was performed by others. When sufficiently chewed, it was put into a large wooden bowl; then mixed with water, in the manner already related; and as soon as it was properly strained for drinking, they made cups, by folding of green leaves, which held near half a pint, and presented to each of us one of these filled with the liquor. But I was the only one who tasted it; the manner of brewing it having quenched the thirst of every one else. The bowl was, however; soon emptied of its contents, of which both men and women partook. I observed that they never filled the same cup twice; nor did two persons drink out of the same; each had a fresh cup and fresh liquor.

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