Towards the evening the gale abated, and in the night we had two or three hours calm. This was succeeded by a light breeze at west, with which we steered east, under all the sail we could set, meeting with many ice islands.
This night we saw a Port Egmont hen; and next morning, being the 25th, another. We had lately seen but few birds; and those were albatrosses, sheer-waters, and blue peterels. It is remarkable that we did not see one of either the white or Antarctic peterels, since we came last amongst the ice. Notwithstanding the wind kept at W. and N.W. all day, we had a very high sea from the east, by which we concluded that no land could be near in that direction. In the evening, being in the latitude 60 deg. 51', longitude 95 deg. 41' E., the variation was 43 deg. 6' W., and the next morning, being the 26th, having advanced about a degree and a half more to the east, it was 41 deg. 30', both being determined by several azimuths.
We had fair weather all the afternoon, but the wind was unsettled, veering round by the north to the east. With this we stood to the S.E. and E., till three o'clock in the afternoon; when, being in the latitude of 61 deg. 21' S., longitude 97 deg. 7', we tacked and stood to the northward and eastward as the wind kept veering to the south. This, in the evening, increased to a strong gale, blew in squalls, attended with snow and sleet, and thick hazy weather, which soon brought us under our close-reefed top-sails.
Between eight in the morning of the 26th, and noon the next day, we fell in among several islands of ice; from whence such vast quantities had broken as to cover the sea all round us, and render sailing rather dangerous. However, by noon, we were clear of it all. In the evening the wind abated, and veered to S.W. but the weather did not clear up till the next morning, when we were able to carry all our sails, and met with but very few islands of ice to impede us. Probably the late gale had destroyed a great number of them. Such a very large hollow sea had continued to accompany the wind as it veered from E. to S.W. that I was certain no land of considerable extent could lie within 100 or 150 leagues of our situation between these two points.
The mean height of the thermometer at noon, for some days past, was at about 35, which is something higher than it usually was in the same latitude about a month or five weeks before, consequently the air was something warmer. While the weather was really warm, the gales were not only stronger, but more frequent, with almost continual misty, dirty, wet weather. The very animals we had on board felt its effects. A sow having in the morning farrowed nine pigs, every one of them was killed by the cold before four o'clock in the afternoon, notwithstanding all the care we could take of them. From the same cause, myself as well as several of my people, had fingers and toes chilblained. Such is the summer weather we enjoyed!
The wind continued unsettled, veering from the south to the west, and blew a fresh gale till the evening. Then it fell little wind, and soon after a breeze sprung up at north, which quickly veered to N.E. and N.E. by E., attended with a thick fog, snow, sleet, and rain. With this wind and weather we kept on to the S.E., till four o'clock in the afternoon of the next day, being the first of March, when it fell calm, which continued for near twenty-four hours. We were now in the latitude of 60 deg. 36' S., longitude 107 deg. 54', and had a prodigious high swell from the S.W., and, at the same time, another from the S. or S.S.E. The dashing of the one wave against the other, made the ship both roll and pitch exceedingly; but at length the N.W. swell prevailed. The calm continued till noon the next day, when it was succeeded by a gentle breeze from S.E., which afterwards increased and veered to S.W. With this we steered N.E. by E., and E. by N., under all the sail we could set.
In the afternoon of the 3d, being in latitude 60 deg. 13', longitude 110 deg. 18', the variation was 39 deg. 4' W. But the observations, by which this was determined, were none of the best, being obliged to make use of such as we could get, during the very few and short intervals when the sun appeared. A few penguins were seen this day, but not so many islands of ice as usual. The weather was also milder, though very changeable; thermometer from 36 to 38. We continued to have a N.W. swell, although the wind was unsettled, veering to N.W. by the W. and N., attended with hazy sleet and drizzling rain.
We prosecuted our course to the east, inclining to the south, till three o'clock in the afternoon of the 4th, when, (being in the latitude of 60 deg. 37', longitude 113 deg. 24') the wind shifting at once to S.W. and S.W. by S., I gave orders to steer E. by N. 1/2 N. But in the night we steered E. 1/2 S. in order to have the wind, which was at S.S.W., more upon the beam, the better to enable us to stand back, in case we fell in with any danger in the dark. For we had not so much time to spare to allow us to lie-to.
In the morning of the 5th, we steered E. by N., under all the sail we could set, passing one ice island and many small pieces, and at nine o'clock the wind, which of late had not remained long upon any one point, shifted all at once to east, and blew a gentle gale. With this, we stood to the north, at which time we were in the latitude of 60 deg. 44' S., and longitude 116 deg. 50' E. The latitude was determined by the meridian altitude of the sun, which appeared, now and then, for a few minutes, till three in the afternoon. Indeed the sky was, in general, so cloudy, and the weather so thick and hazy, that we had very little benefit of sun or moon; very seldom seeing the face of either the one or the other. And yet, even under these circumstances, the weather, for some days past, could not be called very cold. It, however, had not the least pretension to be called summer weather, according to my ideas of summer in the northern hemisphere, as far as 60 deg. of latitude, which is nearly as far north as I have been.
In the evening we had three islands of ice in sight, all of them large; especially one, which was larger than any we had yet seen. The side opposed to us seemed to be a mile in extent; if so, it could not be less than three in circuit. As we passed it in the night, a continual cracking was heard, occasioned, no doubt, by pieces breaking from it. For, in the morning of the 6th, the sea, for some distance round it, was covered with large and small pieces; and the island itself did not appear so large as it had done the evening before. It could not be less than 100 feet high; yet such was the impetuous force and height of the waves which were broken against it, by meeting with such a sudden resistance, that they rose considerably higher. In the evening we were in latitude of 59 deg. 58' S., longitude 118 deg. 39' E. The 7th, the wind was variable in the N.E. and S.E. quarters, attended with snow and sleet till the evening. Then the weather became fair, the sky cleared up, and the night was remarkably pleasant, as well as the morning of the next day; which, for the brightness of the sky, and serenity and mildness of the weather, gave place to none we had seen since we left the Cape of Good Hope. It was such as is little known in this sea; and to make it still more agreeable, we had not one island of ice in sight. The mercury in the thermometer rose to 40. Mr Wales and the master made some observations of the moon and stars, which satisfied us, that, when our latitude was 59 deg. 44', our longitude was 121 deg. 9'. At three o'clock in the afternoon, the calm was succeeded by a breeze at S.E. The sky, at the same time, was suddenly obscured, and seemed to presage an approaching storm, which accordingly happened. For, in the evening, the wind shifted to south, blew in squalls, attended with sleet and rain, and a prodigious high sea. Having nothing to take care of but ourselves, we kept two or three points from the wind, and run at a good rate to the E.N.E. under our two courses, and close-reefed topsails.
The gale continued till the evening of the 10th. Then it abated; the wind shifted to the westward; and we had fair weather, and but little wind, during the night; attended with a sharp frost. The next morning, being in the latitude of 57 deg. 56', longitude 130 deg., the wind shifted to N.E., and blew a fresh gale, with which we stood S.E., having frequent showers of snow and sleet, and a long hollow swell from S.S.E. and S.E. by S. This swell did not go down till two days after the wind which raised it had not only ceased to blow, but had shifted, and blown fresh at opposite points, good part of the time. Whoever attentively considers this, must conclude, that there can be no land to the south, but what must be at a great distance.
Notwithstanding so little was to be expected in that quarter, we continued to stand to the south till three o'clock in the morning of the 12th, when we were stopped by a calm; being then in the latitude of 58 deg. 56' S., longitude 131 deg. 26' E. After a few hours calm, a breeze sprung up at west, with which we steered east. The S.S.E. swell having gone down, was succeeded by another from N.W. by W. The weather continued mild all this day, and the mercury rose to 39-1/2. In the evening it fell calm, and continued so till three o'clock in the morning of the 13th, when we got the wind at E. and S.E., a fresh breeze attended with snow and sleet. In the afternoon it became fair, and the wind veered round to the S. and S.S.W. In the evening, being in the latitude of 58 deg. 59', longitude 134 deg., the weather was so clear in the horizon, that we could see many leagues round us. We had but little wind during the night, some showers of snow, and a very sharp frost. As the day broke, the wind freshened at S.E. and S.S.E.; and soon after, the sky cleared up, and the weather became clear and serene; but the air continued cold, and the mercury in the thermometer rose only one degree above the freezing point.
The clear weather gave Mr Wales an opportunity to get some observations of the sun and moon. Their results reduced to noon, when the latitude was 58 deg. 22' S., gave us 136 deg. 22' E. longitude. Mr Kendal's watch at the same time gave 134 deg. 42'; and that of Mr Arnold the same. This was the first and only time they pointed out the same longitude since we left England. The greatest difference, however, between them, since we left the Cape, had not much exceeded two degrees.
The moderate, and I might almost say, pleasant weather, we had, at times, for the last two or three days, made me wish I had been a few degrees of latitude farther south; and even tempted me to incline our course that way. But we soon had weather which convinced us that we were full far enough; and that the time was approaching, when these seas were not to be navigated without enduring intense cold; which, by the bye, we were pretty well used to. In the afternoon, the serenity of the sky was presently obscured: The wind veered round by the S.W. to W., and blew in hard squalls, attended with thick and heavy showers of hail and snow, which continually covered our decks, sails, and rigging, till five o'clock in the evening of the 15th. At this time, the wind abated, and shifted to S.E.; the sky cleared up; and the evening was so serene and clear, that we could see many leagues round us; the horizon being the only boundary to our sight.
We were now in the latitude of 59 deg. 17' S., longitude 140 deg. 12' E., and had such a large hollow swell from W.S.W., as assured us that we had left no land behind us in that direction. I was also well assured that no land lay to the south on this side 60 deg. of latitude. We had a smart frost during the night, which was curiously illuminated with the southern lights.
At ten o'clock in the morning of the 16th, (which was as soon as the sun appeared,) in the latitude of 58 deg. 51' S., our longitude was 144 deg. 10' E. This good weather was, as usual, of short duration. In the afternoon of this day, we had again thick snow showers; but, at intervals, it was tolerably clear; and, in the evening being in the latitude of 58 deg. 58' S., longitude 144 deg. 37' E., I found the variation by several azimuths to be 31' E.
I was not a little pleased with being able to determine, with so much precision, this point of the Line, in which the compass has no variation. For I look upon half a degree as next to nothing; so that the intersection of the latitude and longitude just mentioned, may be reckoned the point without any sensible error. At any rate, the Line can only pass a very small matter west of it.
I continued to steer to the east, inclining to the south, with a fresh gale at S.W., till five o'clock the next morning, when, being in the latitude of 59 deg. 7' S., longitude 146 deg. 53' E., I bore away N.E., and, at noon, north, having come to a resolution to quit the high southern latitudes, and to proceed to New Zealand to look for the Adventure, and to refresh my people. I had also some thoughts, and even a desire to visit the east coast of Van Diemen's Land, in order to satisfy myself if it joined the coast of New South Wales.
In the night of the 17th, the wind shifted to N.W., and blew in squalls, attended with thick hazy weather and rain. This continued all the 18th, in the evening of which day, being in the latitude of 56 deg. 15' S., longitude 150 deg., the sky cleared up, and we found the variation by several azimuths to be 13 deg. 30' E. Soon after, we hauled up, with the log, a piece of rock-weed, which was in a state of decay, and covered with barnacles. In the night the southern lights were very bright.
The next morning we saw a seal; and towards noon, some penguins, and more rock-weed, being at this time in the latitude of 55 deg. 1', longitude 152 deg. 1' E. In the latitude of 54 deg. 4', we also saw a Port Egmont hen, and some weed. Navigators have generally looked upon all these to be certain signs of the vicinity of land; I cannot, however, support this opinion. At this time we knew of no land, nor is it even probable that there is any, nearer than New Holland, or Van Diemen's Land, from which we were distant 260 leagues. We had, at the same time, several porpoises playing about us; into one of which Mr Cooper struck a harpoon; but as the ship was running seven knots, it broke its hold, after towing it some minutes, and before we could deaden the ship's way.
As the wind, which continued between the north and the west, would not permit me to touch at Van Diemen's Land, I shaped my course to New Zealand; and, being under no apprehensions of meeting with any danger, I was not backward in carrying sail, as well by night as day, having the advantage of a very strong gale, which was attended with hazy rainy weather, and a very large swell from the W. and W.S.W. We continued to meet with, now and then, a seal, Port Egmont hens, and sea-weed.
On the morning of the 22d, the wind shifted to south, and brought with it fair weather. At noon, we found ourselves in the latitude of 49 deg. 55', longitude 159 deg. 28', having a very large swell out of the S.W. For the three days past, the mercury in the thermometer had risen to 46, and the weather was quite mild. Seven or eight degrees of latitude had made a surprising difference in the temperature of the air, which we felt with an agreeable satisfaction.
We continued to advance to the N.E. at a good rate, having a brisk gale between the S. and E.; meeting with seals, Port Egmont hens, egg birds, sea-weed, &c. and having constantly a very large swell from the S.W. At ten o'clock in the morning of the 25th, the land of New Zealand was seen from the mast-head; and at noon, from the deck; extending from N.E. by E. to E., distant ten leagues. As I intended to put into Dusky Bay, or any other port I could find, on the southern part of Tavai Poenammoo, we steered in for the land, under all the sail we could carry, having the advantage of a fresh gale at W., and tolerably clear weather. This last was not of long duration; for, at half an hour after four o'clock, the land, which was not above four miles distant, was in a manner wholly obscured in a thick haze. At this time, we were before the entrance of a bay, which I had mistaken for Dusky Bay, being deceived by some islands that lay in the mouth of it.
Fearing to run, in thick weather, into a place to which we were all strangers, and seeing some breakers and broken ground a-head, I tacked in twenty-five fathom water, and stood out to sea with the wind at N.W. This bay lies on the S.E. side of Cape West, and may be known by a white cliff on one of the isles which lies in the entrance of the bay. This part of the coast I did not see, but at a great distance, in my former voyage; and we now saw it under so many disadvantageous circumstances, that the less I say about it, the fewer mistakes I shall make. We stood out to sea, under close-reefed top-sails and courses, till eleven o'clock at night; when we wore and stood to the northward, having a very high and irregular sea. At five o'clock next morning, the gale abated, and we bore up for the land; at eight o'clock, the West Cape bore E. by N. 1/2 N., for which we steered, and entered Dusky Bay about noon. In the entrance of it, we found 44 fathoms water, a sandy bottom, the West Cape bearing S.S.E., and Five Fingers Point, or the north point of the bay, north. Here we had a great swell rolling in from the S.W. The depth of water decreased to 40 fathoms, afterwards we had no ground with 60. We were, however, too far advanced to return; and therefore stood on, not doubting but that we should find anchorage. For in this bay we were all strangers; in my former voyage, having done no more than discover and name it.
After running about two leagues up the bay, and passing several of the isles which lay in it, I brought-to, and hoisted out two boats; one of which I sent away with an officer round a point on the larboard hand to look for anchorage. This he found, and signified the same by signal. We then followed with the ship, and anchored in 50 fathoms water, so near the shore as to reach it with an hawser. This was on Friday the 26th of March, at three in the afternoon, after having been 117 days at sea; in which time we had sailed 3600 leagues, without having once sight of land.
After such a long continuance at sea, in a high southern latitude, it is but reasonable to think that many of my people must be ill of the scurvy. The contrary, however, happened. Mention hath already been made of sweet wort being given to such as were scorbutic. This had so far the desired effect, that we had only one man on board that could be called very ill of this disease; occasioned chiefly, by a bad habit of body, and a complication of other disorders. We did not attribute the general good state of health in the crew, wholly to the sweet wort, but to the frequent airing and sweetening the ship by fires, &c. We must also allow portable broth, and sour krout, to have had some share in it. This last can never be enough recommended.
My first care, after the ship was moored, was to send a boat and people a- fishing; in the mean time, some of the gentlemen killed a seal, (out of many that were upon a rock,) which made us a fresh meal.
 "The two time-keepers being put on each side of the great cabin, I put a thermometer by each, and before a fire was kept in the cabin, I never saw them differ more than half a degree; but since there has been a fire, I have constantly found that thermometer highest, which happened to be on the weather-side, sometimes by three degrees, whereas one would naturally have expected it to have been just the contrary."—W.
The rapidity of the current of moist air would be no doubt greater on the other side, and therefore, as moisture occasions cold, would lower the thermometer on that side. On the weather-side, on the contrary, the air would be less quickly changed, and of course preserve greater uniformity of temperature. This explanation, however, depends on a certain supposition as to the form of the cabin, and its kind of communication with the external air.—E.
 "The natural state of the heavens, except in the south-east quarter, and for about ten degrees of altitude all round the horizon, was a whitish haze, through which stars of the third magnitude were just discernible. All round, the horizon was covered with thick clouds, out of which arose many streams of a pale reddish light, that ascended towards the zenith. These streams had not that motion which they are sometimes seen to have in England; but were perfectly steady, except a small tremulous motion which some of them had near their edges.
"19th.—In the night the southern lights were very bright at times, and the colours much more various and vivid than they were on Wednesday night, their motion also was greater, so that on the whole they were extremely beautiful.
"20th.—At nine o'clock in the evening, the southern light sprung up very bright about the east point of the horizon, in a single steady pillar, of a pale reddish light. Its direction was not directly towards the zenith, but gradually deflected towards the south, and grew fainter as it ascended, so as to vanish about south-east, and at forty-five degrees of altitude.
"15th March.—The southern lights very bright at times, and exceeding beautiful; their colours being vivid, and their motion quick and curious.
"18th.—A little after nine o'clock in the evening it was very clear, and the southern lights were exceeding bright and beautiful, and appeared of a semi-circular or rainbow-like form, whose two extremities were nearly in the east and west points of the horizon. This bow, when it first made its appearance, passed a considerable way to the north of the zenith; but rose by degrees, turning, as it were, on its diameter, and passing through the zenith, settled at length towards the southern horizon. These lights were at one time so bright, that we could discern our shadows on the deck."—W.
It was thought proper to bring together all these similar remarks of so accurate and faithful an observer. There is reason to believe that the southern lights had never been seen by any navigator before this voyage of Cook's.—E.
 "The shapes of these large frozen masses, were frequently singularly ruinous, and so far picturesque enough; among them we passed one of a great size, with a hollow in the middle, resembling a grotto or cavern, which was pierced through, and admitted the light from the other side. Some had the appearance of a spire or steeple; and many others gave full scope to our imagination, which compared them to several known objects, by that means attempting to overcome the tediousness of our cruise, which the sight of birds, porpoises, seals, and whales, now too familiar to our eyes, could not prevent from falling heavily upon us."—G.F.
 "One island of ice, which we passed in the afternoon, was near a mile and a half long, and very high. It was calm most part of the night, so that we found ourselves very near it in the morning, but observed that several very large pieces had broke off from it. Many great reports, like thunder, were heard in the night, which I conceive were occasioned by these pieces breaking off."—W.
Transactions in Dusky Bay, with an Account of several Interviews with the Inhabitants.
As I did not like the place we had anchored in, I sent Lieutenant Pickersgill over to the S.E. side of the bay, to search for a better; and I went myself to the other side, for the same purpose, where I met with an exceedingly snug harbour, but nothing else worthy of notice. Mr Pickersgill reported, upon his return, that he had found a good harbour, with every conveniency. As I liked the situation of this, better than the other of my own finding, I determined to go there in the morning. The fishing-boat was very successful; returning with fish sufficient for all hands for supper; and, in a few hours in the morning, caught as many as served for dinner. This gave us certain hopes of being plentifully supplied with this article. Nor did the shores and woods appear less destitute of wild fowl; so that we hoped to enjoy with ease, what, in our situation, might be called the luxuries of life. This determined me to stay some time in this bay, in order to examine it thoroughly; as no one had ever landed before, on any of the southern parts of this country.
On the 27th, at nine o'clock in the morning, we got under sail with a light breeze at S.W., and working over to Pickersgill harbour, entered it by a channel scarcely twice the width of the ship; and in a small creek, moored head and stern, so near the shore as to reach it with a brow or stage, which nature had in a manner prepared for us in a large tree, whose end or top reached our gunwale. Wood, for fuel and other purposes, was here so convenient, that our yards were locked in the branches of the trees; and, about 100 yards from our stern, was a fine stream of freshwater. Thus situated, we began to clear places in the woods, in order to set up the astronomer's observatory, the forge to repair our iron-work, tents for the sail-makers and coopers to repair the sails and casks in; to land our empty casks, to fill water, and to cut down wood for fuel; all of which were absolutely necessary occupations. We also began to brew beer from the branches or leaves of a tree, which much resembles the American black- spruce. From the knowledge I had of this tree, and the similarity it bore to the spruce, I judged that, with the addition of inspissated juice of wort and molasses, it would make a very wholesome beer, and supply the want of vegetables, which this place did not afford; and the event proved that I was not mistaken.
Now I have mentioned the inspissated juice of wort, it will not be amiss, in this place, to inform the reader, that I had made several trials of it since I left the Cape of Good Hope, and found it to answer in a cold climate, beyond all expectation. The juice, diluted in warm water, in the proportion of twelve parts water to one part juice, made a very good and well-tasted small-beer. Some juice which I had of Mr Pelham's own preparing, would bear sixteen parts water. By making use of warm-water, (which I think ought always to be done,) and keeping it in a warm place, if the weather be cold, no difficulty will be found in fermenting it. A little grounds of either small or strong-beer, will answer as well as yeast.
The few sheep and goats we had left were not likely to fare quite so well as ourselves; there being no grass here, but what was coarse and harsh. It was, however not so bad, but that we expected they would devour it with great greediness, and were the more surprised to find that they would not taste it; nor did they seem over-fond of the leaves of more tender plants. Upon examination, we found their teeth loose; and that many of them had every other symptom of an inveterate sea-scurvy. Out of four ewes and two rams which I brought from the Cape, with an intent to put ashore in this country, I had only been able to preserve one of each; and even these were in so bad a state, that it was doubtful if they could recover, notwithstanding all the care possible had been taken of them.
Some of the officers, on the 28th, went up the bay in a small boat on a shooting party; but, discovering inhabitants, they returned before noon, to acquaint me therewith; for hitherto we had not seen the least vestige of any. They had but just got aboard, when a canoe appeared off a point about a mile from us, and soon after, returned behind the point out of sight, probably owing to a shower of rain which then fell; for it was no sooner over, than the canoe again appeared, and came within musket-shot of the ship. There were in it seven or eight people. They remained looking at us for some time, and then returned; all the signs of friendship we could make did not prevail on them to come nearer. After dinner I took two boats and went in search of them, in the cove where they were first seen, accompanied by several of the officers and gentlemen. We found the canoe (at least a-canoe) hauled upon the shore near to two small huts, where were several fire-places, some fishing-nets, a few fish lying on the shore, and some in the canoe. But we saw no people; they probably had retired into the woods. After a short stay, and leaving in the canoe some medals, looking-glasses, beads, &c. we embarked and rowed to the head of the cove, where we found nothing remarkable. In turning back we put ashore at the same place as before; but still saw no people. However, they could not be far off, as we smelled the smoke of fire, though we did not see it. But I did not care to search farther, or to force an interview which they seemed to avoid; well knowing that the way to obtain this, was to leave the time and place to themselves. It did not appear that any thing I had left had been touched; however, I now added a hatchet, and, with the night, returned on board.
On the 29th, were showers till the afternoon; when a party of the officers made an excursion up the bay; and Mr Forster and his party were out botanizing. Both parties returned in the evening without meeting with any thing worthy of notice; and the two following days, every one was confined to the ship on account of rainy stormy weather.
In the afternoon of the 1st of April, accompanied by several of the gentlemen, I went to see if any of the articles I had left for the Indians were taken away. We found every thing remaining in the canoe; nor did it appear that any body had been there since. After shooting some birds, one of which was a duck, with a blue-grey plumage and soft bill, we, in the evening, returned on board.
The 2d, being a pleasant morning, Lieutenants Clerke and Edgecumbe, and the two Mr Forsters, went in a boat up the bay to search for the productions of nature; and myself, Lieutenant Pickersgill, and Mr Hodges, went to take a view of the N.W. side. In our way, we touched at the seal-rock, and killed three seals, one of which afforded us much sport. After passing several isles, we at length came to the most northern and western arms of the bay; the same as is formed by the land of Five Fingers Point. In the bottom of this arm or cove, we found many ducks, wood-hens, and other wild fowl, some of which we killed, and returned on board at ten o'clock in the evening; where the other party had arrived several hours before us, after having had but indifferent sport. They took with them a black dog we had got at the Cape, who, at the first musket they fired, ran into the woods, from whence he would not return. The three following days were rainy; so that no excursions were made.
Early in the morning on the 6th, a shooting party, made up of the officers, went to Goose Cove, the place where I was the 2d; and myself, accompanied by the two Mr Forsters, and Mr Hodges, set out to continue the survey of the bay. My attention was directed to the north side, where I discovered a fine capacious cove, in the bottom of which is a fresh-water river; on the west side several beautiful small cascades; and the shores are so steep that a ship might lie near enough to convey the water into her by a hose. In this cove we shot fourteen ducks, besides other birds, which occasioned my calling it Duck Cove.
As we returned in the evening, we had a short interview with three of the natives, one man and two women. They were the first that discovered themselves on the N.E. point of Indian Island, named so on this occasion. We should have passed without seeing them, had not the man hallooed to us. He stood with his club in his hand upon the point of a rock, and behind him, at the skirts of the wood, stood the two women, with each of them a spear. The man could not help discovering great signs of fear when we approached the rock with our boat. He however stood firm; nor did he move to take up some things we threw him ashore. At length I landed, went up and embraced him; and presented him with such articles as I had about me, which at once dissipated his fears. Presently after, we were joined by the two women, the gentlemen that were with me, and some of the seamen. After this, we spent about half an hour in chit-chat, little understood on either side, in which the youngest of the two women bore by far the greatest share. This occasioned one of the seamen to say, that women did not want tongue in any part of the world. We presented them with fish and fowl which we had in our boat; but these they threw into the boat again, giving us to understand that such things they wanted not. Night approaching, obliged us to take leave of them; when the youngest of the two women, whose volubility of tongue exceeded every thing I ever met with, gave us a dance; but the man viewed us with great attention. Some hours after we got on board, the other party returned, having had but indifferent sport.
Next morning, I made the natives another visit, accompanied by Mr Forster and Mr Hodges, carrying with me various articles which I presented them with, and which they received with a great deal of indifference, except hatchets and spike-nails; these they most esteemed. This interview was at the same place as last night; and now we saw the whole family, it consisted of the man, his two wives (as we supposed), the young woman before mentioned, a boy about fourteen years old, and three small children, the youngest of which was at the breast. They were all well-looking, except one woman, who had a large wen on her upper-lip, which made her disagreeable; and she seemed, on that account, to be in a great measure neglected by the man. They conducted us to their habitation, which was but a little way within the skirts of the wood, and consisted of two mean huts made of the bark of trees. Their canoe, which was a small double one, just large enough to transport the whole family from place to place, lay in a small creek near the huts. During our stay, Mr Hodges made drawings of most of them; this occasioned them to give him the name of Toe-toe, which word, we suppose signifies marking or painting. When we took leave, the chief presented me with a piece of cloth or garment of their own manufacturing, and some other trifles. I at first thought it was meant as a return for the presents I had made him; but he soon undeceived me, by expressing a desire for one of our boat cloaks. I took the hint, and ordered one to be made for him of red baise, as soon as I got aboard; where rainy weather detained me the following day.
The 9th, being fair weather, we paid the natives another visit, and made known our approach by hallooing to them; but they neither answered us, nor met us at the shore as usual. The reason of this we soon saw; for we found them at their habitations, all dressed and dressing, in their very best, with their hair combed and oiled, tied up upon the crowns of their heads, and stuck with white feathers. Some wore a fillet of feathers round their heads; and all of them had bunches of white feathers stuck in their ears: Thus dressed, and all standing, they received us with great courtesy. I presented the chief with the cloak I had got made for him, with which he seemed so well pleased, that he took his pattapattou from his girdle and gave it me. After a short stay, we took leave; and having spent the remainder of the day in continuing my survey of the bay, with the night returned on board.
Very heavy rains falling on the two following days, no work was done; but the 12th proved clear and serene, and afforded us an opportunity to dry our sails and linen; two things very much wanted; not having had fair weather enough for this purpose since we put into this bay. Mr Forster and his party also profited by the day in botanizing.
About ten o'clock, the family of the natives paid us a visit. Seeing that they approached the ship with great caution, I met them in a boat, which I quitted when I got to them, and went into their canoe. Yet, after all, I could not prevail on them to put along-side the ship, and at last was obliged to leave them to follow their own inclination. At length they put ashore in a little creek hard by us; and afterwards came and sat down on the shore a-breast of the ship, near enough to speak with us. I now caused the bagpipes and fife to play, and the drum to beat. The two first they did not regard; but the latter caused some little attention in them; nothing however could induce them to come on board. But they entered, with great familiarity, into conversation (little understood) with such of the officers and seamen as went to them, paying much greater regard to some than to others; and these, we had reason to believe, they took for women. To one man in particular, the young woman shewed an extraordinary fondness until she discovered his sex, after which she would not suffer him to come near her. Whether it was that she before took him for one of her own sex, or that the man, in order to discover himself, had taken some liberties with her which she thus resented, I know not.
In the afternoon, I took Mr Hodges to a large cascade, which falls from a high mountain on the south side of the bay, about a league above the place where we lay. He made a drawing of it on paper, and afterwards painted it in oil colours; which exhibits, at once, a better description of it than any I can give. Huge heaps of stones lay at the foot of this cascade, which had been broken off and brought by the stream from the adjacent mountains. These stones were of different sorts; none however, according to Mr Forster's opinion, (whom I believe to be a judge,) containing either minerals or metals. Nevertheless, I brought away specimens of every sort, as the whole country, that is, the rocky part of it, seemed to consist of those stones and no other. This cascade is at the east point of a cove, lying in S.W. two miles, which I named Cascade Cove. In it is good anchorage and other necessaries. At the entrance, lies an island, on each side of which is a passage; that on the east side is much the widest. A little above the isle, and near the S.E. shore, are two rocks which are covered at high water. It was in this cove we first saw the natives.
When I returned aboard in the evening, I found our friends, the natives, had taken up their quarters at about a hundred yards from our watering- place; a very great mark of the confidence they placed in us. This evening a shooting party of the officers went over to the north side of the bay, having with them the small cutter to convey them from place to place.
Next morning, accompanied by Mr Forster, I went in the pinnace to survey the isles and rocks which lie in the mouth of the bay. I began first with those which lie on the S.E. side of Anchor Isle. I found here a very snug cove sheltered from all winds, which we called Luncheon Cove, because here we dined on cray fish, on the side of a pleasant brook, shaded by the trees from both wind and sun. After dinner we proceeded, by rowing, out to the outermost isles, where we saw many seals, fourteen of which we killed and brought away with us; and might have got many more, if the surf had permitted us to land with safety on all the rocks. The next morning, I went out again to continue the survey, accompanied by Mr Forster. I intended to have landed again on the Seal Isles; but there ran such a high sea that I could not come near them. With some difficulty we rowed out to sea, and round the S.W. point of Anchor Isle. It happened very fortunately that chance directed me to take this course, in which we found the sportsmen's boat adrift, and laid hold of her the very moment she would have been dashed against the rocks. I was not long at a loss to guess how she came there, nor was I under any apprehensions for the gentlemen that had been in her; and after refreshing ourselves with such as we had to eat and drink, and securing the boat in a small creek, we proceeded to the place where we supposed them to be. This we reached about seven or eight o'clock in the evening, and found them upon a small isle in Goose Cove, where, as it was low water, we could not come with our boat until the return of the tide. As this did not happen till three o'clock in the morning, we landed on a naked beach, not knowing where to find a better place, and, after some time, having got a fire and broiled some fish, we made a hearty supper, having for sauce a good appetite. This done, we lay down to sleep, having a stony beach for a bed, and the canopy of heaven for a covering. At length the tide permitted us to take off the sportsmen; and with them we embarked, and proceeded for the place where we had left their boat, which, we soon reached, having a fresh breeze of wind in our favour, attended with rain. When we came to the creek which was on the N.W. side of Anchor Isle, we found there an immense number of blue peterels, some on the wing, others in the woods in holes in the ground, under the roots of trees and in the crevices of rocks, where there was no getting them, and where we supposed their young were deposited. As not one was to be seen in the day, the old ones were probably, at that time, out at sea searching for food, which in the evening they bring to their young. The noise they made was like the croaking of many frogs. They were, I believe, of the broad-bill kind, which, are not so commonly seen at sea as the others. Here, however, they are in great numbers, and flying much about in the night, some of our gentlemen at first took them for bats. After restoring the sportsmen to their boat, we all proceeded for the ship, which we reached by seven o'clock in the morning, not a little fatigued with our expedition. I now learned that our friends the natives returned to their habitation at night; probably foreseeing that rain was at hand; which sort of weather continued the whole of this day.
On the morning of the 15th, the weather having cleared up and become fair, I set out with two boats to continue the survey of the N.W. side of the bay, accompanied by the two Mr Forsters and several of the officers, whom I detached in one boat to Goose Cove, where we intended to lodge the night, while I proceeded in the other, examining the harbours and isles which lay in my way. In the doing of this, I picked up about a score of wild fowl, and caught fish sufficient to serve the whole party; and reaching the place of rendezvous a little before dark, I found all the gentlemen out duck- shooting. They however soon returned, not overloaded with game. By this time, the cooks had done their parts, in which little art was required; and after a hearty repast, on what the day had produced, we lay down to rest; but took care to rise early the next morning, in order to have the other bout among the ducks, before we left the cove.
Accordingly, at day-light, we prepared for the attack. Those who had reconnoitred the place before, chose their stations accordingly; whilst myself and another remained in the boat, and rowed to the head of the cove to start the game, which we did so effectually, that, out of some scores of ducks, we only detained one to ourselves, sending all the rest down to those stationed below. After this I landed at the head of the cove, and walked across the narrow isthmus that disjoins it from the sea, or rather from another cove which runs in from the sea about one mile, and lies open to the north winds. It, however, had all the appearance of a good harbour and safe anchorage. At the head is a fine sandy beach, where I found an immense number of wood hens, and brought away ten couple of them, which recompensed me for the trouble of crossing the isthmus, through the wet woods, up to the middle in water. About nine o'clock we all got collected together, when the success of everyone was known, which was by no means answerable to our expectations. The morning, indeed, was very unfavourable for shooting, being rainy the most of the time we were out. After breakfast we set out on our return to the ship, which we reached by seven o'clock in the evening, with about seven dozen of wild fowl, and two seals; the most of them shot while I was rowing about, exploring the harbours and coves which I found in my way; every place affording something, especially to us, to whom nothing came amiss.
It rained all the 17th, but the 18th bringing fair and clear weather, in the evening our friends, the natives before-mentioned, paid us another visit; and, the next morning, the chief and his daughter were induced to come on board, while the others went out in the canoe fishing. Before they came on board I shewed them our goats and sheep that were on shore, which they viewed for a moment with a kind of stupid insensibility. After this I conducted them to the brow; but before the chief set his foot upon it to come into the ship, he took a small green branch in his hand, with which he struck the ship's side several times, repeating a speech or prayer. When this was over, he threw the branch into the main chains, and came on board. This custom and manner of making peace, as it were, is practised by all the nations in the South Seas that I have seen.
I took them both down into the cabin, where we were to breakfast. They sat at table with us, but would not taste any of our victuals. The chief wanted to know where we slept, and indeed to pry into every corner of the cabin, every part of which he viewed with some surprise. But it was not possible to fix his attention to any one thing a single moment. The works of art appeared to him in the same light as those of nature, and were as far removed beyond his comprehension. What seemed to strike them most was the number and strength of our decks, and other parts of the ship. The chief, before he came aboard, presented me with a piece of cloth and a green talc hatchet; to Mr Forster he also gave a piece or cloth; and the girl gave another to Mr Hodges. This custom of making presents before they receive any, is common with the natives of the South Sea isles; but I never saw it practised in New Zealand before. Of all the various articles I gave my guest, hatchets and spike-nails were the most valuable in his eyes.
These he never would suffer to go out of his hands after he once laid hold of them; whereas many other articles he would lay carelessly down any where, and at last leave them behind him.
As soon as I could get quit of them, they were conducted into the gun-room, where I left them, and set out with two boats to examine the head of the bay; myself in one, accompanied by Mr Forster and Mr Hodges, and Lieutenant Cooper in the other. We proceeded up the south side, and without meeting with any thing remarkable, got to the head of the bay by sun-set; where we took up our lodging for the night, at the first place we could land upon; for the flats hindered us from getting quite to the head.
At day-light in the morning, I took two men in the small boat, and with Mr Forster went to take a view of the flat land at the head of the bay, near to where we spent the night. We landed on one side, and ordered the boat to meet us on the other side; but had not been long on shore before we saw some ducks, which, by their creeping through the bushes, we got a shot at, and killed one. The moment we had fired, the natives, whom we had not discovered before, set up a most hideous noise in two or three places close by us. We hallooed in our turn; and, at the same time, retired to our boat, which was full half a mile off. The natives kept up their clamouring noise, but did not follow us. Indeed we found afterwards that they could not, because of a branch of the river between us and them, nor did we find their numbers answerable to the noise they made. As soon as we got to our boat, and found that there was a river that would admit us, I rowed in, and was soon after joined by Mr Cooper in the other boat. With this reinforcement I proceeded up the river, shooting wild ducks, of which there were great numbers; as we went along, now and then hearing the natives in the woods. At length two appeared on the banks of the river, a man and a woman; and the latter kept waving something white in her hand, as a sign of friendship. Mr Cooper being near them, I called to him to land, as I wanted to take the advantage of the tide to get as high up as possible, which did not much exceed half a mile, when I was stopped by the strength of the stream and great stones which lay in the bed of the river.
On my return, I found that as Mr Cooper did not land when the natives expected him, they had retired into the woods, but two others now appeared on the opposite bank. I endeavoured to have an interview with them, but this I could not effect. For as I approached the shore, they always retired farther into the woods, which were so thick as to cover them from our sight. The falling tide obliged me to retire out of the river to the place where we had spent the night. There we breakfasted, and afterwards embarked, in order to return on board; but, just as we were going, we saw two men on the opposite shore, hallooing to us, which induced me to row over to them. I landed with two others, unarmed; the two natives standing about 100 yards from the water-side, with each a spear in his hand. When we three advanced, they retired; but stood when I advanced alone.
It was some little time before I could prevail upon them to lay down their spears. This, at last, one of them did; and met me with a grass plant in his hand, one end of which he gave me to hold, while he held the other. Standing in this manner, he began a speech, not one word of which I understood, and made some long pauses, waiting, as I thought, for me to answer; for, when I spoke, he proceeded. As soon as this ceremony was over, which was not long, we saluted each other. He then took his hahou, or coat, from off his own back, and put it upon mine; after which peace seemed firmly established. More people joining us did not in the least alarm them; on the contrary, they saluted every one as he came up.
I gave to each a hatchet and a knife, having nothing else with me: Perhaps these were the most valuable things I could give them, at least they were the most useful. They wanted us to go to their habitation, telling us they would give us something to eat; and I was sorry that the tide and other circumstances would not permit me to accept of their invitation. More people were seen in the skirts of the wood, but none of them joined us: Probably these were their wives and children. When we took leave they followed us to our boat; and, seeing the musquets lying across the stern, they made signs for them to be taken away, which being done, they came alongside, and assisted us to launch her. At this time it was necessary for us to look well after them, for they wanted to take away every thing they could lay their hands upon, except the muskets. These they took care not to touch, being taught, by the slaughter they had seen us make among the wild- fowl, to look upon them as instruments of death.
We saw no canoes or other boats with them, two or three logs of wood tied together served the same purpose, and were indeed sufficient for the navigation of the river, on the banks of which they lived. There fish and fowl were in such plenty, that they had no occasion to go far for food; and they have but few neighbours to disturb them. The whole number at this place, I believe, does not exceed three families.
It was noon when we took leave of these two men, and proceeded down the north side of the bay, which I explored in my way, and the isles that lie in the middle. Night, however, overtook us, and obliged me to leave one arm unlooked into, and hasten to the ship, which we reached by eight o'clock. I then learnt that the man and his daughter stayed on board the day before till noon; and that having understood from our people what things were left in Cascade Cove, the place where they were first seen, he sent and took them away. He and his family remained near us till today, when they all went away, and we saw them no more; which was the more extraordinary, as he never left us empty-handed. From one or another he did not get less than nine or ten hatchets, three or four times that number of large spike-nails, besides many other articles. So far as these things may be counted riches in New Zealand, he exceeds every man there; being, at this time, possessed of more hatchets and axes than are in the whole country besides.
In the afternoon of the 21st, I went with a party out to the isles on seal- hunting. The surf ran so high that we could only land in one place, where we killed ten. These animals served us for three purposes; the skins we made use of for our rigging; the fat gave oil for our lamps; and the flesh we eat. Their haslets are equal to that of a hog, and the flesh of some of them eats little inferior to beef-steaks. The following day nothing worthy of notice was done.
In the morning of the 23d, Mr Pickersgill, Mr Gilbert, and two others, went to the Cascade Cove, in order to ascend one of the mountains, the summit of which they reached by two o'clock in the afternoon, as we could see by the fire they made. In the evening they returned on board, and reported that inland, nothing was to be seen but barren mountains, with huge craggy precipices, disjoined by valleys, or rather chasms, frightful to behold. On the southeast side of Cape West, four miles out at sea, they discovered a ridge of rocks, on which the waves broke very high. I believe these rocks to be the same we saw the evening we first fell in with the land.
Having five geese left out of those we brought from the Cape of Good Hope, I went with them next morning to Goose Cove (named so on this account,) where I left them. I chose this place for two reasons; first, here are no inhabitants to disturb them; and, secondly, here being the most food, I make no doubt but that they will breed, and may in time spread over the whole country, and fully answer my intention in leaving them. We spent the day shooting in and about the cove, and returned aboard about ten o'clock in the evening. One of the party shot a white hern, which agreed exactly with Mr Pennant's description, in his British Zoology, of the white herns that either now are, or were formerly, in England.
The 20th was the eighth fair day we had had successively; a circumstance, I believe, very uncommon in this place, especially at this season of the year. This fair weather gave us an opportunity to complete our wood and water, to overhaul the rigging, caulk the ship, and put her in a condition for sea. Fair weather was, however, now at an end; for it began to rain this evening, and continued without intermission till noon the next day, when we cast off the shore fasts, hove the ship out of the creek to her anchor, and steadied her with an hawser to the shore.
On the 27th, hazy weather, with showers of rain. In the morning I set out, accompanied by Mr Pickersgill and the two Mr Forsters, to explore the arm or inlet I discovered the day I returned from the head of the bay. After rowing about two leagues up it, or rather down, I found it to communicate with the sea, and to afford a better outlet for ships bound to the north than the one I came in by. After making this discovery, and refreshing ourselves on broiled fish and wild fowl, we set out for the ship, and got on board at eleven o'clock at night, leaving two arms we had discovered, and which ran into the east, unexplored. In this expedition we shot forty- four birds, sea-pies, ducks, &c., without going one foot out of our way, or causing any other delay than picking them up.
Having got the tents, and every other article on board on the 28th, we only now waited for a wind to carry us out of the harbour, and through New Passage, the way I proposed to go to sea. Every thing being removed from the shore, I set fire to the top-wood, &c., in order to dry a piece of the ground we had occupied, which, next morning, I dug up, and sowed with several sorts of garden seeds. The soil was such as did not promise success to the planter; it was, however, the best we could find. At two o clock in the afternoon, we weighed with a light breeze at S.W., and stood up the bay for the New Passage. Soon after we had got through, between the east end of Indian Island and the west end of Long Island, it fell calm, which obliged us to anchor in forty-three fathom water, under the north side of the latter island.
In the morning of the 30th we weighed again with a light breeze at west, which, together with all our boats a-head towing, was hardly sufficient to stem the current. For, after struggling till six o'clock in the evening, and not getting more than five miles from our last anchoring-place, we anchored under the north side of Long Island, not more than one hundred yards from the shore, to which we fastened a hawser.
At day-light next morning, May 1st, we got again under sail, and attempted to work to windward, having a light breeze down the bay. At first we gained ground, but at last the breeze died away; when we soon lost more than we had got, and were obliged to bear up for a cove on the north side of Long Island, where we anchored in nineteen fathom water, a muddy bottom: In this cove we found two huts not long since inhabited; and near them two very large fire-places or ovens, such as they have in the Society Isles. In this cove we were detained by calms, attended with continual rain, till the 4th in the afternoon, when, with the assistance of a small breeze at south- west, we got the length of the reach or passage leading to sea. The breeze then left us, and we anchored under the east point, before a sandy beach, in thirty fathoms water; but this anchoring-place hath nothing to recommend it like the one we came from, which hath every thing in its favour.
In the night we had some very heavy squalls of wind, attended with rain, hail, and snow, and some thunder. Daylight exhibited to our view all the hills and mountains covered with snow. At two o'clock in the afternoon, a light breeze sprung up at S.S.W., which, with the help of our boats, carried us down the passage to our intended anchor-place, where, at eight o'clock, we anchored in sixteen fathoms water, and moored with a hawser to the shore, under the first point on the starboard side as you come in from sea, from which we were covered by the point.
In the morning of the 6th, I sent Lieutenant Pickersgill, accompanied by the two Mr Forsters, to explore the second arm which turns in to the east, myself being confined on board by a cold. At the same time I had every thing got up from between decks, the decks well cleaned and well aired with fires; a thing that ought never to be long neglected in wet moist weather. The fair weather, which had continued all this day, was succeeded in the night by a storm from north-west, which blew in hard squalls, attended with rain, and obliged us to strike top-gallant and lower yards, and to carry out another hawser to the shore. The bad weather continued the whole day and the succeeding night, after which it fell calm with fair weather.
At seven in the morning, on the 8th, Mr Pickersgill returned, together with his companions, in no very good plight, having been at the head of the arm he was sent to explore, which he judged to extend in to the eastward about eight miles. In it is a good anchoring-place, wood, fresh water, wild fowl, and fish. At nine o'clock I set out to explore the other inlet, or the one next the sea; and ordered Mr Gilbert, the master, to go and examine the passage out to sea, while those on board were getting every thing in readiness to depart. I proceeded up the inlet till five o'clock in the afternoon, when bad weather obliged me to return before I had seen the end of it. As this inlet lay nearly parallel with the sea-coast, I was of opinion that it might communicate with Doubtful Harbour, or some other inlet to the northward. Appearances were, however, against this opinion, and the bad weather hindered me from determining the point, although a few hours would have done it. I was about ten miles up, and thought I saw the end of it: I found on the north side three coves, in which, as also on the south side, between the main and the isles that lie four miles up the inlet, is good anchorage, wood, water, and what else can be expected, such as fish and wild fowl: Of the latter, we killed in this excursion, three dozen. After a very hard row, against both wind and rain, we got on board about nine o'clock at night, without a dry thread on our backs.
This bad weather continued no longer than till the next morning, when it became fair, and the sky cleared up. But, as we had not wind to carry us to sea, we made up two shooting parties; myself, accompanied by the two Mr. Forsters and some others, went to the area I was in the day before; and the other party to the coves and isles Mr Gilbert had discovered when he was out, and where he found many wild fowl. We had a pleasant day, and the evening brought us all on board; myself and party met with good sport; but the other party found little.
All the forenoon of the 10th, we had strong gales from the west, attended with heavy showers of rain, and blowing in such flurries over high land, as made it unsafe for us to get under sail. The afternoon was more moderate, and became fair; when myself, Mr Cooper, and some others, went out in the boats to the rocks, which lie at this entrance of the bay, to kill seals. The weather was rather unfavourable for this sport, and the sea ran high, so as to make landing difficult; we, however, killed ten, but could only wait to bring away five, with which we returned on board.
In the morning of the 11th, while we were getting under sail, I sent a boat for the other five seals. At nine o'clock we weighed with a light breeze at south-east, and stood out to sea, taking up the boat in our way. It was noon before we got clear of the land; at which time we observed in 45 deg. 34' 30" S.; the entrance of the bay bore S.E. by E., and Break-sea Isles (the outermost isles that lie at the south point of the entrance of the bay,) bore S.S.E., distant three miles; the southernmost point, or that of Five Fingers Point, bore south 42 deg. W., and the northernmost land N.N.E. In this situation we had a prodigious swell from S.W., which broke with great violence on all the shores that were exposed to it.
Directions for sailing in and out of Dusky Bay, with an Account of the adjacent Country, its Produce, and Inhabitants: Astronomical and Nautical Observations.
As there are few places where I have been in New Zealand that afford the necessary refreshments in such plenty as Dusky Bay, a short description of it, and of the adjacent country, may prove of use to some future navigators, as well as acceptable to the curious reader. For although this country be far remote from the present trading part of the world, we can, by no means, tell what use future ages may make of the discoveries made in the present. The reader of this journal must already know that there are two entrances to this bay. The south entrance is situated on the north side of Cape West, in latitude 45 deg. 48' S. It is formed by the land of the Cape to the south, and Five Fingers Point to the north. This point is made remarkable by several pointed rocks lying off it, which, when viewed from certain situations, have some resemblance to the five fingers of a man's hand; from whence it takes its name. The land of this point is still more remarkable by the little similarity it bears to any other of the lands adjacent; being a narrow peninsula lying north and south, of a moderate and equal height, and all covered with wood.
To sail into the bay by this entrance is by no means difficult, as I know of no danger but what shews itself. The worst that attends it, is the depth of water, which is too great to admit of anchorage, except in the coves and harbours, and very near the shores; and even, in many places, this last cannot be done. The anchoring-places are, however, numerous enough, and equally safe and commodious. Pickersgill Harbour, where we lay, is not inferior to any other bay, for two or three ships: It is situated on the south shore abreast of the west end of Indian island; which island may be known from the others by its greater proximity to that shore. There is a passage into the harbour on both sides of the isle, which lies before it. The most room is on the upper or east side, having regard to a sunken rock, near the main, abreast this end of the isle: Keep the isle close aboard, and you will not only avoid the rock, but keep in anchoring-ground. The next place, on this side, is Cascade Cove, where there is room for a fleet of ships, and also a passage in on either side of the isle, which lies in the entrance, taking care to avoid a sunken rock which lies near the south- east shore, a little above the isle. This rock, as well as the one in Pickersgill Harbour, may be seen at half-ebb It must be needless to enumerate all the anchoring-places in this capacious bay.
The north entrance lies in the latitude of 45 deg. 38' S., and five leagues to the north of Five Fingers Point. To make this entrance plain, it will be necessary to approach the shore within a few miles, as all the land within and on each side is of considerable height. Its situation may, however, be known at a greater distance, as it lies under the first craggy mountains which rise to the north of the land of Five Fingers Point. The southernmost of these mountains is remarkable, having at its summit two small hillocks. When this mountain bears S.S.E. you will be before the entrance, on the south side of which are several isles. The westernmost and outermost is the most considerable, both for height and circuit, and this I have called Break sea Isle, because it effectually covers this entrance from the violence of the southwest swell, which the other entrance is so much exposed to. In sailing in you leave this isle as well as all the others to the south. The best anchorage is in the first or north arm, which is on the larboard hand going in, either in one of the coves, or behind the isles that lie under the south-east shore.
The country is exceedingly mountainous, not only about Dusky Bay, but through all the southern part of this western coast of Tavai Poenammoo. A prospect more rude and craggy is rarely to be met with, for inland appears nothing but the summits of mountains of a stupendous height, and consisting of rocks that are totally barren and naked, except where they are covered with snow. But the land bordering on the sea-coast, and all the islands, are thickly clothed with wood, almost down to the water's edge. The trees are of various kinds, such as are common to other parts of this country, and are fit for the shipwright, house-carpenter, cabinet-maker, and many other uses. Except in the river Thames, I have not seen finer timber in all New Zealand; both here and in that river, the most considerable for size is the Spruce-tree, as we called it, from the similarity of its foliage to the American spruce, though the wood is more ponderous, and bears a greater resemblance to the pitch-pine. Many of these trees are from six to eight and ten feet in girt, and from sixty to eighty or one hundred feet in length, large enough to make a main-mast for a fifty-gun ship.
Here are, as well as in all other parts of New Zealand, a great number of aromatic trees and shrubs, most of the myrtle kind; but amidst all this variety, we met with none which bore fruit fit to eat.
In many parts the woods are so over-run with supplejacks, that it is scarcely possible to force one's way amongst them. I have seen several which were fifty or sixty fathoms long.
The soil is a deep black mould, evidently composed of decayed vegetables, and so loose that it sinks under you at every step; and this may be the reason why we meet with so many large trees as we do, blown down by the wind, even in the thickest part of the woods. All the ground amongst the trees is covered with moss and fern, of both which there is a great variety; but except the flax or hemp plant, and a few other plants, there is very little herbage of any sort, and none that was eatable, that we found, except about a handful of water-cresses, and about the same quantity of cellery. What Dusky Bay most abounds with is fish: A boat with six or eight men, with hooks and lines, caught daily sufficient to serve the whole ship's company. Of this article the variety is almost equal to the plenty, and of such kinds as are common to the more northern coast; but some are superior, and in particular the cole fish, as we called it, which is both larger and finer flavoured than any I had seen before, and was, in the opinion of most on board, the highest luxury the sea afforded us. The shell-fish are, muscles, cockles, scallops, cray-fish, and many other sorts, all such as are to be found in every other part of the coast. The only amphibious animals are seals: These are to be found in great numbers about this bay on the small rocks and isles near the sea coast.
We found here five different kinds of ducks, some of which I do not recollect to have any where seen before. The largest are as big as a Muscovy duck, with a very beautiful variegated plumage, on which account we called it the Painted Duck; both male and female have a large white spot on each wing; the head and neck of the latter is white, but all the other feathers as well as those on the head and neck of the drake are of a dark variegated colour. The second sort have a brown plumage, with bright green feathers in their wings, and are about the size of an English tame duck. The third sort is the blue-grey duck, before mentioned, or the whistling duck, as some called them, from the whistling noise they made. What is most remarkable in these is, that the end of their beaks is soft, and of a skinny, or more properly, cartilaginous substance. The fourth sort is something bigger than a teal, and all black except the drake, which has some white feathers in his wing. There are but few of this sort, and we saw them no where but in the river at the head of the bay. The last sort is a good deal like a teal, and very common, I am told, in England. The other fowls, whether belonging to the sea and land, are the same that are to be found in common in other parts of this country, except the blue peterel before-mentioned, and the water or wood-hens. These last, although they are numerous enough here, are so scarce in other parts, that I never saw but one. The reason may be, that, as they cannot fly, they inhabit the skirts of the woods, and feed on the sea-beach, and are so very tame or foolish, as to stand and stare at us till we knocked them down with a stick. The natives may have, in a manner, wholly destroyed them. They are a sort of rail, about the size and a good deal like a common dunghill hen; most of them are of a dirty black or dark-brown colour, and eat very well in a pye or fricassee. Among the small birds I must not omit to particularize the wattle-bird, poy-bird, and fan-tail, on account of their singularity, especially as I find they are not mentioned in the narrative of my former voyage.
The wattle-bird, so called, because it has two wattles under its beak as large as those of a small dunghill-cock, is larger, particularly in length, than an English black-bird. Its bill is short and thick, and its feathers of a dark lead colour; the colour of its wattles is a dull yellow, almost an orange colour.
The poy-bird is less than the wattle-bird. The feathers of a fine mazarine blue, except those of its neck, which are of a most beautiful silver-grey, and two or three short white ones, which are on the pinion joint of the wing. Under its throat hang two little tufts of curled, snow-white leathers, called its poies, which being the Otaheitean word for earrings, occasioned our giving that name to the bird, which is not more remarkable for the beauty of its plumage than for the sweetness of its note. The flesh is also most delicious, and was the greatest luxury the woods afforded us.
Of the fan-tail there are different sorts; but the body of the most remarkable one is scarcely larger than a good filbert, yet it spreads a tail of most beautiful plumage, full three quarters of a semi-circle, of at least four or five inches radius.
For three or four days after we arrived in Pickersgill harbour, and as we were clearing the woods to set up our tents, &c. a four-footed animal was seen by three or four of our people; but as no two gave the same description of it, I cannot say of what kind it is. All, however, agreed, that it was about the size of a cat, with short legs, and of a mouse colour. One of the seamen, and he who had the best view of it, said it had a bushy tail, and was the most like a jackall of any animal he knew. The most probable conjecture is, that it is of a new species. Be this as it may, we are now certain that this country is not so destitute of quadrupeds as was once thought.
The most mischievous animals here are the small black sand flies, which are very numerous, and so troublesome, that they exceed every thing of the kind I ever met with. Wherever they bite they cause a swelling, and such an intolerable itching, that it is not possible to refrain from scratching, which at last brings on ulcers like the small-pox.
The almost continual rains may be reckoned another evil attending this bay; though perhaps this may only happen at this season of the year. Nevertheless, the situation of the country, the vast height, and nearness of the mountains, seem to subject it to much rain at all times. Our people, who were daily exposed to the rain, felt no ill effects from it; on the contrary, such as were sick and ailing when we came in, recovered daily, and the whole crew soon became strong and vigorous, which can only be attributed to the healthiness of the place, and the fresh provisions it afforded. The beer certainly contributed not a little. As I have already observed, we at first made it of a decoction of the spruce leaves; but finding that this alone made the beer too astringent, we afterwards mixed with it an equal quantity of the tea plant (a name it obtained in my former voyage, from our using it as tea then as we also did now,) which partly destroyed the astringency of the other, and made the beer exceedingly palatable, and esteemed by every one on board. We brewed it in the same manner as spruce-beer, and the process is as follows: First, make a strong decoction of the small branches of the spruce and tea plants, by boiling them three or four hours, or until the bark will strip with ease from off the branches; then take them out of the copper, and put in the proper quantity of molasses, ten gallons of which is sufficient to make a ton, or two hundred and forty gallons of beer; let this mixture just boil, then pot it into the casks, and to it add an equal quantity of cold water, more or less, according to the strength of the decoction, or your taste: When the whole is milk-warm, put in a little grounds of beer, or yeast, if you have it, or any thing else that will cause fermentation, and in a few days the beer will be fit to drink. After the casks have been brewed in two or three times the beer will generally ferment itself, especially if the weather is warm. As I had inspissated juice of wort on board, and could not apply it to a better purpose, we used it together with molasses or sugar, to make these two articles go farther. For of the former I had but one cask, and of the latter little to spare for this brewing. Had I known how well this beer would have succeeded, and the great use it was of to the people, I should have come better provided. Indeed I was partly discouraged by an experiment made during my former voyage, which did not succeed then, owing, as I now believe, to some mismanagement.
Any one, who is in the least acquainted with spruce pines, will find the tree which I have distinguished by that name. There are three sorts of it; that which has the smallest leaves and deepest colour, is the sort we brewed with; but doubtless all three might safely serve that purpose. The tea-plant is a small tree or shrub, with five white petals, or flower- leaves, shaped like those of a rose, having smaller ones of the same figure in the intermediate spaces, and twenty or more filaments or threads. The tree sometimes grows to a moderate height, and is generally bare on the lower part, with a number of small branches growing close together towards the top. The leaves are small and pointed, like those of the myrtle; it bears a dry roundish seed-case, and grows commonly in dry places near the shores. The leaves, as I have already observed, were used by many of us as tea, which has a very agreeable bitter and flavour when they are recent, but loses some of both when they are dried. When the infusion was made strong, it proved emetic to some in the same manner as green tea.
The inhabitants of this bay are of the same race of people with those in the other parts of this country, speak the same language, and observe nearly the same customs. These indeed seem to have a custom of making presents before they receive any, in which they come nearer to the Otaheiteans than the rest of their countrymen. What could induce three or four families (for I believe there are not more) to separate themselves so far from the society of the rest of their fellow-creatures, is not easy to guess. By our meeting with inhabitants in this place, it seems probable that there are people scattered over all this southern island. But the many vestiges of them in different parts of this bay, compared with the number that we actually saw, indicates that they live a wandering life; and, if one may judge from appearances and circumstances, few as they are, they live not in perfect amity, one family with another. For, if they did, why do they not form themselves into some society? a thing not only natural to man, but observed even by the brute creation.
I shall conclude this account of Dusky Bay with some observations made and communicated to me by Mr Wales. He found by a great variety of observations, that the latitude of his observatory at Pickersgill Harbour, was 45 deg. 47' 26" half south; and, by the mean of several distances of the moon from the sun, that its longitude was 106 deg. 18' E., which is about half a degree less than it is laid down in my chart constructed in my former voyage. He found the variation of the needle or compass, by the mean of three different needles, to be 13 deg. 49' E, and the dip of the south end 70 deg. 5' three quarters. The times of high water, on the full and change days, he found to be at 10 deg. 57', and the tide to rise and fall, at the former eight feet, at the latter five feet eight inches. This difference, in the rise of the tides between the new and full moon, is a little extraordinary, and was probably occasioned at this time by some accidental cause, such as winds, &c., but, be it as it will, I am well assured there was no error in the observations.
Supposing the longitude of the observatory to be as above, the error of Mr Kendal's watch, in longitude, will be 1 deg. 48' minus, and that of Mr Arnold's 39 deg. 25'. The former was found to be gaining 6",461 a-day on mean time, and the latter losing 99",361. Agreeably to these rates the longitude by them was to be determined, until an opportunity of trying them again.
I must observe, that in finding the longitude by Mr Kendal's watch, we suppose it to have gone mean time from the Cape of Good Hope. Had its cape rate been allowed, the error would not have been so great.
Passage from Dusky Bay to Queen Charlottes Sound, with an Account of some Water Spouts, and of our joining the Adventure.
After leaving Dusky Bay, as hath been already mentioned, I directed my course along shore for Queen Charlotte's Sound, where I expected to find the Adventure. In this passage we met with nothing remarkable, or worthy of notice, till the 17th at four o'clock in the afternoon. Being then about three leagues to the westward of Cape Stephens; having a gentle gale at west by south, and clear weather, the wind at once flattened to a calm, the sky became suddenly obscured by dark dense clouds, and seemed to forebode much wind. This occasioned as to clew up all our sails, and presently after six water-spouts were seen. Four rose and spent themselves between us and the land; that is, to the south-west of us, the fifth was without us, the sixth first appeared in the south-west, at the distance of two or three miles at least from us. Its progressive motion was to the north-east, not in a straight but in a crooked line, and passed within fifty yards of our stern, without our feeling any of its effects. The diameter of the base of this spout I judged to be about fifty or sixty feet; that is, the sea within this space was much agitated, and foamed up to a great height. From this a tube, or round body, was formed, by which the water or air, or both, was carried in a spiral stream up to the clouds. Some of our people said they saw a bird in the one near us, which was whirled round like the fly of a jack, as it was carried upwards. During the time these spouts lasted, we had now and then light puffs of wind from all points of the compass, with some few slight showers of rain, which generally fell in large drops; and the weather continued thick and hazy for some hours after, with variable light breezes of wind. At length the wind fixed in its old point, and the sky resumed its former serenity. Some of these spouts appeared at times to be stationary; and at other times to have a quick but very unequal progressive motion, and always in a crooked line, sometimes one way and sometimes another; so that, once or twice, we observed them to cross one another. From the ascending motion of the bird, and several other circumstances, it was very plain to us that these spouts were caused by whirlwinds, and that the water in them was violently hurried upwards, and did not descend from the clouds as I have heard some assert. The first appearance of them is by the violent agitation and rising up of the water; and, presently after, you see a round column or tube forming from the clouds above, which apparently descends till it joins the agitated water below. I say apparently, because I believe it not to be so in reality, but that the tube is already formed from the agitated water below, and ascends, though at first it is either too small or too thin to be seen. When the tube is formed, or becomes visible, its apparent diameter increaseth till it is pretty large; after that it decreaseth, and at last it breaks or becomes invisible towards the lower part. Soon after the sea below resumes its natural state, and the tube is drawn, by little and little, up to the clouds, where it is dissipated. The same tube would sometimes have a vertical, and sometimes a crooked or inclined direction. The most rational account I have read of water-spouts, is in Mr Falconer's Marine Dictionary, which is chiefly collected from the philosophical writings of the ingenious Dr Franklin. I have been told that the firing of a gun will dissipate them; and I am very sorry I did not try the experiment, as we were near enough, and had a gun ready for the purpose; but as soon as the danger was past, I thought no more about it, being too attentive in viewing these extraordinary meteors At the time this happened, the barometer stood at 29, 75, and the thermometer at 56.
In coming from Cape Farewell to Cape Stephens, I had a better view of the coast than I had when I passed in my former voyage, and observed that about six leagues to the east of the first-mentioned cape, is a spacious bay, which is covered from the sea by a low point of land. This is, I believe, the same that Captain Tasman anchored in on the 18th of December, 1642, and by him called Murderer's Bay, by reason of some of his men being killed by the natives. Blind Bay, so named by me in my former voyage, lies to the S.E. of this, and seems to run a long way inland to the south; the sight, in this direction, not being bounded by any land. The wind having returned to the west, as already mentioned, we resumed our course to the east; and at day-light the next morning (being the 18th,) we appeared off Queen Charlotte's Sound, where we discovered our consort the Adventure, by the signals she made to us; an event which every one felt with an agreeable satisfaction. The fresh westerly wind now died away, and was succeeded by light airs from the S. and S.W., so that we had to work in with our boats a-head towing. In the doing of this we discovered a rock, which we did not see in my former voyage. It lies in the direction of S. by E. 1/2 E., distant four miles from the outermost of the Two Brothers, and in a line with the White Rocks, on with the middle of Long Island. It is just even with the surface of the sea, and hath deep water all round it. At noon, Lieutenant Kemp of the Adventure came on board; from whom I learnt that their ship had been here about six weeks. With the assistance of a light breeze, our boats, and the tides, we at six o'clock in the evening, got to an anchor in Ship Cove, near the Adventure, when Captain Furneaux came on board, and gave me the following account of his proceedings, from the time we parted to my arrival here.
 "This afternoon we had an opportunity of observing, in as complete a manner as could be wished, one of the most curious, and perhaps the most extraordinary and powerful, of Nature's productions. The forenoon had been in general pretty clear, but subject to heavy squalls of wind, and some flying clouds, which were very black and heavy, and moved with great velocity from the S.W. towards the N.E., (the direction of the wind.) About four o'clock in the afternoon it became calm, and the heavens were almost covered with very black clouds, particularly towards the W. and N.W., and presently after we saw several tail-like appearances, descending from the clouds in that quarter: These appearances were whiter than the clouds they hung from, which made them very conspicuous, and they increased gradually in length, until they extended, as near as I could judge, about one-sixth part of the distance between the clouds and the surface of the sea. About this time, the water under them began to be violently agitated, and lifted up with a whirling motion towards the impending part of the cloud, which, on account of a motion they all had the contrary way to that the wind had blown, was not directly over it, but a little towards the south-west. As the water rose, the end of the cloud descended, and in a little time they joined; after which the water appeared to me to ascend out of the sea into the cloud, with great velocity. I think that none of these spouts, as they are usually called, continued entire more than ten minutes; perhaps not quite so long. I saw four complete at one time; but there were great numbers which began to form, and were dispersed by what cause I know not, before the cloud and water joined. One of them came, I was told, within thirty or forty yards of the ship, which lay becalmed; but I was then below looking at the barometer; when I got upon deck, it was about 100 fathoms from her. It is impossible to say what would have been the consequences if it had gone over her; but I believe they would have been very dreadful. At the time when this happened, the barometer stood at 29,75 inches, and the thermometer at 56 deg.. The whole of this passed within the space of an hour, or thereabouts; for at five o'clock a small breeze of wind sprung up in the south-east quarter, and dispersed every appearance of this kind, although the black clouds remained until about ten, when the wind veered round to the W.S.W., and settled there in a moderate steady gale, and the weather cleared up."—W.
"The nature of water-spouts and their causes, being hitherto very little known, we were extremely attentive to mark every little circumstance attendant on this appearance. Their base, where the water of the sea was violently agitated, and rose in a spiral form in vapours, was a broad spot, which looked bright and yellowish when illuminated by the sun. The column was of a cylindrical form, rather increasing in width towards the upper extremity. These columns moved forward on the surface of the sea, and the clouds not following them with equal rapidity, they assumed a bent or incurvated shape, and frequently appeared crossing each other, evidently proceeding in different directions; from whence we concluded, that it being calm, each of these water-spouts caused a wind of its own. At last they broke one after another, being probably too much distended by the difference between their motion and that of the clouds. In proportion as the clouds came nearer to us, the sea appeared more and more covered with short broken waves, and the wind continually veered all round the compass without fixing in any point. We soon saw a spot on the sea, within two hundred fathoms of us, in a violent agitation. The water, in a space of fifty or sixty fathoms, moved towards the centre, and there rising into vapour, by the force of the whirling motion, ascended in a spiral form towards the clouds. Some hailstones fell on board about this time, and the clouds looked exceedingly black and louring above us. Directly over the whirl-pool, if I may so call the agitated spot on the sea, a cloud gradually tapered into a long slender tube, which seemed to descend to meet the rising spiral, and soon united with it into a short column of a cylindrical form. We could distinctly observe the water hurled upwards with the greatest violence in a spiral, and it appeared that it left a hollow space in the centre; so that we concluded the water only formed a hollow tube, instead of a solid column. We were strongly confirmed in this belief by the colour, which was exactly like any hollow glass-tube. After some time the last water-spout was incurvated and broke like the others, with this difference, that its disjunction was attended with a flash of lightning, but no explosion was heard. Our situation during all this time was very dangerous and alarming; a phenomenon which carried so much terrific majesty in it, and connected, as it were, the sea with the clouds, made our oldest mariners uneasy, and at a loss how to behave; for most of them, though they had viewed water-spouts at a distance, yet had never been so beset with them as we were; and all without exception had heard dreadful accounts of their pernicious effects, when they happened to break over a ship. We prepared, indeed, for the worst, by clewing up our top-sails; but it was the general opinion that our masts and yards must have gone to wreck if we had been drawn into the vortex. It was hinted that firing a gun had commonly succeeded in breaking water-spouts, by the strong vibration it causes in the air; and accordingly a four-pounder was ordered to be got ready, but our people, being, as usual, very dilatory about it, the danger was past before we could try the experiment. How far electricity may be considered as the cause of this phenomenon, we could not determine with any precision; so much however seems certain, that it has some connection with it, from the flash of lightning, which was plainly observed at the bursting of the last column. The whole time, from their first appearance to the dissolution of the last, was about three quarters of an hour. It was five o'clock when the latter happened, and the thermometer then stood at fifty-four degrees, or two and a half degrees lower, than when they began to make their appearance. The depth of water we had under us was thirty-six fathom."—G.F.
The description which Mr F. has given, is very similar to the preceding. Both these gentlemen seem to concur in opinion with Cook, in maintaining Dr Franklin's theory. Mr Jones, in his Philosophical Disquisitions, mentions a circumstance which is no less curious in itself, than strongly demonstrative that the tube, as it has been called, is formed from below, and ascends towards the clouds, and not the contrary, as the appearances would indicate. "In the torrid zone, (says he,) the water-spout is sometimes attended with an effect which appears supernatural, and will scarcely find credit in this part of the world; for who will believe that fish should fall from the sky in a shower of rain? A gentleman of veracity, who spent many years in the East Indies, declares to his friends that he has been witness to this several times; but speaks of it with caution, knowing that it will be thought incredible by those who are not acquainted with the cause. I have a servant, a native of the West Indies, who assures me he was once a witness to this fact himself, when small fish, about two or three inches long, fell in great numbers during a storm of rain. The spot where this happened was in the island of Jamaica, within about a mile of the sea. When water is carried with violence from the sea up the column of a spout, small fish, which are too weak to escape when the column is forming, are conveyed up to the clouds, and fall from them afterwards on land, not far distant from the sea." He had before related an instance of one that passed over the town of Hatfield, in Yorkshire, filling the air with the thatch it plucked off from the houses, and rolling strangely together several sheets of lead on the corner of the church.—E.
Captain Furneaux's Narrative, from the Time the two Ships were separated, to their joining again in Queen Charlotte's Sound, with some Account of Van Diemen's Land.
On the 7th of February, 1773, in the morning, the Resolution being then about two miles a-head, the wind shifting then to the westward, brought on a very thick fog; so that we lost sight of her. We soon after heard a gun, the report of which we imagined to be on the larboard beam; we then hauled up S.E., and kept firing a four-pounder every half hour, but had no answer, nor further sight of her; then we kept the course we steered on before the fog came on. In the evening it began to blow hard, and was at intervals more clear, but could see nothing of her, which gave us much uneasiness. We then tacked and stood to the westward, to cruise in the place where we last saw her, according to agreement, in case of separation; but next day came on a very heavy gale of wind and thick weather, that obliged us to bring to, and thereby prevented us reaching the intended spot. However, the wind coming more moderate, and the fog in some measure clearing away, we cruised as near the place as we could get, for three days; when giving over all hopes of joining company again, we bore away for winter quarters, distant fourteen hundred leagues, through a sea entirely unknown and reduced the allowance of water to one quart per day.
We kept between the latitude of 52 deg. and 53 deg. S., had much westerly wind, hard gales, with squalls, snow and sleet, with a long hollow sea from the S.W., so that we judged there is no land in that quarter. After we reached the longitude of 95 deg. E., we found the variation decrease very fast.
On the 26th, at night, we saw a meteor of uncommon brightness in the N.N.W. It directed its course to the S.W., with a very great light in the southern sky, such as is known to the northward by the name of Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights. We saw the light for several nights running; and, what is remarkable, we saw but one ice island after we parted company with the Resolution, till our making land, though we were most of the time two or three degrees to the southward of the latitude we first saw it in. We were daily attended by great numbers of sea birds, and frequently saw porpoises curiously spotted white and black.